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Sample records for american world order

  1. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  2. New American Schools and the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Douglas D.

    The New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) was established in 1991 by President Bush to funnel corporate funds into innovative designs for "new American schools." NASDC's board will decide on a few proposals that will receive up to $20 million each over 5 years to develop, implement, and market their designs. These…

  3. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische);…

  4. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  5. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  6. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…

  7. Education and World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The impact on educational analysis of mainstream international relations (IR) theories is yet to realize its full potential. The problem of education in relation to the construction of world order is considered in relation to core developments in IR theory since the Second World War. In particular, the global architecture of education is seen as a…

  8. Peace in the Middle East: How It Will Impact the New World Order and the American Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    interests between the East and the West. Security and stability of the world has emerged as a very important element of the new world order. Since...anything happening in any part of the world affects and gets affected by what happens in the other parts of the world , achieving peace and stability in the...Middle East is important for the peace and stability of the world . Since the US is considered the leader of the new world system, the protection of

  9. Spirituality and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ten thematic articles explore the spiritual implications for the creation of a world of greater justice and peace. Examples of topics discussed in the articles follow. Some rather startling implications of recent findings in psychological and psychic research which suggest that we are at the threshold of new and deeper public understanding of the…

  10. American Food and World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  11. American Food and World Hunger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  12. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  13. African Americans and World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of African Americans during World War II on the homefront and in the armed forces. States that African Americans not only fought fascism overseas but also apartheid in the United States, also known as the "Double V." (CMK)

  14. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    PubMed

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  15. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  16. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  17. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the…

  18. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  19. American Higher Education: "First in the World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, 42 percent of Americans in the 25-34 age range hold a degree from a two- or four-year institution of higher education. At one time, that proportion was high enough to make the United States the best-educated country in the world. But in one generation, America's educational attainment has held steady while in other countries it has…

  20. American Exceptionalism and a New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Gutek, Philosophical and Ideological Voices in Education, 3rd ed. (Boston: Pearson Education, 2004). 2 Howard Zinn , The Power and the Glory, Summer...and U.S. Foreign Policy (London: lynne Reinner Publishers, 2002). 7 Howard Zinn , The Power and the Glory, Summer 2005, http://bostonreview.net

  1. Korea as a World Order Issue. Occasional Paper Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Yoshikazu

    This paper discusses the Korean problem, not as an aspect of the East-West conflict, but as a world order problem. The paper is one of a series commissioned by the World Order Models Project in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action which will contribute to a movement for a just world order. The first part of…

  2. Software Contracts in a Higher-order World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    02-2012 final 01 March 2009 -01 February 2012 Software Contracts in a Higher -order World FA9550-09-1-0110 Matthias Felleisen Northeastern...contracts in a higher -order world of programming. The primary thrust of the work explored the meaning of contracts. We focused on three questions. First...contracts higher -order programming U U U UU 4 Matthias Felleisen 617-363-2085 Software Contracts in a Higher -Order World Matthias Felleisen matthias

  3. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-30

    mineral scarcity does not exist; for an Neconomic price any product will be available in the world market. The domestic mining industry and those...shipping, and domestic mining industry efforts to establish subsidies for U.S. mineral production, using foreign flag hulls to import the minerals and...seeking to prevent further mining Industry damage; and those who saw the strategic minerals debate as but another politically incorrect effort to

  4. Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Mae Miller; Cooper, C. Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 13 resources available to teachers of American literature on the World Wide Web including general resources, Internet sites related to electronic literature, and websites whose focus is American literature and culture. Discusses using and troubleshooting the World Wide Web in the classroom. Offers tips on how to evaluate web sources and…

  5. New world order. Hope for the planet.

    PubMed

    Boayes, V

    1995-09-15

    This brief article gives the total fertility rates (TFR), based on World Bank sources, for 75 countries in the world in 1975 and 1993. The calculation uses age-specific fertility rates against the total female population. The current population estimate for world population is 5.4 billion human beings. Countries having declining populations are China, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Populations that are increasing live in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. The US TFR was 2.0 in 1975 and 2.1 in 1993. Sweden's TFR was 1.9 in 1975 and 2.1 in 1993. Finland's TFR was 1.6 in 1975 and 1.9 in 1993. China's TFR declined from 3.4 in 1975 to 2.0 in 1993. India's TFR declined from 5.4 in 1975 to 3.7 in 1993. Indonesia's TFR declined from 5.1 in 1975 to 2.9 in 1993. The Philippines' TFR declined from 5.5 in 1975 to 3.9 in 1993. Very low fertility in 1995 was evident in Hong Kong (1.2), Spain (1.2), Germany (1.3), Italy (1.3), and Greece (1.4). Low fertility ranging from 1.5 children per woman to 1.9 children per woman is indicated for 32 countries. 35 countries have replacement or under-replacement fertility. 8 countries hover around replacement (2.1). 10 countries have fertility ranging from 2.2 to 2.5. 6 countries have fertility ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. 11 countries have fertility greater than 3.0. The highest TFR is in Pakistan, with 6.1 children per woman.

  6. New Woman, New World: The American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Carlene; And Others

    A college-level women's studies course on the experience of American women is presented in three units on the emerging American woman, woman and others, and the transcendent self. Unit 1 focuses on biological and psychological explanations of being female; the socialization process; Black, Native American, and immigrant women; schooling and its…

  7. Israel and an Emerging World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    ORDER Michael K. DeLoach Lieutenant, United States Navy B.A., United States Naval Academy, 2007 M.A., The Citadel, 2012 Submitted in...Tel Aviv to develop partnerships beyond the U.S.-Israeli special relationship. For the United States , the lasting effects of two long and costly wars... United States offered tepid support to the newly independent state , but fear of driving Arab states into the arms of the Soviet Union, and a desire

  8. The New World order and international health.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; Sepúlveda, J; Gómez-Dantés, O; McGuinness, M J; Knaul, F

    1997-05-10

    New global and national health challenges require a new response. National health situations are increasingly influenced by the international transfer of health risks posed by environmental threats, overuse of resources, international migration, trade in harmful legal products (tobacco), traffic of illicit drugs, and diffusion of potentially inappropriate and costly medical technologies and treatment policies. This situation calls for reform of national health systems, and a natural extension of such reform is reform of the world health system. The first step toward this goal should be to achieve consensus about the essential core functions of international health organizations their division of labor. Currently international health agencies have overlapping mandates and duplicate efforts, and they have neglected the following essential functions: monitoring emerging diseases, setting consumer health standards, providing international coordination to control the transfer of health risks, coordinating research efforts and technological development, designing information systems to facilitate development of national and global health policies, accumulating knowledge about cost-effectiveness of medical technologies and interventions, and creating a process for sharing information about national health system reform. Reform "essentialists" identify the following core functions for international health organizations: surveillance and control of globally-threatening diseases, promotion of research and technological development, development of standards and norms for international certification, protection of international refugees, and assisting vulnerable populations. Others give international health organizations a more expansive role including redistributing resources from rich to poor countries, political advocacy, direct regulation of transnational corporations, and intervention in national health projects. Consensus must be reached to effect reform.

  9. International migration. World order or disorder?

    PubMed

    Marmora, L

    1998-06-01

    This is a general review of global trends in international migration. Topics covered include the internationalization of the global economy, the new international political order, the globalization of culture, the increase in the migration of the more highly qualified, the growth of bias against foreigners, and the lack of social and political response to migration. Although the author maintains "that in comparative terms, current international movements are considerably less than movements in the early stages of the century and that migratory impacts are overrated", he suggests that there is a need to develop strategies and policies to manage migration better in a humane and ethical manner. (EXCERPT)

  10. The World of the Elderly Asian American

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Sharon

    1973-01-01

    Describes the psychosocial aspects of the past and the present living situation for today's elderly Chinese and Japanese Americans; many values to which first-generation Asian Americans were for maintaining adequate life satisfaction during the later years. (Author/JM)

  11. Sharing Our Worlds. Native American Children Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Colleen, Ed.

    The book furthers cultural awareness with first person narratives describing the lives of five elementary school children who represent Native American tribes or a mix of Native American tribes with another culture. In a simple style, the children describe their activities, families, foods, recreational activities, and values, and explain their…

  12. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Gordon, Ed.; And Others

    The third edition of this guide will help college and university educators design and update courses and learn about new resources in world order studies. The guide begins with three essays that set forth the rationale, methodology, and content of world order studies. The opening essay critiques traditional social science and argues for a more…

  13. Peace and World Order Studies. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Burnes H., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed as a tool for both university and secondary school use with the purpose of contributing to the further evolution of peace and world order studies. Part I presents three essays on peace and world order education. Part II comprises the majority of the document. It provides detailed outlines of some 50 college…

  14. Peace and World Order Studies. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Burnes H., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed as a tool for both university and secondary school use with the purpose of contributing to the further evolution of peace and world order studies. Part I presents three essays on peace and world order education. Part II comprises the majority of the document. It provides detailed outlines of some 50 college…

  15. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Gordon, Ed.; And Others

    The third edition of this guide will help college and university educators design and update courses and learn about new resources in world order studies. The guide begins with three essays that set forth the rationale, methodology, and content of world order studies. The opening essay critiques traditional social science and argues for a more…

  16. American Women in a World at War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litoff, Judy Barrett; Smith, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on women during World War II stating that the events of the war changed the lives of women. Addresses the role of women during wartime by sharing excerpts and information gleaned from letters written by women during World War II. (CMK)

  17. The World's Best Anglo-American Universities' Knowledge Management Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Greg; Plummer, Julie; Ridgewell, Brenda; Goforth, Emily; Tower, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Key knowledge management attributes of the world's most prestigious Anglo-American universities are surprisingly under-reported especially by best ranked USA institutions. This leads to calls for more transparency. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. The World's Best Anglo-American Universities' Knowledge Management Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Greg; Plummer, Julie; Ridgewell, Brenda; Goforth, Emily; Tower, Spence

    2008-01-01

    Key knowledge management attributes of the world's most prestigious Anglo-American universities are surprisingly under-reported especially by best ranked USA institutions. This leads to calls for more transparency. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. The World's Best Anglo-American Universities' Knowledge Management Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Greg; Plummer, Julie; Ridgewell, Brenda; Goforth, Emily; Tower, Spence

    2009-01-01

    Key knowledge management attributes of the world's most prestigious Anglo-American universities are surprisingly under-reported especially by best ranked USA institutions. This leads to calls for more transparency.

  20. Third World Libraries; Is There an American Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents viewpoints of four library professionals on the role of American libraries in the development of third world libraries. Topics discussed include the role of libraries in democracies; financial and human resource needs; the role of library associations; and staff exchange programs, including the American Library Association's Library…

  1. The American Indian Mind in a Linear World: American Indian Studies & Traditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixico, Donald L.

    This book presents an ethnohistorical examination of American Indian thinking and philosophy and strives to explain the complexity of the American Indian mind in its traditional cultural and natural environment and in contrast to the American mainstream linear world. It is argued that Indian thinking is visual; circular; concerned with the…

  2. The American Indian Mind in a Linear World: American Indian Studies & Traditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fixico, Donald L.

    This book presents an ethnohistorical examination of American Indian thinking and philosophy and strives to explain the complexity of the American Indian mind in its traditional cultural and natural environment and in contrast to the American mainstream linear world. It is argued that Indian thinking is visual; circular; concerned with the…

  3. New News for the New World Information Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.

    Noting that recent emphasis in the New World Information Order debate has focused on the development of new structures for the production and exchange of news among Third World countries, this paper provides a qualitative and quantitative examination of three types of alternative news agencies. They include the second-tier Western agencies…

  4. Ways and Means of Teaching About World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Law Fund, New York, NY. School Program.

