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Sample records for american sturgeon pioneers

  1. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.; Arndt, U.; Lippold, S.; Benecke, N.; Debus, L.; King, T.L.; Matsumura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ???1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results. The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ???1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations. ?? 2008 Ludwig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  3. When the American sea sturgeon swam east.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arne; Debus, Lutz; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Wirgin, Isaac; Benecke, Norbert; Jenneckens, Ingo; Williot, Patrick; Waldman, John R; Pitra, Christian

    2002-10-03

    The two species of Atlantic sea sturgeon on either shore of the North Atlantic, Acipenser sturio in Europe and A. oxyrinchus in North America, probably diverged with the closure of the Tethys Sea and the onset of the North Atlantic Gyre 15-20 million years ago, and contact between them was then presumably precluded by geographic distance. Here we present genetic, morphological and archaeological evidence indicating that the North American sturgeon colonized the Baltic during the Middle Ages and replaced the native sturgeon there, before recently becoming extinct itself in Europe as a result of human activities. In addition to representing a unique transatlantic colonization event by a fish that swims upriver to spawn, our findings have important implications for projects aimed at restocking Baltic waters with the European sturgeon.

  4. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North American green sturgeon. 223.210... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.210 North American green sturgeon. (a... endangered species apply to the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American...

  5. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; ...

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  6. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  7. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Henriette; Parsley, Michael J.; Cech, Joseph J. Jr.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Forsythe, Patrick S.; Elliott, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migration is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe “round-trip” passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.

  8. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  9. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). 226.219 Section 226.219 Wildlife... Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American green sturgeon (Southern DPS) as...

  10. Status of scientific knowledge of North American sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haxton, Tim J.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Hildebrand, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon and paddlefish were historically the dominant large fishes in all major Northern American Rivers. All ten species have been affected the past 150 years from anthropogenic stressors such that they are considered imperiled by various jurisdictions. Status papers have been presented for each species as part of a special publication on North American Acipenseriformes. The objective of this paper is to provide a summary of the similarities and differences in life history, habitat requirements, and stressors among the species. Optimistically, this would facilitate better management of the order as a whole if management actions for one species can inform another, especially in situations where populations are too low to obtain pertinent information.

  11. David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

    2002-01-01

    David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

  12. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). 226.219 Section 226... the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American green...

  13. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing REAR VIEW OF MISSION About 1870 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers MISSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers MISSION (1883) FROM DRAWING BY FORD - Mission San Francisco de Asis, Mission & Sixteenth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 MISSION BUILDING OPPOSITE MISSION (NOW DESTROYED) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  16. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1850's Re-photo: January 1940 MISSION BUILDINGS NORTH OF CHURCH; VIEW FROM WEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers DRAWING OF MISSION ABOUT 1860's BY VISCHER SHOWING MISSION BEFORE 1835 - Mission San Francisco de Asis, Mission & Sixteenth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  19. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1850's Re-photo: January 1940 CONVENTO (VIEW FROM SOUTH) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: Early 1860'2 Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Society California Pioneers FROM DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Society California Pioneers FROM DRAWING, PURPORTEDLY ABOUT 1816 - 'VOYAGE AUTERE DU MONTE' By CHORIS - Mission San Francisco de Asis, Mission & Sixteenth Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1870's Re- photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Mission San Antonio de Padua, Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, Jolon, Monterey County, CA

  3. Atlantic sturgeons (Acipenser sturio, Acipenser oxyrinchus): American females successful in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiedemann, Ralph; Moll, Katja; Paulus, Kirsten B.; Scheer, Michael; Williot, Patrick; Bartel, Ryszard; Gessner, Jörn; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Recent molecular data on the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA have challenged the traditional view that the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population belonged to the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. Instead, there is evidence that American sea sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus historically immigrated into the Baltic Sea. In this study, we test the hypothesis that A. oxyrinchus introgressed into, rather than replaced, the A. sturio population in the Baltic. We established four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear MHC II antigen gene with a species-specific SNP pattern. Using an ancient DNA approach and two independent lines of molecular evidence (sequencing of allele-specific clones, SNaPshot), we detected both A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus alleles in the available museum material of the now extinct Baltic sturgeon population. The hybrid nature of the Baltic population was further confirmed by very high levels of heterozygosity. It had been previously postulated that the immigration of the cold-adapted A. oxyrinchus into the Baltic occurred during the Medieval Little Ice Age, when temperature likely dropped below the degree inducing spawning in A. sturio. Under this scenario, our new findings suggest that the genetic mosaic pattern in the Baltic sturgeon population (oxyrinchus mtDNA, sturio and oxyrinchus MHC alleles) is possibly caused by sex-biased introgression where spawning was largely restricted to immigrating American females, while fertilization was predominantly achieved by abundant local European males. The hybrid nature of the former Baltic sturgeon population should be taken into account in the current reintroduction measures.

  4. John Staige Davis: pioneer American plastic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Sargent, L A; Morgan, R F; Davis, W B

    1983-10-01

    John Staige Davis was the first surgeon to devote his entire practice to plastic surgery and worked exclusively for its recognition as a specialty. He wrote the first American text on plastic surgery, published 78 papers on a wide range of subjects in plastic surgery, was the first to establish a formal training program in plastic surgery in 1924, and was the first Chairman of the American Board of Plastic Surgery.

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1790 Re- photo: January 1940 (From old drawing by Sukes, showing first church at left, second church being built near center - about 1790) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  6. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  7. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  8. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  9. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of the North American sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Krieger, J; Fuerst, P A; Cavender, T M

    2000-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the extant species within the order Acipenseriformes are not well understood. Nucleotide sequences of four mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, COII, tRNA(Phe), and tRNA(Asp) genes) in North American sturgeon and paddlefish were examined to reconstruct a phylogeny. Analysis of the combined gene sequences suggests a basal placement of the paddlefish with regard to the sturgeons. Nucleotide sequences of all four genes for the three Scaphirhynchus species were identical. The position of Scaphirhynchus based on our data was uncertain. Within the genus Acipenser, the two Acipenser oxyrinchus subspecies were very similar in sequence and found to be basal to the remaining Acipenser species examined. Based on our data, Acipenser transmontanus and Acipenser medirostris were sister taxa, as were Acipenser fulvescens and Acipenser brevirostrum. Comparison of our results with hypotheses of sturgeon relationships proposed by previous authors is presented. The sequence data presented here are phylogenetically useful and provide a solid foundation of genetic information for the North American Acipenseriformes that can be expanded to include Eurasian species to provide a global picture of sturgeon evolution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  12. Development of Genetic Markers for Environmental DNA (eDNA) Monitoring of Sturgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    oxyrinchus desotoi E Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus NL Pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus E Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens NL...sturgeon, and two are specific to white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus). The Scaphirhynchus marker could identify sites where endangered species...These sequences include two North American species, the white ( Acipenser transmontanus) and pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) sturgeon, and five

  13. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

    PubMed

    Doszpoly, A; Kalabekov, I M; Breyta, R; Shchelkunov, I S

    2017-02-27

    Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin.

  14. African American Pioneers in Aviation: 1920-Present. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Flahavan, Leslie

    This teacher's guide provides activities about the National Air and Space Museum (Washington, DC) for students to complete. The guide includes primary and secondary source materials for teachers to photocopy and use during their study of African Americans in aviation based on the exhibition "Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation."…

  15. African-Americans and Jews. Pioneers in Bridging Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonenshein, Raphael

    1999-01-01

    Explores the historical context of the relationship between African-Americans and Jews and the Black-Jewish coalition in Los Angeles. Emphasizes the role of youth throughout the civil rights movement. (JOW)

  16. Changing Conceptions of the Pioneer in the Contemporary American Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J.

    1967-01-01

    Beginning with Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales," the frontier has been a significant aspect of the American literary consciousness and has contributed to the popular folk traditions of the self-made man, of individual opportunity, and of progress through perserverence and hard work. In the first two decades of this century, the frontier novels…

  17. Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Meteorological Observers in the American West.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.

    2004-09-01

    The technical achievements of Lewis and Clark have been celebrated in fields ranging from cartography to zoology. As America commemorates the bicentennial of their historic journey across the continent, this paper shows that their meteorological data and personal weather-related observations also are worthy of celebration. While the primary goal of the mission, as described by then-President Jefferson to the Congress, was economic and strategic, both Jefferson and cocaptains Lewis and Clark showed an interest in and capacity for scientific understanding of the meteorology of the then-unknown West. The seasonal evolution and variability of temperatures recorded for the first time by Lewis and Clark on the High Plains can now be shown to be quite close to average, thanks to many decades of collection of modern data by the U.S. Cooperative Observer Network stations along their route. While the diets, lives, and experiences of these early explorers and their men were profoundly different from those of modern Americans, the climate that they documented for the first time with care and accuracy remains familiar to us today.

  18. A Tribute to Thomas P. Carter (1927-2001): Activist Scholar and Pioneer in Mexican American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…

  19. [Behaviors of maricultured hybrid sturgeon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwen; Jiang, Chengguo; Chen, Guoye

    2006-02-01

    The study on the behaviors of hybrid sturgeon under mariculture conditions showed that hybrid sturgeon had a stronger endurance to the exposure in air, with 100% and 74.1% of livability after 1 h and 3 h exposure, respectively. The feeding habit of hybrid sturgeon could be domesticated, i.e., all kinds of vegetal proteinic food could be used as feedstuff. Hybrid sturgeon also had a strong hunger resistance. An obvious ingestion rhythm was observed, with two peaks in the morning and evening when breeding in cement pool, and during slack tide and tidal stand when breeding in deep water cage. At the two peaks, the ingestion exceeded 50% of that in the whole day. The hybrid sturgeon in cement pool had the habit of hiding during the day and coming out at night, while that in deep water cage stayed at the base in riptide and swam in slack tide. Hybrid sturgeon had a weaker resistance to riptide and wave than American red snapper, but a stronger resistance than yellow croaker. Hybrid sturgeon could quickly adapt the surroundings, and be a good species to mariculture in deep water cage. The appropriate size of hybrid sturgeon bred in deep water cage should be about 400 g.

  20. John Jones, M.D.: Pioneer, Patriot, and Founder of American Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Widmann, Warren D.; Forde, Kenneth A.; Hardy, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    John Jones was a pioneer of American Surgery. Born in Long Island, New York in 1729, he received his medical degree in France from the University of Rheims. He returned to the colonies and helped to establish the medical school that would later become Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons where he was appointed the first Professor of Surgery in the New World. He used his position to assert that surgeons trained in America should be familiar with all facets of medicine and not be mere technicians. Before the outbreak of the American Revolution, he wrote a surgical field manual, which was the first medical text published in America. A believer in the principles of the American Revolution, he would go on to count Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as his patients. Despite achieving many firsts in American medicine, his influence on surgical training is his most enduring legacy. PMID:20012608

  1. John Jones, M.D.: pioneer, patriot, and founder of American surgery.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, Adam D; Widmann, Warren D; Forde, Kenneth A; Hardy, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    John Jones was a pioneer of American Surgery. Born in Long Island, New York in 1729, he received his medical degree in France from the University of Rheims. He returned to the colonies and helped to establish the medical school that would later become Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons where he was appointed the first Professor of Surgery in the New World. He used his position to assert that surgeons trained in America should be familiar with all facets of medicine and not be mere technicians. Before the outbreak of the American Revolution, he wrote a surgical field manual, which was the first medical text published in America. A believer in the principles of the American Revolution, he would go on to count Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as his patients. Despite achieving many firsts in American medicine, his influence on surgical training is his most enduring legacy.

  2. Habitat use of juvenile pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon with implications for water-level management in a downstream reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrity, P.C.; Guy, C.S.; Gardner, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    as Fort Peck can influence the amount of habitat available for pallid sturgeon. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  3. Ovarian nests in cultured Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and North American paddlefish Polyodon spathula comprised of previtellogenic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Żelazowska, M; Jankowska, W; Plewniak, E; Rajek, U

    2015-06-01

    Ovarian nests in the ovaries of sexually maturing Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and North American paddlefish Polyodon spathula were investigated. They comprised early previtellogenic, diplotene stage oocytes and somatic cells. In the nucleoplasm, these oocytes contained chromatin in the form of grains, threads and lampbrush chromosomes, primary nucleoli and multiple nucleoli. Two stages of oocytes in nests were distinguished by differences in the distribution of mitochondria with distorted cristae and lipid droplets in the ooplasm. These stages were as follows: pre-early stage 1 (PE 1) and early stage 1 (EP 1) previtellogenic oocytes. In PE 1 oocytes few mitochondria with distorted cristae and lipid droplets were distributed randomly. The ooplasm of PE 1 oocytes was not differentiated into homogeneous and granular compartments. In EP 1 oocytes, mitochondria with distorted cristae were more numerous and grouped in the vicinity of the nucleus, lipid droplets accumulated near these mitochondria. In the nucleoplasm of EP 1 oocytes several low electron-dense spherical bodies, possibly Cajal bodies, were present.

  4. Gulf Sturgeon Facts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sturgeon: An ancient type of fish, with 5 rows of armor scutes, a cartilaginous skeleton, long snout, suction mouth, no teeth, and 4 barbels. Photograph of a Gulf sturgeon. The total length of a 5-month old is 313 mm.

  5. Sturgeon study - specimens needed

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, D.E.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study to determine morphological criteria and verify those already suggested in the published literature for identifying the larvae of the Atlantic sturgeon and the endangered short nose sturgeon are presented. (ACR)

  6. Drift dynamics of larval pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a natural side channel of the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Holte, L.D.; Lott, R.D.; Viste, W.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    The drift dynamics of larval shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (1, 2, 6, and 10 d posthatch [dph]) and pallid sturgeon S. albus (1, 2, 5, 9, 11, and 17 dph) were examined in a natural side channel of the Missouri River to quantify the vertical drift location of larvae in the water column, determine the drift velocity of larvae relative to water velocity, and simulate the cumulative distance (km) drifted by larvae during ontogenetic development. Larvae were released at the side-channel inlet and sampled at points 100, 500, 900, and 1,300 m downstream. Larvae drifted primarily near the riverbed, as 58-79% of recaptured shovelnose sturgeon and 63-89% of recaptured pallid sturgeon were sampled in the lower 0.5 m of the water column. The transition from the drifting to the benthic life stage was initiated at 6 dph (mean length, 15.6 mm) for shovelnose sturgeon and at 11-17 dph (mean length, 18.1-20.3 mm) for pallid sturgeon. Across ages, the drift rates of larval shovelnose sturgeon averaged 0.09-0.16 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity. The drift rates of pallid sturgeon were similar to or slightly slower (0.03-0.07 m/s) than the mean water column velocity for 1-11-dph larvae. Conversely, 17-dph larval pallid sturgeon dispersed downstream at a much slower rate (mean, 0.20 m/s slower than the mean water column velocity) owing to their transition to benthic habitats. Drift simulations indicated that the average larval shovelnose sturgeon may drift from 94 to 250 km and the average larval pallid sturgeon may drift from 245 to 530 km, depending on water velocity. Differences in larval drift dynamics between species provide a possible explanation for differences in recruitment between shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Distribution of lake sturgeon in New York: 11 years of restoration management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Dittman, D.E.; Carlson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are native within the Lake Ontario drainage basin and listed as threatened by New York State. In 1995 the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) initiated restoration management of lake sturgeon. This management included both protection of extant populations and stocking of uninhabited historic waters with juvenile sturgeon. A list compiled by NYSDEC of observations of lake sturgeon from New York State waters for the period encompassing 1800-2005 was combined with recent observations through 2008 and formatted (Geographic Information System) to allow mapping of sturgeon geographical distribution. Distributions of pre- and post-restoration sturgeon were examined by occurrence and type of observation. Distribution patterns indicated lakes and rivers with current sturgeon presence have increased from five to eight, which was the first-phase goal of the New York Lake Sturgeon Recovery Plan. Lake sturgeon have started to expand into joining water to include the Indian R., Oneida R., Seneca R. and Oswego R. The protected historic populations in the Niagara R., Grasse R., St. Lawrence R., and Lakes Erie and Ontario continue to have low numbers of sturgeon observations. This summary of mapped lake sturgeon distribution information will help in guiding research assessments to waters containing substantial populations. These accessible reaches provide a generous advantage to the released juveniles as they move toward the next goal of restoration, spawning of sturgeon in targeted waters. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  8. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  9. Pioneers in Alaskan Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    Serious problems were posed by North American pioneer efforts to force their traditions on Eskimos, Indians, and Aleuts. Fortunately, other pioneers, such as home economists and district agents with the University of Alaska Cooperative Extension Service, responded to villagers' home and community needs. The University of Alaska also pioneered in…

  10. Molecular identification of iridoviruses infecting various sturgeon species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bigarré, L; Lesne, M; Lautraite, A; Chesneau, V; Leroux, A; Jamin, M; Boitard, P M; Toffan, A; Prearo, M; Labrut, S; Daniel, P

    2017-01-01

    Iridoviridae are known to cause disease in sturgeons in North America. Here, histological and molecular methods were used to screen for this family of virus in sturgeons from various European farms with low-to-high morbidity. Some histological samples revealed basophilic cells in the gill and labial epithelia, strongly suggesting the accumulation of iridovirus particles. Newly developed generic PCR tests targeting the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of sturgeon iridoviruses identified in North America, namely the white sturgeon iridovirus and the Namao virus (NV), produced positive signals in most samples from four sturgeon species: Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and beluga (Huso huso). The sequences of the PCR products were generally highly similar one another, with nucleotide identities greater than 98%. They were also related to (74-88%), although distinct from, American sturgeon iridoviruses. These European viruses were thus considered variants of a single new virus, provisionally named Acipenser iridovirus-European (AcIV-E). Moreover, three samples infected with AcIV-E showed genetic heterogeneity, with the co-existence of two sequences differing by five nucleotides. One of our European samples carried a virus distinct from AcIV-E, but closely related to NV identified in Canada (95%). This study demonstrates the presence of two distinct sturgeon iridoviruses in Europe: a new genotype AcIV-E and an NV-related virus.

  11. A comparative gene index for the white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Barbara; Mariani, Valentina; Malinverni, Roberto; Caprera, Andrea; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2008-03-01

    Sturgeons are archaic fishes phylogenetically distinct from Teleosts. They represent an important niche for aquaculture, particularly for the production of caviar and high quality fillets, while many natural populations in various world areas are today threatened by extinction. Knowledge of the sturgeon genome is limited, as it is the case of many other species of interest for fishery, aquaculture and conservation. Sequences from non-normalized libraries of skin and spleen of the American sturgeon (A. transmontanus) produced in our laboratories were analysed via a bioinformatic procedure, and compared to similar resources available for three Teleost species. Data collected during the analyses were stored in a database - the Sturgeon database (db) - that can be queried via a web interface. The Sturgeon db contains a total of 16,404 sequences from Acipenser transmontanus, Ictalurus punctatus, Salmo salar and Takifugu rubripes, each specie being represented by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from skin and spleen. Data contained in the database are the results of a number of analyses that mostly focus on sequence annotation and intra- and inter-species comparison. Putative SNP sites, tandem repeats, and sequences matching known protein patterns and motifs were also identified. The Sturgeon db is by now the only online resource dedicated to the analysis of A. transmontanus EST sequences, and represents a starting point for the investigation of the genome of sturgeons from a physiological perspective; it will be used to identify polymorphic markers to study, for example, fish pathologies or to survey fish disease resistance, and to produce gene expression arrays. Introduction of sequences from other species in the analysis pipeline allowed inter-species comparisons of transcripts distribution in Gene Ontology categories, as well as orthologs identification, despite the high sturgeon phylogenetic distance from other fish species. As a result of the EST analysis procedure

  12. Blood chemistry values for shovelnose and lake sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Sutton, Trent M; Patrick, Holly K; Amberg, Jon J

    2012-09-01

    Blood chemistry panels are commonly used for assessing the general health of vertebrate animals. Here, we present novel blood chemistry data for two North American sturgeon species, shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Measurements were done using a portable chemistry analyzer (VetScan Analyzer; Abaxis). Among the plasma values measured (mean ± SD for shovelnose and lake sturgeon, respectively) were total proteins (3.7 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.4 g/dL), albumin (2.0 ± 0.5 and 1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL), globulin (1.7 ± 0.7 and 1.7 ± 0.3 g/dL), glucose (107 ± 46 and 62 ± 9.7 mg/dL), sodium (Na(+); 132 ± 3.6 and 150 ± 14 mEq/L), potassium (K(+); 3.5 ± 0.2 and 2.8 ± 1.7 mEq/L), phosphorus (10.4 ± 1.9 and 11.6 ± 3.6 mg/dL), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 676 ± 433 and 634 ± 234 IU/L). Higher values for total proteins, albumin, glucose, and Na(+) in shovelnose sturgeon than in lake sturgeon probably are the result of handling stress. In addition, the plasma of male shovelnose sturgeon had higher concentrations of AST, glucose, and globulin than did that of females, whereas the plasma of females had higher concentrations of albumin and K(+) than that of males. This study is the first to report blood chemistry data for shovelnose sturgeon. Robust blood chemistry databases can be used by aquaculturists and fish managers for monitoring sturgeon health.

  13. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector.

  14. [Phylogenetic relationships of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 based on 18S rDNA sequensing data].

    PubMed

    Rozhkovan, K V; Chelomina, G N; Ivanov, S A

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA sequences of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 with other acipenseriform species was performed in this study. Complete sequences (1746 b. p.) in seven individual clones of A. schrenckii 18S rRNA were determined. Mutation profile of Amur sturgeon 18S rDNA demonstrated high similarity with that of Lake Sturgeon A. fulvescens. Both presumably functional sequence and the specific mutation (insertion of adenine after position 658) of Amur sturgeon 18S rDNA were identified by structural-functional analyses. Phylogenetic reconstructions performed using different methods (NJ, MP, ML and Bayesian) support monophyly of the genus Acipenser and point to: 1) closer relationships Amur sturgeon with sterlet, than Baltic sturgeon, which is in agreement with Artyukhin's eco-morphological classification (Artyukhin, 1995, 2006); 2) sufficiently high differentiation between North-American (A. fulvescens) and Eurasian (A. schrenckii, A. ruthenus and A. sturio) sturgeons.

  15. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.219 Critical habitat for...). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American green...

  16. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  17. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  18. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  19. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  20. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  1. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  2. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may...) Each vessel must keep to the center, except when meeting or overtaking another vessel. (b) In...

  3. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal... across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.17 and 4.3, in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. The establishment... drawbridge schedules for all three drawbridges over Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, including the two bridges above...

  4. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  5. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon...

  7. Foods of the Pioneer Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Lois G.

    As fourth and fifth grade students study this unit in conjunction with their Indiana or U.S. history texts, they see how the Indiana pioneers ate and survived. Many of the foods taken for granted today were eaten by Indians in one of the Americas thousands of years ago. Students learn that the Native Americans had developed agricultural…

  8. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated.

  9. Chemical characteristics and antithrombotic effect of chondroitin sulfates from sturgeon skull and sturgeon backbone.

    PubMed

    Gui, Meng; Song, Juyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shun; Wu, Ruiyun; Ma, Changwei; Li, Pinglan

    2015-06-05

    Chondroitin sulfates (CSs) were extracted from sturgeon skull and backbone, and their chemical composition, anticoagulant, anti-platelet and thrombolysis activities were evaluated. The average molecular weights of CS from sturgeon skull and backbone were 38.5kDa and 49.2kDa, respectively. Disaccharide analysis indicated that the sturgeon backbone CS was primarily composed of disaccharide monosulfated in position four of the GalNAc (37.8%) and disaccharide monosulfated in position six of the GalNAc (59.6%) while sturgeon skull CS was primarily composed of nonsulfated disaccharide (74.2%). Sturgeon backbone CS showed stronger antithrombotic effect than sturgeon skull CS. Sturgeon backbone CS could significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT), inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and dissolved platelet plasma clots in vitro. The results suggested that sturgeon backbone CS can be explored as a functional food with antithrombotic function.

  10. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  11. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  12. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  13. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light mounted... extended; thence south 530 feet to a point 100 feet from the northern edge of the channel; thence southeasterly 2,350 feet along a line parallel to the northern edge of the channel to a point on the east...

  14. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P < 0.03) 6 months postexposure. Fish fed calcein for 15 d (11.26 lm) were more brilliant (P < 0.002) than fish fed for either 5 d (3.02 lm) or 10 d (5.11 lm). Post hoc comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  15. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section 117.1101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of...

  16. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  18. Research tools to investigate movements, migrations, and life history of sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an emphasis on marine-oriented populations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Troy C; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T; Schreier, Andrea D; Hightower, Joseph E; Hildebrand, Larry R; Whitlock, Rebecca E; Webb, Molly A H

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring.

  19. Research Tools to Investigate Movements, Migrations, and Life History of Sturgeons (Acipenseridae), with an Emphasis on Marine-Oriented Populations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Troy C.; Doukakis, Phaedra; Lindley, Steven T.; Schreier, Andrea D.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Hildebrand, Larry R.; Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Webb, Molly A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are among the most endangered fishes due to habitat degradation, overfishing, and inherent life history characteristics (long life span, late maturation, and infrequent spawning). As most sturgeons are anadromous, a considerable portion of their life history occurs in estuarine and marine environments where they may encounter unique threats (e.g., interception in non-target fisheries). Of the 16 marine-oriented species, 12 are designated as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, and these include species commercially harvested. We review important research tools and techniques (tagging, electronic tagging, genetics, microchemistry, observatory) and discuss the comparative utility of these techniques to investigate movements, migrations, and life-history characteristics of sturgeons. Examples are provided regarding what the applications have revealed regarding movement and migration and how this information can be used for conservation and management. Through studies that include Gulf (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) and Green Sturgeon (A. medirostris), we illustrate what is known about well-studied species and then explore lesser-studied species. A more complete picture of migration is available for North American sturgeon species, while European and Asian species, which are among the most endangered sturgeons, are less understood. We put forth recommendations that encourage the support of stewardship initiatives to build awareness and provide key information for population assessment and monitoring. PMID:23990959

  20. Pioneer Saturn Encounter. [Pioneer 11 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Saturn Spacecraft, which began its journey as Pioneer 11, provided the first close view of the rings of Saturn as well as its system of moons. Its payload of 11 operating instruments obtained or confirmed data about the mass, temperature, composition, radiation belts, and atmosphere of the planet and its larger satellite, Titan. It made photometric and polarization measurements of lapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys, as well as discovered additional rings. Scientific highlights of the mission are summarized. Color imagery provided by the photopolarimeter is included along with illustrations of the planet's magnetic field and radiation belts.

  1. Celebrating 400 Years of Pioneer Spirit: From Jamestown to the Wild West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this questions and answer interview with Rachel Dickinson, author of "Great Pioneer Projects You Can Build Yourself", the writer discusses her interest in the American pioneer movement, her research, and her goals in introducing readers to the day-to-day life of an American pioneer. Dickinson's book offers a hands-on look at what life…

  2. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Musick, John A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  3. Dual Annual Spawning Races in Atlantic Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Musick, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures. PMID:26020631

  4. Pioneer 12 (PN-12)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 12 are summarized. The Pioneer 12 spacecraft is in a 24-hour elliptical orbit around Venus. Atmospheric and altimetry data are obtained mainly around periapsis, and planetary imaging is normally performed around apoapsis. The Pioneer 12 mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  5. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  7. Nuclear markers of Danube Sturgeons hybridization.

    PubMed

    Dudu, Andreea; Suciu, Radu; Paraschiv, Marian; Georgescu, Sergiu Emil; Costache, Marieta; Berrebi, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Acipenseriformes are composed of 25 sturgeon species and two paddlefish species distributed exclusively in the northern hemisphere. The Danube River and the Black Sea were originally inhabited by six sturgeon species but two are extinct and only four are still reproducing currently in the Lower Danube: Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii and A. ruthenus. Sturgeon species hybridize more easily than other fish and the determination of pure species or hybrid status is important for conservation and for breeding in fish farms. This survey demonstrated that morphological determination of this status is not reliable and a molecular tool, based on eight microsatellites genotypes is proposed. This method, based on three successive statistical analyses including Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA), Structure assignation and NewHybrids status determination, showed a high efficiency in discriminating pure species specimens from F1, F2 and two kinds of backcross individuals involving three of the four reproducing Lower Danube sturgeon species.

  8. Modeling white sturgeon movement in a reservoir: The effect of water quality and sturgeon density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, A.B.; Jager, H.I.; Myers, R.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a movement model to examine the distribution and survival of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in a reservoir subject to large spatial and temporal variation in dissolved oxygen and temperature. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were simulated by a CE-QUAL-W2 model of Brownlee Reservoir, Idaho for a typical wet, normal, and dry hydrologic year. We compared current water quality conditions to scenarios with reduced nutrient inputs to the reservoir. White sturgeon habitat quality was modeled as a function of temperature, dissolved oxygen and, in some cases, suitability for foraging and depth. We assigned a quality index to each cell along the bottom of the reservoir. The model simulated two aspects of daily movement. Advective movement simulated the tendency for animals to move toward areas with high habitat quality, and diffusion simulated density dependent movement away from areas with high sturgeon density in areas with non-lethal habitat conditions. Mortality resulted when sturgeon were unable to leave areas with lethal temperature or dissolved oxygen conditions. Water quality was highest in winter and early spring and lowest in mid to late summer. Limiting nutrient inputs reduced the area of Brownlee Reservoir with lethal conditions for sturgeon and raised the average habitat suitability throughout the reservoir. Without movement, simulated white sturgeon survival ranged between 45 and 89%. Allowing movement raised the predicted survival of sturgeon under all conditions to above 90% as sturgeon avoided areas with low habitat quality. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical note: Production of tetraploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, I; Flajshans, M

    2015-08-01

    Studies and practical application of androgenesis and gynogenesis in sturgeon are significantly hindered by strong influence of ploidy restoration treatment on survivability of progeny; therefore, developed method of production of tetraploid broodstock and, consequently, use of their diploid gametes might help to avoid ploidy restoration treatment. In the present study, for the first time was developed a protocol for tetraploidy induction in 2 model sturgeon species, sterlet () and Siberian sturgeon (). A high efficiency of treatment was achieved by optimization of heat shock using a temperature of 37°C for 2 min timed between the end of female pronuclei formation and the beginning of pronuclei migration, that is, 0.8 to 1.0 τ (duration of 1 mitotic cycle during the period of synchronous cleavage division). Fertilized eggs developed in tetraploid larvae, up to 31 (89.6% in control) and 34% (70.9% in control) in sterlet and Siberian sturgeon, respectively. Most of the tetraploid larvae exhibited body malformations; as a result, consequent large scale study revealed high larval mortality, which drastically decreased after 2 mo of age. Consequent comparison of BW, length, and malformation rate and mortality between diploid and tetraploid progeny of sterlet did not reveal significant differences in fitness of diploid and tetraploid juveniles at 9 and 11 mo of age. The present study can be considered the first step towards improving the androgenesis methods of conservation of endangered sturgeons as well as understanding the sturgeon sex determination system through induction of mitotic gynogenesis.

  10. Assessing Impacts of Navigation Dredging on Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    2006) examined entrainment of paddlefish and juvenile lake ( Acipenser fulvescens ), pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and white ( Acipenser ...entrainment by cutterhead dredges to juvenile lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ) and juvenile pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Journal of Applied...Smith, H. (2006). Maximum escape speeds of lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ). Journal of the US Stockholm Junior Water Prize 1, 19-40. http

  11. Movement and habitat use of green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris in the Rogue River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.L.; North, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Weber, J.; Lauck, L.