    These newsletters are a regular feature of the edition of the Progress Report sent to teachers, and further, supplement the World Law Fund's catalog of publications. Issues provide teachers with professional information on materials and techniques for teaching about world order. Typical inclusions present sample lesson plans and unit descriptions,…

  5. World Order Values and Inter-Nation Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Gerald L.

    1972-01-01

    Futurism and World Order Models can be studied through simulation techniques which involve an inquiry into the ways and means of achieving basic values. The authors list ten simulation games suitable for this study and suggest debriefing questions. (VW)

  6. World Order Values and Inter-Nation Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Gerald L.

    1972-01-01

    Futurism and World Order Models can be studied through simulation techniques which involve an inquiry into the ways and means of achieving basic values. The authors list ten simulation games suitable for this study and suggest debriefing questions. (VW)

  7. Truth, Freedom and (Dis)Order in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, William

    2005-01-01

    After World War II, the American university emerged as a world leader in higher education. Economic development became a dominant value and its subsequent material success has been unrivaled. Many developing countries adopted characteristics of the model with the expectation that national economic growth would follow. Yet it has also been…

  8. Two Worlds: African American Men's Negotiation of Predominantly White Educational and Occupational Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    Negotiating 2 worlds, a predominantly White opportunity structure and one's community of origin, often produces distress among persons of color. In this qualitative study, the author examines the perspectives and competencies of African American men who negotiate 2 worlds and suggests that bicultural competence may facilitate participation in the…

  9. The Third Try at World Order: U.S. Policy for an Interdependent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The booklet discusses America's changing role in world affairs. The ideas, concepts, and theories were developed by participants in a workshop on American leadership held at the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies in August, 1976. The document is presented in ten chapters. The first chapter identifies new cooperative attitudes as the basis for…

  10. Peace Studies: College Courses on Peace and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Charles R., Ed.; And Others

    The publication describes 30 college courses on peace and world order. The purpose is to provide a shared conception of the substantive concerns of peace studies, of the methodological tools available for peace research, and of the potential role of peace education in the formation of a more normative social science worldview. Courses described…

  11. A New World Information Order for Better Human Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    Many studies, particularly the report of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (ICSCP), have tried to define a new world information order for better human understanding. What appears to be needed is the establishment of a new, open-ended, conceptual framework leading to a freer, more efficient, more equitable,…

  12. Rehabilitation in the new world order: will our differences be our demise.

    PubMed

    Ulicny, Gary R

    2012-02-01

    This ACRM Presidential Address contends that the field of rehabilitation may be ill prepared for impending health care changes. The article describes the basic tenets of the Affordable Care Act and its implications for rehabilitation. Finally, it makes suggestions and recommendations for how the field will need to change to adapt to this new world order. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    PubMed

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences

  14. Strategy and logistics for the New World Order. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gildersleeve, C.W.

    1990-12-01

    An interdisciplinary analysis of the post-Cold War world to determine the optimal strategy to attain the national interests of the United States, and the requisite logistic structure to support that strategy. The optimal solution is found to be a strategy based on multinational defense centered on a permanent force of United Nations garrison port complexes. This multilateral force would be augmented by as small a national defense force as necessary to ensure national security. The theses endeavors to reconnect the cultural and philosophical past of the United States with its immediate future. National interests are identified through examination of American Pragmatism and the philosophies of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. To determine the current status of common defense, based upon the Foreign Military Sales system, and analysis of current data is accomplished. Future threats to the United States are examined with special emphasis on nuclear terrorism. The ability of Islamic nations in North Africa and the Middle East to produce significant quantities of uranium is demonstrated. The grave political as well as ongoing environmental consequences of this recent capability are discussed in detail.

  15. The New World Order: Enduring Currents in American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Waltz , Kenneth N. " Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory ." Journal of International Affairs, 44, 1, (Spring 1990): 21- 37. Walzer...Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations, 4-5, as cited in Ashley, "Political Realism and Human Interests," 210. 5a Kenneth Waltz , Theory of International...underlining theme of isolationism, that the 40 Kenneth W. Thompson, "Isolationism and Collective Security: The Uses and Limits of Two Theories

  16. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    PubMed Central

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  17. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jorge; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-07-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself.

  18. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-08

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies.

  19. 77 FR 73509 - Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 6, 2012. It appears to the... securities of Emerging World Pharma, Inc. (``Emerging World''). Emerging World is a Florida corporation... and accuracy of press releases and other public statements concerning Emerging World's business...

  20. Extended Deterrence, Compellence and the ’Old World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Mexico , at least until the end of the American Civil War. In the latter part of the 19th century, the United States finished its own continental expansion...to keep the United States out.1 Delegates from Peru, Central America, and Mexico , leery of Bolivar’s autocratic proclivities and themselves admirers of...American Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia. Graell, Catalino Arrocha (1933). Historia de la Independencia de Panama. Panama City: Libraria Cultural

  1. Global health diplomacy, 'smart power', and the new world order.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Both the theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy, including systems of hard and soft power, are undergoing paradigm shifts, with an increasing number of innovative actors and strategies contributing to international relations outcomes in the 'New World Order'. Concurrently, global health programmes continue to ascend the political spectrum in scale, scope and influence. This concatenation of circumstances has demanded a re-examination of the existing and potential effectiveness of global health programmes in the 'smart power' context, based on adherence to a range of design, implementation and assessment criteria, which may simultaneously optimise their humanitarian, foreign policy and diplomatic effectiveness. A synthesis of contemporary characteristics of 'global health diplomacy' and 'global health as foreign policy', grouped by common themes and generated in the context of related field experiences, are presented in the form of 'Top Ten' criteria lists for optimising both diplomatic and foreign policy effectiveness of global health programmes, and criteria are presented in concert with an examination of implications for programme design and delivery. Key criteria for global health programmes that are sensitised to both diplomatic and foreign policy goals include visibility, sustainability, geostrategic considerations, accountability, effectiveness and alignment with broader policy objectives. Though diplomacy is a component of foreign policy, criteria for 'diplomatically-sensitised' versus 'foreign policy-sensitised' global health programmes were not always consistent, and were occasionally in conflict, with each other. The desirability of making diplomatic and foreign policy criteria explicit, rather than implicit, in the context of global health programme design, delivery and evaluation are reflected in the identified implications for (1) international security, (2) programme evaluation, (3) funding and resource allocation decisions, (4) approval

  2. Christian Voices on World Order. The Whole Earth Papers, Vol. 1, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Global Education Associates, East Orange, NJ.

    This special issue of the Whole Earth Papers examines Christian perspectives on world order. The document is the first in a series to promote understanding of the ways in which religious and humanist traditions can help develop a more humane world order. Sixteen articles comprise the document. World order issues are explored from various…

  3. 76 FR 11935 - Death of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As... veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby...

  4. The Peace Paradigm [And] Housing and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order: Shaping a Moral Vision. The Whole Earth Papers, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, Fall, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, James; And Others

    This document is comprised of four papers which explore issues related to world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "The Peace Paradigm," explores recent changes in social and political…

  5. The Peace Paradigm [And] Housing and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order: Shaping a Moral Vision. The Whole Earth Papers, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, Fall, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, James; And Others

    This document is comprised of four papers which explore issues related to world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "The Peace Paradigm," explores recent changes in social and political…

  6. Earlier North American Monsoon Onset in a Warmer World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, S. A.; Seth, A.; Ringler, T.; Rojas, M.; Liebmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of twenty-first century projections indicate substantial drying over the American Southwest and the potential for “Dust Bowl” conditions to be the norm by the middle of century. Closer examination of monthly precipitation data from the CMIP3 models indicates that the annual cycle is actually amplified over the North American Monsoon (NAMS) region, with drier conditions during the winter and an increase in monsoon rains during the later part of the rainy season. Importantly, the projected decrease in winter precipitation extends into the spring season, suggesting a delayed onset of the NAMS. Consistent thermodynamic changes, including a decrease in low-level relative humidity and an increase in the vertical gradient of moist static energy, accompany this spring precipitation decrease. Here we examine daily precipitation data from the CMIP3 archive to determine if this reduced spring precipitation represents a true delay in the NAMS onset. We further analyze the hydrological cycle over the NAMS region in several of the CMIP3 models, focusing on changes in net moisture divergence, surface evaporation, and soil moisture in order to fully understand how the hydrological cycle will change in the future based on the CMIP3 simulations, and how these changes may be translated into the timing and intensity of the NAMS. The combination of a delayed NAMS onset and earlier and reduced snowmelt runoff in the western US could substantially change the availability of water resources over the NAMS region.

  7. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  8. Orders of magnitude of the world's urban population in history.

    PubMed

    Grauman, J V

    1976-01-01

    This article claims to be 1 of the first to attempt precise estimates of urban populations at different periods of history and to date the onset of the modern urban revolution. The few existing studies with numerical estimates for the past are first examined, and a definition of urban which includes places of 5000 or more inhabitants and with defined outer contours is advanced. The main source of data is a recently published list of population estimates for a variety o fdates beginning in 1360 BC for many cities, to which mathematical formulas are applied to derive estimates of the combined urban population of the world. The rank-size rule, which holds that the size of each city tends to be in inverse proportion to its rank, is the main principle upon which the various estimates of total urban population are based. Comparison of the results obtained using different estimation procedures and different sources of data, and a discussion of uncertainties and shortcomings in the results are included. High, low and medium estimates of the world's urban population and the assumed percentage margins of error are provided for various dates. The medium estimates of urban population are then compared to available estimates of total world population at different dates to yield an estimate of the proportions urban. Although several sources of bias occur, the results suggest that little change in the level of world urbanization occurred between 0 and 1800 AD.

  9. Peace and World Order Education: A Study Guide/Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    This study guide may be used as a reader for exploratory discussions among college students and educators interested in peace, world order, and global change studies. The essays and reprints of journal articles in the guide are general introductions to the issues covered by world order education. The first article, "World Resources and the…

  10. Peace and World Order Education: A Study Guide/Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    This study guide may be used as a reader for exploratory discussions among college students and educators interested in peace, world order, and global change studies. The essays and reprints of journal articles in the guide are general introductions to the issues covered by world order education. The first article, "World Resources and the…

  11. The Multiple Worlds of Successful Cambodian American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia; Brenner, Mary E.; Macias, Roseanne

    2010-01-01

    Educational policy usually overlooks Cambodian American students as a unique ethnic group, attending instead to the positive statistics that aggregate Asian American students into a single group of successful students. Through ethnographic interviews, this article examines how successful Cambodian American students interpreted values from their…

  12. American Jewish Year Book, 1982: A Record of Events and Trends in American and World Jewish Life. Volume 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Milton, Ed.; And Others

    This 1982 yearbook reviews developments in areas of concern to Jews around the world. The volume features an essay that provides a comprehensive chronicle of American Jews from the perspectives of both Jewish history and American history. Developments in the United States are examined in articles that discuss civil and political issues that affect…

  13. The All White World of Children's Books & African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense, Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore African American children's literature and the view it provides of the African American community. Of particular interest is the relationship between African American folktales and those of subSaharan Africa. The following essays are included: (1) "The All-White World of Children's Books" (Nancy…

  14. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.

  15. The All White World of Children's Books & African American Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense, Ed.

    The essays in this collection explore African American children's literature and the view it provides of the African American community. Of particular interest is the relationship between African American folktales and those of subSaharan Africa. The following essays are included: (1) "The All-White World of Children's Books" (Nancy…

  16. Indo-US Relations for a Symbiotic World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    requires at least a trillion dollar investment in infrastructure. The OECD (Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development) report, “India...interests, as most of the world bodies are dominated by the Western nations. India desires the membership of the UNSC (United Nations Security Council...to Indonesia and Brazil as important players. Apart from these, the US wants to constructively engage its 141 Ibid. 142 Ibid., 45. 143 Ibid., 45-46

  17. Mortality patterns following downsizing at Pan American World Airways.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Pinkerton, Lynne E

    2008-01-01

    There are only a small number of studies on the health effects of involuntary unemployment (e.g., downsizing), and results are contradictory. The authors studied the mortality through 2002 of 13,370 Pan American World Airways employees who were born before 1940 and whose records were available after the company's bankruptcy in 1991. The cohort was divided into those who left work voluntarily (55%), involuntarily (39%), and because of illness (6%). The mean year of first employment was 1963, the mean year of last employment was 1987, and the mean age at leaving the company was 55 years. Of those who left involuntarily, 56% left at the time of bankruptcy in December 1991 or later. Twenty-two percent of the cohort died during follow-up, which began at the time of leaving the company. Standardized mortality ratios relative to the US population for all causes for those who left voluntarily, involuntarily, and because of illness were 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.76), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.74), and 2.40 (95% CI: 2.22, 2.60), respectively. Ischemic heart disease mortality showed a similar pattern. Internal analyses comparing involuntary to voluntary leavers after adjusting for age, race, sex, calendar time, and education yielded all-cause and ischemic heart disease rate ratios of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.07) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.35), respectively. Subanalyses of those who left involuntarily at age >/=60 years, or those who left involuntarily at the time of bankruptcy, did not indicate any excess mortality (all-cause standardized mortality ratios = 0.69 and 0.64, respectively). These data do not indicate that mortality among those who left involuntarily was higher than for those who left voluntarily. Both groups showed a strong healthy worker effect.

  18. Toward World History: American Historians and the Coming of the World History Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allardyce, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Seeks to define world history through an analysis of its historical antecedents. Concentrates on the efforts of three historians--Louis Moreau, William H. McNeill, and Leften S. Stavrianos--to establish world history's place in education. Analyzes the relationship between world history, peace, and global education and the state of world history in…

  19. Toward World History: American Historians and the Coming of the World History Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allardyce, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Seeks to define world history through an analysis of its historical antecedents. Concentrates on the efforts of three historians--Louis Moreau, William H. McNeill, and Leften S. Stavrianos--to establish world history's place in education. Analyzes the relationship between world history, peace, and global education and the state of world history in…

  20. Earthscape: Transitions toward World Order. The Whole Earth Papers, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia; And Others

    The five articles in this booklet focus on positive social, political, and economic responses to world problems. The first article, "Earthscape: Transitions Toward World Order," by Patricia Mische, outlines major biological, historical, and cultural transformations which the world has undergone since the beginnings of recorded history and…

  1. Rethinking American History in a Post-9/11 World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foner, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Explores why, following September 11, historical education should provide a framework that eschews pronouncements about our own superiority and prompts greater self-consciousness among Americans and greater knowledge of those arrayed against us. (EV)

  2. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  3. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  4. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  5. Changing the World: Tolerance and Creativity Aspirations among American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Having a purpose is a form of intrapersonal giftedness. An even rarer giftedness is motivation to positively change society or culture. This exploratory chi-square and ANOVA study reports the prevalence, age distribution, stability over time, and characteristics of two change oriented aims in American adolescents. In a sample of 270, 12%, who tend…

  6. Changing the World: Tolerance and Creativity Aspirations among American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana

    2010-01-01

    Having a purpose is a form of intrapersonal giftedness. An even rarer giftedness is motivation to positively change society or culture. This exploratory chi-square and ANOVA study reports the prevalence, age distribution, stability over time, and characteristics of two change oriented aims in American adolescents. In a sample of 270, 12%, who tend…

  7. Mexican American Murals: Making a Place in the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary

    This curriculum unit helps teachers and students explore important murals by Mexican American artists in Los Angeles (California), examine murals from the past, and work together to make their own murals. The unit suggests questions to be considered in the classroom: Why do people make murals? Why does Los Angeles have more murals than any other…

  8. Aging and World Order, The Whole Earth Papers No. 13 [And] Project Aging and World Order, Bulletin No. l, February, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Jim

    Various aspects of aging in industrially developed and traditional societies are discussed in this monograph and bulletin. The objective of the monograph is to foster consciousness of the link between local and global concerns and of the need for a more humane world order. Discussion focuses on the marginality of older adults in industrialized…

  9. American Competitiveness Initiative: Leading the World in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Keeping our competitive edge in the world economy requires focused policies that lay the groundwork for continued leadership in innovation, exploration, and ingenuity. America's economic strength and global leadership depend in large measure on our Nation's ability to generate and harness the latest in scientific and technological developments and…

  10. American radium engenders telecurie therapy during World War I.

    PubMed

    Robison, R

    2000-06-01

    From 1899 to 1912 there was a European monopoly controlling the sale of radium for cancer therapy. This trust was finally broken, albeit only temporarily, in 1912/13 by American entrepreneurs J. Flannery, H. Kelly, and J. Douglas. Joe Flannery was a former mortician turned mining magnate. Dr. Howard Kelly was the renowned gynecological surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School who defied tradition by maintaining his own private hospital. Professor James Douglas was the Arizona copper king who helped support Memorial Hospital in New York City as America's first cancer hospital. During 1913-1916 surgeons Howard Kelly (Baltimore) and H. H. Janeway (Memorial Hospital) began using radium and radon for the treatment of deep seated cancers. Their technique required placement of the sources several centimeters away from the skin surface. As this new concept, telecurie therapy, resulted in a significant decrease in dose rate, it was necessary for both surgeons to have several grams of radium, costing $180000/gram, in their possession. Fortunately, Kelly and Janeway were the sole beneficiaries of a radium mining company, the National Radium Institute, from 1913 to 1916. With this unique American source of radium and with Europe otherwise preoccupied, these two American surgeons pioneered megavoltage telecurie therapy, using the 1.2 MeV gamma rays of "mass radium."

  11. The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla

    2007-01-01

    Dark-skinned blacks in the United States have lower socioeconomic status, more punitive relationships with the criminal justice system, diminished prestige, and less likelihood of holding elective office compared with their lighter counterparts. This phenomenon of "colorism" both occurs within the African American community and is…

  12. The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla

    2007-01-01

    Dark-skinned blacks in the United States have lower socioeconomic status, more punitive relationships with the criminal justice system, diminished prestige, and less likelihood of holding elective office compared with their lighter counterparts. This phenomenon of "colorism" both occurs within the African American community and is…

  13. Japanese American reactions to World War II incarceration redress: Just world belief, locus of control, and coping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jackie H J; Nagata, Donna K; Akiyama, Mark

    2015-07-01

    This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans' reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors-Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)-and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions.

  14. The Moving Cultural Frontier of World Order: From Monotheism to North-South Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazrui, Ali A.

    This essay argues that the history of the international system has revolved around a moving frontier of cultural exclusivity. It is one of a series of working papers commissioned by the World Models Project in its effort to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action aimed at contributing to a movement for a just world order.…

  15. Emerging Attributes of Pedagogy and Curriculum for the "New World Order."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Elliott, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Outlines some fundamental issues associated with the "new world order" (the economic and social movement toward a knowledge-based society) and discusses the importance of critical thinking becoming the key attribute addressed by pedagogy and curriculum development. (EV)

  16. Emerging Attributes of Pedagogy and Curriculum for the "New World Order."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Elliott, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Outlines some fundamental issues associated with the "new world order" (the economic and social movement toward a knowledge-based society) and discusses the importance of critical thinking becoming the key attribute addressed by pedagogy and curriculum development. (EV)

  17. [The Bariloche model: a Latin American world model].

    PubMed

    Johr, W A

    1981-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970s, a research team under the direction of Amilcar O. Herrera was constituted within the Bariloche Foundation of Buenos Aires. Its task was to write a counterreport to the research work initiated by the Club of Rome, carried out under the direction of Dennis L. Meadows, and published with the title "The Limits to Growth." The 1st of 2 main parts of our study provides an extensive abstract of the basic arguments of the Bariloche Team. Its report begins by shaping the framework (socialist) of the proposed New Society which, it is claimed, would have the responsibility of satisfying the basic needs of all human beings in all parts of the world. With the aid of a projection model, comprising a period up to the year 2060, the authors attempt to answer the question of the extent to which the 4 world regions of the model can, under the conditions of the New Society, satisfy the basic needs of the population. In the 2nd critical part of our study, the main arguments of the Bariloche Team are examined. Regarding the proposed New Society, our criticism is that important questions remain unanswered; e.g., the question of the structure of the governmental organization of the New Society, and the important problem of coordinating the different enterprises of the entire economy. In spite of this and other shortcomings, however, we recognize that the Bariloche Report is an interesting and original approach attacking and trying to solve problems which are of the utmost importance for the world. (author's)

  18. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  19. Brave New World or Blind Alley? American History on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Michael; Rosenzweig, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Offers a preliminary assessment of the possibilities and limitations, allures, and dangers, of the World Wide Web for those interested in presenting, teaching, and learning United States history. Reviews Internet search tools, online libraries and archives, and museums and commercial sites. Discusses how to create an online archive. (DSK)

  20. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    26 Leyburn. James G., 14 Indentured1servants. 26Lincoln. Abraham, 61-67. 71, 78. 81, Indians . 19-20, 79-808312.7415 Industrial Mobilization Plan (IMP...all better understand the potential societal effects on the American horme front should any future crisis again require America to go to war. John S...first consists of those individuals, both civilian and military, who have a responsibility to plan against the possibility of our involvement in

  1. Identity Production in Figured Worlds: How Some Mexican Americans become Chicana/o Activist Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Using Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, and Cain's (1998) theory of identity and their concept of figured worlds, this article provides an overview of how twenty-four Mexican Americans came to produce Chicana/o Activist Educator identities. The desire to raise consciousness (teach for social justice "pero con ganas") and "give back to the [their]…

  2. Mr. Yamamoto and Japanese Americans in New Jersey during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)

  3. Treatment of Japanese-American Internment During World War II in U.S. History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Masato

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment of Japanese-American internment during World War II in high school United States history textbooks. Four reasons highlight the selection of this topic for study. First, this historical event was selected because a little over a year ago was the 60th anniversary of President Franklin D.…

  4. Factors Affecting Nontraditional African American Students' Participation in Online World Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrills, J. Maria Sweeney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning affect nontraditional African American students' participation in online world literature courses at a historically Black university (HBCU) in the southeastern United States. An instrumental case study was…

  5. Mr. Yamamoto and Japanese Americans in New Jersey during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)

  6. America's Role in the World: Challenges to American Businesses and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, James M.; Daalder, Ivo H.

    2005-01-01

    At its Summer 2003 meeting, the Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) engaged the questions of America's role in the post-Sept.11, 2001 world. Following a series of panel presentations, BHEF members specifically examined the important issues of sustaining, legitimating, and using American power. Six major foreign policy challenges facing the…

  7. Identity Production in Figured Worlds: How Some Mexican Americans become Chicana/o Activist Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Using Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, and Cain's (1998) theory of identity and their concept of figured worlds, this article provides an overview of how twenty-four Mexican Americans came to produce Chicana/o Activist Educator identities. The desire to raise consciousness (teach for social justice "pero con ganas") and "give back to the [their]…

  8. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  9. Walking in Two Worlds; Native Americans in Literature for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy A.; Radencich, Marguerite Cogorno

    1998-01-01

    Reviews six books that present role models for American Indian youth struggling to cope with living in both the modern and traditional world: "Ishi, Last of His Tribe" (Theodora Kroeber); "When the Legends Die" (Hal Borland); "The Talking Earth" (Jean George); "Cloudwalker (Joel Monture); "Forbidden…

  10. Surpassing Shanghai: An Agenda for American Education Built on the World's Leading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book answers a simple question: How would one redesign the American education system if the aim was to take advantage of everything that has been learned by countries with the world's best education systems? With a growing number of countries outperforming the United States on the most respected comparisons of student achievement--and…

  11. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  12. Factors Affecting Nontraditional African American Students' Participation in Online World Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrills, J. Maria Sweeney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning affect nontraditional African American students' participation in online world literature courses at a historically Black university (HBCU) in the southeastern United States. An instrumental case study was…

  13. American Indian Stereotypes in the World of Children: A Reader and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

    Created to try to shock people into realizing that a child's world is supersaturated with hundreds of images of savage, noble, lazy, or nonhuman Indians that obscure, misrepresent, and render trivial the rich cultures and histories of Native Americans, the reader is intended for early childhood, elementary, and secondary educators and general…

  14. The Struggle for a Just World Order: An Agenda of Inquiry and Praxis for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendlovitz, Saul H.