    2002-01-01

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) movement patterns and habitat use within the Rogue River, Oregon were evaluated using radio telemetry. Nineteen specimens ranging from 154 to 225 cm total length were caught by gill netting and tagged with radio transmitters during May-July 2000. One tagged green sturgeon was verified as a female near spawning condition. Individual green sturgeons spent more than 6 months in fresh water and traveled as far as river kilometer (rkm) 39.5. Green sturgeon preferred specific holding sites within the Rogue River during summer and autumn months. These sites were typically deep (> 5 m) low-gradient reaches or off-channel coves. Home ranges within holding sites were restricted. All tagged individuals emigrated from the system to the sea during the autumn and winter, when water temperatures dropped below 10??C and flows increased. This species is extremely vulnerable to habitat alterations and overfishing because it spawns in only a few North American rivers and individuals reside within extremely small areas for extended periods of time.

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  13. Size-dependent trophic patterns of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in a large river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Bertrand, Katie N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared patterns of δ15N and δ13C enrichment of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus in the Missouri River, United States, to infer their trophic position in a large river system. We examined enrichment and energy flow for pallid sturgeon in three segments of the Missouri River (Montana/North Dakota, Nebraska/South Dakota, and Nebraska/Iowa) and made comparisons between species in the two downstream segments (Nebraska/South Dakota and Nebraska/Iowa). Patterns in isotopic composition for pallid sturgeon were consistent with gut content analyses indicating an ontogenetic diet shift from invertebrates to fish prey at sizes of >500-mm fork length (FL) in all three segments of the Missouri River. Isotopic patterns revealed shovelnose sturgeon did not experience an ontogenetic shift in diet and used similar prey resources as small (<500-mm FL) pallid sturgeon in the two downstream segments. We found stable isotope analysis to be an effective tool for evaluating the trophic position of sturgeons within a large river food web.

  14. Microsatellite Mutation Rate in Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Austin, James D; Zalewska, Katarzyna; Gonciarz, Magdalena; Czarnogórska, Kinga; Gawor, Jan; Weglenski, Piotr; Popovic, Danijela

    2017-09-01

    Understanding mutation rates can greatly extend the utility of population and conservation genetic analyses. Herein, we present an estimate of genome-wide microsatellite mutation rate in Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) based on parent-offspring transmission patterns. We screened 307 individuals for parentage and mutation-rate analysis applying 43 variable markers. Out of 13228 allele transfers, 11 mutations were detected, producing a mutation rate of 8.3 × 10-4 per locus per generation (95% confidence interval: 1.48 × 10-3, 4.15 × 10-4). Single-step mutations predominated and there were trends toward mutations in loci with greater polymorphism and allele length. Two of the detected mutations were most probably cluster mutations, being identified in 12 and 28 sibs, respectively. Finally, we observed evidences of polyploidy based on the sporadic presence of 3 or 4 alleles per locus in the genotyped individuals, supporting previous reports of incomplete diploidization in Atlantic sturgeon. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  16. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  17. Pioneer 10 and 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 10 and 11 are summarized. The primary objective of these Pioneer missions is to investigate the interplanetary medium beyond the orbit of Saturn and, in particular, to gather data which may locate the heliopause as these spacecraft cruise out of the solar system to the extreme of their communication capabilities. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  18. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  19. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  20. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  1. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  2. The Pioneer Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T

    2010-01-01

    Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ∼ 6 × 10(-9) Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33) × 10(-10) m/s(2). This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse-square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  4. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ontogenetic behavior of Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon and Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon early life intervals were similar during laboratory observations. After hatching, free embryos were photonegative and sought cover. When embryos developed into larvae, fish left cover, were photopositive, and initiated downstream migration. Free embryos may remain at the spawning site instead of migrating downstream because the risk of predation at spawning sites is low. The two species are sympatric, but not closely related, so the similarities in innate behaviors suggest common adaptations, not phylogenetlc relationship. Atlantic sturgeon migrated downstream for 12 days (peak, first 6 days), shortnose sturgeon migrated for 3 days, and year-0 juveniles of both species did not resume downstream migration. Short or long migrations of larvae may reflect different styles related to the total migratory distance from spawning sites to juvenile rearing areas. Atlantic sturgeon need to move a short distance to reach rearing areas and they had a long 1-step migration of 6-12 days. In contrast, shortnose sturgeon need to move a long distance to reach all rearing areas. This may be accomplished by a 2-step migration, of which the brief migration of larvae is only the first step. Early migrant Atlantic sturgeon were nocturnal, while late migrants were diurnal, and shortnose sturgeon were diurnal. These diel differences may also be adaptations for long (Atlantic sturgeon) or short (shortnose sturgeon) migrations. Cultured shortnose sturgeon, and possibly Atlantic sturgeon, have a dominance hierarchy with large fish dominant when competing for limited foraging space. Social behavior may be more important in the life history of wild sturgeons than is generally recognized.

  5. Pioneer 6 through 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 6, 7 and 8 are summarized. The primary objective of these Pioneer missions is to collect scientific data relative to interplanetary phenomena within a range of approximately 0.8 to 1.2 astronomical units from the sun. Following orbital injection, each spacecraft was oriented with its spin axis normal to the ecliptic plane so that the high gain antenna pattern would be aligned with Earth's orbit. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profiles; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  6. A Pioneer's Tail.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ranjan

    2016-03-15

    In this issue of Immunity, Boller et al. (2016) show that a C-terminal domain of EBF1 is required for chromatin binding and induction of DNase I hypersensitive sites. These properties mark EBF1 as a pioneer factor in B cell development and demonstrate a role for non-DNA binding domains in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pioneer Venus Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Douglas E.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

  8. ORNL Forges Connections for Sturgeon Conservation

    ScienceCinema

    Pracheil, Brenda; Jager, Yetta

    2016-07-12

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are taking a closer look at how sturgeon, a prehistoric — and now imperiled — group of fish species may better be helped to get around the dams that block their migrations.

  9. 50 CFR 223.211 - Atlantic sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Atlantic sturgeon. (a) Prohibitions. The... species apply to the threatened Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment (Gulf of Maine DPS) of...

  10. ORNL Forges Connections for Sturgeon Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pracheil, Brenda; Jager, Yetta

    2016-04-18

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are taking a closer look at how sturgeon, a prehistoric — and now imperiled — group of fish species may better be helped to get around the dams that block their migrations.

  11. The history of sturgeon in the Baltic Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popovic, Danijela; Panagiotopoulou, Hanna; Baca, Mateusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Makowiecki, Daniel; King, Tim L.; Gruchota, Jakub; Weglenski, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the past 2000 years at least, A. o. oxyrinchus has been the dominant sturgeon in the Baltic Sea, indicating a much earlier origin than previously suggested. The most similar extant sturgeon populations to the extinct Baltic stock are those from the St John and St Lawrence rivers in Canada. These populations should be considered the best source of breeding material for the ongoing sturgeon restitution programmes in Poland and Germany.

  12. Population Viability Analysis of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    juvenile lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ) in a northern river. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53(3): 481-489. Bevelhimer MS...lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens ) in Des Prairies and L_Assomption rivers, near Montreal, Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 70, 1681–1689. Latif MA, Bodaly...threats to recovery of shortnose sturgeon ( Acipenser brevirostrum) in a river adjacent to Fort Stewart, Georgia, USA. We evaluated potential threats

  13. TOXIC EFFECTS OF PCB126 AND TCDD ON SHORTNOSE STURGEON AND ATLANTIC STURGEON

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R. Christopher; Davis, Dawn D.; Habeck, Ehren A.; Roy, Nirmal K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. PMID:22825886

  14. Toxic effects of PCB126 and TCDD on shortnose sturgeon and Atlantic sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Chambers, R Christopher; Davis, Dawn D; Habeck, Ehren A; Roy, Nirmal K; Wirgin, Isaac

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to chemical contaminants is often invoked to explain recruitment failures to populations of sturgeon worldwide, but there is little empirical evidence to support the idea that young sturgeon are sensitive at environmentally relevant concentrations. The authors used shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostum) and Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) as models to investigate the sensitivities of sturgeon to early-life-stage toxicities from embryonic exposures to graded doses of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Survival to hatching of shortnose sturgeon decreased with increasing dose, although the duration of the embryonic period was not significantly altered by exposure in either species. Morphometric features of larvae of both species were affected by dose, including shortening of the body, reduction in head size, reduction in quantity of yolk reserves, and reduction in eye size. Eye development in both species was delayed with increasing dose for both chemicals. The persistence of larvae in a food-free environment decreased inversely with dose in both species, with sharp declines occurring at PCB126 and TCDD doses of ≥1 ppb and ≥0.1 ppb, respectively. Dose-responsive early-life-stage toxicities reported here are among the more sensitive found in fish and occurred at burdens similar to those found in situ in a sympatric bottom-dwelling bony fish in the Hudson River Estuary. The present study is among the first demonstrating the sensitivity of any sturgeon to the hallmark early-life-stage toxicities induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

  15. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  16. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ???35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ???12 was highly restricted. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  17. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ≥35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ≤12 was highly restricted.

  18. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  19. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  20. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Continuing missions of Pioneer spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.W.; Fimmel, R.O.; Colin, L.; Dyal, P.; Murphy, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Pioneer spacecraft will continue as mankind's farthest explorer from the Sun and America's only operating planetary orbiter for many years in the future. The eleven-year old Pioneer 10 describes strong solar domination of the environment at its 29 astronomic units (AU) distance, and its sensitivity as a unique sensor of suspected gravitational phenomena is improving with distance. The four-year-old Pioneer Venus Orbiter increasingly defines the solar wind interaction with the nonmagnetic planet as its orbital axis precesses through the affected volume. Pioneer 10 promises data from 50 AU distance by 1991. The Venus Orbiter could operate until atmospheric entry in 1992.

  2. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  3. Chemical composition of blood and bile of the shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Christenson, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of gallbladder bile and blood from shovelnose sturgeons (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) collected from the Chippewa River, Wisconsin, contained concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, inorganic phosphate, and total cholesterol closely comparable with those reported for similar samples from other species of freshwater sturgeons.

  4. The interplanetary pioneers. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Space Probe Project is explained to document the events which occurred during the project. The subjects discussed are: (1) origin and history of interplanetary Pioneer program, (2) Pioneer system development and design, (3) Pioneer flight operations, and (4) Pioneer scientific results. Line drawings, circuit diagrams, illustrations, and photographs are included to augment the written material.

  5. Space Pioneers and Where They Are Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    This booklet describes the Pioneer Program and its role in exploring the solar system. Sections include: (1) "Pioneers in Space to Understand Our Earth" (describing the background of the program); (2) "First Pioneers"; (3) "The Interplanetary Pioneers"; (4) "Planetary Pioneers"; (5) "Outer Solar System…

  6. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... construction, and water pollution. The petition is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/petitions... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  7. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  9. Pioneers in Psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Healy, David

    1998-12-01

    In pursuing the history of any field, even one in which many of the main exponents are still alive, it can be very difficult to establish facts and priorities. Detailed scrutiny of the events leading to the recognition of the antidepressant effects of iproniazid, in which Nathan Kline was involved, may fail to establish the exact sequence of events or the sources of inspiration for a discovery (Healy, 1997). Quite apart from the 'facts' behind the antidepressant story, Kline's role in the story beautifully illustrates one of the sayings of Francis Galton, to the effect that in history the driving force may not lie with the first discoverer of a new scientific fact, but rather with the individual who was the first to persuade the world of the importance of a particular discovery. This maxim applies with some force to the three individuals who have been honoured by the CINP in 1998 for their pioneering roles in psychopharmacology - Pierre Deniker, Joel Elkes and Heinz Lehmann whose contributions to the field have included original research and also key initiatives to capture the central ground of academic and public opinion for the new science. They have been science makers rather than just scientists.

  10. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, Allen I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  11. Seasonal migration of Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, A.M.; Clugston, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The movements of 67 Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi equipped with radio transmitters were monitored in the Suwannee River, Florida, from March 1989 through August 1992. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seasonal movement patterns and distribution of Gulf sturgeon while in freshwater, (2) to document relationships between water temperature and Gulf sturgeon movement, and (3) to determine whether springs were used as thermal refugia by these fish. Gulf sturgeon were detected entering the river from mid-February through April; they moved upstream at an average speed of 3.5 km/d to areas where they remained until October or November. Gulf sturgeon moved no more than 0,6 river km (on average) upstream or downstream from their established summer area. Gulf sturgeon began leaving the Suwannee River from mid-September through early November and moved downstream at an average speed of 6.2 km/d; all fish returned to the Gulf of Mexico by early December. Water temperatures associated with spring and fall migrations averaged 22.1 ??C (range, 16.0-28.0??C) and 21.3??C (range, 16.9-26.8??C), respectively. Gulf sturgeon were frequently close to springs throughout the warmest period, but none were located within a spring or the thermal plume emanating from a spring.

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  13. Reproductive physiology of Missouri River gravid pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon during the 2005 and 2006 spawning seasons: Chapter C in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    In a natural, unaltered river, the location and timing of sturgeon spawning will be dictated by the prevailing environmental conditions to which the sturgeon have adapted. A goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP; see chap. A) at the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center is to identify where, when, and under what conditions shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) spawn in the altered Missouri River so that those conditions necessary for spawning success can be defined. One approach to achieving this goal is to exploit what is known about fish reproductive physiology to develop and apply a suite of diagnostic indicators of readiness to spawn. In 2005 and 2006, gravid shovelnose sturgeon and a limited number of pallid sturgeon were fitted with transmitters and tracked on their spawning migration. A suite of physiological indicators of reproductive state such as reproductive hormones and oocyte development were measured. These same measurements were made on tissues collected from additional fish, presumably migrating to spawn, that were not tagged or tracked. The data presented here indicating the sturgeons’ readiness to spawn are to be evaluated together with their behavior and the environmental conditions. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) Sturgeon Response to Flow Modification (SRFM; see chap. A) study, initiated in 2006, provides additional opportunities to experimentally evaluate the sturgeon reproductive response indicators relative to changes in flow. In this chapter, we report progress made on identifying and developing the physiological indicators and summarize 2 years’ worth of indicator data collected thus far.

  14. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    PubMed

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting.

  15. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the analysis of Atlantic sturgeon populations.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, H; Popovic, D; Zalewska, K; Weglenski, P; Stankovic, A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a multiplex assay covering 16 microsatellite loci, amplified in four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and loaded on the ABI DNA Analyzer in two separate panels. The assay was tested on 603 individuals originating from wild populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic sturgeon. The assay was also tested on 12 individuals of European sturgeon and appeared to be almost equally useful. The multiplex assay designed in this study can be successfully applied in studies requiring high genetic resolution, such as relatedness analysis, selective breeding programs, and stock identification of Atlantic sturgeon.

  16. Gender identification of shovelnose sturgeon using ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and the application of the method to the pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.; Allert, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Monthly sampling of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, a biological surrogate for the endangered pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, was conducted to develop a multiseasonal profile of reproductive stages. Data collected included histological characteristics of gonads from wild caught fish and laboratory and field ultrasonic and endoscopic images. These data were used to compare effectiveness of ultrasonic and endoscopic techniques at identifying gender of adult shovelnose sturgeon at different reproductive stages. The least invasive method (i.e. ultrasound) was least effective while the most invasive (i.e. endoscope through an abdominal incision) was the most effective at identifying shovelnose sturgeon gender. In most cases, success rate for identifying males was greater than females, with success at identifying both genders greater in more advanced reproductive stages. Concomitantly, for most months average reproductive stage was more advanced for males than females. April and May were the months with the most advanced reproductive stage, and were the months when ultrasound was most effective. Methods were also applied in the Upper Missouri River to validate their use on pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Ultrasound was successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender, however, endoscopic examination through the urogenital duct was only successful at identifying pallid sturgeon gender when the urogenital duct was not opaque. ?? 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  18. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  19. Pioneer 11's New Saturn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

  20. Pioneer 11's New Saturn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

  1. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  2. James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

  3. Pioneers of Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslabar, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students explore the geography, science and technology, and societal issues related to the historic flight of James Banning and Thomas Allen; the first African-American men to fly across the United States in 1932. Provides a lesson plan and a geographic map that traces the flight. (MDH)

  4. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  5. Nursing Informatics Pioneers Continue to Influence the Profession: A Sustainable Impact.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Susan K; Brixey, Juliana J

    2016-01-01

    The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) established the Nursing Informatics History Project to recognize the pioneers of nursing informatics. Fundamental to the pioneers was dissemination of knowledge. The purpose of this review was to identify contributions to the field of nursing informatics as peer-reviewed manuscripts for the years 2010-2015 and indexed in PubMed. Results indicate that many of the pioneers continue to have manuscripts indexed in PubMed. It is anticipated this project will be extended to identify other types of contributions made by the pioneers in the advancement of nursing informatics.

  6. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  7. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzalez-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as part of our

  8. Optimal design of artificial reefs for sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, Cody; Cotel, Aline; Kleinheksel, Abby

    2015-11-01

    The Detroit River, part of a busy corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie, was extensively modified to create deep shipping channels, resulting in a loss of spawning habitat for lake sturgeon and other native fish (Caswell et al. 2004, Bennion and Manny 2011). Under the U.S.- Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, there are remediation plans to construct fish spawning reefs to help with historic habitat losses and degraded fish populations, specifically sturgeon. To determine optimal reef design, experimental work has been undertaken. Different sizes and shapes of reefs are tested for a given set of physical conditions, such as flow depth and flow velocity, matching the relevant dimensionless parameters dominating the flow physics. The physical conditions are matched with the natural conditions encountered in the Detroit River. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry and dye studies, flow structures, vorticity and velocity gradients at selected locations have been identified and quantified to allow comparison with field observations and numerical model results. Preliminary results are helping identify the design features to be implemented in the next phase of reef construction. Sponsored by NOAA.

  9. Sturgeon Research Update: Confirmed Pallid Sturgeon Spawning in the Missouri River in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael; Mestl, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have confirmed spawning of two female pallid sturgeon in the upstream reaches of the lower Missouri River in May 2007. Combined with supporting research in reproductive physiology, identification of spawning habitat, and early life history this result provides new understanding of environmental factors (for example, photoperiod, temperature, water quality, and flow regime) that might affect reproduction of this endangered species. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide stakeholders, scientists, and managers with some of the preliminary results from the 2007 field assessment of sturgeon reproduction in the lower Missouri River.

  10. Sturgeon research update: Confirmed pallid sturgeon spawning in the Missouri River in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael; Mestl, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission (NGPC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have confirmed spawning of two female pallid sturgeon in the upstream reaches of the lower Missouri River in May 2007. Combined with supporting research in reproductive physiology, identification of spawning habitat, and early life history this result provides new understanding of environmental factors (for example, photoperiod, temperature, water quality, and flow regime) that might affect reproduction of this endangered species. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide stakeholders, scientists, and managers with some of the preliminary results from the 2007 field assessment of sturgeon reproduction in the lower Missouri River.

  11. Vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation in the presence of alternative prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted laboratory trials to test the vulnerability of young white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, to predation when an alternative prey was available. In trials with two species of predators, we observed two feeding patterns. When equal numbers of white sturgeon and goldfish, Carassius auratus, were available, prickly sculpins, Cottus asper, ingested more white sturgeon. Conversely, northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, ate more juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, than white sturgeon in three out of four sets of trials, but ate more white sturgeon in one set of trials. White sturgeon size and the availability of cover did not affect the proportions of prey species ingested. Our results indicate that predation may be affecting survival of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles in the wild and could be one factor limiting recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon in some locations. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Spawning by lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, N.M.; Peterson, D.L.; Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Overfishing and habitat destruction in the early 1900s devastated lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations in the Great Lakes. Although a comprehensive restoration strategy for this species was recently drafted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, a lack of current data on Great Lakes sturgeon stocks has hindered rehabilitation efforts. Historically, the Detroit River supported one of the largest lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes; however, little is known about the current population or its habitat use. The main objective of this study was to determine if lake sturgeon spawns in the Detroit River. As part of a larger study, baited setlines were used to capture lake sturgeon in the Detroit River in the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001. In each year of the study, ultrasonic transmitters were surgically implanted in 10 adult fish to track their movements, evaluate habitat use and identify possible spawning sites. Using telemetry and egg mats to verify spawning activity, one spawning site was located and verified in the Detroit River. Spawning was verified by recovering sturgeon eggs deposited on egg collection mats anchored at the site. Telemetry data suggested that several other possible spawning sites also may exist, however, spawning activity was not verified at these sites.

  13. Identification and response to metals of metallothionein in two ancient fishes: white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Eisner, Bryanna K; Heide, Timon; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Wiseman, Steve B

    2015-05-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are among the most sensitive species of fishes to Cu, Cd, and Zn, but there is no information about sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). To begin to elucidate molecular mechanism(s) of sensitivity of sturgeons to metals a cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) was amplified from livers of white sturgeon (WS-MT) and lake sturgeon (LS-MT), and expression in response to Cu, Cd, or Zn was characterized in liver explants from each species. The primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 20 cysteine residues, which is the same as MTs of teleost fishes. However, the primary structure of WS-MT and LS-MT contained 63 amino acids, which is longer than any MT identified in teleost fishes. Abundance of transcripts of WS-MT in explants exposed to 0.3, 3, 30, or 100 μg/L of Cu was 1.7-, 1.7-, 2.1-, and 2.6-fold less than in controls, respectively. In contrast, abundances of transcripts of WS-MT were 3.3- and 2.4-fold greater in explants exposed to 30 μg/L of Cd and 1000 μg/L of Zn, respectively. Abundance of transcripts of LS-MT was not significantly different at any concentration of Cu, Cd, or Zn. MT is hypothesized to represent a critical mechanism for detoxification of metals. Therefore, results of this study suggest that sensitivity of sturgeons to exposure to Cu, Cd, or Zn might be a result of the relatively lesser maximal response of MT to metals. The study also suggestslake sturgeon might be more sensitive than white sturgeon to metals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

    PubMed Central

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested. PMID:24567827

  15. High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species.

    PubMed

    Rastorguev, Sergey M; Nedoluzhko, Artem V; Mazur, Alexander M; Gruzdeva, Natalia M; Volkov, Alexander A; Barmintseva, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Prokhortchouk, Egor B

    2013-08-01

    Legally certified sturgeon fisheries require population protection and conservation methods, including DNA tests to identify the source of valuable sturgeon roe. However, the available genetic data are insufficient to distinguish between different sturgeon populations, and are even unable to distinguish between some species. We performed high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-genotyping analysis on different populations of Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), Persian (A. persicus), and Siberian (A. baerii) sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea region (Volga and Ural Rivers), the Azov Sea, and two Siberian rivers. We found that Russian sturgeons from the Volga and Ural Rivers were essentially indistinguishable, but they differed from Russian sturgeons in the Azov Sea, and from Persian and Siberian sturgeons. We identified eight SNPs that were sufficient to distinguish these sturgeon populations with 80% confidence, and allowed the development of markers to distinguish sturgeon species. Finally, on the basis of our SNP data, we propose that the A. baerii-like mitochondrial DNA found in some Russian sturgeons from the Caspian Sea arose via an introgression event during the Pleistocene glaciation. In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested.

  16. Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget; Berghaus, Roy D; Camus, Melinda S; Hart, Kelsey

    2015-03-01

    Although delays between blood sample collection and analysis are common in veterinary medicine, the effect of prolonged serum-clot contact time on serum glucose concentration is not well established and species differences have not been elucidated. The objective was to investigate the effect of storage time and temperature on serum glucose concentration in stored whole blood samples from horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon. Whole blood specimens were divided into 7 no-additive tubes and serum was separated from one sample within one hour, serving as the reference sample. The remaining samples were stored at 4°C and 25°C, then centrifuged and serum glucose measured by automated analysis at 2, 4, and 8 hours postcollection. Glucose concentrations were compared using linear mixed models. The decline in serum glucose concentration for all samples stored at 4°C was not statistically significant, except for the 8-hour samples from sturgeon and dog. At 25°C, serum glucose concentration was comparable to reference values at 2 hours in sturgeon and alpaca, but significantly lower at 4 and 8 hours in those species, and at all time points in equine and canine specimens, being most prominent after 8 hours of storage in canine specimens. Storage at 4°C limits serum glucose decline for at least 4 hours in all species tested and up to 8 hours in specimens of horse and alpaca. At 25°C, serum-clot contact time should not exceed 1 hour in equine and canine samples, and 2 hours in specimens from alpaca and sturgeon. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Modeling Climate Change and Sturgeon Populations in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), in collaboration with researchers from the University of Missouri and Iowa State University, is conducting research to address effects of climate change on sturgeon populations (Scaphirhynchus spp.) in the Missouri River. The CERC is conducting laboratory, field, and modeling research to identify causative factors for the responses of fish populations to natural and human-induced environmental changes and using this information to understand sensitivity of sturgeon populations to potential climate change in the Missouri River drainage basin. Sturgeon response information is being used to parameterize models predicting future population trends. These models will provide a set of tools for natural resource managers to assess management strategies in the context of global climate change. This research complements and builds on the ongoing Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) at the CERC. The CSRP is designed to provide information critical to restoration of the Missouri River ecosystem and the endangered pallid sturgeon (S. albus). Current research is being funded by USGS through the National Climate Change Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC) and the Science Support Partnership (SSP) Program that is held by the USGS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The national mission of the NCCWSC is to improve the capacity of fish and wildlife agencies to respond to climate change and to address high-priority climate change effects on fish and wildlife. Within the national context, the NCCWSC research on the Missouri River focuses on temporal and spatial downscaling and associated uncertainty in modeling climate change effects on sturgeon species in the Missouri River. The SSP research focuses on improving survival and population estimates for pallid sturgeon population models.

  18. Concentrations of trace elements in muscle of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Aubrey, David G

    2004-11-01

    Concentrations of 21 trace elements were determined in muscle of beluga (Huso huso), Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), ship sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) and stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) collected from coastal regions of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, surrounding the Caspian Sea during 2000-2001. Concentrations of Mn, Co, Cu, Mo, Sn, Hg, Pb and Bi in the muscle were apparently different among the five species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga showed the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb and Mn in all the five species. In addition, more than half of the individuals of beluga exceeded the guideline level (0.3 microg/g wet wt.) of Hg for food in UK. However, V, Cr, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr and Ba concentrations were similar among five sturgeons. Growth-dependent increase in Hg in beluga, Cu in Persian sturgeon, and Zn in Russian sturgeon were observed, whereas V, Mn, Co, Cu, Ga, Sr, Mo, Sn, Hg and Bi concentrations in Persian sturgeon, Pb in ship sturgeon, and Cr, Mn, and Rb in stellate sturgeon were negatively correlated with body length. All species of sturgeon in Azerbaijan showed the highest concentration of Sr and the lowest concentration of Rb, while the five sturgeons from Iran showed opposite trends. Concentration of V, which is present in oil, in sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was considerably lower than that of fish from Kuwait, but was comparable to that of Cambodia and the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. To our knowledge, this study provides the first extensive data on multielemental accumulation in sturgeons of the Caspian Sea.

  19. Support for temporally varying behavior of the Pioneer anomaly from the extended Pioneer 10 and 11 Doppler data sets.

    PubMed

    Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T; Ellis, Jordan; Markwardt, Craig B

    2011-08-19

    The Pioneer anomaly is a small sunward anomalous acceleration found in the trajectory analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. As part of the investigation of the effect, the analysis of recently recovered Doppler data for both spacecraft has been completed. The presence of a small anomalous acceleration is confirmed by using data spans more than twice as long as those that were previously analyzed. We examine the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly and conclude that (i) the data favor a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (~2×10(-11) m/s(2)/yr) with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model, (ii) although the direction of the acceleration remains imprecisely determined, we find no support in favor of a Sun-pointing direction over the Earth-pointing or along the spin-axis directions, and (iii) support for an early "onset" of the acceleration remains weak in the pre-Saturn Pioneer 11 tracking data. We present these new findings and discuss their implications for the nature of the Pioneer anomaly. © 2011 American Physical Society

  20. Pioneers of the Online Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Trudi Bellardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes the historical development of online information retrieval systems and services. Gives an overview of the three pioneer groups of the online age: (1) programmers, system designers, and researchers; (2) managers, trainers, and custom service representatives; and (3) users. Also examines those individuals who made exceptional contributions…

  1. Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex H. S.

    2009-01-01

    This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the…

  2. Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex H. S.

    2009-01-01

    This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the…

  3. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  4. Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  5. Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wolfgang L.

    2001-03-01

    Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

  6. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  7. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  9. Vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus to fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, William E.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, S.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Selch, T.M.; Klumb, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking is a commonly employed conservation strategy for endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. However, decisions about when, where and at what size pallid sturgeon should be stocked are hindered because vulnerability of pallid sturgeon to fish predation is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by two Missouri River predators under different flow regimes, and in combination with alternative prey. To document vulnerability, age-0 pallid sturgeon (<100 mm) were offered to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in laboratory experiments. Selection of pallid sturgeon by both predators was measured by offering pallid sturgeon and an alternative prey, fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, in varying prey densities. Smallmouth bass consumed more age-0 pallid sturgeon (0.95 h-1) than did channel catfish (0.13 h-1), and predation rates did not differ between water velocities supporting sustained (0 m s-1) or prolonged swimming speeds (0.15 m s-1). Neither predator positively selected pallid sturgeon when alternative prey was available. Both predator species consumed more fathead minnows than pallid sturgeon across all prey density combinations. Results indicate that the vulnerability of age-0 pallid sturgeon to predation by channel catfish and smallmouth bass is low, especially in the presence of an alternative fish prey. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Characterization of Gulf sturgeon diel and seasonal activity in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrege, Beth Marie

    2009-12-01

    We assess temporal and spatial distribution and diel variability in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Pensacola Bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon (n = 54) migrated through the bay system in fall to wintering areas in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summering habitats in rivers. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon use East Bay and Escambia Bay primarily as migration routes between riverine areas used in spring and summer and the Gulf of Mexico used in winter. North Central Pensacola Bay was not routinely frequented. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon used specific areas within the Pensacola Bay system in summer and winter not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola were used heavily during winter by a portion of the population. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound. Interestingly, an area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in summer. This observation was unexpected; however, the identification of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in this area at this time has important ecological and management implications. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon exhibited a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf of Mexico sturgeon were more active at night than during day in all seasons but summer. The use of prepositioned arrays of acoustic receivers not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but provides insights into nocturnal behavior not previously examined.

  11. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  12. Survival of shovelnose sturgeon after abdominally invasive endoscopic evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Kirk, J.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective and minimally invasive techniques to determine gender and gonad developmental stage is particularly important in performing accurate fisheries assessments for use in conservation and restoration. The initial and latent survival of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus was assessed after exposure to a modified endoscopic technique designed to collect that biological information. Rather than inserting the endoscope through the urogenital canal or directly into the body cavity, we inserted a threaded trocar through a ventral incision and used a low-pressure air supply attached to the trocar to gently insufflate the body cavity. The initial survival of both experimental and control shovelnose sturgeon was 100%. Latent survival was 100% and 90% for the experimental and control fish, respectively. Our study suggests that incision endoscopy coupled with insufflation of the body cavity through the use of a trocar and an air supply is a safe and effective way to determine gender and examine the gonad developmental stage of shovelnose sturgeon. The short duration of the procedure and the high postprocedure survival suggest that this technique is suitable for shovelnose sturgeon and perhaps for the evaluation of other endangered fish species (e.g., pallid sturgeon S. alba) as well.