    One in a series of working papers commissioned by the World Order Models Project, this essay suggests directions for thought and action relevant to the evolving struggle for a just world order. The first and most important need is to combine a struggle theory of history with traditional world order inquiry, visioning, and politics. We must blend…

  15. 76 FR 23801 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Reliability..., John R. Norris, and Cheryl A. LaFleur. 1. On February 11, 2011, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization (ERO), submitted a petition for...

  16. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... current and accurate information concerning the securities of South American Minerals, Inc. because it...

  17. Technology Security Policy: From the Cold War to the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Mitchel B. Wallerstein , "Controlling Dual-Use Technologies in the New World Order," Issues in &ience and Technology, Summer 1991, pp. 74-5 and Aaron Karp...Relations and Armed Services, letter to Anthony Lake, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, August 6, 1993. Wallerstein , Mitchell

  18. The Cold War and Beyond: From Deterrence to Detente--to What? Crises in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others

    The book, intended for senior high school students, is one of a series concerned with problems of world order. The bipolar system (domination of the international system through maintenance of a balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union) is described and defined by presenting case studies of the Hungarian rebellion in 1956,…

  19. Separate, Unequal, But More Autonomous: Technology, Equity and World Order in the Millennial Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ward

    Part of a series of working papers intended to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action in favor of a more just world order, this monograph relates technology to four major global issues--energy, environment, employment, and equity. The objective is to determine the kinds of technological choices that can be made regarding…

  20. Separate, Unequal, But More Autonomous: Technology, Equity and World Order in the Millennial Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ward

    Part of a series of working papers intended to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action in favor of a more just world order, this monograph relates technology to four major global issues--energy, environment, employment, and equity. The objective is to determine the kinds of technological choices that can be made regarding…

  1. The Cold War and Beyond: From Deterrence to Detente--to What? Crises in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence, Ed.; And Others

    The book, intended for senior high school students, is one of a series concerned with problems of world order. The bipolar system (domination of the international system through maintenance of a balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union) is described and defined by presenting case studies of the Hungarian rebellion in 1956,…

  2. Beliefs of American Youth About Law and Order: Indicators of Instructional Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    Democracy entails the concept of orderly liberty, a concept that implies both obedience and constructive skepticism. Since teaching youngsters to be democratic citizens is a central concern of civic education, we must be concerned about whether our youth acquire this concept of orderly liberty. Studies indicate that American youth tend to value…

  3. Is It a Dangerous World Out There? The Motivational Bases of American Gun Ownership.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Leander, N Pontus; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2017-08-01

    Americans are the world's best armed citizens and public polling suggests protection/self-defense is their main reason for gun ownership. However, there is virtually no psychological research on gun ownership. The present article develops the first psychological process model of defensive gun ownership-specifically, a two-component model that considers both the antecedents and consequences of owning a gun for protection/self-defense. We demonstrate that different levels of threat construal-the specific perceived threat of assault and a diffuse threat of a dangerous world-independently predict handgun ownership; we also show how utility judgments can explain the motivated reasoning that drives beliefs about gun rights. We tested our model in two independent samples of gun owners (total N = 899), from just before and after the Orlando mass shooting. This study illustrates how social-cognitive theories can help explain what motivates Americans to own handguns and advocate for broad rights to carry and use them.

  4. Word Order and World Order: Titles of Intergroup Conflicts May Increase Ethnocentrism by Mentioning the In-Group First.

    PubMed

    Oeberst, Aileen; Matschke, Christina

    2017-04-03

    The title of a historical event is usually the first thing we learn about that event. This article investigates whether group order in supposedly neutral conflict titles (e.g., Polish-Russian War) is systematically biased toward naming the in-group first (e.g., Polish-Russian War in Polish; Russian-Polish War in Russian) and whether group order affects perceptions of the groups involved. Based on linguistic evidence that individuals have the tendency to name themselves first, we expected and found a systematic tendency to name the in-group first in N = 172 real-world titles of historical conflicts from more than 40 languages (Study 1), under controlled conditions with participants from different cultures (Studies 2a and 2b), and in a minimal group experiment (Study 3), which identifies group membership as a crucial factor and rules out alternative explanations. Furthermore, based on findings on perception, it is predicted and found in 3 studies (Study 4, 5a, and 5b) that a group is perceived as more important when mentioned first rather than second. This effect depended, however, on group order in the questions asked. Additionally, the first group was consistently associated with more power. Combined, seemingly neutral conflict titles may therefore increase ethnocentrism as it is the in-group that is mostly mentioned first and because of that perceived as more important. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans With Whites Surrounding World War II

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War II with homogamy and intermarriage with Whites for the prewar (1930–1940) and resettlement (1946–1966) marriage cohorts. The authors applied log-linear models to census microsamples (N = 1,590,416) to estimate the odds ratios of homogamy versus intermarriage. The unadjusted odds ratios of Japanese Americans declined between cohorts and appeared to be consistent with the assimilation hypothesis. Once compositional influences and educational pairing patterns were adjusted, however, the odds ratios increased and supported the heightened exclusion hypothesis. PMID:21116449

  6. Preparing nurses for the new world order: a faculty development focus.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Anne; Roat, Cheryl; Kemper, Mori

    2012-01-01

    The new world order demands nursing faculty members be as competent in teaching and coaching students as they are about the art and science of nursing. The complexity associated with classroom management requires mastery of innovative learning modalities to assist students to think critically using research-based evidence in making patient care decisions. Grand Canyon University has made faculty competence a priority to ensure quality student outcomes. The College of Nursing has embraced a systematic process for creating faculty excellence through a comprehensive faculty development initiative. Developing faculty requires university support through policy and resources that is essential to prepare nurses for the new world order and therefore closing the education practice gap.

  7. The United Nations Security Council Veto in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Shoffner, SASO to FMSO: Assessing the New World Order, Military Review, Dec. 1991, at preface. 10. Natsec Strategy, supra note 1, at 3. . 11. See Cass R... Sunstein , Constitutionalism and Secession, 58 U. Chi. L. Rev. 633, 640 (1991) [hereinafter Sunstein ]. 12. See Claude, supra note 7, at 253 (on the need...File [hereinafter Genscher on Yugoslavia]. 52. See Sunstein , supra note 11, at 654. . 53. Steven L. Burg, Nationalism and Democratization in

  8. Changing the medical world order with technological advances: the future has only begun.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Ronald C

    2004-01-01

    It is a great honor to contribute in a small way to this book which in a way celebrates the continued evolution of telemedicine in Kosova. I was privileged to visit this brave land on several occasions in the last years. Severe circumstances were repeatedly resolved through great personal and professional sacrifice. Revolutionary solutions have been applied where evolutionary development was simply too slow in the realization of a new land in a complex world. In some ways telemedicine is emblematic of such struggle and success. We aspire to world health when world peace is elusive and hunger haunts us in the midst of plenty. Telecommunications have made it easy to report the failings of medicine, the injustice of health care and the unmet promise of political endeavor. It is the promise of telemedicine to use those same channels of information to empower, unify and advance the cause of health rather than only report the failings. Telemedicine entails the use of telecommunications and information technology to support the delivery of health care at a distance. There are critics who believe telemedicine is a waste of precious resources, which are needed urgently for higher health priorities. Telemedicine is dismissed as an expensive irrelevance, another distraction from the real needs of medicine in a chaotic world. That is patently ridiculous. Telemedicine is a part of the wider phenomenon of information and information is arguably the strongest change agent in play for medicine and other societal elements as well. A well-informed public armed with the tools for self-determination and the evidence for efficient action cannot be corrupted. Telemedicine is a part of the great change information brings to the world order, a drastic change toward a better world of health and justice.

  9. 76 FR 28118 - Order of Suspension of Trading; American Resource Technologies, Inc., Apollo Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; American Resource Technologies, Inc., Apollo Resources... Suspension of Trading May 11, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack... securities of Apollo Resources International, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  10. 77 FR 26796 - Order of Suspension of Trading; Airtrax, Inc., Amedia Networks, Inc., American Business Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; Airtrax, Inc., Amedia Networks, Inc., American Business Financial Services, Inc., Appalachian Bancshares, Inc., and Ariel Way, Inc. May 3, 2012. It appears to the Securities... information concerning the securities of Amedia Networks, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  11. The American nursing shortage during World War I: the debate over the use of nurses' aids.

    PubMed

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of the creation of the Army and Navy Female Nurse Corps and the debate that ensued between American nursing leaders Jane Delano, director of the Red Cross Nursing Service, M. Adelaide Nutting, president of the American Federation of Nurses, and Annie Goodrich, dean of the Army School of Nursing, over the use of untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage that resulted from the United States entry into the Great War in 1917. The recruitment of minimally or untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage of the World War I era was a logical solution for American nursing leaders who had to meet the needs for nursing personnel. The exclusion of trained African American nurses, however, was a gross oversight on the part of these leaders. Whether or not this action compromised the status of nursing as a profession is still a matter of interest. Moreover, the debate about the delivery of care by unlicensed personnel continues.

  12. Parenting in 2 Worlds: pilot results from a culturally adapted parenting program for urban American Indians.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baker, Tahnee

    2015-02-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10-17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for 5 weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pre-test surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys 5 weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child's anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents.

  13. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Pilot Results from a Culturally Adapted Parenting Program for Urban American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baker, Tahnee

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10–17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for five weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pretest surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys five weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child’s anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant if preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents. PMID:25367804

  14. "implicate Order" and the Good Life: Applying David Bohm's Ontology in Human World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravn, Ib.

    In an attempt to formulate a coherent view of quantum reality, the theoretical physicist David Bohm has proposed a new concept of order to supplement the mechanistic Cartesian order of traditional physics. The "implicate" order is a subtler and deeper order that emphasizes "unbroken wholeness in flowing movement," in contrast to the coarser and more superficial, "explicate" Cartesian order of distinct phenomena. This dissertation attempts to develop a meaning for the idea of implicate order in the world of human experience. First is offered an account of some evolutionary episodes in terms of implicate and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in its parts; and all parts render different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity experience," respectively. The former is the experience that a given part of one's life reveals a larger wholeness or unity; the subject-object distinction is transcended and one becomes absorbed in the flow of whatever activity is pursued. The latter is a deep appreciation of the diversity of ways in which people may seek the unity experience. These experiences are proposed as general values: social and psychological conditions ought to be such that these experiences are enhanced in all people. A two-by-two matrix of the two experiences demonstrates the danger of pursuing one to the exclusion of the other. The experience of unity without diversity turns into absolutism, the insistence that one's chosen activities or beliefs are the only right ones. The experience of diversity

  15. La Asociacion Hispano-Americana de Madres y Esposas: Tucson's Mexican American Women in World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Christine

    The contributions made during World War II by Mexican-American women on the home front have not been recognized in their proper historical perspective. Like their Anglo counterparts, these women took up the responsibilities left by their men and worked to support the war effort. In 1944 the Mexican-American women of Tucson formed La Asociacion…

  16. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  17. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  18. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for the parties and world oil markets

    SciTech Connect

    Verleger, P.K. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been criticized because it failed to open Mexico`s hydrocarbon reserves to development by private parties. This failure is an economic tragedy. Consumer welfare will clearly be reduced as a consequence. However, the loss is confined to Mexico where economic growth rates may be reduced by as much as one half of one percent per year. Otherwise, the agreement will have insignificant impacts on the world oil market. Future levels of production and prices will be unaffected by the agreement. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Unpuzzling American Climate: New World Experience and the Foundations of a New Science.

    PubMed

    White, Sam

    2015-09-01

    In the early exploration and colonization of the Americas, Europeans encountered unfamiliar climates that challenged received ideas from classical geography. This experience drove innovative efforts to understand and explain patterns of weather and seasons in the New World. A close examination of three climatic puzzles (the habitability of the tropics, debates on the likelihood of a Northwest Passage, and the unexpectedly harsh weather in the first North American colonies) illustrates how sixteenth- and seventeenth-century observers made three intellectual breakthroughs: conceiving of climates as a distinct subject of inquiry, crossing the hitherto-separated disciplines of geography and meteorology, and developing new theories regarding the influence of prevailing winds on patterns of weather and seasons. While unquantified and unsystematic, these novel approaches promoted a new understanding of climates critical to the emergence of climate science. This study offers new insights into the foundations of climatology and the role of the New World in early modern science.

  20. Tension and opportunity in post-world War II American psychology.

    PubMed

    Pickren, Wade

    2007-08-01

    The rapid growth of post-World War II psychology in the United States led to intradisciplinary tensions and opportunities. In this article, I examine these tensions and opportunities in the context of social change from the 1950s through the present, attending specifically to the broad impact of federal funding on psychology. I argue that as psychology became a resource-rich field, it was forced to move from a narrow, parochial stance to a position as a national-level professional player that had to deal with the challenges of mixing science and practice, as well as meeting the demands of non-White psychologists at the national level. The impetus to create a more inclusive psychology has grown in the last three decades of the 20th century and has helped create possibilities for greater richness in American psychology and movement toward a truly international role vis-a-vis emergent psychologies around the world.

  1. Fighting for business: the limits of professional cooperation among American doctors during the First World War.

    PubMed

    Schafer, James A

    2015-04-01

    The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine.

  2. American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica

    2017-03-24

    The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."

  3. American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." PMID:28351883

  4. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  6. America in the World. Materials for Using American Issues Forum in the American History Classroom, Topic VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This booklet of secondary level classroom strategies was developed as one in a set of materials for studying American history in light of issues identified by the American Issues Forum. Divided into four sections, the materials emphasize the meaning of the American dream, implications of belonging to a worldwide economic system, the role of the…

  7. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  8. United States and the New International Economic Order: an analysis of American foreign policy regarding the transfer of technology to the less-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Asim, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to demonstrate that the concept of a New International Economic Order is not just a passing phase confined to verbal polemics in the United Nations, but that it is a highly serious effort to alter the existing global economic system of the non-Communist world. It is further maintained that while the New International Economic Order is not wholly what its title suggests, it is, nevertheless, a growing movement being pursued by the less-developed countries in numerous international fora. The role of the United States is the subject of a sharper focus, particularly in regard to its response to the New International Economic Order. A chronological survey of United States policies since the inception of the NIEO, indicates that the American response to Southern demands for a new order has been mostly negative, unimaginative, defensive, and contrary to often enunciated American ideals. The second facet of this study deals specifically with the issues pertaining to the transfer of technology to the LDCs. This phase attempts to show the potential problems and promises that such technology transfers might present. The study concludes with a set of proposals for an affirmative and globally-oriented American foreign policy toward the LDCs' economic agenda as envisioned in the NIEO, and toward their particular needs for American technology.

  9. Young Children's Literacy Practices in a Virtual World: Establishing an Online Interaction Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the literacy practices of children ages 5-11 as they engaged in out-of-school use of virtual worlds. The purpose of the study was to explore the nature, purpose, and role of literacy in children's use of a virtual world. In this article, I reflect on how children's use of literacy practices in the virtual world constructed and…

  10. Young Children's Literacy Practices in a Virtual World: Establishing an Online Interaction Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the literacy practices of children ages 5-11 as they engaged in out-of-school use of virtual worlds. The purpose of the study was to explore the nature, purpose, and role of literacy in children's use of a virtual world. In this article, I reflect on how children's use of literacy practices in the virtual world constructed and…

  11. The immediate treatment of frostbite in the American and German armies in Europe during World War 2: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Defalque, R J; Wright, A J

    2011-09-01

    This historical account, based on a survey of 250 medical articles written during and immediately after World War II, reviews the immediate treatment of frostbite in the American and German ground troops in Europe from 1941 to 1945. The American management was simpler and more conservative than the elaborate treatments reported in the German publications. Because the German patients' injuries were more severe than those of the American soldiers and because neither Army carried out strict clinical trials nor prolonged follow-ups, it is impossible to judge what treatment was superior.

  12. Arms cooperation: US security and economic imperatives in a new world order. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.W.

    1993-03-01

    This paper examines policy and directives regarding standardization through arms cooperation to determine if they support US national interests. Security, economic, and industrial interests are incrementally explored to help answer this question using the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), a mature alliance, as a basis for analysis. The author reviews arms cooperation from a historical perspective and describes the means by which arms cooperation is accomplished. Policies, positions, perspectives and lines of authority are reviewed in light of the emerging new world order. National interests are incrementally analyzed in the areas of national security, economics interests, and the impact on industry. The author concludes with detailed findings and recommendations which cumulatively propose that arms cooperation policies should continue to be pursued which open defense markets, avoid protectionist positions, and support a collective security strategy. Policies must be clearly articulated, avoid conflicting lines of authority, safeguard competition and technological advantage, and provide for a responsive industrial base. The author calls for rhetoric in this critical area be translated into real leadership.

  13. Four soil orders on a Vermont mountaintop-one-third of the world`s soil orders in a 2500-square-meter research plot

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Villars; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Vermont Long-Term Soil Monitoring Project, five 50 x 50 m plots were established on protected forestland across Vermont. In 2002, ten randomly selected subplots at each monitoring plot were sampled. The 10 pedons sampled at the high-elevation spruce-fir “Forehead” plot on Mount Mansfield were found to include soils of four taxonomic Orders: Entisols,...

  14. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  15. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  16. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  17. Where to Look for American Sign Language (ASL) Sublexical Structure in the Visual World: Reply to Salverda (2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2016-01-01

    In this reply to Salverda (2016), we address a critique of the claims made in our recent study of real-time processing of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel visual world eye-tracking paradigm (Lieberman, Borovsky, Hatrak, & Mayberry, 2015). Salverda asserts that our data do not support our conclusion that native signers and…

  18. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  19. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  20. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  1. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  2. The Interfaculty Graduate Environmental Sciences Program of the American University of Beirut: An ESD Initiative in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurayk, Rami; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Nuwayhid, Iman

    2010-01-01

    The American University of Beirut's Interfaculty Graduate Environmental Sciences Program was launched in 1997 as a means of addressing salient issues on the environment and development in Lebanon and the Arab World using an interdisciplinary approach. The programme adopts a student-centred learning approach and aims to develop critical and systems…

  3. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  4. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  5. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  6. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  7. Where to Look for American Sign Language (ASL) Sublexical Structure in the Visual World: Reply to Salverda (2016)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2016-01-01

    In this reply to Salverda (2016), we address a critique of the claims made in our recent study of real-time processing of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel visual world eye-tracking paradigm (Lieberman, Borovsky, Hatrak, & Mayberry, 2015). Salverda asserts that our data do not support our conclusion that native signers and…

  8. Renewing a Scientific Society: The American Association for the Advancement of Science from World War II to 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Dael

    This book recounts the many challenges and successes achieved by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) from World War II to 1970. Included are: (1) the development of the National Science Foundation; (2) Cold War concerns about the loyalty and freedom of scientists; (3) efforts to develop an effective science curriculum…

  9. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    PubMed

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  10. Anglo-American Relations: Can The ’Special’ Relationship Survive in the New World Order?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-21

    opinion. A key paragraph 78 in the Strategic Concept is capable of comforting both the instinctive atlanticists and the enthusiastic europeanisers by...This is no longer necessarily so. Clinton’s natural instinct will be to deal 37 with Europe as a region and the European Community as the regional...on the rise and Russia on the ropes. Within Britain there is a strong streak of instinctive atlanticism and a feeling of being not quite European

  11. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  12. In the World, but Not of the World: Understanding Conservative Christianity and Its Relationship with American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindewald, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the socio-political, cultural, and historical characteristics of the relationship between conservative Christians and the American system of public education; describes the influence of fundamentalist views on contemporary conservative Christians; and recounts the historical relationship between the Religious…

  13. 75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order withdraws 2,238.49 acres of public lands from location and entry under the United States...

  14. World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, M.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.; Kurioka, K.; Wood, S.; D'Argent, N.; Martin, D.; McHugh, I.; Tapper, N.; McGuire, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural forests store vast amounts of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Given the significance of natural forests, there is a lack of carbon accounting of primary forests that are undisturbed by human activities. One reason for this lack of interest stems from ecological orthodoxy that suggests that primary forests should be close to dynamic equilibrium, in that Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) approaches zero. However, recent results from the northern hemisphere and tropics, using eddy covariance flux towers, indicate that primary forests are a greater sink than first thought. The role of evergreen primary forests in Australian carbon balance studies remain uncertain and hence may function differently to their deciduous counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. In order to address the lack of baseline carbon accounts, an undisturbed, 300 year old Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) ecosystem, located in the Central Highlands of Victoria (Australia) was selected as a permanent study site to investigate carbon and water budgets over diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles. Mountain Ash trees are the world's tallest angiosperms (flowering plants), and one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, with an estimated 1900 tC ha-1. A 110 m tall micrometeorological tower that includes eddy covariance instrumentation was installed in August 2005. An independent biometric approach quantifying the annual net gain or loss of carbon was also made within close proximity to the flux tower. Analysis of NEP in 2006 suggests that the ecosystem acted as a carbon sink of 2.5 tC ha-1 yr-1. Woody and soil biomass increment for the same year was estimated to be 2.8 tC ha-1yr-1, in which nearly half of the biomass production was partitioned into the aboveground woody tissue. These results indicate that temperate primary forests act as carbon sinks, and are able to maintain their carbon sink status due to their uneven stand

  15. Baby boom. American anti-abortion politics blocks family planning funding around the world.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, S

    1998-01-01

    American anti-abortion politics is blocking family planning (FP) funding around the world. US Representative Chris Smith, a Republican of New Jersey, attempted to amend a proposal that would require health-care providers of federal workers who cover prescription drugs to also pay for prescribed contraceptives. Smith's amendment would have exempted any contraceptive that inhibits implantation. This action was defeated but clearly revealed that this anti-abortion politician's agenda is also anti-FP. The right-wing has hampered Clinton administration efforts to support reproductive rights. There is a link between FP and the survival of the planet from an environmentalist point of view that recognizes the extreme danger of the resource depletion attendant upon overpopulation. The Vatican's opposition to reproductive rights has resulted in serious restrictions on the delivery of reproductive health care in cases where public hospitals have merged with Roman Catholic health corporations. The population problem is "fixable" but efforts to do so remain deadlocked by a vocal minority of conservatives.

  16. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  17. Data: archival information on the physical stature and weight of American men during World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Komlos, John

    2003-12-01

    Millions of observations are available on the height of men who participated in the so-called "Forth Registration" of the United States Selective Service Administration in World war II. The men were born between April 28, 1877 and February 16, 1897.