  13. Sturgeon Osteocalcin Shares Structural Features with Matrix Gla Protein

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Carla S. B.; Simes, Dina C.; Williamson, Matthew K.; Cavaco, Sofia; Laizé, Vincent; Price, Paul A.; Cancela, M. Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are considered evolutionarily related because they share key structural features, although they have been described to exert different functions. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of both OC and MGP from the Adriatic sturgeon, a ray-finned fish characterized by a slow evolution and the retention of many ancestral features. Sturgeon MGP shows a primary structure, post-translation modifications, and patterns of mRNA/protein distribution and accumulation typical of known MGPs, and it contains seven possible Gla residues that would make the sturgeon protein the most γ-carboxylated among known MGPs. In contrast, sturgeon OC was found to present a hybrid structure. Indeed, although exhibiting protein domains typical of known OCs, it also contains structural features usually found in MGPs (e.g. a putative phosphorylated propeptide). Moreover, patterns of OC gene expression and protein accumulation overlap with those reported for MGP; OC was detected in bone cells and mineralized structures but also in soft and cartilaginous tissues. We propose that, in a context of a reduced rate of evolution, sturgeon OC has retained structural features of the ancestral protein that emerged millions of years ago from the duplication of an ancient MGP gene and may exhibit intermediate functional features. PMID:23884418

  14. Biological assessment for the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur 1818, the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muska, C.; Matthews, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is listed as an endangered species in the United States. Prior to 1982, the presence of shortnose sturgeon had not been documented in the middle reaches of the Savannah River. However, shortnose sturgeon larvae were collected in 1982-1983 near the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility, as part of the SRP aquatic ecology program. This biological assessment was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts of present and proposed SRP operations on the shortnose sturgeon. This assessment is based on existing information on the life history and habitat preferences of the shortnose sturgeon, a description of the Savannah River Plant including plant operations which may potentially impact the shortnose sturgeon and consultations with local experts. From this information, it is concluded that the existing and proposed operations (specifically L-Reactor operation) of the Savannah River Plant will not affect the continued existence of the shortnose sturgeon the Savannah River.

  15. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four hundred

  16. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows.

    PubMed

    Verhille, Christine E; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Cocherell, Dennis E; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento-San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February-May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April-May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October-November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are applicable

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  18. Larval green and white sturgeon swimming performance in relation to water-diversion flows

    PubMed Central

    Verhille, Christine E.; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; DeCourten, Bethany; Baird, Sarah; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known of the swimming capacities of larval sturgeons, despite global population declines in many species due in part to fragmentation of their spawning and rearing habitats by man-made water-diversion structures. Larval green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) inhabit the highly altered Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed, making them logical species to examine vulnerability to entrainment by altered water flows. The risk of larval sturgeon entrainment is influenced by the ontogeny of swimming capacity and dispersal timing and their interactions with water-diversion structure operations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare the ontogeny and allometry of larval green and white sturgeon swimming capacities until completion of metamorphosis into juveniles. Despite the faster growth rates and eventual larger size of larval white sturgeon, green sturgeon critical swimming velocities remained consistently, though modestly, greater than those of white sturgeon throughout the larval life stage. Although behavioural interactions with water-diversion structures are also important considerations, regarding swimming capacity, Sacramento–San Joaquin sturgeons are most vulnerable to entrainment in February–May, when white sturgeon early larvae are in the middle Sacramento River, and April–May, when green sturgeon early larvae are in the upper river. Green sturgeon migrating downstream to the estuary and bays in October–November are also susceptible to entrainment due to their movements combined with seasonal declines in their swimming capacity. An additional inter-species comparison of the allometric relationship between critical swimming velocities and total length with several sturgeon species found throughout the world suggests a similar ontogeny of swimming capacity with growth. Therefore, although dispersal and behaviour differ among river systems and sturgeon species, similar recommendations are

  19. Pioneer Saturn celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Biller, E. D.; Wong, S. K.; Hubbard, W. B.; Macfarlane, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper investigates a continuous round-trip radio link at S band (2.2 GHz) that was maintained during the Pioneer Saturn encounter between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory were determined. Gravitational moments for Saturn were found from a preliminary analysis, as well as mass values for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. It was determined that the densities of all three satellites are low and consistent with the compositions of ices. Theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition.

  20. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  1. Pioneer Saturn celestial mechanics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Biller, E. D.; Wong, S. K.; Hubbard, W. B.; Macfarlane, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper investigates a continuous round-trip radio link at S band (2.2 GHz) that was maintained during the Pioneer Saturn encounter between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory were determined. Gravitational moments for Saturn were found from a preliminary analysis, as well as mass values for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. It was determined that the densities of all three satellites are low and consistent with the compositions of ices. Theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition.

  2. Identifying sturgeon spawning locations through back-calculations of drift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulliner, Edward A.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; George, Amy E.; Delonay, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Unfavorable spawning habitat conditions have been identified as a potential limiting factor for recovery of the endangered pallid sturgeon on the Missouri River and its tributaries. After successful spawning, incubation, and hatching, sturgeon free embryos passively drift downstream and are sometimes captured by sampling crews. While spawning habitat has been identified at time of spawning through field investigations, captured pallid and shovelnose (used as a surrogate species) sturgeon free embryos in the Missouri River often do not come from genetically-known telemetered fish and may be useful to identify additional areas of spawning habitat. We developed a routing model to identify potential spawning locations for captured free embryos of known age based on channel velocity estimates. To estimate velocity we compared use of at-a-station hydraulic geometry relations to empirical estimates of velocity form a 15-year archive of hydroacoustic measurements on the Missouri River.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Bin; Chang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The Chinese sturgeon mitochondrial DNA is a circular molecule (16,688 bp in length) with the typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mtDNA, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Its control region contains 4.5 copies of unit with 82 bp long at 5' end, which has been reported before for this species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 protein-coding genes confirmed that the complete mtDNA sequence of Chinese sturgeon was reported here for the first time.

  4. The Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee River - Questions and Answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Randall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefishes are modern descendants of an ancient group of freshwater fishes, the Chondrostei (a group of bony fishes with mostly cartilaginous skeletons). Sturgeons evolved during the Age of the Dinosaurs, and have prospered in the large rivers and lakes of North America, Europe and Asia for 200 million years. Together with alligators and crocodiles, they survived the mass extinction at the end of the Mesozoic Era, when the dinosaurs and many other groups of animals disappeared forever. They originated prior to the creation of the Atlantic Ocean, when the Northern Hemisphere supercontinent Pangea broke into North America and Eurasia. Most sturgeons are highly specialized to feed in the sediment on small invertebrate prey, a radical evolutionary departure from most of their fish-eating ancestors.

  5. Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Professor Helmut Sies Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468. The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege! —Prof. Helmut Sies PMID:25178739

  6. Redox pioneer: professor Helmut Sies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean P; Radi, Rafael

    2014-12-20

    Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer.

  7. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited

    Treesearch

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers

    1991-01-01

    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...

  8. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  9. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  10. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  11. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  12. [The use of microsatellite loci for identification of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae) and hybrid forms].

    PubMed

    Barmintseva, A E; Mugue, N S

    2013-09-01

    The genetic polymorphism often sturgeon species that inhabit the territory of the Russian Federation (Russian sturgeon, Siberian sturgeon, Amur sturgeon, Sakhalin sturgeon, Persian sturgeon, ship sturgeon, starlet, stellate sturgeon, beluga, and kaluga) was examined at five microsatellite loci (Afug41, Afug51, An20, AoxD161, AoxD165) (in total, 3821 individuals). The examined loci were successfully amplified with the same primer set in all species tested and demonstrated a high level of variation. Alleles specific to different species have been identified, which allows them to be used to identify species of sturgeon and their food products. In addition, the possibility of identifying hybrid forms was demonstrated. The assignment test performed in the STRUCTURE software program showed a high probability of correctly assigning each individual to its species based on genotyping with five microsatellite loci examined (96-98%, on average). However, for Russian and Persian sturgeon, the rate of proper species assignment was considerably lower (75 and 84%, respectively).

  13. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  14. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or California Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, or Alaska Department of Fish and Game; (iii) The activity benefits the... made; a plan for effective monitoring and adaptive management; a pledge to use best available science...

  15. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Take does not involve artificial spawning or enhancement activities; (vii) A description of the study objectives and justification, a summary of the study design and methodology, estimates of the total non... 60 days prior to the start of the study, or by August 31, 2010 for ongoing studies; (viii) Reports...

  16. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Take does not involve artificial spawning or enhancement activities; (vii) A description of the study objectives and justification, a summary of the study design and methodology, estimates of the total non... 60 days prior to the start of the study, or by August 31, 2010 for ongoing studies; (viii) Reports...

  17. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  18. Recovery of white sturgeon populations through natural production: Understanding the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on spawning and subsequent recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Anders, P.J.; Miller, Allen I.; Beckman, L.G.; McCabe, G.T.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery or maintenance of sturgeon populations through natural production in perturbed rivers requires adequate knowledge of the abiotic and biotic factors that influence spawning and cause mortality of embryonic, larval, and juvenile life stages. Although it is known that year-class strength of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus is determined within 2-3 months after spawning, little is known about specific causes of mortality to early life stages during this period. Initial spawning success is critical in the development of a strong year-class, and maximized recruitment may be dependent upon water temperature and the availability of optimal in-river habitat. Analyses have shown that increased river discharge combined with suitable water temperatures during spawning, egg incubation, yolk sac larvae dispersal, and first exogenous feeding result in greater recruitment. However, little is known about the importance of other variables, such as food availability or losses due to predation that influence year-class strength. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. First record predation on white sturgeon eggs by sympatric fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, A.I.; Beckman, L.G.

    1996-01-01

    We report the occurrence of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in guts of four species of fish from the Columbia River. Three of the species—northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, largescale sucker Catostomus macrocheilus, and prickly sentpin Cottus asper—are native to the river and one, common carp Cvprinus carpio, is exotic.

  20. Enhancement of lake sturgeon conservation through feeding management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), listed as threatened under the State of Michigan’s Endangered Species Act, has high ecological and economical values as a native benthivore. Many efforts for enhancing stocking have been implemented to restore wild populations. For current stocking programs, lak...

  1. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  2. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  3. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  4. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  5. Physical and hormonal examination of Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon reproductive stage: A reference guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bryan, J.L.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    From May 2001 to June 2002 Wildhaber et al. (2005) conducted monthly sampling of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) to develop methods for determination of sex and the reproductive stage of sturgeons in the field. Shovelnose sturgeon were collected from the Missouri River and ultrasonic and endoscopic imagery and blood and gonadal tissue samples were taken. The full set of data was used to develop monthly reproductive stage profiles for S. platorynchus that could be compared to data collected on pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). This paper presents a comprehensive reference set of images, sex steroids, and vitellogenin (VTG, an egg protein precursor) data for assessing shovelnose sturgeon sex and reproductive stage. This reference set includes ultrasonic, endoscopic, histologic, and internal images of male and female gonads of shovelnose sturgeon at each reproductive stage along with complementary data on average 17-β estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, VTG, gonadosomatic index, and polarization index.

  6. Distribution and movement of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Mangold, M.F.; Skjeveland, J.E.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    During a reward program for Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus), 40 federally endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) were captured and reported by commercial fishers between January 1996 and January 2000 from the Chesapeake Bay. Since this is more than double the number of published records of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay between 1876 and 1995, little information has been available on distributions and movement. We used fishery dependent data collected during the reward program to determine the distribution of shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Sonically-tagged shortnose sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware River were tracked to determine if individuals swim through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Shortnose sturgeon were primarily distributed within the upper Chesapeake Bay. The movements of one individual, tagged within the Chesapeake Bay and later relocated in the canal and Delaware River, indicated that individuals traverse the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

  7. Induction of meiotic gynogenesis in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated heterologous sperm.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh Saber, Mohammad; Noveiri, Shahrouz Baradaran; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Yazdani, Mohammadali; Ghoroghi, Ahmad; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Pourdehghani, Mohammad; Chakmehdouz, Fereidoon; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab; Nowruzfashkhami, Mohammadreza

    2014-05-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris using UV-irradiated sperm from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. The optimal condition for the retention of the second polar body in ship sturgeon was determined to be 10 min after activation/fertilization in experiments. The temperature of cold shock and its duration were 2.5 °C and 30 min, respectively. A total of 30 gynogens of known parentage from experimental treatments were screened using microsatellite DNA analysis, and uniparental transmission in meiogens was confirmed. The results show that heterologous Siberian sturgeon sperm is applicable as UV-irradiated sperm for the induction of gynogenesis in ship sturgeon. This technique may recover the critically endangered sturgeon species that are becoming extinct.

  8. Fertility of a spontaneous hexaploid male Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evolution of sturgeons and paddlefishes (order Acipenseriformes) is inherently connected with polyploidization events which resulted in differentiation of ploidy levels and chromosome numbers of present acipenseriform species. Moreover, allopolyploidization as well as autopolyploidization seems to be an ongoing process in these fishes and individuals with abnormal ploidy levels were occasionally observed within sturgeon populations. Here, we reported occurrence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) male with abnormal ploidy level for this species, accessed its ploidy level and chromosome number and investigate its potential sterility or fertility in comparison with normal individuals of sterlet (A. ruthenus), Russian sturgeon (A. gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii). Results Acipenser ruthenus possessed 120 chromosomes, exhibiting recent diploidy (2n), A. gueldenstaedtii and A. baerii had ~245 chromosomes representing recent tetraploidy (4n), and A. baerii male with abnormal ploidy level had ~ 368 chromosomes, indicating recent hexaploidy (6n). Genealogy assessed from the mtDNA control region did not reveal genome markers of other sturgeon species and this individual was supposed to originate from spontaneous 1.5 fold increment in number of chromosome sets with respect to the number most frequently found in nature for this species. Following hormone stimulation, the spontaneous hexaploid male produced normal sperm with ability for fertilization. Fertilization of A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii ova from normal 4n level females with sperm of the hexaploid male produced viable, non-malformed pentaploid (5n) progeny with a ploidy level intermediate to those of the parents. Conclusion This study firstly described occurrence of hexaploid individual of A. baerii and confirmed its autopolyploid origin. In addition to that, the first detailed evidence about fertility of spontaneous hexaploid sturgeon was provided. If 1.5 fold increment in

  9. Pioneer saturn celestial mechanics experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J D; Null, G W; Biller, E D; Wong, S K; Hubbard, W B; Macfarlane, J J

    1980-01-25

    During the Pioneer Saturn encounter, a continuous round-trip radio link at S band ( approximately 2.2 gigahertz) was maintained between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, it was possible to determine a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory. Gravitational moments ( J(2) and J(4)) for Saturn have been determined from preliminary analysis, and preliminary mass values have been determined for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. For all three satellites the densities are low, consistent with the compositions of ices. The rings have not been detected in the Doppler data, and hence the best preliminary estimate of their total mass is zero with a standard error of 3 x 10(-6) Saturn mass. New theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn, and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition. Probably liquid H(2)O and possibly NH(3) and CH(4) are primarily confined in Saturn to the vicinity of a core of approximately 15 to 20 Earth masses. There is a slight indication that helium may likewise be fractionated to the central regions.

  10. Redox pioneer: Professor Arne Holmgren.

    PubMed

    Arnér, Elias S J

    2011-08-01

    Dr. Arne Holmgren (Ph.D., 1968) is recognized here as a redox pioneer, because he has published at least one article on redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 articles, each cited over 100 times. He is widely known for his seminal discoveries and in-depth studies of thioredoxins, thioredoxin reductases, and glutaredoxins. Dr. Holmgren, active throughout his career at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, has led the field of research about these classes of proteins for more than 45 years, continuously building upon his sequence determination of Escherichia coli thioredoxin in the late 1960s and discovery of the thioredoxin fold in the 1970s. He discovered and named glutaredoxin and he determined the structure and function of several members of these glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductases. He still continues to broaden the frontiers of knowledge of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. The thioredoxin fold is today recognized as one of the most common protein folds and the intriguing complexity of redox systems, redox signaling, and redox control of cellular function is constantly increasing. The legacy of Dr. Holmgren's research is therefore highly relevant and important also in the context of present science. In a tribute to his work, questions need to be addressed toward the physiological importance of redox signaling and the impact of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems on health and disease. Dr. Holmgren helped lay the foundation for the redox biology field and opened new vistas in the process. He is truly a redox pioneer.

  11. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (p<0.05) mortality was observed in green sturgeon fed the highest SeMet diet after 2 weeks, whereas no mortality was observed in white sturgeon. Growth rates were significantly reduced in both species; however, green sturgeon was more adversely affected by the treatment. Dietary SeMet significantly affected whole body composition and most noticeably, in the decline of lipid contents in green sturgeon. Selenium accumulated significantly in all tissues relative to the control groups. After 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, marked abnormalities were observed in the kidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  12. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of the Lake Maurepas Diversion Project to Gulf and Pallid Sturgeon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Relating swimming performance of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens , to fishway design. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 54:1361–1366...Scaphirhynchus albus) and the threatened Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon ( Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi), both of which are thought to occur in the project...Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Barkuloo, J. M. 1988. Report on the conservation status of the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon, Acipenser

  13. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ± one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle.

  14. Estimation of gonad volume, fecundity, and reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon using sonography and endoscopy with application to the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, J.L.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Papoulias, D.M.; DeLonay, A.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Annis, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Most species of sturgeon are declining in the Mississippi River Basin of North America including pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus F. and R.) and shovelnose sturgeons (S. platorynchus R.). Understanding the reproductive cycle of sturgeon in the Mississippi River Basin is important in evaluating the status and viability of sturgeon populations. We used non-invasive, non-lethal methods for examining internal reproductive organs of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. We used an ultrasound to measure egg diameter, fecundity, and gonad volume; endoscope was used to visually examine the gonad. We found the ultrasound to accurately measure the gonad volume, but it underestimated egg diameter by 52%. After correcting for the measurement error, the ultrasound accurately measured the gonad volume but it was higher than the true gonad volume for stages I and II. The ultrasound underestimated the fecundity of shovelnose sturgeon by 5%. The ultrasound fecundity was lower than the true fecundity for stage III and during August. Using the endoscope, we viewed seven different egg color categories. Using a model selection procedure, the presence of four egg categories correctly predicted the reproductive stage ?? one reproductive stage of shovelnose sturgeon 95% of the time. For pallid sturgeon, the ultrasound overestimated the density of eggs by 49% and the endoscope was able to view eggs in 50% of the pallid sturgeon. Individually, the ultrasound and endoscope can be used to assess certain reproductive characteristics in sturgeon. The use of both methods at the same time can be complementary depending on the parameter measured. These methods can be used to track gonad characteristics, including measuring Gonadosomatic Index in individuals and/or populations through time, which can be very useful when associating gonad characteristics with environmental spawning triggers or with repeated examinations of individual fish throughout the reproductive cycle. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  15. Differences in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors of white sturgeon relative to lake sturgeon are predicted by identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jon A; Farmahin, Reza; Wiseman, Steve; Beitel, Shawn C; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2015-04-07

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are pollutants of global environmental concern. DLCs elicit their adverse outcomes through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in differences in sensitivity to DLCs among different species of fishes. Understanding these mechanisms is critical for protection of the diversity of fishes exposed to DLCs, including endangered species. This study investigated specific mechanisms that drive responses of two endangered fishes, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to DLCs. It determined whether differences in sensitivity to activation of AhRs (AhR1 and AhR2) can be predicted based on identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain (LBD). White sturgeon were 3- to 30-fold more sensitive than lake sturgeon to exposure to 5 different DLCs based on activation of AhR2. There were no differences in sensitivity between white sturgeon and lake sturgeon based on activation of AhR1. Adverse outcomes as a result of exposure to DLCs have been shown to be mediated through activation of AhR2, but not AhR1, in all fishes studied to date. This indicates that white sturgeon are likely to have greater sensitivity in vivo relative to lake sturgeon. Homology modeling and in silico mutagenesis suggests that differences in sensitivity to activation of AhR2 result from differences in key amino acids at position 388 in the LBD of AhR2 of white sturgeon (Ala-388) and lake sturgeon (Thr-388). This indicates that identities of key amino acids in the LBD of AhR2 could be predictive of both in vitro activation by DLCs and in vivo sensitivity to DLCs in these, and potentially other, fishes.

  16. Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

  17. Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

  18. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  19. First documented occurrences of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Saco River, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, C.E.; Kieffer, M.; Wippelhauser, G.; Zydlewski, G.; Kinnison, M.; Whitefleet-Smith, L. A.; Sulikowski, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    During sampling efforts to study the more abundant Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, between May of 2009 and November of 2011, four shortnose sturgeon were captured in gill nets near the mouth of the Saco River, Maine. Two of these individuals were tagged with acoustic transmitters to monitor their movement within the Saco River. Additionally, six shortnose sturgeon that had been tagged with acoustic transmitters in the Merrimack River, Massachusetts were detected on the acoustic array deployed within the Saco River and its estuary over this time period. These incidences represent the first verified documentation of shortnose sturgeon within this estuary.

  20. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  1. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  2. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  3. Population genetics of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.

    PubMed

    Grunwald, C; Stabile, J; Waldman, J R; Gross, R; Wirgin, I

    2002-10-01

    Shortnose sturgeon is an anadromous North American acipenserid that since 1973 has been designated as federally endangered in US waters. Historically, shortnose sturgeon occurred in as many as 19 rivers from the St. John River, NB, to the St. Johns River, FL, and these populations ranged in census size from 10(1) to 10(4), but little is known of their population structure or levels of gene flow. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequence analysis of a 440 bp portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region to address these issues and to compare haplotype diversity with population size. Twenty-nine mtDNA nucleotide-substitution haplotypes were revealed among 275 specimens from 11 rivers and estuaries. Additionally, mtDNA length variation (6 haplotypes) and heteroplasmy (2-5 haplotypes for some individuals) were found. Significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.05) of mtDNA nucleotide-substitution haplotypes and length-variant haplotypes was observed among populations from all rivers and estuaries surveyed with the exception of the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay collections. Significant haplotype differentiation was even observed between samples from two rivers (Kennebec and Androscoggin) within the Kennebec River drainage. The absence of haplotype frequency differences between samples from the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay reflects a probable current absence of spawning within the Chesapeake Bay system and immigration of fish from the adjoining Delaware River. Haplotypic diversity indices ranged between 0.817 and 0.641; no relationship (P > 0.05) was found between haplotype diversity and census size. Gene flow estimates among populations were often low (< 2.0), but were generally higher at the latitudinal extremes of their distribution. A moderate level of haplotype diversity and a high percentage (37.9%) of haplotypes unique to the northern, once-glaciated region suggests that northern populations survived the Pleistocene in a

  4. Pioneer imaging photopolarimeter optical system.

    PubMed

    Pellicori, S F; Russell, E E; Watts, L A

    1973-06-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft en route to the vicinity of Jupiter is described. This instrument is capable of moderate resolution spin-scan imaging and high precision polarimetric and photometric mapping of Jupiter in red and blue light. The field of view can be selectively changed from 0.50 mrad square to 40 mrad square to accommodate resolution and radiance combinations ranging from the zodiacal background to that of Jupiter. The dynamic range (radiance) of the instrument is greater than 10(8). Optical materials were chosen to survive, with minimum degradation, the rigors of a nearly 2-year journey to Jupiter including transit through the Jovian trapped radiation belts. The optics are described in detail, and the operational system is outlined. The procedures for preflight and in-flight calibration are described, and some performance characteristics and preliminary flight results are presented.

  5. 75 FR 2102 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance AGENCY: Fish... reopening of the comment period for our September 22, 2009, proposed rule to treat the shovelnose sturgeon... Sturgeon Recovery Coordinator, Billings Field Office, 2900 4th Avenue North, Room 301, Billings, MT...

  6. The Pioneer Anomaly as a Coulomb Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft can be explained as a Coulomb attraction between the positively-charged Solar System (due to cosmic rays) and the negatively-charged spacecraft (due to alpha-particle emission from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators).

  7. Professor Jerzy Kaulbersz, pioneer of Polish gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J

    2011-04-01

    Jerzy Kaulbersz was undoubtedly the father of experimental gastroenterological physiology in Poland. He pioneered the neural and endocrine aspects of the mechanisms controlling gastric and pancreatic secretion by assessing the influence on this secretion of vagal nerves and endocrine factors such as gastrin, enterogastrone, urogastrone, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid and sex hormones as well as bile, hypoxia and X-ray irradiation. He introduced various models of peptic ulcerations such as induced by pylorus-ligation (Shay ulcers) or Mann-Williamson ulcers to test the influence of neuroendocrine factors on the formation and healing of these ulcerations. This review is designed to commemorate the outstanding contribution to experimental gastroenterology of Professor Kaulbersz, who first studied biology in German universities to obtain the title of Doctor of Natural Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Freiburg in 1913 and then completed medical studies at the Medical Faculty of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow receiving the title of Doctor of Universal Medicine (MD) in 1920. He then joined Department of Physiology of Jagiellonian University in Krakow as its assistant and gradually was appointed docent and finally promoted to professor in this Department, working here as chairman from 1934 to 1964 with only 7 years interruption when he spent the time of World War II in USA, working at various departments of experimental gastroenterology and publishing his outstanding papers in most prestigious physiology ournals such as American Journal of Physiology. He possessed comprehensive knowledge of physiology and was gifted to create and organize Cracow Department of Physiology. Moreover he became co-founder of the of Polish Physiological Society, the honorary member of American Physiological Association, honorary member of Polish Society of Gastroenterology and Physiology and received the diploma of Doctor Honoris Causa of Medical Academy in Cracow. This ad memoriam note commemorates his

  8. Effects of sediment cover on survival and development of white sturgeon embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, T.J.; Congleton, J.L.; Anders, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive apparatus (embryo incubation unit [EIU]) was developed and used to assess the relationship between sediment cover (Kootenai River sediments, 97% by weight in the 0.83-mm- to 1.0-mm-diameter range) and survival of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus embryos in the laboratory. An apparatus-testing trial assessed the effects of two sediment depths (5 and 20 mm), three EIU ventilation hole sizes (4.8, 6.8, and 9.5 mm) providing three levels of intrasediment flow, and EIU location (upstream or downstream in laboratory troughs) on embryo survival at two above-substrate flow velocities (0.05 and 0.15 m/s). A second trial assessed the effects of sediment cover duration (5-mm sediment cover for 4, 7, 9, 11, or 14 d, with a ventilation hole size of 9.5 mm and a flow velocity of 0.17 m/s) on mean embryo survival and larval length and weight. In the apparatus-testing trial, embryo survival was reduced (P < 0.0001) to 0-5% under sediment covers of either 5 or 20 mm in both the higher-flow and lower-flow troughs; survival in control EIUs without sediments exceeded 80%. Survival was not significantly affected by ventilation hole size but was weakly affected by EIU location. In the second trial, embryo survival was negatively correlated (P = 0.001) with increasing duration of sediment cover and was significantly higher for embryos covered for 4 d (50% survival) or 7 d (30% survival) than for those covered for 9, 11, or 14 d (15-20% survival). Sediment cover also delayed hatch timing (P < 0.0001) and decreased mean larval length (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that sediment cover may be an important early life stage mortality factor in rivers where white sturgeon spawn over fine-sediment substrates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  9. Project overview: Chapter A in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  10. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Bennion, David; Roseman, Edward; Holbrook, Christopher; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Drouin, Richard; Kessel, Steven T.; Krueger, Charles Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove important for

  11. Laboratory studies on the vulnerability of young white sturgeon to predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite evidence of annual spawning by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in rivers of the northwestern United States and Canada, in some years and locations little or no recruitment of age-0 white sturgeon has been observed. We examined the vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae and juveniles to predation to further understand possible causes of mortality. We were particularly interested in the vulnerability of older larvae and juveniles because at about 25 mm total length (TL) white sturgeon develop sharp dorsal and lateral scutes that may act as a morphological defense. In the laboratory, white sturgeon ranging from newly hatched larvae to about 170-mm TL juveniles were exposed to predatory fishes they might encounter in the natural environment. We found that channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (mean TL = 464 mm) and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis (mean TL = 472 mm) ate white sturgeon up to mean sizes of 121 and 134 mm TL, respectively. Conversely, similarly sized walleyes Sander vitreus ingested almost no white sturgeon, although juvenile walleyes (mean TL = 184 mm) ate white sturgeon up to 59 mm TL. The smallest predator we tested, prickly sculpins Cottus asper (mean TL = 126 mm), ate white sturgeon up to a mean TL of 50 mm. Our study demonstrated that predation is a likely cause of mortality of age-0 white sturgeon and may be contributing to the year-class failures that have been observed. In addition, the results from this study could be used to reduce the predation risk of artificially propagated white sturgeon released to augment declining populations since fish could be reared to sizes where their vulnerability is low.

  12. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Fernandes, Stephen J.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the distribution and seasonal movement patterns of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus occupying rivers in the northern part of their range. During 2006 and 2007, 40 shortnose sturgeon (66–113.4 cm fork length [FL]) and 8 Atlantic sturgeon (76.2–166.2 cm FL) were captured in the Penobscot River, Maine, implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored using an array of acoustic receivers in the Penobscot River estuary and Penobscot Bay. Shortnose sturgeon were present year round in the estuary and overwintered from fall (mid-October) to spring (mid-April) in the upper estuary. In early spring, all individuals moved downstream to the middle estuary. Over the course of the summer, many individuals moved upstream to approximately 2 km of the downstream-most dam (46 river kilometers [rkm] from the Penobscot River mouth [rkm 0]) by August. Most aggregated into an overwintering site (rkm 36.5) in mid- to late fall. As many as 50% of the tagged shortnose sturgeon moved into and out of the Penobscot River system during 2007, and 83% were subsequently detected by an acoustic array in the Kennebec River, located 150 km from the Penobscot River estuary. Atlantic sturgeon moved into the estuary from the ocean in the summer and concentrated into a 1.5-km reach. All Atlantic sturgeon moved to the ocean by fall, and two of these were detected in the Kennebec River. Although these behaviors are common for Atlantic sturgeon, regular coastal migrations of shortnose sturgeon have not been documented previously in this region. These results have important implications for future dam removals as well as for rangewide and river-specific shortnose sturgeon management.

  13. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, David H.; Roseman, Edward F.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Drouin, Richard G.; Kessel, Steven T.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2017-01-01

    Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove important for

  14. Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind associated with the August 1972 events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Observations are presented of the changes in the solar wind proton parameters at 0.8 and 2.2 AU as a result of the solar flares in August 1972. These observations were obtained by the NASA Ames Research Center solar wind plasma analyzer experiments on Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10. High time resolution measurements are presented of the solar wind proton speed associated with the arrival of the interplanetary shocks at Pioneer 9 and Pioneer 10. For these events, differential ion energy per unit charge spectra are shown which indicate the changes in the solar wind ion distribution function associated with the arrival of each of the interplanetary shocks. Four fast shocks are identified at Pioneer 9, and it is found that previously the time of arrival of the first interplanetary shock at Pioneer 9 was not correctly identified. Two fast shocks and one reverse shock are identified at Pioneer 10.

  15. Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    DePeters, Edward J; Puschner, Birgit; Taylor, Scott J; Rodzen, Jeff A

    2013-06-10

    The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the wild. Samples (10) of sturgeon eggs were collected from a commercial aquaculture facility in the Sacramento Valley. Eggs from wild sturgeon (9) were obtained primarily from confiscations of illegally caught sturgeon by fish and game law enforcement personnel. The total lipid content of sturgeon eggs was analyzed for fatty acid composition. The most notable difference was the higher concentration (P<0.001) of C18:2n6 in farm raised eggs (6.5 mg/100g total lipid) than wild eggs (0.6 mg/100g total lipid) while other differences between fatty acids were smaller. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3) was higher (P<0.02) in farm-raised (5.56 mg/100g) than wild (4.49 mg/100g). Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3), C18:1 cis 9&10, and C20:4n6 were not different for origin of the eggs. Concentration of selenium was markedly higher (P<0.001) in eggs from wild sturgeon (10.0 mg/kg dry weight) than farm-raised sturgeon (2.7 mg/kg dry weight). Concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, and potassium did not differ between farm-raised and wild eggs. Arsenic concentration in wild eggs was 3.3mg/kg dry weight whereas arsenic was not detected in the farm-raised eggs. Fatty acid and mineral compositions of eggs differed significantly between farm-raised and wild sturgeon and these should be investigated further as biological markers for forensic

  16. Iridovirus infections among Missouri River sturgeon: initial characterization, transmission, and evidence for establishment of a carrier state.