  18. Military Implications of a Possible World Order Crisis in the 1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    to Nation, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University Press, 1960, p. 406. 2 Frantz Fanon , The Wretahed of the Earth, translated from the...understand. Readers of Frantz Fanon’s The Vlretahed of the Earth may recall that he wrote in 1961: "The natives’ challenge to the colonial world...propounded as an absolute." With astonishing foresight, Fanon explained the Third World mentality that led 15 years later to the triumphal reception of

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the North American sturgeons (order Acipenseriformes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Krieger, J; Fuerst, P A; Cavender, T M

    2000-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the extant species within the order Acipenseriformes are not well understood. Nucleotide sequences of four mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, COII, tRNA(Phe), and tRNA(Asp) genes) in North American sturgeon and paddlefish were examined to reconstruct a phylogeny. Analysis of the combined gene sequences suggests a basal placement of the paddlefish with regard to the sturgeons. Nucleotide sequences of all four genes for the three Scaphirhynchus species were identical. The position of Scaphirhynchus based on our data was uncertain. Within the genus Acipenser, the two Acipenser oxyrinchus subspecies were very similar in sequence and found to be basal to the remaining Acipenser species examined. Based on our data, Acipenser transmontanus and Acipenser medirostris were sister taxa, as were Acipenser fulvescens and Acipenser brevirostrum. Comparison of our results with hypotheses of sturgeon relationships proposed by previous authors is presented. The sequence data presented here are phylogenetically useful and provide a solid foundation of genetic information for the North American Acipenseriformes that can be expanded to include Eurasian species to provide a global picture of sturgeon evolution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carlene

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  1. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widener, Danny

    1998-01-01

    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  2. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “black cabinet,” a nongovernmental collection of black leadership that discussed strategies needed for the complete...should be confined to mainly service and support operations. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 1940 creation of his “Black Cabinet” helped to shape racial...strong political strides toward better opportunities for African Americans under the Roosevelt administration. The 1940s saw the formation of the

  3. Cranial morphology of early Americans from Lagoa Santa, Brazil: Implications for the settlement of the New World

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Walter A.; Hubbe, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Comparative morphological studies of the earliest human skeletons of the New World have shown that, whereas late prehistoric, recent, and present Native Americans tend to exhibit a cranial morphology similar to late and modern Northern Asians (short and wide neurocrania; high, orthognatic and broad faces; and relatively high and narrow orbits and noses), the earliest South Americans tend to be more similar to present Australians, Melanesians, and Sub-Saharan Africans (narrow and long neurocrania; prognatic, low faces; and relatively low and broad orbits and noses). However, most of the previous studies of early American human remains were based on small cranial samples. Herein we compare the largest sample of early American skulls ever studied (81 skulls of the Lagoa Santa region) with worldwide data sets representing global morphological variation in humans, through three different multivariate analyses. The results obtained from all multivariate analyses confirm a close morphological affinity between SouthAmerican Paleoindians and extant Australo-Melanesians groups, supporting the hypothesis that two distinct biological populations could have colonized the New World in the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. PMID:16344464

  4. Organizing for Peace and World Order Studies: A Guide of Strategies and Methods. Project for Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    Methods are offered for developing college-level peace and world order programs designed to stimulate critical problem identification and creative problem solving and to equip students for the political complexities of the struggle for peace. The manual is organized into four sections. Section 1 contains four essays by students in peace and world…

  5. Religion and World Order: Proceedings of the Symposium on Religion and Global Governance (Washington, DC, February 4, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.

    This proceedings focuses on religion and global governance, and addresses what kind of new world order will be present in the 21st century. Members of seven different religious traditions spoke from their perspectives on the contribution of religion to the development of ethical and humane systems of global governance, with special relevance to…

  6. Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.

    PubMed

    Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions.

  7. Plasma corticosterone in American kestrel siblings: effects of age, hatching order, and hatching asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Love, Oliver P; Bird, David M; Shutt, Laird J

    2003-04-01

    Although it is well documented that hatching asynchrony in birds can lead to competitive and developmental hierarchies, potentially greatly affecting growth and survival of nestlings, hatching asynchrony may also precipitate modulations in neuroendocrine development or function. Here we examine sibling variation in adrenocortical function in postnatally developing, asynchronously hatching American kestrels (Falco sparverius) by measurements of baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone at ages 10, 16, 22, and 28 days posthatching. There was a significant effect of hatching order on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development and these effects grew stronger through development. First-hatched chicks exhibited higher baseline levels than later-hatched chicks throughout development and higher stress-induced levels during the latter half of development. Furthermore, there was significant hatching span (difference in days between first- and last-hatched chicks) x hatching order interaction on both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels during development. Hatching span was also positively correlated with both measures of corticosterone and body mass in first-hatched chicks, but was negatively correlated with these factors through most of the development in last-hatched chicks. It is known that hatching asynchrony creates mass and size hierarchies within kestrel broods and we suggest that hierarchies in adrenocortical function among siblings may be one physiological mechanism by which these competitive hierarchies are maintained.

  8. The Struggle for Human Rights: A Question of Values. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    Intended for junior or senior high school students, this pamphlet examines the status of the world community in upholding the promise of the United Nations'"Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of 1948. The five chapters include definitions for a human being, and discussions of human rights and whether laws and treaties are effective…

  9. Africa in the "New World Order": Old Assumptions, Myths, and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goke-Pariola, Abiodun

    Old stereotypes and prejudices about Africa and Africans are addressed in this paper on globalizing the business curriculum and internationalizing the training of professionals. It is noted that Africa continues to suffer from a tradition of neglect that includes a historical, systematic exclusion from the rest of the world. Examples from the…

  10. The Struggle for Human Rights: A Question of Values. Perspectives in World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    Intended for junior or senior high school students, this pamphlet examines the status of the world community in upholding the promise of the United Nations'"Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of 1948. The five chapters include definitions for a human being, and discussions of human rights and whether laws and treaties are effective…

  11. An Analysis of the ’New World Order’ and Its Implications for U. S. National Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Department of State Dispatch, Volume 3, Number 5 (3 February 1992): 76. 41. Benjamin Rivlin, "Regional Arrangements and the UN System for Collective Security...Number 21 (Fall 1990): 28-31. Clad, James C. "Old World Disorders." The Washington Quarterly, Volume 15, Number 4 (Autumn 1992): 141-148. Cohen, Benjamin ...etermination and the ’new world order’." International Affairs, Volume 67, Number 3 (July 1991): 421-430. Mendelsohn , Jack. "Rhetoric V. Reality." The

  12. Pursuing the National Interest: A National Security Strategy in a New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-19

    bays and estuaries, soil erosion, and the damaging impacts of the improper use of pesticides are among the many impacts of the demand for food to feed...reason you never see me around here on weekends (or rather, the reason you would never see me around if you were here weekends) is that I am up there...jobs for American workers are increasingly overseas, as are many of products those workers want to buy. And if an appeal to economic self-interest is

  13. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Sameer Y., Ed.; Abraham, Nabeel, Ed.

    This book is a collection of articles and research materials on Arab-Americans. Part one of the book provides an historical overview of Arab-Americans, their reasons for emigration from Greater Syria, and profiles of the two major religious groups, Muslims and Christians, in the United States Arab population. Authors of this section include Alixa…

  14. Cancer Risks and Native Americans: The "Healthy Living in Two World's" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, H.; Jackson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This project collected data on cancer risk factors among urban Native American youth in the northeast to inform development of a prevention initiative. Design: Face to face interviews were conducted. Setting: Interviews were conducted in homes, at a social service agency, and in a private space at a Native American cultural event in…

  15. Cancer Risks and Native Americans: The "Healthy Living in Two World's" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, H.; Jackson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This project collected data on cancer risk factors among urban Native American youth in the northeast to inform development of a prevention initiative. Design: Face to face interviews were conducted. Setting: Interviews were conducted in homes, at a social service agency, and in a private space at a Native American cultural event in…

  16. A Different World: African American, First Generation College Women at a Selective University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the academic and social experiences of African American, first generation college students attending a selective university. Following interpretive case study methodology, the major research questions guiding this study were: How do African American, first generation college students…

  17. British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fei; Yano, Eiji

    2007-04-01

    China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non-tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco-tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco-control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti-tobacco activities by taking advantage

  18. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Support for the American Expeditionary Forces by the US Army Medical Corps During World War I.

    PubMed

    Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B

    2015-09-01

    Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.

  19. World Hunger: A Challenge to American Policy. Headline Series No. 252.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linowitz, Sol M.

    This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…

  20. World Hunger: A Challenge to American Policy. Headline Series No. 252.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linowitz, Sol M.

    This booklet examines one of the most tragic and dangerous paradoxes facing the nations of the world at the end of the 20th century: hunger amid plenty. Even though the world does not lack for food, the problem lies in the distribution and power of ownership. There are serious moral, economic and political reasons why the U.S. in particular should…

  1. First- and second-order stimulus length selectivity in New World monkey striate cortex.

    PubMed

    Bourne, J A; Lui, L; Tweedale, R; Rosa, M G P

    2004-01-01

    Motion is a powerful cue for figure-ground segregation, allowing the recognition of shapes even if the luminance and texture characteristics of the stimulus and background are matched. In order to investigate the neural processes underlying early stages of the cue-invariant processing of form, we compared the responses of neurons in the striate cortex (V1) of anaesthetized marmosets to two types of moving stimuli: bars defined by differences in luminance, and bars defined solely by the coherent motion of random patterns that matched the texture and temporal modulation of the background. A population of form-cue-invariant (FCI) neurons was identified, which demonstrated similar tuning to the length of contours defined by first- and second-order cues. FCI neurons were relatively common in the supragranular layers (where they corresponded to 28% of the recorded units), but were absent from layer 4. Most had complex receptive fields, which were significantly larger than those of other V1 neurons. The majority of FCI neurons demonstrated end-inhibition in response to long first- and second-order bars, and were strongly direction selective. Thus, even at the level of V1 there are cells whose variations in response level appear to be determined by the shape and motion of the entire second-order object, rather than by its parts (i.e. the individual textural components). These results are compatible with the existence of an output channel from V1 to the ventral stream of extrastriate areas, which already encodes the basic building blocks of the image in an invariant manner.

  2. 76 FR 65768 - ADS Media Group, Inc., American Enterprise Development Corp., and Arcland Energy Corp.; Order of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ADS Media Group, Inc., American Enterprise Development Corp., and Arcland Energy Corp.; Order of... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of ADS Media Group, Inc. because it...

  3. The 2008 World Health Organization classification system for myeloproliferative neoplasms: order out of chaos.

    PubMed

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Thiele, Juergen; Vardiman, James W

    2009-09-01

    The first formal classification of chronic myeloid neoplasms is credited to William Dameshek, who in 1951 described the concept of "myeloproliferative disorders (MPD)" by grouping together chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies included these MPDs under the broader category of chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD), which also included chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL/HES), and "CMPD, unclassifiable." The revised 2008 WHO classification system featured the following changes: 1) the term "CMPD" was replaced by "myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN)," 2) mast cell disease was formally included under the category of MPN, and 3) the subcategory of CEL/HES was reorganized into "CEL not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS)" and "myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and FGFR1"; CEL-NOS remained a subcategory of "MPN," whereas the latter neoplasms were now assigned a new category of their own. Furthermore, diagnostic criteria for PV, ET, and PMF were revised by incorporating recently described molecular markers (eg, JAK2 and MPL mutations) as well as underscoring the role of histology in differentiating reactive from clonal myeloproliferations. As a result, red cell mass measurement is no longer necessary for the diagnosis of PV, and ET can now be diagnosed at a lower platelet count threshold. The revised WHO document continues to promote the recognition of histologic categories as a necessary first step toward the genetic characterization of myeloid malignancies.

  4. Considerations for State Regulators and Policymakers in a Post-FERC Order 745 World

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andy

    2015-02-01

    By vacating the Federal Energy Commission's (FERC) Order 745 in Electric Power Supply Association vs. FERC (EPSA, 2014) the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C Circuit injected uncertainty into the future of demand response (DR) resources in U.S. wholesale markets. Many possible future scenarios in which DR continues to be available to provide capacity for resource adequacy would need to rely on a potential checkerboard of policies promulgated by state utility commissions. However, the states that will be most directly impacted by the potential implications from the EPSA ruling are precisely those that have the fewest policies currently in place to promote retail program development.

  5. [Manpower migrations in the Arab world: the reverse of the New Economic Order].

    PubMed

    Halliday, F

    1985-01-01

    Population and petroleum, 2 essential factors in the development of the Arab world, are unequally distributed in the 18 Arab countries. The abstract possibility of mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries with large populations and no oil and those with oil but small populations is far from being realized; on the contrary, growing inequality and deterioration of human and productive resources can be observed in the Arab world. The apparent economic progress of the oil producing states is illusory, because it has permitted them to defer development of their own internal resources such as agriculture, industry, professional training and education in favor of greater dependence on the temporary palliative of petroleum revenues. In 1980, over 3 million Arabs had emigrated toward other Arab countries, where they were joined by approximately 1.8 million non-Arabs. 4 types of Arab migration have been important: movement from the countryside to cities within countries, movement of Arab migrants to non-Arab countries, movement from 1 Arab state to another because of political factors and especially to earn high wages in the oil producing states, and immigration of non-Arabs and especially Asians to Arab countries. 6 of the principal manpower importing countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar, had total labor forces of about 5.2 million in 1985, of which only 41% were nationals. There have been 4 main consequences for the states importing manpower: 1) petroleum production is very capital intensive and creates few jobs; the jobs filled by migrants are mostly in construction and services funded by oil revenues 2) the expansion is temporary because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource; the manpower transfers will therefore not be permanent 3) the migrants represent a large proportion of the labor force and populations of the Gulf oil-producing states, and 4) the migrants are systematically excluded from the political and

  6. Body image in the old order Amish: a people separate from "the world".

    PubMed

    Platte, P; Zelten, J F; Stunkard, A J

    2000-12-01

    Body image measures were assessed among the Old Order Amish, a Protestant religious community living separate from Western industrialized society. One hundred six Old Order Amish men (n = 50) and women (n = 56), aged 14-67 years, were studied by two measures of body image: (1) body dissatisfaction as assessed by the difference between subjects' body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and the BMI that they chose as their ideal and (2) the relative accuracy of perception of body size assessed by comparing subjects' choice of body size on a Figure Rating Scale with the choice of a relative. Young persons and persons of normal weight of both genders showed no body dissatisfaction or inaccuracy in their perception of their body size. Older persons of both genders, on the other hand, manifested body dissatisfaction (actual BMI greater than ideal BMI). Older women also overestimated their body size. Obese persons of both genders manifested body dissatisfaction (actual BMI greater than ideal BMI) and obese men overestimated their body size. Young Amish people do not show the body image problems characteristic of young persons in Western industrial society. Their elders and obese persons may have some such problems. 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

    2010-01-01

    Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed.

  8. American Justice on Trial. Grade 11 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillich, Geoff

    On February 19, 1942, at the height of U.S. involvement in World War II, President Roosevelt authorized military leaders within the War Department to place all Japanese Americans residing on the West Coast in detention camps. The following months saw the relocation of some 120,000 Japanese Americans, of whom 77,000 were U.S. citizens. The decision…

  9. The Operational Capability of the American Expeditionary Forces in the World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Organization Theory: Modern , Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 313. 92 Lengel, Conquer, 27; Braim, Test...1997. Hatch, Mary Jo and Ann L. Cunliffe. Organization Theory: Modern , Symbolic, and Postmodern Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006...the question of how they changed to meet the modern battlefield they faced on the Western Front. First, understanding the American Army of April 1917

  10. Shuttling between Worlds: Quandaries of Performing Queered Research in Asian American Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varney, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how the tensions that grow out of being a researcher in my community of queer Asian Americans lead to the formulation of a different kind of ethnographic approach. A hybrid notion of identity can require and inform a hybrid or poststructural ethnographic practice. This hybridized research method draws upon theoretical strands…

  11. Right along the Border: Mexican-American Students Write Themselves into The(ir) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Hidalgo County, Texas, is one of the poorest in the country. The population in the Lower Rio Grande Valley is 85% Mexican-American. Underprepared for college and juggling full time jobs, their own children, and sometimes dysfunctional extended families, students often do not expect to succeed. I recently taught a Creative Writing course which…

  12. Awakening American Education to the World: The Role of Archibald Cary Coolidge, 1866-1928.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Robert F.

    The beginnings of research and instruction in American higher education concerning foreign countries and cultures are described, with a focus on the career of Archibald Cary Coolidge and his contributions toward transforming Harvard University. The years between 1890 and 1930 were important to U.S. higher education and constituted an era of great…

  13. Walk Tall in the World: African American Literature for Today's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rudine Sims

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on recently published children's books by and about Blacks. Provides an overview of current African American authors and artists writing for elementary school children and examines themes, issues, and trends in their work. Discusses the role of literature in literacy development and its place in home and classroom activities. (AF)

  14. Awakening American Education to the World: The Role of Archibald Cary Coolidge, 1866-1928.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Robert F.

    The beginnings of research and instruction in American higher education concerning foreign countries and cultures are described, with a focus on the career of Archibald Cary Coolidge and his contributions toward transforming Harvard University. The years between 1890 and 1930 were important to U.S. higher education and constituted an era of great…

  15. EDUCATION OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN IN TODAY'S WORLD, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH FOR TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREENBERG, GILDA M.; GREENBERG, NORMAN C.

    A CONCISE, INTERDISCIPLINARY OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION IS PRESENTED, INCLUDING AN HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, A PRESENTATION OF THEIR CULTURAL PRACTICES AND VALUE SYSTEMS, A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF SOUTHWESTERN INDIAN SPEECH SOUNDS, A DESCRIPTION OF THE EDUCATION OF INDIANS, AN EXAMPLE OF INDIAN EDUCATION AMONG THE NAVAJOS, AND A SELECTED LIST…

  16. "This Strange White World": Race and Place in Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Aboard a train heading out of Minneapolis toward frontier North Dakota, Era Bell Thompson in her autobiography "American Daughter" (1946) describes a landscape that grows steadily bleaker with each mile farther west: "Suddenly there was snow--miles and miles of dull, white snow, stretching out to meet the heavy, gray sky; deep banks…

  17. Acting "Tough" in a "Tough" World: An Examination of Fear among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…

  18. Right along the Border: Mexican-American Students Write Themselves into The(ir) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Hidalgo County, Texas, is one of the poorest in the country. The population in the Lower Rio Grande Valley is 85% Mexican-American. Underprepared for college and juggling full time jobs, their own children, and sometimes dysfunctional extended families, students often do not expect to succeed. I recently taught a Creative Writing course which…

  19. Mammography screening trends: the perspective of African American women born pre/post World War II.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A

    2010-06-01

    Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged > or =50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non-baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non-baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947-0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non-baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278-2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population.

  20. Acting "Tough" in a "Tough" World: An Examination of Fear among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…

  1. "This Strange White World": Race and Place in Era Bell Thompson's "American Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Aboard a train heading out of Minneapolis toward frontier North Dakota, Era Bell Thompson in her autobiography "American Daughter" (1946) describes a landscape that grows steadily bleaker with each mile farther west: "Suddenly there was snow--miles and miles of dull, white snow, stretching out to meet the heavy, gray sky; deep banks…

  2. Shuttling between Worlds: Quandaries of Performing Queered Research in Asian American Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varney, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how the tensions that grow out of being a researcher in my community of queer Asian Americans lead to the formulation of a different kind of ethnographic approach. A hybrid notion of identity can require and inform a hybrid or poststructural ethnographic practice. This hybridized research method draws upon theoretical strands…

  3. The American Academic Profession: A Synthesis of Social Scientific Inquiry since World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin J.

    A profile of the American college professor is presented, based on social science studies. The historical background is traced, with attention to the early development of the professorial role during the latter half of the eighteenth century, the progressive professionalization of the faculty during the nineteenth century, and the consolidation of…

  4. Designing from Their Own Social Worlds: The Digital Story of Three African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the literacy work of three African American young women (through data drawn from a larger qualitative study), particularly their ways of knowing, such as double consciousness (Du Bois, 1989), and the multiple subject positions they occupy as they write themselves into a digitally created story. My analysis is guided by the…

  5. Health issues in the Arab American community. Commentary on tobacco: the world's leading cause of cancer.

    PubMed

    Seffrin, John R

    2007-01-01

    Cancer incidence is on the rise in many regions of the world, including the Middle East, where incidence rates for both men and women are increasing. Like many regions of the world, increased tobacco use, combined with other factors, is driving cancer incidence in the Middle East. Tobacco, the only consumer product proven to kill more than half of its regular users, will be responsible for 4.9 million deaths worldwide this year alone. That burden is fairly evenly shared by industrialized and developing nations today but, if current trends continue, the cancer burden in the developing world will more than triple in the next 25 years, resulting in a global total of 10 million deaths worldwide each year. Seven million of these deaths will occur in the developing world, in nations least prepared to deal with the financial, social, and political consequences of this global public health tragedy. In the Arab world, lung cancer is already occurring with increasing frequency, particularly among men.

  6. Incarcerating Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Presents the history of the Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Focuses on issues such as Executive Order 9066, what happened to the Japanese Americans during the war, and the forms of resistance that occurred. Questions whether something like this could ever happen again. (CMK)

  7. American College Students' Attitudes toward Rape Victims and Beliefs in a Just World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jeaw Mei; Lin, Phylis Lan

    Two hundred sixty-six college students from four Indiana colleges and universities completed a series of surveys to determine gender differences in attitudes toward rape victims. The instruments adapted and used included the Rubin and Peplau Just World Scale (JWS), the Burt Sex Role Stereotype Scale, the Attitudes Toward Rape Victims Scale (ATRVS)…

  8. U.S. Trade with the Third World: The American Stake. Occasional Paper 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, John A.

    This essay examines the various economic effects of U.S. trade with developing nations to determine whether or not such trade is in the U.S. interest. Expansion of trade with the Third World is very much in keeping with the Reagan administration's economic goals. It stems from the conviction that solution to the problems of poverty and…

  9. An Overview of American Public School Bands and Orchestras before World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Jere T.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the history of U.S. public school bands and orchestras prior to World War II. Begins with nineteenth century touring orchestras; continuing with military, town, and professional bands. Relates the growth of instrumental music in schools to the expansion of the music curriculum and the progressive education movement. (LS)

  10. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  11. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  12. To Hell with the Wigs! Native American Representation and Resistance at the World's Columbian Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in celebration of the quadricentennial anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Americas, spread over six hundred acres of reclaimed marsh lands in Chicago's South Side. Fourteen great buildings and two hundred additional buildings stood on the fairgrounds, and if tourists had visited every exhibit, they…

  13. Father Nature: Fathers as Guides to the Natural World. American Land & Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Paul S., Ed.; Tag, Stan, Ed.

    This book contains 19 personal essays on the role that fathers play in fostering connections between their children and the natural world. Written from the perspective of adult children or of fathers themselves, most essays show how outdoor activities, particularly hunting and fishing, are replicated across the generations and serve to foster…

  14. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  15. Professionalism behind barbed wire: health care in World War II Japanese-American concentration camps.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K; Jensen, Gwenn M

    2011-04-01

    Physicians and nurses of Japanese ancestry provided health care to 110000 persons incarcerated by the US government during World War II. They faced immense public health challenges created by overcrowding and inadequate resources. Their extraordinary service to their community reflected their professional devotion to their patients and the values of their Japanese homeland.

  16. Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene, Jennifer D.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

  17. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  18. The 1939-1940 New York World's Fair and the Transformation of the American Science Extracurriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2009-01-01

    At the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair, several thousand boys and girls, all members of a growing national network of high school science and engineering clubs, displayed their science fair projects and conducted live experiments to more than 10 million visitors. Housed in the building sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing…

  19. Father Nature: Fathers as Guides to the Natural World. American Land & Life Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Paul S., Ed.; Tag, Stan, Ed.

    This book contains 19 personal essays on the role that fathers play in fostering connections between their children and the natural world. Written from the perspective of adult children or of fathers themselves, most essays show how outdoor activities, particularly hunting and fishing, are replicated across the generations and serve to foster…

  20. The 1939-1940 New York World's Fair and the Transformation of the American Science Extracurriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Sevan G.