    PubMed

    Kurobe, T; MacConnell, E; Hudson, C; McDowell, T S; Mardones, F O; Hedrick, R P

    2011-03-01

    Iridovirus infections of the integument were associated with disease and mortality among hatchery-reared populations of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the Missouri River. Virus-infected cells in the integument of fins and body were greatly enlarged, possessed pleomorphic and eccentric nuclei, and exhibited an amphophilic to eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm in hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. Virus particles found in the host cell cytoplasm were composed of an outer hexagonal capsid measuring 254 nm in diameter and surrounding a dense nucleoid. Despite numerous attempts, the virus could not be propagated on routine cell lines used in fish viral diagnostics or from established cell lines from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, pallid sturgeon, or shovelnose sturgeon. Bath exposures of healthy juvenile pallid sturgeon to a crude extract or a 0.45-microm-filtered extract from the fins of infected fish resulted in transmission of the virus and mortality. At water temperatures of 15 degrees C, the first deaths occurred at approximately 1 month; mortality peaked between 50 and 60 d postexposure, after which surviving fish recovered. Presence of the virus was confirmed among dead and moribund pallid sturgeon by both histology and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction methods. Feeding of infected tissues and cohabitation with virus-infected shovelnose sturgeon also resulted in successful virus transmission to juvenile pallid sturgeon. Virus infections among experimentally exposed pallid sturgeon that recovered from clinical episodes persisted for at least 8.5 months, and these apparently healthy fish transmitted the virus and disease to juvenile pallid sturgeon by cohabitation. The newly described Missouri River sturgeon iridovirus (MRSIV) as found in pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon shares many properties with a group of iridoviruses associated with serious skin and gill

  17. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  18. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  19. Polycystic lesions in the liver of the white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Smith, Charlie E; Blair, Marilyn J

    2009-03-01

    Polycystic lesions have been reported from the kidney and liver of many different fish species and are attributed to pollution and genetic anomalies. In June 2002, eggs and milt were collected from two female and five male white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Fertilized eggs were hatched at the Abernathy Fish Technology Center in Longview, Washington, and 20,000 juveniles were raised for approximately 1 year before release into the wild. Just before release, 12,000 juveniles were scute-marked, during which it was noticed that about 30 fish had distended abdomens. Gross necropsy revealed a large, jellylike mass in the peritoneal cavity. Histopathological examination of four fish showed that this growth was a polycystic lesion of liver tissue. This is the first report of this type of lesion in white sturgeon and is presumed to be the product of a genetic anomaly.

  20. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  2. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  3. Behavior of White Sturgeon near hydroprojects and fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Wright, C.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Kofoot, E.E.; Perry, C.A.; Moser, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    During March 2004 through November 2005, white sturgeon movements were monitored at The Dalles Dam to characterize their distribution and movements in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of passage. A combination of radio and acoustic telemetry technologies were used to detect tagged fish within fishways and at strategic locations along the dam, the shorelines, and in the forebay. White sturgeon > 95 cm total length (TL) that were captured on baited setlines fished in the forebay and in the tailrace cul-de-sac received a surgically implanted transmitter that emitted radio and acoustic signals. During the course of this study, a total of 148 fish were tagged; 58 were captured and released in the forebay and 90 in the tailrace.

  4. Reconnaissance of the Sturgeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resources for recreation and other demands, analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Sturgeon River north of Gaylord, one of the best brown trout streams in Michigan, is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan with headwaters just north of Gaylord. The Sturgeon flows northward, generally paralleling Interstate Highway 75. The West Branch of the Sturgeon, which joins the main stem at Wolverine, was not included in this study. Exits from Interstate 75 at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River provide easy access to the Sturgeon. The recreational value of a river depends on the hydrologic characteristics of the river-the streamflow, water quality, and character of bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics and to show how they relate to recreational uses. Much of the information presented here was derived from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. Additional information was obtained in a reconnaissance survey in May and June, 1966. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem from source to mouth. The study was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey, Gerald E. Eddy, Chief. Advice and assistance were also obtained from other sections of the Michigan Conservation Department. Sheet 1 of this atlas presents information on streamflow characteristics and water quality. Sheet 2 describes the physical characteristics of the

  5. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology.

  6. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  7. A century of influence: Part 1. Orthodontic pioneers.

    PubMed

    Burke, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The story of orthodontics during the first 100 years of Journal publication can be told through the people who lived it. As part of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics' Centennial Celebration, we present 100 people who most influenced the specialty during the last 100 years. Part 1 describes the orthodontic pioneers who were born in the 1800 s. They were broadly educated in the sciences, and most studied orthodontics with Angle, Dewey, or Lischer. They were innovators and inventors, and they laid the foundation of the specialty during the early years of the 20th century.

  8. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Bergthold, Casey L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The general Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project strategy is to integrate field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, habitat requirements, and physiology to produce a predictive understanding of sturgeon population dynamics. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery-Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary research tasks engaging multiple disciplines that primarily address spawning as a probable limiting factor in reproduction and survival of the pallid sturgeon. The research is multifaceted and is designed to provide information needed for management decisions impacting habitat restoration, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research activities and progress towards understanding of the species are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2009.

  9. Gulf sturgeon spawning migration and habitat in the Choctawhatchee River system, Alabama-Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, D.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Parauka, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Information about spawning migration and spawning habitat is essential to maintain and ultimately restore populations of endangered and threatened species of anadromous fish. We used ultrasonic and radiotelemetry to monitor the movements of 35 adult Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (a subspecies of the Atlantic sturgeon A. oxyrinchus) as they moved between Choctawhatchee Bay and the Choctawhatchee River system during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Histological analysis of gonadal biopsies was used to determine the sex and reproductive status of individuals. Telemetry results and egg sampling were used to identify Gulf sturgeon spawning sites and to examine the roles that sex and reproductive status play in migratory behavior. Fertilized Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected in six locations in both the upper Choctawhatchee and Pea rivers. Hard bottom substrate, steep banks, and relatively high flows characterized collection sites. Ripe Gulf sturgeon occupied these spawning areas from late March through early May, which included the interval when Gulf sturgeon eggs were collected. For both sexes, ripe fish entered the Choctawhatchee River significantly earlier and at a lower water temperature and migrated further upstream than did nonripe fish. Males entered the Choctawhatchee River at a lower water temperature than females. Results from histology and telemetry support the hypothesis that male Gulf sturgeon may spawn annually, whereas females require more than 1 year between spawning events. Upper river hard bottom areas appear important for the successful spawning of Gulf sturgeon, and care should be taken to protect against habitat loss or degradation of known spawning habitat.

  10. Sturgeons versus surgeons: leaping fish injuries at a level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason P; Burgess, George; Winfield, Robert D; Lottenberg, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    We have recently noted an increase in patients injured by an unusual mechanism and source: leaping sturgeon. We present our experience with eight cases of sturgeon related injuries. Between January 2006 and June 2007, there were eight patients evaluated at our Level I trauma center for sturgeon related injuries. Injuries included isolated fractures, liver lacerations, severe facial trauma, and a closed head injury. The overall length of stay was 6 days (range 0-20) and 50 per cent of patients required an intensive care unit stay. For comparative purposes, injuries were classified as primary sturgeon injuries (injuries where the sturgeon directly impacted the patient) and secondary sturgeon injuries (injuries related to the sturgeon but not resultant from direct impact). There were five primary injuries and three secondary injuries in our series. Patients with secondary injuries had a longer length of stay (12 days vs 3 days) and a higher intensive care unit utilization (100 % vs 20%) when compared with patients having primary injuries. This is the first report of sturgeon-related injuries in the medical literature. These peculiar insults seem to have increased in recent years. Public awareness and proper boat safety are vital in reducing the number and severity of these incidents.

  11. A conceptual life-history model for pallid and shovelnose sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Galat, David L.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Braaten, P. J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers has resulted in dramatic physical changes to these rivers. These changes have been implicated as causative agents in the decline of pallid sturgeon. The pallid sturgeon, federally listed as endangered, is endemic to the turbid waters of the Missouri River and the Lower Mississippi River. The sympatric shovelnose sturgeon historically was more common and widespread than the pallid sturgeon. Habitat alteration, river regulation, pollution, and over-harvest have resulted in the now predictable patterns of decline and localized extirpation of sturgeon across species and geographic areas. Symptomatic of this generalized pattern of decline is poor reproductive success, and low or no recruitment of wild juveniles to the adult population. The purpose of this report is to introduce a conceptual life-history model of the factors that affect reproduction, growth, and survival of shovelnose and pallid sturgeons. The conceptual model provided here was developed to organize the understanding about the complex life history of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. It was designed to be used for communication, planning, and to provide the structure for a population-forecasting model. These models are intended to be dynamic and responsive to new information and changes in river management, thereby providing scientists, stakeholders, and managers with ways to improve understanding of the effects of management actions on the ecological requirements of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons. As new scientific knowledge becomes available, it could be included in the model in many ways at various integration levels.

  12. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule...

  13. 33 CFR 207.470 - Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal, Wis.; use and navigation. 207.470 Section 207.470 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.470 Sturgeon Bay...

  14. Diel activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in a northwest Florida bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, B.M.; Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we assess patterns in activity of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi over a 24-h period in the Pensacola bay system, Florida. Although seasonal migration of sturgeon is well documented, little information is available pertaining to daily variation in activity. We surgically implanted 58 Gulf sturgeon with acoustic transmitters in the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October 2005. Gulf sturgeon location was monitored using an array of 56 fixed-station acoustic receivers. The relationship between frequency of Gulf sturgeon observations recorded on all acoustic receivers and time of day for all seasons combined indicated a strong diel activity pattern. Gulf sturgeon were frequently detected at night in all seasons with the exception of summer. Consecutive hourly observations indicated lateral movement of Gulf sturgeon between independent acoustic receivers on 15% of all observations of individuals. The use of an acoustic receiver array not only provides continuous data within a defined area, but also provides insight into nocturnal behavior of Gulf sturgeon not previously identified. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  15. 78 FR 47722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... successful development of sturgeon larvae and passage of the fish both upstream and downstream at dams on the... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the Fish...

  16. Expression Patterns of Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) During Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Ludwig, Arne; Gessner, Jörn; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During teleost ontogeny the larval and embryonic stages are key stages, since failure during this period of tissue differentiation may cause malformations, developmental delays, poor growth, and massive mortalities. Despite the rapid advances in sequencing technologies, the molecular backgrounds of the development of economically important but endangered fish species like the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The current study examines the differential expression of transcripts involved in embryonic development of the Atlantic sturgeon. Addressing this goal, a reference transcriptome comprising eight stages was generated using an Illumina HiSequation 2500 platform. The constructed de novo assembly counted to 441,092 unfiltered and 179,564 filtered transcripts. Subsequently, the expression profile of four developmental stages ranging from early (gastrula) to late stages of prelarval development [2 d posthatching (dph)] were investigated applying an Illumina MiSeq platform. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns among stages, especially between the two early and the two later stages. Transcripts upregulated at the two early stages were mainly enriched in transcripts linked to developmental processes, while transcripts expressed at the last two stages were mainly enriched in transcripts important to muscle contraction. Furthermore, important stage-specific expression has been detected for the hatching stage with transcripts enriched in molecule transport, and for the 2 dph stage with transcripts enriched in visual perception and lipid digestion. Our investigation represents a significant contribution to the understanding of Atlantic sturgeon embryonic development, and transcript characterization along with the differential expression results will significantly contribute to sturgeon research and aquaculture. PMID:27974440

  17. Characterization and inhibition of nitrite uptake in shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Efforts are underway to culture the endangered shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum for possible reintroduction. As part of a larger project to develop culture techniques for this species, the uptake of nitrite was evaluated in fingerlings (16.5 ?? 4.85 g; mean ?? SD). Plasma nitrite concentrations increased significantly with exposure time (0-5 d) and dose (0-4 mg nitrite-N/L). Shortnose sturgeon fingerlings were able to concentrate nitrite in their plasma to more than 63 times the environmental concentration. Chloride, as either sodium chloride or calcium chloride, partially inhibited nitrite uptake. However, calcium chloride was a better inhibitor. After previous exposure (2 d at 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L) plasma nitrite-N decreased from 165.5 to 36.7 mg/L during a 3-d simultaneous exposure to 2.13 ?? 0.080 mg nitrite-N/L and treatment with 40 mg chloride/L as calcium chloride. The addition of calcium chloride to the water appeared to be an effective means of preventing nitrite uptake and treating nitrite toxicity in hatchery-reared shortnose sturgeon fingerlings.

  18. Captive Breeding Programs Based on Family Groups in Polyploid Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids (“BreedingSturgeons”). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction. PMID:25356794

  19. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb; James, Mr Brad; McAdam, Dr Steve

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  20. Genetic variation and relationships of seven sturgeon species and ten interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Wenhua; Li, Linmiao; Ma, Xufa; Chen, Jinping

    2013-06-28

    Sturgeon cultivation is important for both industry and aquaculture in China. To date, more than 17 species or strains have been farmed for fillets and caviar production. Crossbreeding among different sturgeon species is frequent and the F2 hybrids are fertile. However, large-scale farming can have negative impacts on wild populations i.e. escape of exotic sturgeons and must be taken into consideration. Escape of exotic sturgeons can cause severe ecological problems, including threatening native sturgeon species once the exotic varieties become established or hybridize with native individuals. However, little is known about their genetic resources and variation. Genetic diversity and introgression of seven sturgeon species were analyzed using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nine microsatellite markers. This study included 189 individuals from seven sturgeon species and 277 individuals from ten lineages of F2 hybrid strains. MtDNA COI sequences (632 bp long) were generated from 91 individuals across the 17 sturgeon strains and produced 23 different haplotypes. Haplotype diversity was high (h = 0.915 ± 0.015) and nucleotide diversity was low (π = 0.03680 ± 0.00153) in the seven sturgeon species and ten interspecific hybrids. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in almost identical tree topologies, and different haplotype structures were mainly related with sturgeons of different female parents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 81.73% of the genetic variance was due to matrilineal differences, while 9.40% resulted from strain variation. Pairwise Fst values obtained with POLYSAT software, were high among strains and ranged from 0.031 to 0.164. Admixture analysis assigned seven distinct groups and ten genotypes of admixed clusters composed of hybrid strains using STRUCTURE when assuming K = 7. The interspecific mtDNA gene tree corresponded to the expected taxonomic divisions. These relationships were also supported by the results from

  1. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  2. Redox pioneer: professor Irwin Fridovich.

    PubMed

    Imlay, James A

    2011-02-01

    Dr. Irwin Fridovich (Ph.D., 1955) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because as first/last author he has published at least 1 paper on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 papers each cited over 100 times. In collaboration with his graduate student, Joe McCord, Dr. Fridovich discovered the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Subsequently, he and his colleagues demonstrated that the enzyme is ubiquitous among aerobic biota and comprises a critical defense against oxidative stress. With coworkers, Dr. Fridovich identified the first physiological targets of superoxide, the iron-sulfur clusters of dehydratases. They also showed that SOD is just one of several strategies by which cells fend off oxidative stress. It is now clear that organisms are chronically exposed to endogenous superoxide; further, microbes, plants, and mammals all employ superoxide as a weapon to poison their competitors. Thus, the achievement of Fridovich's laboratory was not only the seminal discovery of SOD but also the painstaking work over the subsequent decades that illuminated its place in biology.

  3. Redox pioneer: professor Roland Stocker.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas H

    2011-12-15

    Dr. Roland Stocker (Ph.D. 1985) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published one article on antioxidant/redox biology as first author that has been cited over 1000 times and has published another 32 articles, each cited over 100 times. Dr. Stocker received his undergraduate education at the Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland (1975-1981), followed by postgraduate training at the Australian National University Canberra, Australia (1982-1985) and postdoctoral training at the University of California, Berkeley (1986-1987), and the University of Berne, Switzerland (1987-1988). Dr. Stocker's top scientific contributions are in the following areas: (i) molecular action and interaction of nonproteinaceous antioxidants, particularly bilirubin, α-tocopherol, and ubiquinol-10; (ii) lipoprotein lipid oxidation and its inhibition, with a particular focus on how α-tocopherol affects these processes; (iii) the role of arterial lipoprotein lipid oxidation in atherosclerosis and related diseases; (iv) modes of antiatherosclerotic action of probucol and the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 in vascular protection; and (v) the regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and its contribution to vascular tone and blood pressure in inflammatory diseases.

  4. Redox pioneer: professor Barry Halliwell.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Shazib

    2011-05-01

    Professor Barry Halliwell is recognized as a Redox Pioneer because he has published eight articles on redox biology that have been each cited more than 1000 times, and 158 articles that have been each cited more than 100 times. His contributions go back as far as 1976, when he was involved in elucidation of the Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle, an efficient mechanism for preventing oxidative damage to chloroplasts. His subsequent work established the important role of iron and zinc in free radical reactions and their relevance to human pathologies. Professor Halliwell is also a leader in developing novel methodology for detecting free radical intermediates in vivo, and his contributions to our knowledge of reactive nitrogen species are highly significant. His sustained excellence won him the top-cited scientist award in the United Kingdom in biomedical sciences in 1999, and in 2003 he was recognized as a highly cited scientist by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) for work on plant antioxidants, and the same year ranked 28 out of 5494 biochemists/biologists for scientific impact. Two pieces of his scholarly work have been listed as Citation Classics by ISI, and in 2007 his laboratory was ranked number 1 worldwide based on highest citation score in research on free radicals.

  5. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  6. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  7. A Nuclear DNA Perspective on Delineating Evolutionarily Significant Lineages in Polyploids: The Case of the Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    PubMed Central

    King, Tim L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population. PMID:25166503

  8. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight): Atlantic and shortnosed sturgeons

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal species. The Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons (especially the former) were commercially important fishes between 1880 and 1900, but stocks have since decreased markedly and the shortnose sturgeon is now classified as federally endangered. Although the two species are anadromous, the shortnose sturgeon tends to spawn farther upstream, and spawning in both species usually occurs over a clean, hard substrate washed by a moderate to strong current. The shortnose sturgeon usually spawn earlier at the same latitude, with spawning of this species in the St. John River, New Brunswick, being completed by mid-May, as opposed to late June or even July for the Atlantic sturgeon. During non-spawning periods, the shortnose is largely confined to estuaries and apparently does not undergo the extensive coastal migrations that are characteristic of the Atlantic sturgeon. Atlantic sturgeon mature more slowly than shortnose sturgeon at comparable latitudes, with male and female Atlantic sturgeon from the Hudson River, New York, requiring at least 11 and 18 years, respectively, to reach maturity, compared with less than half that time for the shortnose sturgeon. Spawning in both sexes may occur thereafter only once every several years. Both species are usually indiscriminate feeders and feed by sucking materials off the bottom with their protrusible mouths. Feeding apparently occurs mostly at night in the shortnose sturgeon. 71 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    PubMed

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  10. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  11. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  12. Seasonal distribution of Gulf of Mexico sturgeon in the pensacola bay system, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Wrege, B.M.; Parauka, F.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi were assessed in the Pensacola bay system, Florida, using stationary ultrasonic telemetry. Fifty-eight Gulf sturgeon were tagged within the Escambia (n=26), Yellow (n=8), Blackwater (n=12) and Choctawhatchee Rivers (n=12) in June, July, September and October, 2005. Fifty-four Gulf sturgeon were detected at least once during the study. Migration of sturgeon occurred throughout the bay system in fall, to various winter habitats in the Gulf of Mexico and Santa Rosa Sound. In spring, tagged sturgeon migrated back through the bay system to summer habitats in rivers. Based on the duration and number of detections, Gulf sturgeon primarily used the upper portions of East and Escambia Bays as migration routes in and out of all rivers during spring and summer and inhabited the lower portion of Pensacola Bay for longer durations in fall and winter. Specific areas within the Pensacola bay system were used in summer and winter that were not previously documented as essential sturgeon habitat. Areas in southeastern Pensacola Bay were heavily used during winter by a large portion of the population. Gulf sturgeon also exhibited long-term winter residency in Santa Rosa Sound for two consecutive years. An area in northeastern Escambia Bay supported Gulf sturgeon during the summer, which was unexpected and can not be explained by the data from this study. However, the discovery that Gulf sturgeon remain in the bay during the summer has important ecological and management implications that need further investigation. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  13. Characterization and expression of cytochrome P4501A in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon experimentally exposed to coplanar PCB 126 and TCDD.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nirmal K; Walker, Nichole; Chambers, R Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2011-07-01

    The AHR pathway activates transcription of CYP1A and mediates most toxic responses from exposure to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Therefore, expression of CYP1A is predictive of most higher level toxic responses from these chemicals. To date, no study had developed an assay to quantify CYP1A expression in any sturgeon species. We addressed this deficiency by partially characterizing CYP1A in Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and then used derived sturgeon sequences to develop reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to quantify CYP1A mRNA expression in TCDD and PCB126 treated early life-stages of both species. Phylogenetic analysis of CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C and CYP3A deduced amino acid sequences from other fishes and sturgeons revealed that our putative Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon CYP1A sequences most closely clustered with previously derived CYP1A sequences. We then used semi-quantitative and real-time RT-PCR to measure CYP1A mRNA levels in newly hatched Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon larvae that were exposed to graded doses of waterborne PCB126 (0.01-1000 parts per billion (ppb)) and TCDD (0.001-10 ppb). We initially observed significant induction of CYP1A mRNA compared to vehicle control at the lowest doses of PCB126 and TCDD used, 0.01 ppb and 0.001 ppb, respectively. Significant induction was observed at all doses of both chemicals although lower expression was seen at the highest doses. We also compared CYP1A expression among tissues of i.p. injected shortnose sturgeon and found significant inducibility in heart, intestine, and liver, but not in blood, gill, or pectoral fin clips. For the first time, our results indicate that young life-stages of sturgeons are sensitive to AHR ligands at environmentally relevant concentrations, however, it is yet to be determined if induction of CYP1A can be used as a biomarker in environmental

  14. The Interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 3: Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The operational aspects of the Pioneer program are described. The phases of the program discussed include: prelaunch operations, launch to DSS acquisition, near-earth operations, nominal and extended cruise, and scientific results.

  15. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  16. Alice Childress: A Pioneering Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Interview with Alice Childress (born 1920), an actress, playwright, novelist, editor, and lecturer. Her "Gold through the Forest" (1952) was the first play by a Black woman to be produced professionally on the American stage. Her latest play, "Moms," was produced in New York City in 1987. (BJV)

  17. Alice Childress: A Pioneering Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Interview with Alice Childress (born 1920), an actress, playwright, novelist, editor, and lecturer. Her "Gold through the Forest" (1952) was the first play by a Black woman to be produced professionally on the American stage. Her latest play, "Moms," was produced in New York City in 1987. (BJV)

  18. Stream interfaces and energetic ions in corotating interaction regions: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    SciTech Connect

    Intriligator, D.S.; Siscoe, G.L. |; Wibberenz, G.; Kunow, H.; Gosling, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic solar wind ions (5-23 MeV) associated with the trailing reverse shock found to be consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers. The observations cover the middle latitude region 20-30 deg.of south heliosphere. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, Palmer

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  20. Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

  1. Pioneer Venus encounter will occur in December

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The encounter time line and mission profile are presented for the Pioneer Venus 1 Spacecraft and for the four probes and transponder bus that comprise Pioneer Venus 2. Known facts about Venus are reviewed and the history of discoveries about the planet is related. Operations of the orbiter and multiprobe are described as well as the 30 instruments being carried and provisions for data transmission.

  2. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  3. Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.

    1990-01-01

    Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

  4. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter entry phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    In October, 1992 the Pioneer Venus Orbiter entered the atmosphere of Venus, ending nearly 14 years of observations at Venus. Prior to the entry into the atmosphere and subsequent loss of the spacecraft careful management of spacecraft resources had allowed the acquisition of much low altitude data over the nightside of the planet. The long duration of the Pioneer Venus mission has enabled us to study the ionosphere and atmosphere of Venus under different levels of solar activity.

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer June, 1961 PIONEER MOTHERS WINDOW, NORTH FACADE. - Gethsemane Lutheran Church, Sixteenth Street & Congress Avenue, Austin, Travis County, TX

  6. Reference intervals for select hematologic and plasma biochemical analytes of wild Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St. Lawrence River in New York.

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Wyatt, Jeff; Priest, Heather; Dittman, Dawn; Klindt, Rodger; Gordon, David; Preston, Andrew; Smith, Thomas; Bowman, Colby

    2013-03-01

    Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) is a long-lived freshwater fish distributed throughout the Great Lakes region and is a threatened species in New York State. The species' unique life cycle makes it useful as an indicator of ecosystem health, and efforts to repatriate Lake Sturgeon to their historic range are underway. However, comprehensive hematologic and biochemical reference intervals that would be valuable for assessing the health status of individual animals have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine normal hematologic and plasma biochemical reference intervals for healthy wild Lake Sturgeon. Blood samples were collected from 52 wild Lake Sturgeon caught in gill nets in the St. Lawrence River. Heparinized whole blood and plasma samples were analyzed using standard techniques. Reference intervals were calculated using the robust method following elimination of outliers and Box-Cox transformation of data. Hematologic reference intervals were as follows: PCV 17-38%, estimated WBC count 2740-23,150/μL, neutrophils 193-6121/μL, eosinophils 0-558/μL, other granulocytes/heterophils 0-488/μL, lymphocytes 1447-14,044/μL, and monocytes 55-1684/μL. Plasma biochemical reference intervals were as follows: aspartate aminotransferase 333-1746 U/L, calcium 1.85-2.80 mmol/L, chloride 95-123 mmol/L, creatine kinase 776-35,536 U/L, glucose 2.94-14.76 mmol/L, glutamate dehydrogenase 6-30 U/L, phosphate 2.03-5.81 mmol/L, potassium 2.34-4.24 mmol/L, sodium 122.9-151.1 mmol/L, total protein 2.0-4.4 g/dL, triglycerides 1.07-5.12 mmol/L, and uric acid 1-251 μmol/L. Reference intervals reported here will be useful for health assessment of wild and repatriated Lake Sturgeon. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  8. Unscreened Water-Diversion Pipes Pose an Entrainment Risk to the Threatened Green Sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    PubMed Central

    Mussen, Timothy D.; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Reardon, Jon S.; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26–61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation. PMID:24454967

  9. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  10. Habitat use and selection by adult pallid sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrala, Jason R.; Kroboth, Patrick T.; Kuntz, Nathan M.; Schramm, Harold L.

    2014-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is an endangered riverine sturgeon with historical distribution restricted to the Yellowstone, Missouri, Mississippi, and Atchafalaya rivers. Although not abundant, Pallid Sturgeon in the lower Mississippi River appear to be naturally recruiting, and information about habitat use is important to conserve this species. Thirty-four adult Pallid Sturgeon (612-1,013-mm FL) were tagged with acoustic transmitters and relocated a total of 272times in a 40-km reach of the lower Mississippi River from April 2009 through December 2012. Pallid Sturgeon strongly selected island tip and natural bank habitats, and, to a lesser degree, revetted bank habitat. Although frequently used, Pallid Sturgeon exhibited negative selection for the expansive main channel habitat. Secondary channel habitat was seasonally available and excluded from habitat selection analysis, but this habitat was frequently used in the spring when available. Fifty percent of Pallid Sturgeon detections were in relatively narrow ranges of depths (6.2-13.6m) and surface current velocities (0.64-1.05m/s). Use of different habitats was related to river stage and water temperature, suggesting use of some habitats was seasonal. Results suggest that maintaining natural bank habitat and secondary channel-island complexes will benefit conservation of this endangered species in the lower Mississippi River. 

  11. Unscreened water-diversion pipes pose an entrainment risk to the threatened green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Timothy D; Cocherell, Dennis; Poletto, Jamilynn B; Reardon, Jon S; Hockett, Zachary; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M Levent; Cech, Joseph J; Fangue, Nann A

    2014-01-01

    Over 3,300 unscreened agricultural water diversion pipes line the levees and riverbanks of the Sacramento River (California) watershed, where the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, spawn. The number of sturgeon drawn into (entrained) and killed by these pipes is greatly unknown. We examined avoidance behaviors and entrainment susceptibility of juvenile green sturgeon (35±0.6 cm mean fork length) to entrainment in a large (>500-kl) outdoor flume with a 0.46-m-diameter water-diversion pipe. Fish entrainment was generally high (range: 26-61%), likely due to a lack of avoidance behavior prior to entering inescapable inflow conditions. We estimated that up to 52% of green sturgeon could be entrained after passing within 1.5 m of an active water-diversion pipe three times. These data suggest that green sturgeon are vulnerable to unscreened water-diversion pipes, and that additional research is needed to determine the potential impacts of entrainment mortality on declining sturgeon populations. Data under various hydraulic conditions also suggest that entrainment-related mortality could be decreased by extracting water at lower diversion rates over longer periods of time, balancing agricultural needs with green sturgeon conservation.

  12. Shovelnose sturgeon spawning in relation to varying discharge treatments in a Missouri River tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodman, B.J.; Guy, C.S.; Camp, S.L.; Gardner, W.M.; Kappenman, K.M.; Webb, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Many lotic fish species use natural patterns of variation in discharge and temperature as spawning cues, and these natural patterns are often altered by river regulation. The effects of spring discharge and water temperature variation on the spawning of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have not been well documented. From 2006 through 2009, we had the opportunity to study the effects of experimental discharge levels on shovelnose sturgeon spawning in the lower Marias River, a regulated tributary to the Missouri River in Montana. In 2006, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in the Marias River in conjunction with the ascending, peak (134 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and water temperatures from 16°C to 19°C. In 2008, shovelnose sturgeon spawned in conjunction with the peak (118 m3/s) and descending portions of the spring hydrograph and during a prolonged period of increased discharge (28–39 m3/s), coupled with water temperatures from 11°C to 23°C in the lower Marias River. No evidence of shovelnose sturgeon spawning was documented in the lower Marias River in 2007 or 2009 when discharge remained low (14 and 20 m3/s) despite water temperatures suitable and optimal (12°C-24°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development. A similar relationship between shovelnose sturgeon spawning and discharge was observed in the Teton River. These data suggest that discharge must reach a threshold level (28 m3/s) and should be coupled with water temperatures suitable (12°C-24°C) or optimal (16°C-20°C) for shovelnose sturgeon embryo development to provide a spawning cue for shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Marias River.

  13. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-09

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America.

  14. Women pioneers in basal ganglia surgery.

    PubMed

    Hariz, Gun-Marie; Rehncrona, Stig; Blomstedt, Patric; Limousin, Patricia; Hamberg, Katarina; Hariz, Marwan

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic functional neurosurgery on basal ganglia has a long history and the pioneers are mostly men. We aimed at finding out if there were women who have contributed pioneering work in this field. The literature was searched to identify women who have been first to publish innovative papers related to human basal ganglia surgery. Six women fulfilling our criteria were found: Marion Smith, a British neuropathologist, made unique observations on stereotactic lesions of basal ganglia and thalamus on autopsied brains, and the lesions' relation to the reported clinical outcome. Natalia Bechtereva, a Russian neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of therapeutic chronic deep brain stimulation to treat various brain disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Denise Albe-Fessard, a French neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of microelectrode recording (MER) in stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Gunvor Kullberg, a Swedish neurosurgeon, contributed in early CT imaging as well as early functional imaging of stereotactic lesions in PD and psychiatric patients. Hilda Molina, a Cuban neurosurgeon, established the Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica (CIREN) and pioneered there MER-guided transplant surgery in PD patients. Veerle Vandewalle, a Belgian neurosurgeon, pioneered in 1999 deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Tourette Syndrome. Although men constitute the great majority of neurosurgeons, neurologists and other neuro-specialists who have made groundbreaking contributions in basal ganglia surgery, there are women who have made equally important and unique contributions to the field. The principal two techniques used today in functional stereotactic neurosurgery, MER and DBS, have once upon a time been pioneered by women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  16. Age and growth of lake sturgeon in the upper St. Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; LaPan, S.R.; McKenna, J.E.; Klindt, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) over time in the upper St. Lawrence River was examined. Growth of lake sturgeon collected during 1993 and 1994 below Robert Moses Dam near Massena, New York, was compared to that reported for the same population almost 25 years earlier. The data suggest that lake sturgeon growth was similar to that reported in the previous study. However, significant differences in the elevations of regression models between males and fish of unknown sex in both data sets suggest possible sexual dimorphism in growth at younger ages.

  17. Pioneer Robot Testing Program and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.

    2001-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Ukraine established a joint program in 1997 to address the need for remotely operated systems for unstructured environments in Ukraine such as the highly hazardous conditions inside the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4, or Shelter Object. The environment inside Shelter Object is extremely hazardous due to ionizing radiation fields, high airborne contamination, and major industrial safety issues. Although Ukrainian workers have explored and mapped much of the internals of Unit 4 in the time since the accident during the morning hours of April 26, 1986, there remain areas where humans have not entered to this date. Based on the agreement between USDOE and Ukraine, the USDOE, in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), developed the Pioneer Robot and has provided it to the ChNPP within the framework of international technical assistance. Pioneer is capable of mobile platform movement and manipulation under teleoperated control, 3-dimensional mapping, and environmental data collection. The Pioneer is radiation hardened for conditions like those of Shelter Object. Pioneer has been evaluated on site in Ukraine for use in both the Shelter Object environment and the more general conditions of ChNPP decommissioning. This paper summarizes the results of these testing activities and describes the status and near-term activities in support of the Pioneer Robot integration into Ukraine.

  18. Ontogenetic behavior, migration, and social behavior of pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, and shovelnose sturgeon, S. platorynchus, with notes on the adaptive significance of body color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Henyey, E.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    We conducted laboratory studies on the ontogenetic behavior of free embryos (first life interval after hatching) and larvae (first feeding interval) of pallid and shovelnose sturgeon. Migration styles of both species were similar for timing of migration (initiation by embryos on day 0 after hatching and cessation by larvae on days 12-13 at 236-243 cumulative temperature degree units), migration distance (about 13 km), life interval when most distance was moved (embryo), and diel behavior of embryos (diurnal). However, the species differed for two behaviors: movement characteristics of embryos (peak movement rate of pallid sturgeon was only one-half the peak rate of shovelnose sturgeon, but pallid sturgeon continued the lower rate for twice as long) and diel behavior of larvae (pallid sturgeon were diurnal and shovelnose sturgeon were nocturnal). Thus, the species used different methods to move the same distance. Migrating as poorly developed embryos suggests a migration style to avoid predation at the spawning site, but moving from spawning habitat to rearing habitat before first feeding could also be important. Migrants of both species preferred bright habitat (high illumination intensity and white substrate), a behavioral preference that may characterize the migrants of many species of sturgeon. Both species were remarkably similar for swimming height above the bottom by age, and day 7 and older migrants may swim far above the bottom and move far downstream. A migration of 12 or 13 days will probably not distribute larvae throughout the population's range, so an older life interval likely initiates a second longer downstream migration (2-step migration). By day 2, individuals of both species were a black-tail phenotype (light grey body with a black-tail that moved conspicuously during swimming). Aggregation behavior suggests that black-tail is a visual signal used for group cohesion.

  19. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source.

  20. Upstream migration of two pre-spawning shortnose sturgeon passed upstream of Pinopolis Dam, Cooper River, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finney, S.T.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Two shortnose sturgeon were artificially passed above the Pinopolis Lock and Dam into the Santee-Cooper Lakes in order to simulate the use of a fish-passage mechanism. Movement patterns and spawning behavior were studied to determine the potential success of future shortnose sturgeon migrations if and when a fish-migration bypass structure is installed. In addition to movement patterns, water temperature was monitored in areas that shortnose sturgeons utilized. Shortnose sturgeon migrated through a large static system to a known shortnose sturgeon spawning area more than 160 km upstream where water temperatures were consistent with known shortnose sturgeon spawning temperatures. No specific movement patterns in the reservoir system were recorded during downstream migrations.

  1. Perspectives on prescribing: pioneers' narratives and advice.

    PubMed

    Hales, Ann

    2002-01-01

    To recount "pearls of wisdom" concerning prescriptive privileges of the psychiatric nursing pioneers. A thematic analysis of documented "stories" from 32 psychiatric APNs concerning acquisition of and having prescriptive privileges. A thematic analysis of psychiatric APN stories revealed five major themes related to prescriptive authority: acquisition of knowledge, professional and patient relationships, legislative logistics, balance within the role, and management of anxiety and the sense of responsibility. Prescriptive authority offers broad opportunities for advanced practice psychiatric nurses. Educational programs include competencies and skills for prescribing, but another learning tool is the use of collective practical knowledge and wisdom offered by psychiatric nurses who are pioneers in the prescribing arena.

  2. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  3. Pioneer 10 and 11 interstellar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 spacecraft may soon be the first man-made object to leave our solar system and penetrate the heliospheric boundary into interstellar space. Scientific investigators on this mission eagerly anticipate the opportunity to measure the physical processes occurring in the terminal boundary region and in the unexplored space known as the interstellar medium by astronomers who have studied it remotely with telescopes for many years. This paper is a descriptive overview of the Pioneer 10 mission and the dominant physical processes that have been discovered since its 1972 launch into our heliosphere and those processes that we expect to see at the boundary and in the interstellar medium.

  4. Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books.

    PubMed

    Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Vincent, Maurice Borges; Silva, Marcos Martins da

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

  5. Comet Halley: The view from Pioneer Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The plans to scan Halley's Comet at close range using the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. The composition of comets, their paths through space, and the history of comet encounters are examined. An ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the spacecraft will determine the composition of the gaseous coma and will measure the total gas production during its passage. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter will observe the comet for five weeks before solar interference with communications occurs as Venus passes on the far side of the Sun from Earth. Diagrams of the solar system and the relationship of the comet to the planets and the Sun are provided.

  6. Jupiter after Pioneer - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonough, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    In December 1973, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of Jupiter. The spacecraft passed through the Jovian magnetosphere in two weeks and sent back more than 300 pictures of the big planet. Measurements were conducted of EM fields, energetic particles, and micrometeoroids. Radio occultations observed are discussed along with observations in the infrared and ultraviolet range, magnetic measurements, questions of trajectory analysis, and data obtained with the aid of a plasma analyzer. Pioneer 10 has confirmed as inescapable the fact that Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the sun.

  7. Noel T. Keen--pioneer leader in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Collmer, Alan; Gold, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Noel T. Keen (1940-2002) made pioneering contributions to molecular plant pathology during a period when the study of disease mechanisms was transformed by the new tools of molecular genetics. His primary contributions involved race-specific elicitors of plant defenses and bacterial pectic enzymes. In collaboration with Brian J. Staskawicz and Frances Jurnak, respectively, Noel cloned the first avirulence gene and determined that pectate lyase C possessed a novel structural motif, known as the parallel beta-helix. Noel received his B.S. and M.S. from Iowa State University in Ames and his Ph.D. from the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1968. He joined the faculty of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of California at Riverside the same year and remained there his entire career. He served as Chair of the department from 1983 to 1989 and in 1997 assumed the William and Sue Johnson Endowed Chair in Molecular Plant Pathology. He became a Fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1991, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1996, a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology in 1997, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1997. He was serving as President of the American Phytopathological Society (2001-2002) at the time of his death.

  8. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  9. Evaluation of shortnose sturgeon spawning in the Pinopolis Dam tailrace, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, M.S.; Isely, J.J.; Cooke, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty egg mats and up to five D-shaped plankton nets were deployed in the tailrace of Pinopolis Dam at river kilometer 77 on the Cooper River, South Carolina, to evaluate the spawning activity of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. Spawning times were estimated by back-calculation based on developmental phase. Eggs were collected on 17 of 21 d sampled continuously from March 4 through March 25, 2002, when water temperatures were 10-16??C. A total of 31 shortnose sturgeon eggs were collected from egg mats. An additional 338 shortnose sturgeon eggs and 1 newly hatched yolk sac larva were collected from plankton nets. A minimum of 20 spawning events occurred in the tailrace during the 2002 spawning season. No relationship between mean daily discharge and spawning date was observed. Shortnose sturgeon spawned more often during the night than at any other time of day independent of generation.

  10. Influence of externally attached transmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  11. Influence of externally attached trasmitters on the swimming performance of juvenile white sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Frost, C.N.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the critical swimming speed of juvenile white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus equipped with externally attached dummy ultrasonic transmitters and of untagged control fish in the laboratory. White sturgeons ranging from 31.9 to 37.0 cm fork length were subjected to one of three treatments: Control (handled but not tagged), tag attached below the dorsal fin, and tag attached with the anterior insertion point between the fourth and fifth dorsal scutes. Although transmitters were of recommended weight, we found that the swimming performance of tagged white sturgeons was significantly less than that of untagged control fish. Swimming performance of tagged fish was not differentially affected by tag location. Our results suggest that data from ultrasonic telemetry studies of externally tagged juvenile white sturgeons should be interpreted with caution due to the reduced swimming performance caused by external transmitters.

  12. Length Variation, Heteroplasmy and Sequence Divergence in the Mitochondrial DNA of Four Species of Sturgeon (Acipenser)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. R.; Beckenbach, K.; Beckenbach, A. T.; Smith, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The extent of mtDNA length variation and heteroplasmy as well as DNA sequences of the control region and two tRNA genes were determined for four North American sturgeon species: Acipenser transmontanus, A. medirostris, A. fulvescens and A. oxyrhnychus. Across the Continental Divide, a division in the occurrence of length variation and heteroplasmy was observed that was concordant with species biogeography as well as with phylogenies inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of whole mtDNA and pairwise comparisons of unique sequences of the control region. In all species, mtDNA length variation was due to repeated arrays of 78-82-bp sequences each containing a D-loop strand synthesis termination associated sequence (TAS). Individual repeats showed greater sequence conservation within individuals and species rather than between species, which is suggestive of concerted evolution. Differences in the frequencies of multiple copy genomes and heteroplasmy among the four species may be ascribed to differences in the rates of recurrent mutation. A mechanism that may offset the high rate of mutation for increased copy number is suggested on the basis that an increase in the number of functional TAS motifs might reduce the frequency of successfully initiated H-strand replications. PMID:8852850

  13. Length variation, heteroplasmy and sequence divergence in the mitochondrial DNA of four species of sturgeon (Acipenser).

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Beckenbach, K; Beckenbach, A T; Smith, M J

    1996-02-01

    The extent of mtDNA length variation and heteroplasmy as well as DNA sequences of the control region and two tRNA genes were determined for four North American sturgeon species: Acipenser transmontanus, A. medirostris, A. fulvescens and A. oxyrhnychus. Across the Continental Divide, a division in the occurrence of length variation and heteroplasmy was observed that was concordant with species biogeography as well as with phylogenies inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of whole mtDNA and pairwise comparisons of unique sequences of the control region. In all species, mtDNA length variation was due to repeated arrays of 78-82-bp sequences each containing a D-loop strand synthesis termination associated sequence (TAS). Individual repeats showed greater sequence conservation within individuals and species rather than between species, which is suggestive of concerted evolution. Differences in the frequencies of multiple copy genomes and heteroplasmy among the four species may be ascribed to differences in the rates of recurrent mutation. A mechanism that may offset the high rate of mutation for increased copy number is suggested on the basis that an increase in the number of functional TAS motifs might reduce the frequency of successfully initiated H-strand replications.

  14. A minimally invasive method for extraction of sturgeon oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Candrl, James S.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Fishery biologists, hatchery personnel, and caviar fishers routinely extract oocytes from sturgeon (Acipenseridae) to determine the stage of maturation by checking egg quality. Typically, oocytes are removed either by inserting a catheter into the oviduct or by making an incision in the body cavity. Both methods can be time-consuming and stressful to the fish. We describe a device to collect mature oocytes from sturgeons quickly and effectively with minimal stress on the fish. The device is made by creating a needle from stainless steel tubing and connecting it to a syringe with polyvinyl chloride tubing. The device is filled with saline solution or water, the needle is inserted into the abdominal wall, and eggs are extracted from the fish. Using this device, an oocyte sample can be collected in less than 30 s. Such sampling leaves a minute wound that heals quickly and does not require suturing. The extractor device can easily be used in the field or hatchery, reduces fish handling time, and minimizes stress.

  15. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  16. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Sturgeon Lake field, Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Mederos, S.M.; Moslow, T.F.

    1996-08-01

    This study examines the sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Lower Triassic Montney Formation in the Sturgeon Lake field located in west-central Alberta. The Montney Formation is grouped into two facies associations. Facies Association 1 is a siliciclastic upward-coarsening sequence deposited by storm, current and wave processes and is interpreted as a low energy progradational lower shoreface. Facies Association 2 is a carbonate shallowing upward sequence deposited in a wave dominated progradational shoreface. The contact between Facies Association 1 and 2 is marked by a major change in lithology and is erosive. Palynological analyses reveal two missing palynologic subzones between Facies Association 1 and Facies Association 2 suggesting a period of erosion and/or nondeposition. The boundary between the two facies association is defined as a sequence boundary which stratigraphically divides the Montney Formation into two sequences in the study area. The Lower Montney sequence is composed of eight retrogradational, aggradational and progradational parasequences and represent the Transgressive and the High-stand System Tract. The Upper Montney sequence is composed only of one parasequence and represents the Transgressive System Tract. The Sturgeon Lake Field has two types of reservoir with respect to lithology, porosity, permeability and geometry. The best reservoir facies is a brachiopod wackestone-packstone with permeabilities up to 8 Darcys. Siliciclastic reservoirs consist of very fine grained sandstones with permeabilities of 132 md when fractured.

  17. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  18. Movements of White Sturgeon in Lake Roosevelt : Final Report 1988-1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, Ann L.

    1992-06-01

    Historically, white sturgeon moved throughout the Columbia River system, ranging freely from the estuary to the headwaters, with the possible exception of limited passage at Cascades, Celilo and Kettle Falls during spring floods. Construction of Rock Island Dam in 1933, followed by Bonneville in 1938 and Grand Coulee in 1941, completely disrupted sturgeon migratory opportunity, and with the 17 successive Columbia and Snake river dams constructed over the next 32 years an entirely different river system was created for the species. Sturgeon caught between dams were essentially isolated populations with severely limited reproduction potential. Some reservoirs ran from dam to dam with no river habitat remaining, while other reaches had various lengths of free running river, but drastically reduced from historical situations. However, if reservoirs provide habitat for sturgeon use, and therefore compensate to some degree for river loss, the major limiting factors associated with population viability may be reduced spawning success, either from lack of suitable area or poor incubation environments. The most upstream impoundment of the Columbia River in the United States is Lake Roosevelt, behind Grand Coulee Dam. If sturgeon don`t use Lake Roosevelt the capacity of the system to sustain a large sturgeon population would be understandably limited, and much reduced from the pre-dam era. In general this study found that sturgeon spawner aggregations from early spring to mid- summer depend most heavily on the timing of increasing water temperature. In the spring the water temperatures seem to stimulate the fish to start feeding and leave deep pools. The summer provides access to broader and shallower areas for food. The study on sturgeon movement was an attempt to define habitat use in such a reservoir/river system.

  19. Malformations of the endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and its causal agent

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wei, Qiwei; Zhen, Huajun; Zhao, Yanbin; Peng, Hui; Wan, Yi; Giesy, John P.; Li, Luoxin; Zhang, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The anadromous Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered and listed among the first class of protected animals in China. The possible causes for the decline of this species are the effects of synthetic chemicals, and loss of critical habitat. Chinese sturgeon in the Yangtze River have accumulated triphenyltin (TPT) to 31–128 ng/g wet weigh (ww) in liver, which is greater than the concentrations of tributyltin (<1.0 ng/g ww). Maternal transfer of TPT has resulted in concentrations of 25.5 ± 13.0 ng/g ww in eggs of wild Chinese sturgeon, which poses a significant risk to the larvae naturally fertilized or hatched in the Yangtze River. The incidence of deformities in fry was 7.5%, with 1.2% of individuals exhibiting ocular abnormal development, and 6.3% exhibited skeletal/morphological deformations. The incidences of both ocular and skeletal/morphological deformations were directly proportional to the TPT concentration in the eggs of both the Chinese sturgeon and the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) in controlled laboratory studies. The rates of deformities in the controlled studies were consistent with the rates caused at the similar concentrations in eggs collected from the field. Thus, TPT is the causal agent to induce the malformation of larvae of Chinese sturgeon. The incidence of deformed larvae of Chinese sturgeon is an indicator of overall population-level effects of TPT on Chinese sturgeon, because TPT at environmentally relevant concentrations can result in significantly decrease both quality and quantity of eggs and spawning frequency of fish. PMID:19470453

  20. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16-140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment. ?? 2007 Blackwell Verlag.

  1. Diet composition of larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.; McClenning, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining food following the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the first year of life is a critical event that strongly influences growth and survival of young-of-year fishes. For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, limited information is available on food habits during the first year of life. The objective of this study was to quantify diet components of shovelnose sturgeon during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding and during the young-of-year life stage in the North Dakota and Montana portions of the Missouri River. Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon were sampled between early August and early September 2003. Shovelnose sturgeon initiated exogenous feeding by 16 mm, and individuals 16–140 mm fed exclusively on two macroinvertebrate orders (Diptera and Ephemeroptera). Young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon exhibited an apparently high feeding success as 99 of 100 individuals contained food in the gut. The number of organisms in the gut increased exponentially with fish length for larval Diptera (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.0001) and linearly (r2 = 0.12, P = 0.0006) for larval Ephemeroptera, but the number of Diptera pupae in the gut was not significantly related (P = 0.55) to length of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon. The length of ingested prey was linearly related to fish length for Diptera larvae (r2 = 0.20, P = 0.002), whereas the relationship between lengths of ingested Ephemeroptera larvae and lengths of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon was best described by a power function (r2 = 0.50, P < 0.0001). These results provide the first quantification of feeding dynamics for young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in a natural river environment.

  2. Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estimated from Modeled Oceanographic Features and Migration Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huff, David D.; Lindley, Steven T.; Wells, Brian K.; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41–51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36–37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information. PMID:23029274

  3. Documentation of a Gulf sturgeon spawning site on the Yellow River, Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreiser, Brian R.; Berg, J.; Randall, M.; Parauka, F.; Floyd, S.; Young, B.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Parauka and Giorgianni (2002) reported that potential Gulf sturgeon spawning habitat is present in the Yellow River; however, efforts to document spawning by the collection of eggs or larvae have been unsuccessful in the past. Herein, we report on the first successful collection of eggs from a potential spawning site on the Yellow River and the verification of their identity as Gulf sturgeon by using molecular methods.

  4. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  5. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  6. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    PubMed

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  7. Effects of dietary methylmercury on growth performance and tissue burden in juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (A. transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Seunghyung; Bai, Sungchul C; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2011-10-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg, 0 (control), 25, 50, and 100mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the effects on growth performance and mercury (Hg) tissue burden in the two sturgeon species. Mortality, growth performance as measured by percent body weight increase per day, hepatosomatic index, proximate composition of whole body, and Hg burden in the whole body, gill, heart, liver, kidney, and white muscle were determined to assess the adverse growth effects and bioaccumulation of dietary MeHg in sturgeon. Significantly higher mortality and lower growth rate (p<0.05) were noted in green and white sturgeon fed the MeHg diets compared to the controls. Green sturgeon fed the MeHg diets exhibited earlier and more severe adverse effects compared to white sturgeon. Mercury accumulated in all tissues in a dose-dependent manner regardless of species, and the highest Hg concentrations were found in the kidneys of both species. Dietary MeHg had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the whole body proximate compositions of either sturgeon species. In conclusion, green sturgeon was more susceptible to dietary MeHg toxicity than white sturgeon in our 8-week growth experiment based on the higher mortality and lower growth rate and body energy contents.

  8. Seasonal movement and mesohabitat usage of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Chan, Matthew D.; Bridges, W.C.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term restoration efforts for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens populations will benefit from better understanding of this species' movements and habitat use in riverine systems. Radio transmitters were implanted in both juvenile and adult lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, and individuals were relocated over a 2-year period. Adult lake sturgeon demonstrated greater minimum daily distance moved, absolute distance moved, and mean home range size than juvenile lake sturgeon during the spring. During the course of the study, both adult and juvenile lake sturgeon exhibited movements upstream and downstream through a breached low-head weir, and individuals did not necessarily remain resident on an annual basis in the Grasse River. Mesohabitat and substrate use patterns were determined based on comparisons of frequency distributions for relocated lake sturgeon and quantified mesohabitat and substrate over a 15-km river reach. Lake sturgeon used pool mesohabitat and limited their use of run mesohabitat under both low- and mid-flow conditions. During most of the year, adult and juvenile lake sturgeon were detected over silt substrate. This study illustrates behavioral differences and similarities between the movements and habitat use of adult and juvenile lake sturgeon in a riverine system.

  9. Pericardial and pericardioperitoneal canal relationships to cardiac function in the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Gregory, Joshua A; Graham, Jeffrey B; Cech, Joseph J; Dalton, Nancy; Michaels, Jim; Chin Lai, N

    2004-06-01

    Sturgeons are primitive bony fishes and their hearts have structural features found in other primitive fishes. Sturgeons have a pericardioperitoneal canal (PPC), a one-way conduit into the peritoneum. A PPC also occurs in elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and studies with that group demonstrate that pericardial pressure and pericardial fluid loss via the PPC affect stroke volume. A study of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) heart function was conducted to test for a comparable PPC and pericardial effects. White sturgeon-elasmobranch heart-function similarities include biphasic ventricular filling, a comparable operational pericardial pressure (-0.03 kPa), and a strongly negative pressure (-0.2 to -0.6 kPa) with complete pericardial fluid withdrawal. Differences include the white sturgeon's relatively smaller atrium and ventricle but a larger conus arteriosus. Although white sturgeon heart size is also smaller, its pericardial volume is disproportionately less (2.4 to 2.7 vs. 3.5 to 5.4 ml kg(-1) in elasmobranchs), meaning it has less scope for increasing stroke volume upon PPC fluid release. These differences may reflect the phylogenetic progression from the less complex operation of the elasmobranch heart, which lacks sympathetic innervation and has a mechanically mediated (PPC) stroke volume, to the condition in the more derived bony fishes which have sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of both stroke volume and heart rate.

  10. Estimating sturgeon abundance in the Carolinas using side-scan sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one of the most threatened taxa worldwide, including species in North Carolina and South Carolina. Populations of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in the Carolinas have been significantly reduced from historical levels by a combination of intense fishing and habitat loss. There is a need for estimates of current abundance, to describe status, and for estimates of historical abundance in order to provide realistic recovery goals. In this study we used N-mixture and distance models with data acquired from side-scan sonar surveys to estimate abundance of sturgeon in six major sturgeon rivers in North Carolina and South Carolina. Estimated abundances of sturgeon greater than 1 m TL in the Carolina distinct population segment (DPS) were 2,031 using the count model and 1,912 via the distance model. The Pee Dee River had the highest overall abundance of any river at 1,944 (count model) or 1,823 (distance model). These estimates do not account for sturgeon less than 1 m TL or occurring in riverine reaches not surveyed or in marine waters. Comparing the two models, the N-mixture model produced similar estimates using less data than the distance model with only a slight reduction of estimated precision.

  11. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  12. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-03-16

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  13. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  14. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  15. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  17. Capture locations and growth rates of Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, S.A.; Eyler, S.M.; Mangold, M.F.; Spells, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Little information exists on temporal and spatial distributions of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus in the Chesapeake Bay. Approximately 3,300 hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon comprised of two size groups were released into the Nanticoke River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, on 8 July 1996. During January 1996-May 2000, 1099 Atlantic sturgeon were captured incidentally (i.e., bycatch) by commercial watermen in the Chesapeake Bay, including 420 hatchery-reared individuals. Wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon were captured primarily in pound nets and gill nets. Biologists tagged each fish and recorded weight, length, and location of capture. Although two adults greater than 2000 mm fork length (FL) were captured in Maryland waters, wild sturgeon were primarily juveniles from Maryland and Virginia waters (415 and 259 individuals below 1000 mm FL, respectively). A growth rate of 0.565 mm/d (N = 15, SE = 0.081) was estimated for wild individuals (487-944 mm TL at release) at liberty from 30 to 622 d. The average growth of the group of hatchery-reared Atlantic sturgeon raised at 10??C exceeded that of the group raised at 17??C. Our distributional data based on capture locations are biased by fishery dependence and gear selectivity. These data are informative to managers, however, because commercial effort is widely distributed in the Chesapeake Bay, and little distributional data were available before this study.

  18. Reconsidering residency: Characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acispenser brevirostrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dionne, Phillip E.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Kinnison, Michael T.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Wippelhauser, Gail S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve endangered species usually involve attempts to define and manage threats at the appropriate scale of population processes. In some species that scale is localized; in others, dispersal and migration link demic units within larger metapopulations. Current conservation strategies for endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) assume the species is river resident, with little to no movement between rivers. However we have found that shortnose sturgeon travel more than 130 km through coastal waters between the largest rivers in Maine. Indeed, acoustic telemetry shows that shortnose sturgeon enter six out of the seven acoustically monitored rivers we have monitored, with over 70% of tagged individuals undertaking coastal migrations between river systems. Four migration patterns were identified for shortnose sturgeon inhabiting the Penobscot River, Maine: river resident (28%), spring coastal emigrant (24%), fall coastal emigrant (33%), and summer coastal emigrant (15%). No shortnose sturgeon classified as maturing female exhibited a resident pattern, indicating differential migration. Traditional river-specific assessment and management of shortnose sturgeon could be better characterized using a broader metapopulation scale, at least in the Gulf of Maine, that accounts for diverse migratory strategies and the importance of migratory corridors as critical habitat.

  19. Use of behavioral and physiological indicators to evaluate Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawning success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Annis, M.L.; Bryan, J.L.; Griffith, S.A.; Holan, S.H.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were captured in the Lower Missouri River in March 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of physiology, telemetry and remote sensor technology coupled with change point analysis in identifying when and where Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawn. Captured sturgeons were instrumented with ultrasonic transmitters and with archival data storage tags (DST) that recorded temperature and pressure. Female sturgeon were tracked through the suspected spawning period. Thereafter, attempts were made to recapture fish to evaluate spawning success. At the time of transmitter implantation, blood and an ovarian biopsy were taken. Reproductive hormones and cortisol were measured in blood. Polarization indices and germinal vesicle breakdown were assessed on the biopsied oocytes to determine readiness to spawn. Behavioral data collected using telemetry and DST sensors were used to determine the direction and magnitude of possible spawning-related movements and to identify the timing of potential spawning events. Upon recapture observations of the ovaries and blood chemistry provided measures of spawning success and comparative indicators to explain differences in observed behavior. Behavioral and physiological indicators of spawning interpreted along with environmental measures may assist in the determination of variables that may cue sturgeon reproduction and the conditions under which sturgeon successfully spawn.

  20. Age, growth, mortality, and abundance of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trested, D.G.; Isely, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An increased understanding of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) population dynamics is a key requirement for successful management efforts. Little is known regarding the Grasse River population of lake sturgeon except that it is one of a few populations in New York State where spawning has been documented. Thus our purpose was to assess the current status of lake sturgeon in the Grasse River system, including age, growth, mortality, and abundance. Age was determined for 196 of 211 lake sturgeon by examination of sectioned pectoral fin rays. Ages ranged from 0 to 32 years and the annual mortality rate for fish between ages 7 and 14 was 16.8%. The weight (W, g) to total length (TL, mm) relationship was W = 1.281 x 10-6TL3.202. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was TL = 1913(1-e-0.0294(t+9.5691)). While the range of observed ages was similar to that of nearby St. Lawrence River populations, mean weight at age for an individual at 1000 mm TL was lower than that observed for lake sturgeon within Lake St. Francis of the St. Lawrence River. Predicted growth based on von Bertalanffy parameters was similar to that observed for the nearby Lake St. Francis. An open population estimator using the POPAN sub-module in the Program MARK produced an abundance estimate of 793 lake sturgeon (95% CI = 337-1249).

  1. Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade.

    PubMed

    Boscari, E; Barmintseva, A; Pujolar, J M; Doukakis, P; Mugue, N; Congiu, L

    2014-05-01

    Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America. Our test is based on the discovery of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ribosomal protein S7, supplemented with the Vimentin gene and the mitochondrial D-loop. Test validations performed in 702 specimens of target and nontarget sturgeon species demonstrated a 100% identification success for Acipenser naccarii, A. fulvescens, A. stellatus, A. sinensis and A. transmontanus. In addition to species identification, our approach allows the identification of Bester and AL hybrids, two of the most economically important hybrids in the world, with 80% and 100% success, respectively. Moreover, the approach has the potential to identify many other existing sturgeon hybrids. The development of a standardized sturgeon identification tool will directly benefit trade law enforcement, providing the tools to monitor and regulate the legal trade of caviar and protect sturgeon stocks from illicit producers and traders, hence contributing to safeguarding this group of heavily threatened species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Response of spawning lake sturgeons to change in hydroelectric facility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spawning of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens was documented from 1987 to 1992 below the Prickett hydroelectric facility on the Sturgeon River, a tributary to Portage Lake, Michigan. Lake sturgeons were captured at the spawning site with dip nets during periods of reduced flow. A change in the spawning characteristics of the population was noted that corresponded to a changed in the operation of the hydroelectric facility. In 1987 and 1988 the facility operated in a peaking mode, which resulted in large daily fluctuations in river flows. The years 1989 and 1990 were years of transition, and in 1991 and 1992 the facility released near run-of-the-river (ROR) flows. Under near-ROR flows, which were more natural, adult lake sturgeons spent 4-6 weeks less at the spawning sites, 74% more fish were observed, weights were greater due to a 68% increase in number of females, and fish had increased reproductive readiness. The change in flow regime was the result of a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing action. The positive response observed in lake sturgeon spawning activity that resulted from the change of facility operation to near-ROR flows should be beneficial to the survival and perpetuation of this population. Similar results may be experienced in other lake sturgeon waters affected by manipulated flow regimes. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    ScienceCinema

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2016-07-12

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  4. The Pioneer of the Group Encounter Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Thomas; Treadwell, Jean

    The purpose of this paper was to (1) identify the Pioneer of the Group Encounter Movement, and (2) expose and clarify some of the ambiguities, contradictions and backbiting evident in the Group Encounter Field. The origins of the group encounter movement are examined with a particularly strong emphasis on J. L. Moreno and his introduction of…

  5. Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Peter

    1983-01-01

    On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

  6. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper's "The Pioneers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mnassar, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper's "The Pioneers" and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the…

  7. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Judi

    2014-01-01

    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  8. [Nikolaj Pirogov: a pioneer of modern surgery].

    PubMed

    Ring, A

    2011-02-01

    Nikolay Pirogoff (1810–1881), Russian scientist, physician, anatomist, military surgeon and teacher belongs to the most exceptional men of the 19th century. His actions have essentially contributed to recognition of the surgical field and its further development. Pirogoff is considered to be one of the pioneers of modern surgery and due to him surgery became a clinical discipline with a scientific basis.

  9. Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

    2012-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

  10. Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Judi

    2014-01-01

    Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

  11. James H Nicoll: pioneer paediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Willetts, I E

    1997-07-01

    James H Nicoll is a little known figure in the history of surgery. Yet, this Glasgow surgeon was a pioneer, particularly in the care of the infant patient both in hospital and after discharge. A great teacher and innovator, he developed effective techniques for the surgical cure of pyloric stenosis of infancy and for the outpatient postoperative care of children with spina bifida.

  12. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  13. Pioneer transcription factors in cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2014-12-15

    A subset of eukaryotic transcription factors possesses the remarkable ability to reprogram one type of cell into another. The transcription factors that reprogram cell fate are invariably those that are crucial for the initial cell programming in embryonic development. To elicit cell programming or reprogramming, transcription factors must be able to engage genes that are developmentally silenced and inappropriate for expression in the original cell. Developmentally silenced genes are typically embedded in "closed" chromatin that is covered by nucleosomes and not hypersensitive to nuclease probes such as DNase I. Biochemical and genomic studies have shown that transcription factors with the highest reprogramming activity often have the special ability to engage their target sites on nucleosomal DNA, thus behaving as "pioneer factors" to initiate events in closed chromatin. Other reprogramming factors appear dependent on pioneer factors for engaging nucleosomes and closed chromatin. However, certain genomic domains in which nucleosomes are occluded by higher-order chromatin structures, such as in heterochromatin, are resistant to pioneer factor binding. Understanding the means by which pioneer factors can engage closed chromatin and how heterochromatin can prevent such binding promises to advance our ability to reprogram cell fates at will and is the topic of this review.

  14. Pioneer transcription factors in cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    A subset of eukaryotic transcription factors possesses the remarkable ability to reprogram one type of cell into another. The transcription factors that reprogram cell fate are invariably those that are crucial for the initial cell programming in embryonic development. To elicit cell programming or reprogramming, transcription factors must be able to engage genes that are developmentally silenced and inappropriate for expression in the original cell. Developmentally silenced genes are typically embedded in “closed” chromatin that is covered by nucleosomes and not hypersensitive to nuclease probes such as DNase I. Biochemical and genomic studies have shown that transcription factors with the highest reprogramming activity often have the special ability to engage their target sites on nucleosomal DNA, thus behaving as “pioneer factors” to initiate events in closed chromatin. Other reprogramming factors appear dependent on pioneer factors for engaging nucleosomes and closed chromatin. However, certain genomic domains in which nucleosomes are occluded by higher-order chromatin structures, such as in heterochromatin, are resistant to pioneer factor binding. Understanding the means by which pioneer factors can engage closed chromatin and how heterochromatin can prevent such binding promises to advance our ability to reprogram cell fates at will and is the topic of this review. PMID:25512556

  15. Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1993

    Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students";…

  16. Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Peter

    1983-01-01

    On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

  17. Effect of exposure of sturgeon roe to low-intensity laser radiation on the hardiness of juvenile sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavskiia, V. Yu.; Barulin, N. V.

    2008-03-01

    We present data on the effect of polarized laser radiation in the near IR region of the spectrum with wavelength 808 nm on the resistance of juvenile sturgeon to oxygen deficiency in the habitat when the fertilized roe are briefly exposed to radiation in the organogenesis stage. The magnitude of the stimulating effect depends on the exposure time (t) and power density (P) of the radiation and also on its modulation frequency (F). For optimal irradiation parameters (cw mode, P = 2.9 mW/cm2, t = 60 sec), the hardiness of the juveniles increases by a factor of ˜1.5 compared with the control group. The maximum differences in the sensitivity of embryos to cw and pulsed radiation are observed for F = 1 Hz; as the modulation frequency increases up to F = 50 Hz, the magnitude of the photobiological effect approaches a level typical for cw exposure. We show that the duration of the dark period (pause time) between pulses is the critical parameter determining the dependence of the stimulating effect on the modulation frequency. We discuss questions concerning use of the indicated physical factor in the technology for raising sturgeon under industrial fish farming conditions.

  18. Chile: pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, H. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.

  19. Pioneers in trauma care at Harborview Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Eileen; Hecker, Cynthia J; Butler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Harborview Medical Center in Seattle has been home to the pioneering work of University of Washington (UW) Medicine physicians and staff who have led innovations to improve trauma care for more than 40 years. As the only level I adult and pediatric trauma center and regional burn center for Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho, Harborview provides cares for more than 6500 critically injured trauma and burn patients per year. Our physicians, researchers and staff are recognized as national experts and as collaborative partners with nursing in the delivery of outstanding clinical care, research, and education. Beginning with the establishment of Seattle Medic One in the late 1960s, a groundbreaking program to train firefighters as paramedics, Harborview and the work of UW Medicine has been recognized locally and globally as a leader in every component of the ideal trauma system, as defined by the American College of Surgeons: prevention, access, acute hospital care, rehabilitation, education, and research activities.

  20. Discovering Ourselves by Unfolding Our Panorama: Interviewing Pioneers in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines significant events that have influenced the personal and professional development of pioneers in the counseling field who have been interviewed in the "Journal of Counseling and Development." Presents some of the pioneers' observations and reflections about counselor training. (ABL)

  1. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  2. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  3. Linking River Morphology to Larval Drift of an Endangered Sturgeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzetta, L.; Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, C. M.; Reuter, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Computational models developed to calculate longitudinal advection and dispersion of contaminants in rivers have potential application in predicting larval drift. A critical component of this family of models is the longitudinal dispersion coefficient which parameterizes the processes that retain and distribute a contaminant along the river. Here we evaluate the potential for longitudinal dispersion coefficients to characterize larval drift of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in various segments of the free-flowing Missouri River ranging from Missouri to Montana. We randomly selected transects of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow velocity data from reach-scale datasets that were collected in the Missouri River from 2002-2008 under comparable discharge conditions. We used previously developed equations (Kim and others, 2007) to calculate a one-dimensional longitudinal dispersion coefficient for each ADCP transect. We compared the statistical distributions of these coefficients for 2 to 6 reaches chosen from each of six geomorphic segments of the Missouri. Distributional patterns indicate that dispersion coefficients relate to observed variation in hydrology and geomorphology of the channel at the segment scale. Although one-dimensional dispersion analysis demonstrates potential as a tool for estimating pallid sturgeon larval drift and habitat suitability in unchannelized portions of the Missouri River, the large spatial variation in calculated dispersion coefficients resulting from river-training structures (wing dikes) in the Lower Missouri complicates selection of appropriate values. Recent data indicating that pallid sturgeon larvae occur in greater concentration in the thalweg indicate that the majority of larvae may bypass these structures and their associated retentive eddies. A two-dimensional space-averaged dispersion calculation and analysis may more accurately characterize the potential drift times and distances of larval

  4. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  5. Reintroduction of lake sturgeon in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Lindgren, John; Evrard, Lori M.

    1999-01-01

    Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens declined in abundance in Lake Superior's St. Louis River during the late 1800s and were eliminated from the river during the early 1900s because of the combined effects of exploitation, pollution, and habitat alteration. Since then, exploitation in the river and in Lake Superior has been reduced. Furthermore, water quality in the St. Louis River has improved, and its upper-estuary spawning habitat has remained relatively unchanged and adequate. Lake sturgeon have been stocked annually in the St. Louis River since 1983; from 1983 to 1994 stockings included 736,000 fry, 128,000 fingerlings, and 500 yearlings of the Lake Winnebago strain. Relative abundance, distribution, and growth were determined by sampling marked fish in the St. Louis River estuary and western Lake Superior with graded-mesh gill nets and bottom trawls. During 1983–1998, 644 lake sturgeon were caught in 15,486 m of gill net, and 196 were caught in 1,200 trawl tows. Lake sturgeon were sampled most frequently near channelized portions of the St. Louis River and stayed in the estuary up to 5 years before entering Lake Superior. Lake sturgeon were not captured in western Lake Superior prior to stocking, but abundance increased dramatically after 1985. Of 582 lake sturgeon sampled along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Superior from 1985 through 1998 (347,000 m of gill nets), 93% were captured in less than 30 m of water. A total of 93 lake sturgeon were reported from assessment netting conducted along the Minnesota shore of Lake Superior from 1992 through 1997. The current range of stocked lake sturgeon extends from the St. Louis River 145 km east to the apostle Islands in Wisconsin and 110 km northeast to Little Marais in Minnesota. Increases in lake sturgeon abundance were directly attributed to the stocking program. We recommend stocking a minimum of 20 year-classes and the use of a Lake Superior egg source, if possible. Final evaluation of the project will be

  6. Identification of plasma glucocorticoids in pallid sturgeon in response to stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, M.A.H.; Allert, J.A.; Kappenman, K.M.; Marcos, J.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Shackleton, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to teleosts, little is known about the stress response in chondrosteans, and the glucocorticoid(s) most responsive to stress have never been definitively determined in sturgeon. In terms of cortisol production, pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have a low physiological response to stress compared to other sturgeons (Acipenser sp.). Because of this, our null hypothesis was that cortisol is not the predominant glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in pallid sturgeon. Our objective was to identify the putative glucocorticoids present in the plasma of pallid sturgeon during the stress response. Pallid sturgeon were subjected to a severe confinement stress (12 h) with an additional handling stressor for the first 6 h. Control fish were not subjected to confinement but were handled only to collect blood. Blood plasma was collected at time 0, 6, and 12 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to screen the plasma for the spectrum of glucocorticoids and determine the putative steroid secreted during the stress response. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid detected in stressed pallid sturgeon. In addition, the cortisol metabolites cortisone, alloTHE (5??-pregnane-3??,17??,21-triol-11,20-dione), allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one), and allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one) were detected. Plasma cortisol increased from a resting concentration of 0.67 ng/ml to 10.66 ng/ml at 6 h followed by a decrease to 6.78 ng/ml by 12 h. Plasma glucose increased significantly by time 6 and 12 h in both stressed and unstressed groups and remained elevated at time 12 h, while resting lactate concentrations were low to non-detectable and did not increase significantly with the stressor over time. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid synthesized and secreted in response to a stressor in pallid sturgeon. Though the proportional increase in plasma cortisol in stressed pallid sturgeon was lower than

  7. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Balazik, Matthew T.; Farrae, Daniel J.; Darden, Tanya L.; Garman, Greg C.

    2017-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data suggest there are two discrete spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon. The two putative spawning groups were genetically evaluated using a powerful microsatellite marker suite to determine if they are genetically distinct. Specifically, this study evaluates the genetic structure, characterizes the genetic diversity, estimates effective population size, and measures inbreeding of Atlantic sturgeon in the James River. The results indicate that fall and spring spawning James River Atlantic sturgeon groups are genetically distinct (overall FST = 0.048, F’ST = 0.181) with little admixture between the groups. The observed levels of genetic diversity and effective population sizes along with the lack of detected inbreeding all indicated that the James River has two genetically healthy populations of Atlantic sturgeon. The study also demonstrates that samples from adult Atlantic sturgeon, with proper sample selection criteria, can be informative when creating reference population databases. The presence of two genetically-distinct spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon within the James River raises concerns about the current genetic assignment used by managers. Other nearby rivers may also have dual spawning groups that either are not accounted for or are pooled in reference databases. Our results represent the second documentation of genetically distinct dual

  8. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Balazik, Matthew T; Farrae, Daniel J; Darden, Tanya L; Garman, Greg C

    2017-01-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae) populations are currently at severely depleted levels due to historic overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution. The importance of biologically correct stock structure for effective conservation and management efforts is well known. Recent improvements in our understanding of Atlantic sturgeon migrations, movement, and the occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data suggest there are two discrete spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon. The two putative spawning groups were genetically evaluated using a powerful microsatellite marker suite to determine if they are genetically distinct. Specifically, this study evaluates the genetic structure, characterizes the genetic diversity, estimates effective population size, and measures inbreeding of Atlantic sturgeon in the James River. The results indicate that fall and spring spawning James River Atlantic sturgeon groups are genetically distinct (overall FST = 0.048, F'ST = 0.181) with little admixture between the groups. The observed levels of genetic diversity and effective population sizes along with the lack of detected inbreeding all indicated that the James River has two genetically healthy populations of Atlantic sturgeon. The study also demonstrates that samples from adult Atlantic sturgeon, with proper sample selection criteria, can be informative when creating reference population databases. The presence of two genetically-distinct spawning groups of Atlantic sturgeon within the James River raises concerns about the current genetic assignment used by managers. Other nearby rivers may also have dual spawning groups that either are not accounted for or are pooled in reference databases. Our results represent the second documentation of genetically distinct dual

  9. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  11. Bioaccumulation and chronic toxicity of dietary L-selenomethionine in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Diran H; Teh, Swee J; Sogomonyan, Arutyun; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-12

    An 8-week growth trial was conducted to determine the sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary selenium (Se). Juvenile white sturgeon were fed diets supplemented with Se in the form of L-selenomethionine (SeMet), resulting in dietary concentrations of 0.4, 9.6, 20.5, 41.7, 89.8, and 191.1 microg Se/g diet on a dry weight basis. Effects of dietary SeMet on survival, swimming activity, growth, whole-body proximate composition, tissue Se concentrations, and histopathology were determined. Sturgeon survival among treatment groups did not differ significantly with a mean survival rate of 99+/-0.43% across all groups. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in swimming activity and growth rate was observed in sturgeon fed at or above 41.7 microg Se/g diet. Dietary SeMet concentrations were negatively correlated with whole-body protein and lipid content, but positively correlated with ash and moisture content. Selenium accumulated in the kidney, muscle, liver, gill, and plasma tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney were observed in sturgeon fed above 20.5 microg Se/g diet. The threshold dietary Se toxicity concentration for white sturgeon was estimated to lie between 10 and 20 microg Se/g diet based on the histopathological alterations in the kidney. Research examining the consequences of elevated dietary Se concentrations on more sensitive life stages and the interactive effects of Se with other chemical or physical stressors are needed in order to determine if dietary threshold should be lowered to minimize the potential impacts of Se on white sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay-Delta.

  12. Russian sturgeon cultured in a subtropical climate shows weaken innate defences and a chronic stress response.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Mauricio; Silva-Álvarez, Valeria; Fernández-López, Elena; Mauris, Verónica; Conijeski, Daniel; Villarino, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M

    2017-09-01

    Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) has been successfully farmed in Uruguay for the past ten years. However, during the Uruguayan summer fish endure high water temperatures and increased bacterial infections that threaten aquaculture. Our understanding of sturgeon's immune system and its interplay with environmental factors like temperature is almost unknown. This study analysed the way in which seasonal variations affect enzymatic blood components of Russian sturgeon's innate defences, including the serum alternative complement pathway (ACP), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and lysozyme activities. Results showed that summertime conditions in the farm altered these defences in different ways, inducing a significant decrease in ACP and Cp, and an increase in lysozyme. In addition, serum levels of total protein and cortisol decreased in summer, suggesting a chronic stress response was induced in parallel. Subsequently, we analysed whether the increase in water river temperature during summer could account for the observed results. To that end, we acclimated juvenile sturgeons to mild (18 °C) or warm (24 °C) temperatures for 37 days. Like in summer, sturgeons exposed to 24 °C showed lower levels of serum ACP, Cp and total proteins, together with a progressive decrease in body weight and increased fish mortality. Administration of an immunostimulant containing Se and Zn slightly reverted the temperature-induced effects on sturgeon's defences. Altogether, our study provides novel data on various physiological parameters of the Russian sturgeon and highlights the impact warm temperature has on stress and innate immunity in this chondrostean fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental transcription of genes putatively associated with growth in two sturgeon species of different growth rate.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farahmand, Hamid; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ramezanpour, Sanaz; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Rytkönen, Kalle T; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, we surveyed developmental changes in the transcription of growth hormone (gh), insulin-like growth factor-I (igf-I), ghrelin (ghrl) and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) genes in the largest freshwater fish, European sturgeon (Beluga, Huso huso) and compared the same parameters to that of its phylogenically close moderate-sized species, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). The transcripts of gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf were detected at all developmental time-points of Persian sturgeon and Beluga from embryos to juvenile fish. Changes in normalized gh, igf-I, ghrl and vegf transcription by using the geometric average of genes encoding ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) and elongation factor (EF1A) over the time of development of Persian sturgeon and Beluga were statistically significant (P<0.05). Our results showed that the mRNA expression levels of both igf-I and ghrl were low during early larval development and then increased significantly to the late larval time-points when larvae started exogenous feeding. In both Beluga and Persian sturgeon, after a low mRNA expression during the embryonic stage, the transcript levels of vegf displayed an increasing trend during yolk-sac fry, consistent with organogenesis. The vegf level remained constantly high in the time of exogenous feeding. The highest detection of gh transcripts coincided with the end of the embryonic stage (hatching time) in Persian sturgeon and 3 days-post-hatching (dph) in Beluga. In Persian sturgeon, the gh transcript started to decrease to the rest of the developmental time-points, whereas in Beluga gh transcript had a marked second increase from the time of exogenous feeding (20-dph). This Beluga specific increase in gh transcription may be associated with the marked growth rate and extraordinary size of this fish species.

  14. Habitat and movement of lake sturgeon in the upper Mississippi River system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jonathon M.; Zigler, Steven J.; Dewey, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Lake sturgeon Acipenser fluvescens, which are now protected from harvest, are considered rare in the upper Mississippi River and little information is available on the remaining populations. Transmitters were implanted into 31 lake sturgeon from two sites in the upper Mississippi River to describe their habitats and movement. The areas surrounding the tagging sites were core areas for both groups of lake sturgeon based on the high use (about 50% of locations by group) and frequent return to these areas by many of the tagged fish. Core areas contained sites with unique hydraulic characteristics, such that depositional substrates were common yet flow was present; these areas probably provide important feeding habitat for lake sturgeon. Minimal geographical overlap in range occurred between groups, suggesting that river reaches and associated core areas were unique to groups or substocks of fish. Lake sturgeon exhibited complex movement behaviors and had ranges of 3-198 km (median, 56 km) during the study. Tagged fish moved both downstream and upstream through upper Mississippi River navigation dams. However, dams appeared to be intermittent barriers to upstream passage because upstream passage events (10 fish, 19 passages) were fewer than downstream events (13 fish, 35 passages). Extensive use of the Wisconsin River by one group of lake sturgeon tagged in the upper Mississippi River has implications regarding management of a threatened population that transcends regulatory boundaries. Our study indicates that lake sturgeon In the upper Mississippi River system share many movement and habitat use characteristics with populations in other systems. However, significant data gaps preclude development of cogent management strategies, including information on population numbers and dynamics, identification of spawning areas, relations between groups, and assessment of the effects of commercial navigation.

  15. Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, Benoît; Lepelletier, Léa; Giangrande, Angela

    2008-11-05

    The migration of glial chains along the nerve entails directional and coordinated movement. Despite its importance in the formation of the nervous system, this process remains poorly understood, because of the difficulty of manipulating identified cells. Using confocal time-lapse and cell ablation in the whole animal, we provide direct evidence for a discrete number of Drosophila peripheral glial cells acting as pioneers and guiding the rest of the migratory chain. These cells are in direct contact with several follower cells through a very long and stable cytoplasmic extension. The presence of pioneer cells and homotypic interactions at the tip of the chain allows coordinated movement and the formation of a continuous sheath around the nerve. These in vivo data open novel perspectives for understanding the cellular bases of vertebrate glial migration in physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. BOULDER-PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Boulder-Pioneer Wilderness study area in the Pioneer and Boulder Mountains of south-central Idaho, was made. The area has demonstrated resources of about 1. 7 million tons of lead-zinc-silver ore, mostly in the Phi Kappa mine, and an additional 2. 5 million tons of demonstrated resources in areas of substantiated potential for these metals and for tungsten, molybdenum, and fluorite. The survey indicates substantiated resource potential in eight areas and probable mineral-resource potential in seven. Mineral commodities of greatest intertest include tungsten, copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, molybdenum, vanadium, and barite. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources.

  17. [Dr. Atanasije Puljo: pioneer of Serbian dentistry].

    PubMed

    Jovananović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan; Zagradjanin, Danica; Milovanović, Nebojša; Puzović, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the life and work of Dr. Atanasije Puljo (1878-1944). He was a volunteer in the Balkan wars, an active participant in the First World War; he was the first who noted the importance of team-work of a dentist and a surgeon in the care of jaw and facial injuries. He established primacy in this field, as he came up with this brilliant idea three years before other colleagues. His method of treatment of the upper jaw neglected fractures, called the Balkan method, was recognized worldwide. Dr. Puljo is the pioneer of dental radiology in Serbia, founder of the Odontology Clinic of the Medical Faculty and main supporter of the establishment of the School of Dentistry. Merits of Dr. Atanasije Puljo, medical practitioner with a broad knowledge in different fields, remain within the academic institution that was founded by this pioneer of dentistry in Serbia.

  18. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    PubMed

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  19. "She Had Never Humbled Herself": Alexandra Bergson and Marie Shabata as the "Real" Pioneers of "O Pioneers!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werden, Douglas W.

    2002-01-01

    If we consider "O Pioneers!" in relation to the gender role redefinitions of Willa Cather's adult life, we discover a work that is not primarily about homesteading pioneers, but rather about two women who are pioneers in crossing socially constructed gender barriers.

  20. The Pioneer Anomaly: A Deep Space Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Bill

    2005-09-01

    As Pioneer 10 and 11 head toward the farthest reaches of our solar system, something strange is happening-they are mysteriously slowing down. Scientists do not yet know why the spacecraft aren't acting as expected; however, The Planetary Society has stepped in to help fund the effort to analyze roughly 25 years of data in hopes of solving the mystery. Society Vice President Bill Nye clearly explains this complicated problem in terms that everyone can understand.

  1. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  2. Jupiter's Ionosphere: Prospects for Pioneer 10.

    PubMed

    Atreya, S K; Donahue, T M; McElroy, M B

    1974-04-12

    Model Jovian ionospheres are constructed for comparison with Pioneer 10 results. Electron density maxima are predicted at a level approximately 220 kilometers above an assumed reference height where the hydrogen density is 10(16) molecules per cubic centimeter. It may be possible to use observations of the electron density to locate the turbopause. Attention is drawn to a possible strong source of ionized sodium from lo which might lead to large electron densities at low altitudes.

  3. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    PubMed

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  4. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  5. Pioneer 11 meteoroid detection experiment - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, D. H.; Alvarez, J. M.; Kinard, W. H.; Oneal, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of meteoroids of mass about 0.01 microgram in interplanetary space, in the asteroid belt, and near Jupiter has been measured. The data confirm the Pioneer 10 observation that the asteroid belt is not highly populated with small meteoroids, suggest that the high concentration of small particles around Jupiter is the result of gravitational focusing, and provide an indication of the mass distribution of meteoroids in interplanetary space.

  6. Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Additional research could be used to characterize and quantify the requirements, tolerance, and preferences of pallid sturgeon to these water-quality characteristics, especially during the egg and larval life stages. Enhancements to existing water-sampling programs are needed to quantify the exposure of pallid sturgeon to many of these water-quality stressors.

  7. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  8. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  9. NAWIG News: The Native American Wind Interest Group Newsletter, Spring 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  10. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  11. Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson).

    PubMed

    Drennan, J D; Lapatra, S E; Samson, C A; Ireland, S; Eversman, K F; Cain, K D

    2007-06-01

    Pectoral fin tissue of white sturgeon was investigated as a potential non-lethal sample source for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) infection. Histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results using fin tissue were compared with the standard lethal histopathology sampling method that utilizes head tissue. Tissues for each of the three sampling methods were collected weekly for 8 weeks from individual sturgeon undergoing an experimental cohabitation challenge with fish infected with the Abernathy isolate of WSIV. Non-lethal fin histopathological evaluation did not reveal infection during the first 3 weeks of sampling, while non-lethal PCR and the lethal method were variable. However, all three sampling methods were equally capable of identifying infection from 4 to 8 weeks post-exposure. Of the survivors tested, all were negative by PCR and the lethal method, and only one fish was identified as being positive by non-lethal fin histopathology. In another experiment, all three sampling methods were applied to asymptomatic WSIV carriers in a case study conducted at the Kootenai Tribal Sturgeon Conservation Hatchery. Results showed that both lethal and non-lethal fin histopathology were equally effective in detecting infection, but PCR was unable to identify this strain of WSIV. Depending on the virus isolate, these results suggest that non-lethal sampling of fin tissue (histopathology or PCR) is comparable with the lethal sampling method at identifying WSIV infection once infection is established, and under certain circumstances may provide an alternative to lethal sampling.

  12. Avoidance of Pile-Driving Noise by Hudson River Sturgeon During Construction of the New NY Bridge at Tappan Zee.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon movements were monitored during a pile-driving operation. Fewer sturgeon were detected during pile driving and remained for a shorter time than during silent control periods. Moreover, the short time spent by sturgeon near pile driving suggests that they were unlikely to have reached the criterion of 187 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative sound exposure level. These results suggest that sturgeon are likely to avoid impact pile driving and not remain long enough to experience physiological effects, thus providing empirical evidence that the 206 dB re 1 μPa peak sound pressure level is the appropriate criterion for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise on sturgeon.

  13. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    PubMed

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-12-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  14. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  15. EST dataset of pituitary and identification of somatolactin and novel genes in Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Leng, Xiaoqian; Li, Chuangju; Wei, Qiwei; Gui, Jianfang; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2012-04-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is a rare and endangered species and also an important resource for the sturgeon aquaculture industry, however, a few genes have been identified in this species. We report here construction of a pituitary cDNA library from a 24 years old female Chinese sturgeon just after its spawning, and obtained 2,025 ESTs from the library. 885 unique sequences were identified, which were categorized into 12 functional groups. More than half of the unique sequences (57%) do not match with annotated sequences in the public databases. Three of these novel genes were further identified. Notably, a full-length of cDNA (1,143 bp) encoding somatolactin of 232 amino acids was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed 97% amino acid identity with White sturgeon somatolactin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the somatolactin mRNA was only detected in pituitary. Pituitary-specific expression of the somatolactin suggested that the protein may play important physiological functions in pituitary-endocrine system of the Chinese sturgeon.

  16. The metabolic effects of prolonged starvation and refeeding in sturgeon and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Furné, Miriam; Morales, Amalia E; Trenzado, Cristina E; García-Gallego, Manuel; Carmen Hidalgo, M; Domezain, Alberto; Sanz Rus, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the particular metabolic strategies of the sturgeon Acipenser naccarii in facing a period of prolonged starvation (72 days) and subsequent refeeding (60 days) compared to the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss response under similar conditions. Plasma metabolites, endogenous reserves, and the activity of intermediate enzymes in liver and white muscle were evaluated. This study shows the mobilization of tissue reserves during a starvation period in both species with an associated enzymatic response. The sturgeon displayed an early increase in hepatic glycolysis during starvation. The trout preferentially used lactate for gluconeogenesis in liver and white muscle. The sturgeon had higher lipid-degradation capacity and greater synthesis of hepatic ketone bodies than the trout, although this latter species also showed strong synthesis of ketone bodies during starvation. During refeeding, the metabolic activity present before starvation was recovered in both fish, with a reestablishment of tissue reserves, plasmatic parameters (glucemia and cholesterol), and enzymatic activities in the liver and muscle. A compensatory effect in enzymes regarding lipids, ketone bodies, and oxidative metabolism was displayed in the liver of both species. There are metabolic differences between sturgeon and trout that support the contention that the sturgeon has common characteristics with elasmobranchs and teleosts.

  17. Age estimation for shovelnose sturgeon: A cautionary note based on annulus formation in pectoral fin rays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whiteman, K.W.; Travnichek, V.H.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.; Papoulias, D.; Tillett, D.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the age and growth of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, but only one study attempted to validate age estimation techniques. Therefore, our objective was to use marginal increment analysis to validate annulus formation in pectoral fin rays of shovelnose sturgeon collected from the Missouri River. We also compared the precision of age estimates between two different readers. Marginal increment distance indicated that for most of the populations an opaque band was laid down in pectoral fin rays during the summer. However, opaque bands were formed throughout the year in some individuals, which could be problematic when using fin rays for age estimation. The agreement of age estimates by two readers for shovelnose sturgeon was only 18%, and differences in ages between the two readers increased for older fish. The presence of split annuli, false annuli, spawning bands, imbedded rays, and deteriorating sections made individual growth rings difficult to separate. Our findings verified that opaque bands are formed annually during the summer in the pectoral fin rays of most shovelnose sturgeon, but some individuals form opaque bands during other times. Pectoral fin rays will probably continue to be the most practical method of age estimation in shovelnose sturgeon, but ages estimated by this method should be used with caution.

  18. Seasonal and diel movements of white sturgeon in the lower columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, M.J.; Popoff, N.D.; Van Der Leeuw, B. K.; Wright, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the movements and depths used by white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus with acoustic telemetry technologies in the lower Columbia River provided information on diel and seasonal migrations, local movements, and site fidelity. White sturgeon moved to shallower water at night and showed greater activity, inferred from rates of movement, than during daytime. The extent of local movement within a season was variable among fish; some fish readily moved among habitats while the movements of others were more constrained. White sturgeon were absent from the study area (river kilometers 45-52) during winter and returned from upstream during the spring, confirming an upstream seasonal migration in the fall and downstream migration in spring. The return of individual fish and reoccupation of areas previously inhabited showed that some white sturgeon exhibit site fidelity. This work shows that studies seeking to characterize habitat for white sturgeon need to be cognizant of diel migrations and site fidelity. We urge caution in the use of limited fish location data to describe habitats if diel activities and fine-scale movements are not known.

  19. Sturgeon osteocalcin shares structural features with matrix Gla protein: evolutionary relationship and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Williamson, Matthew K; Cavaco, Sofia; Laizé, Vincent; Price, Paul A; Cancela, M Leonor

    2013-09-27

    Osteocalcin (OC) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) are considered evolutionarily related because they share key structural features, although they have been described to exert different functions. In this work, we report the identification and characterization of both OC and MGP from the Adriatic sturgeon, a ray-finned fish characterized by a slow evolution and the retention of many ancestral features. Sturgeon MGP shows a primary structure, post-translation modifications, and patterns of mRNA/protein distribution and accumulation typical of known MGPs, and it contains seven possible Gla residues that would make the sturgeon protein the most γ-carboxylated among known MGPs. In contrast, sturgeon OC was found to present a hybrid structure. Indeed, although exhibiting protein domains typical of known OCs, it also contains structural features usually found in MGPs (e.g. a putative phosphorylated propeptide). Moreover, patterns of OC gene expression and protein accumulation overlap with those reported for MGP; OC was detected in bone cells and mineralized structures but also in soft and cartilaginous tissues. We propose that, in a context of a reduced rate of evolution, sturgeon OC has retained structural features of the ancestral protein that emerged millions of years ago from the duplication of an ancient MGP gene and may exhibit intermediate functional features.

  20. Evidence of autumn spawning in Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Vladykov, 1955)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, M.T.; Sulak, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of autumn spawning of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida, was compiled from multiple investigations between 1986 and 2008. Gulf sturgeon are known from egg collections to spawn in the springtime months following immigration into rivers. Evidence of autumn spawning includes multiple captures of sturgeon in September through early November that were ripe (late-development ova; motile sperm) or exhibited just-spawned characteristics, telemetry of fish that made >175 river kilometer upstream excursions to the spawning grounds in September–October, and the capture of a 9.3 cm TL age-0 Gulf sturgeon on 29 November 2000 (which would have been spawned in late September 2000). Analysis of age-at-length data indicates that ca. 20% of the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon population may be attributable to autumn spawning. However, with the very low sampling effort expended, eggs or early life stages have not yet been captured in the autumn, which would be the conclusive proof of autumn spawning. More sampling, and sampling at previously unknown sites frequented by acoustic telemetry fish, would be required to find eggs.

  1. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  2. Heteroplasmy in the mtDNA control region of sturgeon (Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus).

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, A; May, B; Debus, L; Jenneckens, I

    2000-01-01

    Data from 1238 fishes from 19 sturgeon species and 1 paddlefish were used to analyze heteroplasmy in sturgeon. Lengths of central repeat units ranged from 74 to 83 bp among sturgeon species. No repeat sequence was found in the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. A general feature of the repeat units was the presence of termination associated sequence (TAS) motifs. About 50% of 138 interspecific mutations observed among the D-loop sequences are located 10 bp down- and upstream from these TAS motifs. Interestingly, most homoplasmic species showed deletions upstream to the TAS motifs, whereas deletions downstream to the TAS motifs observed in two species do not seem to preclude heteroplasmy. Calculations of secondary structures and thermal stabilities of repeat units showed DeltaG values for all heteroplasmic species to be <-8 and for most homoplasmic species DeltaG value to be >-8. Most heteroplasmic fishes had two and/or three repeat units. No homoplasmic sturgeon with >2 repeat units were observed. Molecular phylogeny based on the entire cytochrome b showed that heteroplasmy probably resulted from a single evolutionary event. Our data demonstrate that heteroplasmy is present in most sturgeon species and suggest that the thermal stability of the secondary structure of the repeat unit in combination with mutations downstream of the TAS sequences influences heteroplasmy. PMID:11102385

  3. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000).

  4. Histopathological alterations of juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to graded levels of dietary methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; De Riu, Nicola; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-03-01

    Triplicate groups of juvenile green and white sturgeon (average weight of 30 ± 2 g) were exposed to one of four concentrations of dietary methylmercury (MeHg; 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MeHg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to determine and compare the sensitivity of the two sturgeon species from a histopathological perspective. After 4- and 8-week exposure, histological changes were examined in the kidney, liver, gill, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle of both species using light microscopy. Marked abnormalities were observed in the kidney and liver of both sturgeon species after each exposure period; the abnormalities showed progressive histological alterations in severity with increasing doses and duration of exposure. Renal lesions included tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis, renal corpuscular disintegration, and interstitial tissue degeneration. The changes observed in the livers of both sturgeon species were glycogen depletion and vacuolar degeneration. In the gill and skeletal and heart muscle of green and white sturgeon fed MeHg-added diets, mild histological changes were observed but did not show pronounced difference between the two species. Although the lowest observed effect concentration in both species was the 25 mg MeHg/kg diet, the histological changes in the kidney and liver were more pronounced at all treatments groups of green sturgeon than those of white sturgeon. The current results on structural changes of kidney and liver (i.e., more severe glycogen depletion and tubular epithelium degeneration in green sturgeon) confirmed our previous results, in that green sturgeon exhibited a higher mortality, lower growth rate, and lower protein, lipid, and energy contents in their whole body than white sturgeon under the same MeHg exposures.

  5. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions.

  6. Far reaches of the solar wind Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 plasma results

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, S.E.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    Selected plasma parameters observed by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 between launch (1972 and 19730 and the end of 1979 are used to find the large-scale radial structure of the solar wind. Comparison of data from the two spacecraft is used to separate temporal from spatial variations. The average bulk speed is found to remain constant at about 430 km s/sup -1/, with stream structure still evident, though of diminished amplitude, at 20.5 AU (Pioneer 10's distance by the end of 1979). Proton density, flux, pressure, and kinetic energy flux are found to have radial profiles consistent with R/sup -2/. Proton temperatures decrease as R/sup -0.6/, too slowly for an adiabatic expansion.

  7. The far reaches of the solar wind - Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 plasma results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Selected plasma parameters observed by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 between launch (1972 and 1973) and the end of 1979 are used to find the large-scale radial structure of the solar wind. Comparison of data from the two spacecraft is used to separate temporal from spatial variations. The average bulk speed is found to remain constant at about 430 km/s, with stream structure still evident, though of diminished amplitude, at 20.5 AU (Pioneer 10's distance by the end of 1979). Proton density, flux, pressure, and kinetic energy flux are found to have radial profiles consistent with 1/R-squared. Proton temperatures decrease as R to the -0.6 power, too slowly for an adiabatic expansion.

  8. Crawford Williamson Long: The True Pioneer of Surgical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia and analgesia are as old as mankind itself. However, we now know that the true pioneer of surgical anesthesia through inhalation of ether was Doctor Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), who endeavored to help his profession and mankind without pursuing any reward or honor. Crawford Williamson Long was a great and beloved American surgeon. He was a well-educated and elegant man with an outstanding personality. Crawford was born in Danielsville, Georgia, in the United States and was the son of James Long and Elizabeth Ware Long. He married Mary Caroline Swain Long and gave birth to 12 children. Long proved the effectiveness of ether after painlessly removing a tumor from the neck. In 1847, a rivalry broke out among Horace Wells, Charles Thomas Jackson, and William Thomas Green Morton for the primacy as regards the discovery of anesthesia. The US Congress offered itself to arbitrate the case of the so called "ether controversy." Finally, a few years after the end of the North American Civil War, while taking care of a patient, Crawford passed away, presumably after suffering a stroke.

  9. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  10. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  11. A simulation study of factors controlling white sturgeon recruitment in the Snake River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, H.I.; Van Winkle, W.; Chandler, James Angus; Lepla, K.B.; Bates, P.; Counihan, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the nine populations of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, located between dams on the Middle Snake River, have declined from historical levels and are now at risk of extinction. One step towards more effectively protecting and managing these nine populations is ranking factors that influence recruitment in each of these river segments. We developed a model to suggest which of seven mechanistic factors contribute most to lost recruitment in each river segment: (1) temperature-related mortality during incubation, (2) flow-related mortality during incubation, (3) downstream export of larvae, (4) limitation of juvenile and adult habitat, (5) mortality of all ages during summer episodes of poor water quality in reservoirs, (6) entrainment mortality of juveniles and adults, and (7) angling mortality. We simulated recruitment with, and without, each of the seven factors, over a typical series of hydrologic years. We found a hierarchical pattern of limitation. In the first tier, river segments with severe water quality problems grouped together. Poor water quality during summer had a strong negative effect on recruitment in the river segments between Swan Falls Dam and Hell's Canyon Dam. In the second tier, river segments with better water quality divided into short river segments and longer river segments. Populations in short river segments were limited by larval export. Populations in longer river segments tended to be less strongly limited by any one factor. We also found that downstream effects could be important, suggesting that linked populations cannot be viewed in isolation. In two cases, the effects of a factor on an upstream population had a significant influence on its downstream neighbors. ?? 2002 by the American Fisheries Society.

  12. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1–9. PMID:26984707

  13. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Dolph L

    2016-07-01

    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9.

  14. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Micah

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: a saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population.

  15. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the potomac river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kynard, B.; Breece, M.; Atcheson, M.; Kieffer, M.; Mangold, M.

    2009-01-01

    We collected the first life history information on shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in any of the rivers to Chesapeake Bay, the geographic center of the species range. In the Potomac River, two telemetry-tagged adult females used 124 km of river: A saltwater/freshwater reach at river km (rkm) 63-141 was the foraging-wintering concentration area, and one female migrated to spawn at rkm 187 in Washington, DC. The spawning migration explained the life history context of an adult captured 122 years ago in Washington, DC, supporting the idea that a natal population once lived in the river. Repeated homing migrations to foraging and wintering areas suggested the adults were residents, not transient coastal migrants. All habitats that adults need to complete life history are present in the river. The Potomac River shortnose sturgeon offers a rare opportunity to learn about the natural rebuilding of a sturgeon population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  16. Hematology of great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to brackish water environment.

    PubMed

    Zarejabad, Asad Mohammadi; Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Sudagar, Mohammad; Pouralimotlagh, Somayeh

    2010-09-01

    The effect of environmental salinity on hematological parameters of great sturgeon Huso huso juveniles was studied. Five-month-old juveniles (mean body weight 28.3 +/- 2.1 g) were subjected to 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 ppt salinities. The hematological parameters were assessed after a period of 20 days rearing at these salinities. After transfer from fresh water to brackish water, red blood cells, hematocrit, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin decreased, but mean corpuscular volume increased. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, monocyte counts, and eosinophil counts showed no significant variations with increase in environmental salinity. An increase was found in lymphocyte counts according to the increase of salinity from 0 to 12 ppt, while the fresh water control group maintained basal levels. Decrease in neutrophil counts was observed in great sturgeon with increase in environmental salinity. These data show significant effect of salinity on the blood parameters of great sturgeon.

  17. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    The research tasks in the 2013 scope of work emphasized understanding reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon, and hatch and drift of free embryos and larvae. These tasks were addressed in four study sections located in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam, including downstream reaches of the Milk River, the Lower Yellowstone River, and the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2013.

  18. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of spawning habitat for white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus in the tailraces of the four dams on the lower 470 km of the Columbia River were obtained by using the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology to identify areas with suitable water depths, water velocities, and substrates. Rearing habitat throughout the lower Columbia River was assessed by using a geographic information system to identify areas with suitable water depths and substrates. The lowering of spring and summer river discharges from hydropower system operation reduces the availability of spawning habitat for white sturgeons. The four dam tailraces in the study area differ in the amount and quality of spawning habitat available at various discharges; the differences are due to channel morphology. The three impoundments and the free-flowing Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam provide extensive areas that are physically suitable for rearing young-of-the-year and juvenile white sturgeons.

  19. Lake sturgeon response to a spawning reef constructed in the Detroit river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, B.; Boase, J.; Child, M.; Kennedy, G.; Craig, J.; Soper, K.; Drouin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the bi-national Detroit River provided vast areas of functional fish spawning and nursery habitat. However, ongoing conflicting human uses of these waters for activities such as waste disposal, water withdrawals, shoreline development, shipping, recreation, and fishing have altered many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the Detroit River. Of particular interest and concern to resource managers and stakeholders is the significant loss and impairment of fish spawning and nursery habitat that led to the decline in abundance of most fish species using this ecosystem. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations for example, were nearly extirpated by the middle of the 20th century, leaving only a small fraction of their former population. Fisheries managers recognized that the loss of suitable fish spawning habitat is a limiting factor in lake sturgeon population rehabilitation in the Detroit River. In efforts to remediate this beneficial water use impairment, a reef consisting of a mixture of natural rock and limestone was constructed at the upstream end of Fighting Island in 2008. This paper focuses on the response by lake sturgeon to the different replicates of suitable natural materials used to construct the fish spawning habitat at Fighting Island in the Detroit River. Pre-construction fisheries assessment during 2006–2008 showed that along with the presence of adult lake sturgeon, spawning conditions were favorable. However, no eggs were found in assessments conducted prior to reef construction. The 3300 m2 Fighting Island reef was placed at the upstream end of the island in October of 2008. The construction design included 12 spawning beds of three replicates each consisting of either round rock, small or large (shot-rock) diameter limestone or a mixture thereof. An observed response by spawning lake sturgeon occurred the following year when spawning-ready adults (ripe), viable eggs, and larvae were

  20. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon. PMID:27844010

  1. Expression of growth hormone gene during early development of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenserbaerii).

    PubMed

    Abdolahnejad, Zeinab; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Khoshkholgh, Majid Reza; Yarmohammadi, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) gene in early development stages of Siberian sturgeon was investigated using RT-PCR method. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs up to 50 days post hatched (dph) larvae in 11 different times. Ribosomal protein L6 (RPL6) transcripts were used as the internal standard during quantification of GH mRNA expression. The results showed that the GH mRNA could be observed in the eyed eggs and even at unfertilized eggs of Siberian sturgeon. The highest amounts of GH mRNA were found at 25 and 50 dph larvae, while the lowest levels were detected at 1 and 3 dph larvae stage. These findings suggest that, the GH mRNA play a key role during developmental stages of Siberian sturgeon.

  2. Overview of biology and aquaculture of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, P.; Kynard, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Z.; Li, D.

    2002-01-01

    Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii is a large riverine species (max. 3 m length and 190 kg weight) native to the Amur River. In the middle Amur River, males first spawn at 7-8 years of age and females at 9-10 years. Due to overfishing and habitat alteration, the abundance of wild stocks has rapidly declined in recent years. Using wild adults, artificial spawning began in the 1950s in China, and since the early 1990s Amur sturgeon has become the most popular sturgeon for aquaculture. The species is adaptive to many conditions of artificial culture, including traditional Chinese fish culture ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and cages. It will grow well on many types of food, and 1-year-old fish reared on commercial diets weigh 900-1200 g. Based on the examination of females reared for broodstock, first full sexual maturity is expected at 5-6 years of age.

  3. Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

    2007-12-01

    In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that

  4. Sigmund Freud: pioneer in energy healing.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stephen D; Edwards, David J

    2010-02-01

    Energy healing is a popular contemporary term for forms of healing that facilitate a natural healing process through harmonizing, rebalancing, and releasing energy flow disturbed or blocked by disease and illness. Biographical evidence indicates that Freud used physical, suggestive, and radiant forms of energy healing, and that his personal life, metapsychology, and psychoanalysis were founded on dynamic, energetic experiences and conceptualizations. Analysis of Freud's life and work leads to the conclusion that in experience, theory, and practice, Freud typified the traditional role of therapist and was a pioneer in modern forms of energy healing.

  5. Pioneer F/G feed movement mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F/G spacecraft achieves the desired earth-pointing direction through a system requiring the shifting of the main antenna feed 1 in. off axis. The feed is pivoted to this position by an electrically heated thermal actuator consisting of an electroless nickel bellows in a copper housing and filled with Freon 21. The actuator overtravels and maintains the feed in the offset position in a thermostatic limit cycle operation mode until commanded off. The mechanism is expected to operate in a -240 F environment near Jupiter and was successfully tested at such temperatures.

  6. The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly

    ScienceCinema

    Nieto, Michael

    2016-07-12

    The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

  7. The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael

    2007-03-21

    The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

  8. The Pioneer Jupiter magnetic control program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. L.; Broce, R. D.; Inouye, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Jupiter spacecraft was required to have a sufficiently small magnetic field that accurate interplanetary-magnetic field measurements would not be compromised. In order to control the magnetic field throughout the program a running account of spacecraft magnetic fields was maintained by means of a periodically updated magnetic model. This model was used to make economic tradeoffs in subsystem magnetic moments within the allowed magnetic budget. The program was culminated with a measurement of the magnetic field of the spacecraft. A description of the magnetic tests and a comparison with estimates made with the magnetic model are also presented.

  9. Jupiter's radiation belts - Can Pioneer 10 survive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Recent calculations suggest that three of the Galilean satellites are very effective in limiting the fluxes of energetic electrons and protons diffusing inward from Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. Electron and proton densities with and without lunar effects are plotted as functions of the distance from the center of the planet in units of Jupiter radii. Both electrons and protons in the model come from the solar wind. The trajectory of Pioneer 10 in magnetic coordinates is examined and the period of greatest danger to the spacecraft is discussed.

  10. The Pioneer Jupiter magnetic control program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. L.; Broce, R. D.; Inouye, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Jupiter spacecraft was required to have a sufficiently small magnetic field that accurate interplanetary-magnetic field measurements would not be compromised. In order to control the magnetic field throughout the program a running account of spacecraft magnetic fields was maintained by means of a periodically updated magnetic model. This model was used to make economic tradeoffs in subsystem magnetic moments within the allowed magnetic budget. The program was culminated with a measurement of the magnetic field of the spacecraft. A description of the magnetic tests and a comparison with estimates made with the magnetic model are also presented.

  11. Impact of Nutrition and Salinity Changes on Biological Performances of Green and White Sturgeon

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Pedro G.; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  12. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  13. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I; Kültz, Dietmar

    2010-07-15

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26 degrees C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8microgg(-)(1) selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval

  14. Capacity for intracellular pH compensation during hypercapnia in white sturgeon primary liver cells.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Khuong Tuyen; Baker, Daniel W; Harris, Robert; Church, John; Brauner, Colin J

    2011-10-01

    Fish, exposed to elevated water CO(2), experience a rapid elevation in blood CO(2) (hypercapnia), resulting in acidification of both intra- and extra-cellular compartments. White sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, are exceptionally CO(2) tolerant and can regulate tissue intracellular pH (pH(i)) in the presence of a pronounced hypercapnic acidosis (preferential pH(i) regulation). In this study, pH(i) regulatory capacity of sturgeon liver cells in primary culture was examined to assess the suitability of employing this in vitro system to understand in vivo CO(2) tolerance in sturgeon. Using the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe BCECF, real-time changes in resting pH(i) and rates of pH(i) recovery were investigated during exposure to hypercapnia (3 and 6% CO(2)) in the absence and presence of additional acid loads induced by (20 mM) ammonium prepulse. During short-term (10 min) exposure to hypercapnia (3 and 6% CO(2)), sturgeon cells were acidified and no pH(i) compensation was observed. However, when exposure to 6% CO(2) was extended to over 19 h, the CO(2)-induced intracellular acidosis was partially compensated by a pH(i) increase of over 0.2 pH unit despite the sustained extracellular acidosis, indicative of a capacity for preferential pH(i) regulation in vitro. Since this capacity in sturgeon liver is present both in vivo and in vitro, the transmembrane transporters involved may be the same. Therefore, cell culture may be a suitable tool to identify the transporters (i.e., the cellular mechanisms underlying in vivo CO(2) tolerance) in white sturgeon and possibly in other hypercapnia-tolerant species.

  15. A proteomic analysis of green and white sturgeon larvae exposed to heat stress and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Frédéric; Linares-Casenave, Javier; Doroshov, Serge I.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay / Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26°C and micro-injected with Seleno-L-Methionine to reach 8 μg g-1 selenium body burden, with L-Methionine as a control. Selenium and high temperature induced mortalities and abnormal morphologies in both species, with a higher mortality in green sturgeon. Larval proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differential abundances were detected following spot quantitation and hierarchical cluster analysis. In green sturgeon, 34 of 551 protein spots detected on gels showed a variation in abundance whereas in white sturgeon only 9 of 580 protein spots were differentially expressed (P<0.01). Gel replicates were first grouped according to heat treatment. Fifteen of these spots were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in protein folding, protein synthesis, protein degradation, ATP supply and structural proteins changed in abundance in response to heat and/or selenium. 40S ribosomal protein SA, FK506-binding protein 10, 65 kDa regulatory subunit A of protein phosphatase 2, protein disulfide isomerase, stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1, suppression of tumorigenicity 13 and collagen type II alpha 1, were differentially expressed in high temperature treatment only. Serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1, creatine kinase, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 and HSP90 were sensitive to combined temperature and selenium exposure. Valosin-containing protein, a protein involved in aggresome formation and in protein quality control decreased more than 50% in response to selenium treatment. Potential use of such proteins as biomarkers of environmental stressors in larval sturgeons

  16. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed.

  17. The physiological responses of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) to potential global climate change stressors.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Brian A; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is an anadromous species with a distinct population segment in the San Francisco Bay-Sacramento River Delta that is currently listed as threatened. Although this species is able to tolerate salinity challenges as soon as 6 mo posthatch, its ability to deal with unpredictable salinity fluctuations remains unknown. Global climate change is predicted to result in large freshwater (FW) flushes through the estuary during winter and greater tidal influence during the summer. We exposed green sturgeon acclimated to 15 (EST) or 24 (BAY) g/L salinity to a rapid FW influx, where salinity was reduced to 0 g/L in 3 h in order to simulate the effect of the "winter" scenario. Both groups survived, enduring a 10% plasma osmolality reduction after 3 h. BAY-acclimated sturgeon upregulated both Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and caspase 3/7 activity, but no changes were observed in the EST-acclimated fish. In addition, we exposed FW-acclimated sturgeon to a dual 12-h salinity fluctuation cycle (0-24-0 g/L) in order to simulate the effect of greater tidal influence. At 6 h, the sturgeon showed a significant increase in plasma osmolality, and branchial NKA and caspase 3/7 activities were increased, indicating an acclimation response. There was no acclimation at 18 h, and plasma osmolality was higher than the peak observed at 6 h. The second fluctuation elicited an upregulation of the stress proteins ubiquitin and heat shock 70-kDa protein (HSP 70). Sturgeon can acclimate to changes in salinity; however, salinity fluctuations resulted in substantial cellular stress.

  18. Reproductive traits of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (Rafinesque, 1820) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, M. J.; Rugg, M.L.; Pegg, M.A.; Patino, Reynaldo; Hammen, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed reproductive status, fecundity, egg size, and spawning dynamics of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon were captured throughout each year during 2011 and 2012 using a multi-gear approach designed to collect a variety of fish of varying sizes and ages. Fish were collected monthly for a laboratory assessment of reproductive condition. Female shovelnose sturgeon reached fork length at 50% maturity (FL50) at 547 mm and at a minimum length of 449 mm. The average female spawning cycle was 3–5 years. Mean egg count for adult females was 16 098 ± 1103 (SE), and mean egg size was 2.401 ± 0.051 (SE) mm. Total fecundity was positively correlated with length (r2 = 0.728; P < 0.001), mass (r2 = 0.896; P < 0.001), and age (r2 = 0.396; P = 0.029). However, fish size and age did not correlate to egg size (P > 0.05). Male shovelnose sturgeon reached FL50 at 579 mm and at a minimum length of 453 mm. The average male spawning cycle was 1–2 years. Reproductively viable male and female sturgeon occurred during the spring (March–May) and autumn (September–October) in both years, indicating spring and potential autumn spawning events. Shovelnose sturgeon in the lower Platte River are maturing at a shorter length and younger age compared to populations elsewhere. Although it is unknown if the change is plastic or evolutionary, unfavorable environmental conditions or over-harvest may lead to hastened declines compared to other systems.

  19. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  20. Corticosteroid and progesterone transactivation of mineralocorticoid receptors from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Akira; Oka, Kaori; Sato, Rui; Adachi, Shinji; Baker, Michael E; Katsu, Yoshinao

    2016-10-15

    The response to a panel of steroids by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from Amur sturgeon and tropical gar, two basal ray-finned fish, expressed in HEK293 cells was investigated. Half-maximal responses (EC50s) for transcriptional activation of sturgeon MR by 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol and aldosterone, and progesterone (Prog) were between 13 and 150 pM. For gar MR, EC50s were between 8 and 55 pM. Such low EC50s support physiological regulation by these steroids of the MR in sturgeon and gar. Companion studies with human and zebrafish MRs found higher EC50s compared with EC50s for sturgeon and gar MRs, with EC50s for zebrafish MR closer to gar and sturgeon MRs than was human MR. For zebrafish MR, EC50s were between 75 and 740 pM; for human MR, EC50s were between 65 pM and 2 nM. In addition to Prog, spironolactone (spiron) and 19nor-progesterone (19norP) were agonists for all three fish MRs, in contrast with their antagonist activity for human MR, which is hypothesized to involve serine-810 in human MR because all three steroids are agonists for a mutant human Ser810Leu-MR. Paradoxically, sturgeon, gar, and zebrafish MRs contain a serine corresponding to serine-810 in human MR. Our data suggest alternative mechanism(s) for Prog, spiron, and 19norP as MR agonists in these three ray-finned fishes and the need for caution in applying data for Prog signaling in zebrafish to human physiology.

  1. [Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, demographic history, and population structure of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869].

    PubMed

    Shedko, S V; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A; Koshelev, V N; Shedko, M B

    2015-02-01

    The variability of the mtDNA control region (D-loop) was examined in Amur sturgeon endemic to the Amur River. This species is also classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened species. Sequencing of 796- to 812-bp fragments of the D-loop in 112 sturgeon collected in the Lower Amur revealed 73 different genotypes. The sample was characterized by a high level of haplotypic (0.976) and nucleotide (0.0194) diversity. The identified haplotypes split into two well-defined monophyletic groups, BG (n = 39) and SM (n = 34), differing (HKY distance) on average by 3.41% of nucleotide positions upon an average level of intragroup differences of 0.54 and 1.23%, respectively. Moreover, the haplotypes of the SM groups differed by the presence of a 13-14 bp deletion. Most ofthe samples (66 out of 112) carried BG haplotypes. Overall, the pattern of pairwise nucleotide differences and the results of neutrality tests, as well as the results of tests for compliance with the model of sudden demographic expansion or with the model of exponential growth pointed to a past significant increase in the number of Amur sturgeon, which was most clearly manifested in the analysis of data on the BG haplogroup. The constructed Bayesian skyline plots showed that this growth began about 18 to 16 thousand years ago. At present, the effective size of the strongly reduced (due to overharvesting) population of Amur sturgeon may be equal to or even lower than it was before the beginning of this growth during the Last Glacial Maximum. The presence in the mitochondrial gene pool ofAmur sturgeon of two haplogroups, their unequal evolutionary dynamics, and, judging by scanty data, their unequal representation in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur River basin point to the possible existence of at least two distinct populations of Amur sturgeon in the past.

  2. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations.

    PubMed

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Niknejad, Mahtab; Shabani, Ali; Safari, Roghieh

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon is one of the endangered families of fish in the Caspian Sea region, where there is up to 80% of their global caching. Unfortunately, in recent years, increase of pollutants has been resulted in their total population reduction. Due to their benthic nature, sturgeons are at great risk of exposing to contaminants such as cadmium. Despite their endangered status in the Caspian Sea, there are only a few studies on characterizing the relative sensitivity of sturgeons to cadmium. Adverse effects associated with pollution on angiogenesis are mediated by hypoxia inducing factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this investigation, gene expression of two distinct HIFs-1, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and VEGF was investigated at the mRNA transcript levels after exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium. VEGF, HIF-1α and HIF-2α expressions in treated Persian sturgeon were greater than controls. Significant increases (P<0.05) were also observed in cortisol and glucose levels compared to the control group especially in the fish exposed to higher cadmium concentration (800 μg/L). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were increased in the cadmium-exposed fish, although the observed increases were not significant between the control and 200 μg/L cadmium treatment at some sampling time points. Gill tissues also showed histopathological changes in the cadmium treatments. Overall, results indicated that cadmium resulted in some alterations in biochemical parameters, mRNA transcript level expression of two important angiogenesis related genes as well as histological alterations in Persian sturgeon.

  3. Tana1, a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element in the genome of sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, José Martin; Astolfi, Laura; Boscari, Elisa; Vidotto, Michele; Barbisan, Federica; Bruson, Alice; Congiu, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new putatively active Tc1-like transposable element (Tana1) in the genome of sturgeons, an ancient group of fish considered as living fossils. The complete sequence of Tana1 was first characterized in the 454-sequenced transcriptome of the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and then isolated from the genome of the same species and from 12 additional sturgeons including three genera of the Acipenseridae (Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus). The element has a total length of 1588bp and presents inverted repeats of 210bp, one of which partially overlapping the 3' region of the transposase gene. The spacing of the DDE motif within the catalytic domain in Tana1 is unique (DD38E) and indicates that Tana1 can be considered as the first representative of a new Tc1 subfamily. The integrity of the native form (with no premature termination codons within the transposase), the presence of all expected functional domains and its occurrence in the sturgeon transcriptome suggest a current or recent activity of Tana1. The presence of Tana1 in the genome of the 13 sturgeon species in our study points to an ancient origin of the element that existed before the split of the group 170 million years ago. The dissemination of Tana1 across sturgeon genomes could be interpreted by postulating vertical transmission from an ancestral Tana1 with a particularly slow evolutionary rate Horizontal transmission might have also played a role in the dissemination of Tana1 as evidenced by the presence of a complete copy in the genome of Atlantic salmon. Vertical and horizontal transmission are not mutually exclusive and may have concurred in shaping the evolution of Tana1.

  4. A single sea lamprey attack causes acute anemia and mortality in lake sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Patrick, Holly K; Sutton, Trent M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus parasitism on hematological variables have not been quantified for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Our study objectives were to (1) assess changes in lake sturgeon hematology immediately after a single sea lamprey attack and after a 2-week recovery period and (2) assess changes in the histological condition of major hematopoietic organs. Lake sturgeon from four size-groups (470-570, 570-650, 650-760, and 950-1,500 mm fork length) were individually subjected to a sea lamprey attack in a series of 55 experimental trials. Survival of lake sturgeon after a single sea lamprey attack was size dependent, with fish in smaller size-groups exhibiting higher direct and indirect mortality than individuals in larger size-classes. The most sensitive blood chemistry variable was hematocrit: each 1% decline in hematocrit resulted in a 5.1% increase in mortality risk. Other important variables were plasma protein level, with a 10-g/dL decline resulting in a 4.2% increase in mortality risk; and hemoglobin, with a 1-g/dL decline resulting in a 2.9% increase in mortality risk. Most of the surviving lake sturgeon were unable to restore hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma protein to pre-attack levels by the end of the 2-week recovery period. We developed an index of histological spleen condition, which indicated that short-duration (< 5-d) sea lamprey attachments depleted red blood cell reserves faster than longer-duration attacks. Our study results indicate that sea lamprey parasitism has the potential to induce acute anemia in lake sturgeon and that nonlethal attacks on smaller (< 760-mm) fish can have serious physiological implications.

  5. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P < 0.05, r2 > 0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80–2.95 mm day−1 (2003) and 0.44–2.28 mm day−1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU−1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ≥ 0.65, P < 0.0001) or Gompertz growth models (r2 ≥ 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98–100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics

  6. Length changes in white sturgeon larvae preserved in ethanol or formaldehyde

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayer, J.M.; Counihan, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of two preservatives on the notochord and total lengths of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae. White sturgeon larvae that were one, seven, and 14 days old were measured live and then preserved in 95% ethanol or 10% formaldehyde. Length changes were then determined at 20 and 95 days after preservation. We found mean length changes ranging from 0.4% to 3.4% shrinkage. Length changes varied with preservative, age of larvae, and length of time preserved. Constant length correction factors are provided for 10% formaldehyde or 95% ethanol valid for larvae between 1 and 14 days old preserved for less than 100 days.

  7. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P 0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80-2.95 mm day-1 (2003) and 0.44-2.28 mm day-1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU-1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ??? 0.65, P < 0.0001) or Gompertz growth models (r2 ??? 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98-100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics for field-sampled age-0 shovelnose sturgeon in a

  8. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  9. Is hepatic oxidative stress a main driver of dietary selenium toxicity in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)?

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Most species of sturgeon have experienced significant population declines and poor recruitment over the past decades, leading many, including white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to be listed as endangered. Reasons for these declines are not yet fully understood but benthic lifestyle, longevity, and delayed sexual maturation likely render sturgeon particularly susceptible to factors such as habitat alteration and contaminant exposures. One contaminant of particular concern to white sturgeon is selenium (Se), especially in its more bioavailable form selenomethionine (SeMet), as it is known to efficiently bioaccumulate in prey items of this species. Studies have shown white sturgeon to be among the most sensitive species of fish to dietary SeMet as well as other pollutants such as metals, dioxin-like chemicals and endocrine disrupters. One of the primary hypothesized mechanisms of toxicity of SeMet in fish is oxidative stress; however, little is know about the specific mode by which SeMet affects the health of white sturgeon. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize oxidative stress and associated antioxidant responses as a molecular event of toxicity, and to link it with the pathological effects observed previously. Specifically, three-year-old white sturgeon were exposed for 72 days via their diet to 1.4, 5.6, 22.4 or 104.4µg Se per g feed (dm). Doses were chosen to range over a necessary Se intake level, current environmentally relevant intakes and an intake representing predicted increases of Se release. Lipid hydroperoxides, which are end products of lipid oxidation, were quantified as a marker of oxidative stress. Changes in gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, apoptosis inducing factor and caspase 3 were quantified as markers of the response to oxidative stress. Concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides were highly variable within dose groups and no dose response was observed

  10. The pioneer projects: Economical exploration of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of the various organizational elements of the Pioneer Project Office at Ames Research Center are described in terms of their management responsibilities and interactions with other elements of the Project Office and with external organizations having Pioneer Project responsibilities. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  11. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  12. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, Steven R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718 mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River.

  13. Horton Falls named for Pioneer Hydrologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Vincent

    A beautiful 80-foot waterfall in the Catskill Mountains was recently named after Robert E. Horton (1875-1945), a pioneer hydrologist and active AGU member for many years. Officially named Horton Falls, the waterfall, located a few miles east of Voorheesville, N.Y., in Albany County, was an important part of Horton's hydrological laboratory. The U.S. Board on Geographic Names approved the name at its November 8, 1990 meeting.Horton lived close to the falls and operated his hydrological laboratory at its crest in the old La Grange Grist Mill, which used hydropower generated by the falling waters of the La Grange Mill Pond, originally impounded by a wooden log dam 100 feet upstream of the mill. As far as can be determined, the pioneer La Granges, who built and operated the mill, never used the 85-foot head made available to them by the waterfalls. Horton, however, did, and ran a vertical and a horizontal iron water wheel to spin a DC electricity-generating turbine, which he used for heat, light, and power in his home and laboratory.

  14. Redox pioneer: Professor Leopold Flohé.

    PubMed

    Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde

    2010-11-15

    Leopold Flohé is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because has published a article on antioxidant/redox biology, as first author, that has been cited more than 1,000 times, and more than 20 articles have been cited more than 100 times. He obtained the medical doctorate at the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Tübingen, Germany, in 1968. He held positions in both Academia (Tübingen, Aachen, and Braunschweig, Germany) and industry (Aachen). He is now operating the biotech company MOLISA in Magdeburg, Germany, while teaching as guest professor at the local university. Dr. Flohé is the pioneer who established the selenoprotein nature of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the first and, for almost 10 years, the only selenoprotein known in animals. His work was pivotal to link the essential trace element selenium to metabolic processes, which led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve selenium supplementation for humans in 1980, and stimulated selenium biochemistry in general. In recent years, he embarked on investigating how pathogens protect themselves from oxidative killing. His inseminating studies on the thiol-dependent hydroperoxide metabolism of trypanosomatids and mycobacteria defined molecular drug targets, paving the way to new therapeutic strategies for neglected diseases affecting the people of developing countries.

  15. Future operations of Pioneer 10 and 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Pioneers 10 and 11 spacecraft were launched on 2 March 1972 and 5 April 1973 and are now 53 and 35 AU from the sun. Pioneer 10 is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and the in situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding the sun have been obtained for almost two solar sunspot cycles. Plasma analyzer measurements out to 50 AU show that the mean velocity is about 430 km/sec, the mean density decreases as R exp -2, and that the terminal shock has not been encountered. The magnetic field is drawn out to form Archimedean spirals in the ecliptic place and dipolelike asymmetry in the polar directions as predicted by the Parker model. Galactic cosmic ray measurements of the intensity and radial gradient indicate a 'modulation boundary' between 70 to 100 AU from the sun. All measurements to date indicate that both spacecraft are within the heliosphere and proceeding toward the outer boundary where the modulating effect of solar activity on cosmic ray intensity ceases.

  16. Raymond Dart as a pioneering primatologist.

    PubMed

    Strkalj, G; Tobias, P V

    2008-01-01

    Raymond Dart is best known today for his groundbreaking research in palaeoanthropology. It is often forgotten, however, that Dart was a scientist of many interests, who made significant contributions to various disciplines. One of these is the study of living non-human primates. Dart became aware of the importance of primate studies and their relevance for research in other disciplines early in his career. In the late 1920s Dart established a colony of captive baboons in the Anatomy Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. On these animals, members of his Department, most notably Joseph Gillman and Christine Gilbert, carried out a number of significant behavioural and endocrinological researches. In 1930, as a member of an Italian Scientific Expedition, Dart was involved in hunting a mountain gorilla (for research purposes). He was also active in primate field studies. In 1957 he and Phillip Tobias founded a Witwatersrand University Uganda Gorilla Research Unit for the study of the Virunga mountain gorillas. The unit produced pioneering studies, conducted by Jill Donisthorpe, on the behaviour of these primates in their natural habitat. At the same time Dart was actively engaged in conservation of the mountain gorillas. He also studied South African chacma baboons in the wild. In the field of primate studies Raymond Dart figures prominently as a pioneering catalyst as well as researcher and conservationist.

  17. PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A. ); Thompson, Bruce R.; Dan G. Cacuci

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

  18. Diet of first-feeding larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, W.D.; McCabe, G.T.; Parsley, M.J.; Hinton, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    In some Snake and Columbia River reservoirs, adult white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are common but few juvenile fish are found, indicating a lack of spawning success or poor survival of larvae. In contrast, recruitment of young-of-the-year white sturgeon to juvenile and adult stages is successful in the unimpounded Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. The availability and size of preferred prey during the period when white sturgeon larvae begin exogenous feeding could be an important determinant of year-class strength. To explore this issue, we examined the diet composition of 352 larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon collected from 1989 through 1991 in the lower Columbia River. Samples were collected downstream from Bonneville Dam and upstream from the dam in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs. Fish that ranged in size from 15 to 290 mm in total length fed primarily on gammarid amphipods (Corophium spp.) during all months. This diet item became increasingly important to all sizes of white sturgeon examined as they grew. The length of Corophium spp. eaten by larval and young-of-the-year white sturgeon increased with increasing fish length (r2 = 45.6%, P < 0.0001). Copepods (Cyclopoida), Ceratopogonidae larvae, and Diptera pupae and larvae (primarily chironomids) were also consumed, especially at the onset of exogenous feeding. A small percentage of white sturgeon were found with empty stomachs during June (1.6% downstream from Bonneville Dam) and July (4.5% downstream and 2.6% in the reservoirs). Diets of larval and young-of-the year white sturgeon from both impounded and free-flowing sections of the Columbia River were similar and we found no evidence of larval starvation in the areas investigated, areas currently supporting healthy white sturgeon populations.

  19. High-throughput sequencing of microRNA transcriptome and expression assay in the sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Linmiao; Jiang, Haiying; Chen, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Sturgeons are considered as living fossils and have very high evolutionary, economical and conservation values. The multiploidy of sturgeon that has been caused by chromosome duplication may lead to the emergence of new microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the ploidy and physiological processes. In the present study, we performed the first sturgeon miRNAs analysis by RNA-seq high-throughput sequencing combined with expression assay of microarray and real-time PCR, and aimed to discover the sturgeon-specific miRNAs, confirm the expressed pattern of miRNAs and illustrate the potential role of miRNAs-targets on sturgeon biological processes. A total of 103 miRNAs were identified, including 58 miRNAs with strongly detected signals (signal >500 and P≤0.01), which were detected by microarray. Real-time PCR assay supported the expression pattern obtained by microarray. Moreover, co-expression of 21 miRNAs in all five tissues and tissue-specific expression of 16 miRNAs implied the crucial and particular function of them in sturgeon physiological processes. Target gene prediction, especially the enriched functional gene groups (369 GO terms) and pathways (37 KEGG) regulated by 58 miRNAs (P<0.05), illustrated the interaction of miRNAs and putative mRNAs, and also the potential mechanism involved in these biological processes. Our new findings of sturgeon miRNAs expand the public database of transcriptome information for this species, contribute to our understanding of sturgeon biology, and also provide invaluable data that may be applied in sturgeon breeding.

  20. Radiation belts of Jupiter - A second look. [Pioneer 11 flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, R. W.; Mcilwain, C. E.; Mogro-Campero, A.

    1975-01-01

    The outbound leg of the Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby explored a region farther from the equator than that traversed by Pioneer 10, and the new data require modification or augmentation of the magnetodisk model based on the Pioneer 10 flyby. The inner moons of Jupiter are sinks of energetic particles and sometimes sources. A large spike of particles was found near Io. Multiple peaks occurred in the particle fluxes near closest approach to the planet; this structure may be accounted for by a complex magnetic field configuration. The decrease in proton flux observed near minimum altitude on the Pioneer 10 flyby appears attributable to particle absorption by Amalthea.

  1. PBX1 as Pioneer Factor: A Case Still Open

    PubMed Central

    Grebbin, Britta M.; Schulte, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Pioneer factors are proteins that can recognize their target sites in barely accessible chromatin and initiate a cascade of events that allows for later transcriptional activation of the respective genes. Pioneer factors are therefore particularly well-suited to initiate cell fate changes. To date, only a small number of pioneer factors have been identified and studied in depth, such as FOXD3/FOXA1, OCT4, or SOX2. Interestingly, several recent studies reported that the PBC transcription factor PBX1 can access transcriptionally inactive genomic loci. Here, we summarize the evidence linking PBX1 with transcriptional pioneer functions, suggest potential mechanisms involved and discuss open questions to be resolved. PMID:28261581

  2. A pioneer in two worlds: Thomas Keith (1827-1895) photographer and surgeon.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Iain

    2017-01-01

    Thomas Keith, an Edinburgh surgeon, was an early and successful exponent of the operation of ovariotomy (ovarian cystectomy). He published detailed accounts of all of the patients on whom he carried out this procedure and his published success rate proved to be amongst the best in the world. The leading American surgeon J Marion Sims, who visited Keith to determine the reasons for this success, concluded that Keith's achievement resulted from meticulous attention to detail and his emphasis on the cleanliness of the instruments and the operating field, before this was generally adopted. His friendship with Joseph Lister led to his early use of Listerian antisepsis, which further improved these results. Yet, his medical colleagues and his obituarists seemed unaware of his other significant pioneering contribution, as a gifted photographer and pioneer of the waxed paper technique of photographic processing. That same attention to detail resulted in photographs of the highest quality whose significance has since been appreciated by photographic historians.

  3. Isolation and transplantation of sturgeon early-stage germ cells.

    PubMed

    Pšenička, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Linhartová, Zuzana; Gazo, Ievgeniia

    2015-04-01

    We report, for the first time, a series of baseline techniques comprising isolation and transplantation of female and male early-stage germ cells in sturgeon to generate a germline chimera as a potential tool for surrogate reproduction and gene banking. Cells were dissociated from testis, characterized by mostly spermatogonia, and from ovary, exclusively comprising oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes, of Acipenser baerii, using 0.3% trypsin (2 hours, 23 °C) dissolved in PBS, isotonic with blood plasma. The dissociated germ cells were sorted by Percoll gradient centrifugation followed by immunolabeling with germ cell-specific vasa antibody DDX4, while 10% to 30% Percoll solution contained 79.4% and 70.8% labeled testicular and ovarian cells. Sorted germ cells were transplanted into a cavity close to a presumptive genital ridge of newly hatched heterospecific Acipenser ruthenus larvae with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled endogenous primordial germ cells. The transplanted germ cells were randomly distributed in the body cavity through 30-day posttransplantation (dpt). Subsequently, the cells were organized into genital ridges 50 dpt and proliferated 90 dpt. The number of both transplanted and endogenous germ cells significantly increased from 18.1, 22.2, and 29.1 (30 dpt) to 108.5, 90.8, and 118.5 (90 dpt) in ovarian, testicular, and endogenous germ cells, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficiency of transplantation was 60% (counted 90 dpt). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The andrenocortical homolog in the lake sturgeon, acipenser fulvescens rafinesque.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Butler, D G

    1976-02-01

    The adrenocortical homolog in the chondrostean fish, Acipenser fulvescens, is confined within yellow corpuscles located at the dorsal junction of the two kidneys near the cardinal veins. The concentration and distribution of this tissue in chondrosteans appear to be a condition intermediate between that of cyclostomes and teleosts. The homology of this tissue to adrenocortical tissue of higher vertebrates is demonstrated in its delta5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and the ultrastructure of the cells. The cells contain large lipid droplets and an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, a large Golgi apparatus and an extensive elaboration of the plasma membrane suggest the high degree of steroidogenic activity of these cells. Apposed plasma membranes make contacts through the unique cell contacts described in the adrenocortical cells of mammals (Friend and Gilula, '72). The Golgi apparatus is described as a most conspicuous component of the cytoplasm and is presented as further evidence for the important involvement of this organelle in corticosteroidogenesis in vertebrates. These morphological observations are discussed in relation to the known secretory products of this tissue in the sturgeon, and it is suggested that there is a need for further examination of the corticosteroids produced by lower vertebrates.

  5. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  6. Sir Victor Horsley: pioneer craniopharyngioma surgeon.

    PubMed

    Pascual, José M; Prieto, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) is considered to be the pioneer of pituitary surgery. He is known to have performed the first surgical operation on the pituitary gland in 1889, and in 1906 he stated that he had operated on 10 patients with pituitary tumors. He did not publish the details of these procedures nor did he provide evidence of the pathology of the pituitary lesions operated on. Four of the patients underwent surgery at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (Queen Square, London), and the records of those cases were recently retrieved and analyzed by members of the hospital staff. The remaining cases corresponded to private operations whose records were presumably kept in Horsley's personal notebooks, most of which have been lost. In this paper, the authors have investigated the only scientific monograph providing a complete account of the pituitary surgeries that Horsley performed in his private practice, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), written in 1911 by Giovanni Verga, Italian assistant professor of anatomy at the University of Pavia. They have traced the life and work of this little-known physician who contributed to the preservation of Horsley's legacy in pituitary surgery. Within Verga's pituitary treatise, a full transcription of Horsley's notes is provided for 10 pituitary cases, including the patients' clinical symptoms, surgical techniques employed, intraoperative findings, and the outcome of surgery. The descriptions of the topographical and macroscopic features of two of the lesions correspond unmistakably to the features of craniopharyngiomas, one of the squamous-papillary type and one of the adamantinomatous type. The former lesion was found on necropsy after the patient's sudden death following a temporal osteoplastic craniectomy. Surgical removal of the lesion in the latter case, with the assumed nature of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma, was successful. According to the

  7. Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus environmental life history revealed using pectoral fin-ray microchemistry: implications for interjurisdictional conservation through fishery closure zones.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Q E; Hupfeld, R N; Whitledge, G W

    2017-02-01

    This study inferred that the majority of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus captured in the upper Mississippi River probably originated from locations outside the upper Mississippi River (Missouri River, middle Mississippi River); whereas, lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens exhibit infrequent movement outside of the upper Mississippi River, but may move throughout these interconnected large rivers at various life stages. By using pectoral fin-ray microchemistry (a non-lethal alternative to using otoliths), it is suggest that interjurisdictional cooperation will probably be needed to ensure sustainability of the S. platorynchus commercial fishery and the success of A. fulvescens reintroduction in the upper Mississippi River. Additionally, fin-ray microchemistry can provide invaluable data to make informed management decisions regarding large river fishes, that cross jurisdictional boundaries or that move outside of closure zones, without causing further mortality to compromised fish populations (e.g. threatened and endangered species). © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elvira, Benigno

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe. PMID:26717564

  9. Current Occurrence of the Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in Northern Spain: A New Prospect for Sturgeon Conservation in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Benigno; Leal, Sheila; Doadrio, Ignacio; Almodóvar, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Acipenser oxyrinchus is considered extirpated in Europe, but numerous breeding populations still exist on the Atlantic coast of North America. An adult female A. oxyrinchus, 2500 mm total length and 120 kg wet weight, was accidentally fished on 24 November 2010 near the coast of Gijón, Asturias, Spain. The fish was identified by its morphological pattern as well as by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses. Because the sturgeon was found far away from any known breeding area, it was considered a stray or vagrant specimen. It certainly has a natural origin, but its eventual birthplace could not be determined. Because its current occurrence was unknown in southwestern Europe until now, the species is not cataloged or protected in this area. Therefore, the residual European stocks of A. oxyrinchus ought to be listed as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN categories. Likewise, it is imperative for southwestern European countries with an historic or recent occurrence of A. oxyrinchus to protect the species through domestic and international legislation. The present sympatric occurrence of A. sturio and A. oxyrinchus raises new challenges about key questions, such as the species selection for restoration program in European countries. Accurate monitoring is mandatory to obtain appropriate information for an assessment of the current occurrence of A. oxyrinchus in southwestern Europe.

  10. A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1993-01-01

    The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

  11. Surface reflections of Pioneer Venus probe signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    As the four Pioneer Venus probes fell within the atmosphere toward the surface of Venus, each of them transmitted a radio signal directly to earth. Because of the relatively broad antenna beamwidth of these small probes, some of the transmitted power went down to the surface of Venus. This paper reports the discovery that the radio signals scattered off the surface are not only detectable but that their characteristics can be determined with a surprising degree of certainty. From these characteristics one can determine parameters of the Venusian atmospheric winds and of the surface that promise to be useful. Most of the scattered energy is that which originally radiated from the probes in a near-horizontal direction; the downward-directed radiation is detectable but much weaker. Refraction in the atmosphere of Venus clearly plays a significant role in establishing both the strength of scatter and its Doppler shift.

  12. Modeling Jupiter's current disc - Pioneer 10 outbound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.; Melville, J. G., II; Blake, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the magnetic field of the Jovian current disk is presented. The model uses Euler functions and the Biot-Savart law applied to a series of concentric, but not necessarily coplanar current rings. It was found that the best fit to the Pioneer 10 outbound perturbation magnetic field data is obtained if the current disk is twisted, and also bent to tend toward parallelism with the Jovigraphic equator. The inner and outer radii of the disk appear to be about 7 and 150 Jovian radii, respectively; because of the observed current disk penetrations, the bent disk also requires a deformation in the form of a bump or wrinkle whose axis tends to exhibit spiraling. Modeling of the azimuthal field shows that it is due to a thin radial current sheet, but it may actually be due in large part to penetration of a tail current sheet as suggested by Voyager observations.

  13. Freeman Allen: Boston's pioneering physician anesthetist.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death.

  14. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  15. Plasma analyzer for the Pioneer Jupiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibbin, D. D.; Wolfe, J. H.; Collard, H. R.; Savage, H. F.; Molari, R.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA/Ames Research Center Plasma Probe on board the Jupiter Missions of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The instrument has two quadrispherical electrostatic analyzer units; one has high sensitivity and resolution and the other is capable of measuring large fluxes of solar wind particles. The two analyzer units measure particle energy-to-charge ratio, flux, and direction of flow for positive ions and electrons over the wide range of particle densities found in the solar wind during the Jupiter missions. Data formats in space and ground data processing, the NASA/Ames Research Center plasma probe calibration facility, and the instrument response functions are also described.

  16. Pioneer probe mission with orbiter option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A spacecraft is described which is based on Pioneer 10 and 11, and existing propulsion technology; it can transport and release a probe for entry into Jupiter's atmosphere, and subsequently maneuver to place the spacecraft in orbit about Jupiter. Orbital operations last 3 years and include maneuvers to provide multiple close satellite encounters which allow the orbit to be significantly changed to explore different parts of the magnetosphere. A mission summary, a guide to related documents, and background information about Jupiter are presented along with mission analysis over the complete mission profile. Other topics discussed include the launch, interplanetary flight, probe release and orbit deflection, probe entry, orbit selection, orbit insertion, periapsis raising, spacecraft description, and the effects of Jupiter's radiation belt on both orbiter and the probe.

  17. 75 FR 53598 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Shovelnose Sturgeon Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... reaching sexual maturity later than males (Keenlyne and Jenkins 1993, pp. 393, 395). Pallid sturgeon at the... include habitat modification, small population size, limited natural reproduction, hybridization... that there is consistent reproduction and recruitment among years is not consistent with the...

  18. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  19. Adverse health effects and histological changes in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Zee, Jenna; Patterson, Sarah; Gagnon, Danielle; Hecker, Markus

    2016-07-01

    It has been shown that selenium (Se) released to the aquatic environment can have devastating effects on local wildlife. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) have a life history particularly susceptible to contaminants, and their protection is of interest as they are culturally and economically important, and many populations are classified as endangered. During the present 72-d dietary study, multiple signs of decreased health and Se lethality were observed. Juvenile white sturgeon were given diets containing 1.4 μg, 5.6 μg, 22.4 μg, or 104.4 μg selenomethionine/g food (dry mass). Selenium accumulated in muscle and liver tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Edema causing exophthalmos developed within 15 d and 23 d, and lethal effects occurred in 54% and 22% of fish in the high- and medium-dose groups, respectively. Growth and hepatosomatic index were significantly lower in the high-dose group, which also had a high incidence of food avoidance. Histology of the liver revealed a dose-dependent increase in melanomacrophage aggregates and decrease of energy stores, which indicated toxicity. These results indicate that white sturgeon are susceptible to the effects of Se accumulation over relatively short time periods. This stresses the need for continued sturgeon research and studies looking into the environmental fate and regulation of released Se. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1741-1750. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Status of knowledge of the Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, G. R.; Heist, E.J.; Braaten, Patrick; Delonay, Aaron J.; Hartfield, P.; Herzog, D.P.; Kappenman, K.M.; Web, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Pallid Sturgeon is listed as federally endangered under the Endangered Species Act in the United States. When the species was listed in 1990 it was considered extremely rare and was poorly understood. Habitat alteration, commercial harvest, environmental contaminants, and other factors were identified as threats. Today our scientific understanding of the species and its life history requirements have increased greatly as summarized below.

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic) - Atlantic sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1984-07-01

    The Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus, is an anadromous species that occupies rivers, estuaries, and nearshore waters along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States. The species once supported significant commercial fisheries throughout its range, but stocks have declined because of overfishing, deterioration of water quality, and damming of rivers. Atlantic sturgeon spawn in rivers and the young remain in freshwater for several years prior to emigration to the ocean. Little is known about spawning areas and associated environmental factors. Females typically do not mature until age X and the age at first spawning ranges from 5 to 13 years for males and 7 to 19 years for females. Longevity may frequently exceed 25 years. Immature and adult sturgeons are bottom feeders and consume a variety of mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other small bottom-dwelling invertebrates and fishes. Little is know about competitors, predators, or effects of environmental factors on recruitment. The long period required to reach maturity, possibly irregular spawning thereafter, and prolonged reliance on river systems make juvenile and adult Atlantic sturgeon highly susceptible to habitat alterations, pollution, and over exploitation. 49 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5 m s-1 decrease in velocity within 10 m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River.

  4. Discrete choice modeling of shovelnose sturgeon habitat selection in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonnot, T.W.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Millspaugh, J.J.; DeLonay, A.J.; Jacobson, R.B.; Bryan, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Substantive changes to physical habitat in the Lower Missouri River, resulting from intensive management, have been implicated in the decline of pallid (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose (S. platorynchus) sturgeon. To aid in habitat rehabilitation efforts, we evaluated habitat selection of gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon during the spawning season in two sections (lower and upper) of the Lower Missouri River in 2005 and in the upper section in 2007. We fit discrete choice models within an information theoretic framework to identify selection of means and variability in three components of physical habitat. Characterizing habitat within divisions around fish better explained selection than habitat values at the fish locations. In general, female shovelnose sturgeon were negatively associated with mean velocity between them and the bank and positively associated with variability in surrounding depths. For example, in the upper section in 2005, a 0.5ms-1 decrease in velocity within 10m in the bank direction increased the relative probability of selection 70%. In the upper section fish also selected sites with surrounding structure in depth (e.g., change in relief). Differences in models between sections and years, which are reinforced by validation rates, suggest that changes in habitat due to geomorphology, hydrology, and their interactions over time need to be addressed when evaluating habitat selection. Because of the importance of variability in surrounding depths, these results support an emphasis on restoring channel complexity as an objective of habitat restoration for shovelnose sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  5. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  6. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... application procedures). (b) Labeling. You may import, export, or re-export sturgeon caviar only if labels are...) Standardized species code; for hybrids, the species code for the male is followed by the code for the female... document. (h) U.S. application forms. Application forms can be obtained from our website or by...

  7. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  8. Shortnose sturgeon use small coastal rivers: The importance of habitat connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Kinnison, M.T.; Dionne, P.E.; Zydlewski, J.; Wippelhauser, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom for shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), we document shortnose sturgeon use of habitats beyond large rivers. Telemetry data from 2008 to 2010 in the Gulf of Maine demonstrates that adult shortnose sturgeon (up to 70%) frequently move between Maine's two largest rivers, the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers. Even more interesting, small rivers located between these watersheds were used by 52% of the coastal migrants. Small river use was not trivial, 80% of observed movements extended more than 10km upstream. However, visits were short in duration. This pattern indicates one of several possibilities: directed use of resources, searching behaviors related to reproduction (i.e. straying) or undirected wandering. Data suggest a relationship between residence time in small rivers and distance to the lowermost barrier. Restoring connectivity to upstream habitats in these rivers could allow opportunities for metapopulation expansion. Regional management of shortnose sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine should incorporate a habitat framework that considers small coastal rivers. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  9. Differential expression of fertility genes boule and dazl in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), a basal fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huan; Li, Chuang-Ju; Yue, Hua-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Ge; Wei, Qi-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The gene family DAZ (deleted in Azoospermia), including boule, dazl and DAZ, performs highly conserved functions in germ cell development and fertility across animal phyla. Differential expression patterns have been demonstrated for the family members in invertebrates and vertebrates including fish. Here, we report the identification of boule and dazl and their expression at both RNA and protein levels in developing and mature gonads of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). Firstly, the isolation of the boule and dazl genes in Chinese sturgeon and the observation of the two genes in coelacanth suggest that dazl originated after the divergence of bony fish from cartilaginous fish but before the emergence of the Actinistia. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses reveal that boule and dazl RNA and proteins are restricted to the testis and ovary. In situ hybridization and fluorescent immunohistochemistry show that the bisexual mitotic and meiotic germ cell expression of dazl RNA and protein is conserved in vertebrates, while Chinese sturgeon boule RNA and protein exhibit mitotic and meiotic expression in the testis, and also likely display mitotic and meiotic expression in female. Moreover, we directly demonstrate for the first time that sturgeon Balbiani body/mitochondrial cloud disperses in the cytoplasm of early developing oocytes and co-localizes with Dazl to some extent. Finally, urbilaterian boule may also have an ancestral function in oogenesis. Taken together, these results provide useful information on the evolution of DAZ family genes, expression patterns and functions in animal reproduction.

  10. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  11. Modeling hydraulic and sediment transport processes in white sturgeon spawning habitat on the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Vaughn Paragamian,; Barton, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon currently spawn (2005) in an 18-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho. Since completion of Libby Dam upstream from the spawning reach, there has been only one successful year of recruitment of juvenile fish. Where successful in other rivers, white sturgeon spawn over clean coarse material of gravel size or larger. The channel substrate in the current spawning reach is composed primarily of sand and some buried gravel; within a few kilometers upstream there is clean gravel. We used a 2-dimensional flow and sediment-transport model and the measured locations of sturgeon spawning from 1994-2002 to gain insight into the paradox between the current spawning location and the absence of suitable substrate. Spatial correlations between spawning locations and the model simulations of velocity and depth indicate the white sturgeon tend to select regions of highest velocity and depth within any river cross-section to spawn. These regions of high velocity and depth are independent of pre- or post-dam flow conditions. A simple sediment-transport simulation suggests that high discharge and relatively long duration flow associated with pre-dam flow events might be sufficient to scour the sandy substrate and expose existing lenses of gravel and cobble as lag deposits in the current spawning reach.

  12. Integrating Water Flow, Locomotor Performance and Respiration of Chinese Sturgeon during Multiple Fatigue-Recovery Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  13. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155).

    There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  14. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  15. Identification of sturgeon IgD bridges the evolutionary gap between elasmobranchs and teleosts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Yan, Zhenxin; Feng, Mengyang; Peng, Dezhi; Guo, Ying; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Ren, Liming; Sun, Yi

    2014-02-01

    IgD has been found in almost all jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous and teleost fish. However, IgD is missing in acipenseriformes, a branch that is evolutionarily positioned between elasmobranchs and teleost fish. Here, by analyzing transcriptome data, we identified a transcriptionally active IgD-encoding gene in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is orthologous to mammalian IgD and closely related to the IgD of other fish. The lengths of sturgeon membrane-bound IgD transcripts ranged from 1.2kb to 6.2kb, encoding 3-19 CH domains. As in teleosts, the first CH domain of the sturgeon IgD transcript is also derived from μCH1 by RNA splicing. However, the variable region of the expressed sturgeon IgD shows limited V(D)J usage. In addition to IgD, three IgM variants were also identified in this species, whereas no IgT/Z-encoding genes were observed. This study bridges the gap in Ig evolution between elasmobranchs and teleosts and provides significant insight into the early evolution of immunoglobulins.

  16. EFFECT OF CRYOPRESERVATION AND THEOPHYLLINE ON MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKE STURGEON (ACIPENSER FULVESCENS) SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA) was used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation and theophylline treatment on sperm motility of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).Motility was recorded at 0 and 5 min postactivation.The effect of cryopreservation on sperm acrosin-...

  17. Control of sturgeon sperm motility: Antagonism between K+ ions concentration and osmolality.

    PubMed

    Prokopchuk, Galina; Dzyuba, Borys; Rodina, Marek; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa are stored in a quiescent state in the male reproductive tract and motility is induced in response to various environmental stimuli, such as change of osmolality (general case) and a decrease of extracellular K+ in fish from Acipenseridae family. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between osmolality and extracellular K+ concentration in controlling sperm motility in sturgeon. Pre-incubation of sturgeon sperm for 5s in hypertonic solutions of glycerol, NaCl, or sucrose (each of 335 mOsm/kg osmolality) prepares sturgeon spermatozoa to become fully motile in presence of high concentration of K+ ions (15 mM), which has previously been demonstrated to fully repress motility. Furthermore, presence of 0.5mM KCl during the high osmolality pre-incubation exposure completely prevented subsequent spermatozoa activation in a K+-rich media. Manipulating the transport of K+ ions by the presence of K+ ionophore (valinomycin), it was concluded that once an efflux of K+ ions, the precursor of sturgeon sperm motility activation, is taking place, spermatozoa then become insensitive to a large extracellular K+ concentration.

  18. Diagnosis of an unidentified sturgeon species using the complete mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kwak, Myounghai; Kweon, Seon-Man; Kwon, O-Nam

    2015-01-01

    A sturgeon of unknown species of 11 kg body weight was caught in Gosung-gun, Gangwon Province, Korea (38°17'10.67″N, 128°33'20.28″E). The morphological characteristics were similar to species of the genus Acipenser such as Acipenser medirostris, A. schrenckii and A. baerii, but it was not an obvious match. To identify the species using genetic tools, we analysed the complete mitogenome of this unidentified sturgeon, and found it to comprise 16,526 bp. The genome encoded 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide divergence between the complete mitogenome of the unidentified sturgeon and those of four Acipenser spp. (A. transmontanus, A. dabryanus, A. schrenckii and A. baerii) was 0.736%, 3.875%, 0.085% and 5.580%, respectively. This study suggests that the unidentified sturgeon is able to predict the least maternal lines with A. schrenckii.

  19. ACUTE SENSITIVITY OF JUVENILE SHORTNOSE STURGEON TO LOW DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campbell, Jed G. and Larry R. Goodman. 2004. Acute Sensitivity of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon to Low Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. EPA/600/J-04/175. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 133(3):772-776. (ERL,GB 1155).

    There is considerable concern that factors such as eutrophication, ...

  20. Genome duplication events and functional reduction of ploidy levels in sturgeon (Acipenser, Huso and Scaphirhynchus).

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, A; Belfiore, N M; Pitra, C; Svirsky, V; Jenneckens, I

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon (order Acipenserformes) provide an ideal taxonomic context for examination of genome duplication events. Multiple levels of ploidy exist among these fish. In a novel microsatellite approach, data from 962 fish from 20 sturgeon species were used for analysis of ploidy in sturgeon. Allele numbers in a sample of individuals were assessed at six microsatellite loci. Species with approximately 120 chromosomes are classified as functional diploid species, species with approximately 250 chromosomes as functional tetraploid species, and with approximately 500 chromosomes as functional octaploids. A molecular phylogeny of the sturgeon was determined on the basis of sequences of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. By mapping the estimated levels of ploidy on this proposed phylogeny we demonstrate that (I) polyploidization events independently occurred in the acipenseriform radiation; (II) the process of functional genome reduction is nearly finished in species with approximately 120 chromosomes and more active in species with approximately 250 chromosomes and approximately 500 chromosomes; and (III) species with approximately 250 and approximately 500 chromosomes arose more recently than those with approximately 120 chromosomes. These results suggest that gene silencing, chromosomal rearrangements, and transposition events played an important role in the acipenseriform genome formation. Furthermore, this phylogeny is broadly consistent with previous hypotheses but reveals a highly supported oceanic (Atlantic-Pacific) subdivision within the Acipenser/Huso complex. PMID:11454768