    2009-01-01

    At the 1939-1940 New York World's Fair, several thousand boys and girls, all members of a growing national network of high school science and engineering clubs, displayed their science fair projects and conducted live experiments to more than 10 million visitors. Housed in the building sponsored by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing…

  1. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  2. To Hell with the Wigs! Native American Representation and Resistance at the World's Columbian Exposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, in celebration of the quadricentennial anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Americas, spread over six hundred acres of reclaimed marsh lands in Chicago's South Side. Fourteen great buildings and two hundred additional buildings stood on the fairgrounds, and if tourists had visited every exhibit, they…

  3. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  4. [The introduction in France, between the two World Wars, of the ideas of American scientific ecology].

    PubMed

    Acot, P; Drouin, J M

    1997-01-01

    From the early XIXth century, studies of plant associations in relation to their different environments arose in geobotany, next to classical studies of species distribution. This trend in research was perpetuated and may explain some characteristics of the reception in France of American scientific ecology. Thus, during the interwar years, the Zürich-Montpellier school of phytosociology made possible important progress in bringing to the fore the discontinuities in vegetation. However, it hindered ecological research from the approach of plant associations dynamics, hence to ideas in systems ecology, while works on these subjects were successfully carried out at the same time in the USA. Nevertheless, several researchers (geobotanists, microbiologists or biocoenologists) worked within a conceptual framework that was in harmony with American studies on biotic communities.

  5. Learning to talk in a gesture-rich world: Early communication in Italian vs. American children

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Jana M.; Capirci, Olga; Volterra, Virginia; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Italian children are immersed in a gesture-rich culture. Given the large gesture repertoire of Italian adults, young Italian children might be expected to develop a larger inventory of gestures than American children. If so, do these gestures impact the course of language learning? We examined gesture and speech production in Italian and US children between the onset of first words and the onset of two-word combinations. We found differences in the size of the gesture repertoires produced by the Italian vs. the American children, differences that were inversely related to the size of the children’s spoken vocabularies. Despite these differences in gesture vocabulary, in both cultures we found that gesture + speech combinations reliably predicted the onset of two-word combinations, underscoring the robustness of gesture as a harbinger of linguistic development. PMID:19763226

  6. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  7. In Order to Teach Me, You Have to Know Me: A Mixed-Methods Study of African-American Male Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, 30% of high school students do not graduate. Among this percentage, 50% are African-American. This study focused on at-promise African-American male classroom engagement where the researcher employed a mixed-methods methodology. Findings reveal that in order to engage and keep at-promise African-American males in high school, educators…

  8. 76 FR 66055 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Interpretation of Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Interpretation of Reliability Standard; Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip D. Moeller, John R. Norris, and Cheryl A. LaFleur Issued October 20, 2011. 1. On April 15, 2011, the North American... reh'g & compliance, 117 FERC ] 61,126 (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (D.C...

  9. African American Reaction to Lafayette Parish School Desegregation Order: From Delight to Disenchantment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Growe, Roslin; Bankston, Carl L., III

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed middle to upper middle class African Americans at three times following a 2000 court decision to desegregate schools in Louisiana's Lafayette Parish. Results indicated that although reactions were initially largely positive, these reactions turned negative after the reality of implementation (e.g., closing of black schools, busing of…

  10. Phylogeny, biogeography, and rates of diversification of New World Astragalus (Leguminosae) with an emphasis on South American radiations.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Vidal, Rodrigo; Sanderson, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study uses phylogenetic relationships of New World representatives of the species-rich genus Astragalus (Leguminosae; Papilionoideae) to follow up on recent evidence pointing to rapid and recent plant diversification patterns in the Andes. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were done using nuclear rDNA ITS and chloroplast spacers trnD-trnT and trnfM-trnS1, either separately or in combination. The effect of using partitioned vs. nonpartitioned analyses in a Bayesian approach was evaluated. Highest resolution was obtained when the data were combined in partitioned or nonpartitioned Bayesian analyses. All phylogenies support two clades of South American species nested within the North American species, implying two separate invasions from North to South America. These two clades correspond to the original morphological classification of Johnston (1947 Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 28: 336-409). The mean ages of the South American clades were very recent but still significantly different (1.89 and 0.98 Ma). Upper and lower bounds on rates of diversification varied between 2.01 and 0.65 species/Ma for the older clade and 2.06 and 1.24 species/Ma for the younger clade. Even the lower bounds are still very high, reasserting Neo-Astragalus in the growing list of recent rapid radiations of plants, especially in areas with a high physiographic diversity, such as the Andes.

  11. The role of reputation in U.S. News & World Report's rankings of the top 50 American hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2010-04-20

    U.S. News & World Report's annual rankings of the top 50 American hospitals in 12 specialties are based on a combination of subjective and objective measures of quality. Although the rankings have been criticized for emphasizing the subjective reputation of hospitals too strongly, the role of reputation in determining the relative standings of the top 50 hospitals has not been quantified. To quantify the role of reputation in determining the relative standings of the top 50 hospitals in the 2009 edition of U.S. News & World Report's rankings. Cross-sectional study. The top 50 hospitals in each of 12 specialties. Rankings based on the total U.S. News score and on a subjective reputation score. On average, rankings based on reputation score alone agreed with U.S. News & World Report's overall rankings 100% of the time for the top hospital in each specialty, 97% for the top 5 hospitals, 91% for the top 10 hospitals, and 89% for the top 20 hospitals. Hospital reputation was minimally associated with objective quality measures (mean Spearman rho(2) = 0.03). The findings apply primarily to interpretations about the relative standings of the 50 top-ranked hospitals in each specialty and not necessarily to the hundreds of unranked hospitals. The relative standings of the top 50 hospitals largely reflect the subjective reputations of those hospitals. Moreover, little relationship exists between subjective reputation and objective measures of hospital quality among the top 50 hospitals. None.

  12. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  13. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Stahura, J M

    1988-10-01

    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."

  14. Vehicular air pollution: Experiences from seven Latin american urban centers. World Bank Technical Paper No. 373

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.; Gautam, S.P.

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution caused by motor vehicles is a major environmental problem in many Latin American urban centers. If appropriate measures are not taken soon, vehicular air pollution in the region is likely to worsen, posing a great threat to human health and welfare. This report analyzes the pollutants emitted by motor vehicles, their effects, and pollutant-control measures targeted at vehicles, fuels, and transport management. Case studies for Mexico City, Mexico, Santiago, Chile, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Botota, Colombia, illustrate how these measures have been used in the region and how they can be strengthened.

  15. Executive Order 9066: The Internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrat, Maisie; Conrat, Richard

    A pictorial representation, in black and white, of Japanese internment camps during World War II, this book has over 100 pages of pictures of the evacuation and internment, taken by Dorothea Lange and other photographers, plus a text providing a brief historical account of events leading up to the internment. (SB)

  16. Parallel evolution of the glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) gene Gys1 between Old World and New World fruit bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-10-01

    Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.

  17. Alternative World Scenarios for Strategic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-20

    American Academy of Political and Social Sciences , World Future Society, Population Reference Bureau, New York Academy of Science , and Military Operations...shape the political , economic, social, technological, and military future of the United States and its relationships with other nations of the world ...of the world are progressing toward a new international political order. o Global population continues to increase. 11

  18. X-rays of inner worlds: the mid-twentieth-century American projective test movement.

    PubMed

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins to tell the neglected history of the projective test movement in the U.S. behavioral sciences from approximately 1941 to 1968. This cross-disciplinary enterprise attempted to use projective techniques as "X-ray" machines to see into the psyches of subjects tested around the world. The aim was to gather subjective materials en masse, pursuing data on a scope, scale, and manner rarely hazarded before in any science. In particular, the targeted data included the traces of the inner life and elusive aspects of subjective experience including dreams, life stories, and myriad test results from a battery of tests. This essay explores how the movement and the experimental data bank that resulted were unlikely yet telling sites for the practice and pursuit of the Cold War human sciences. To look closely at the encounters that resulted is to show how the most out-of-the-way places and seemingly insignificant moments played a role in heady scientific ambitions and global geopolitical projects. At times, the projective test movement became a mirror of Cold War rationality itself, as tests were employed at the very limits of their possible extension. The essay argues for an off-kilter centrality in the movement itself, shedding light on the would-be unified social sciences after World War II and the "subjective turn" they took. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Facing a changing world: Thermal physiology of American pikas (Ochotona princeps)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, Hans W; Wilson, James A; Beever, Erik

    2015-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) are of concern with respect to warming montane temperatures; however, little information exists regarding their physiological ability to adapt to warming temperatures. Previous studies have shown that pikas have high metabolism and low thermal conductance, which allow survival during cold winters. It has been hypothesized that these characteristics may be detrimental, given the recent warming trends observed in montane ecosystems. We examined resting metabolic rate, surface activity, and den and ambient temperatures (Ta) of pikas in late summer (August 2011 and 2012) at 2 locations in the Rocky Mountains. Resting metabolic rate was calculated to be 2.02 mL O2 · g-1h-1, with a lower critical temperature (LCT) of 28.1 ± 0.2 °C. No upper critical temperature (UCT) could be determined from our data; therefore, the estimated thermoneutral zone (TNZ) was 28.1 °C to at least 35.0 °C (upper experimental temperature). Pikas in this study showed the same bimodal above-talus activity patterns reported in previous studies. Den temperatures in Colorado were correlated with, but consistently lower than, current ambient temperatures. Wyoming den temperatures showed a weak correlation with Ta 20 min prior to the current den temperature. This study is one of few to present data on the physiological response pikas may have to current warming conditions, and the first to perform metabolic measurements in situ. Our data support conclusions of previous studies, specifically MacArthur and Wang (1973, 1974) and Smith (1974), which indicated American pikas may not have the physiological ability to cope with high Ta. Our results also highlight the importance of shaded regions below the talus rocks for behavioral thermoregulation by pikas.

  20. North American velvet ants form one of the world's largest known Müllerian mimicry complexes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joseph S; Jahner, Joshua P; Forister, Matthew L; Sheehan, Erica S; Williams, Kevin A; Pitts, James P

    2015-08-17

    Color mimicry is often celebrated as one of the most straightforward examples of evolution by natural selection, as striking morphological similarity between species evolves in response to a shared predation pressure. Recently, a large North American mimetic complex was described that included 65 species of Dasymutilla velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae). Beyond those 65 species, little is known about how many species participate in this unique Müllerian complex, though several other arthropods are thought to be involved as Müllerian mimics (spider wasps) and Batesian mimics (beetles, antlions, and spiders; see references in). Müllerian mimicry is similarity in appearance or phenotype among harmful species, while Batesian mimicry is similarity in which not all species are harmful. Here, we investigate the extent of the velvet ant mimicry complex beyond Dasymutilla by examining distributional and color pattern similarities in all of the 21 North American diurnal velvet ant genera, including 302 of the 361 named species (nearly 84%), as well as 16 polymorphic color forms and an additional 33 undescribed species. Of the 351 species and color forms that were analyzed (including undescribed species), 336 exhibit some morphological similarities and we hypothesize that they form eight distinct mimicry rings (Figure 1A; Supplemental Information). Two of these eight mimicry rings, red-headed Timulla and black-headed Timulla, were not documented in earlier assessments of mimicry in velvet ants, and are newly described here. These findings identify one of the largest known Müllerian mimicry systems worldwide and provide a novel system to test hypotheses about aposematism and mimicry, especially those regarding the evolution of imperfect mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Where to look for American Sign Language (ASL) sublexical structure in the visual world: Reply to Salverda (2016).

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-12-01

    In this reply to Salverda (2016), we address a critique of the claims made in our recent study of real-time processing of American Sign Language (ASL) signs using a novel visual world eye-tracking paradigm (Lieberman, Borovsky, Hatrak, & Mayberry, 2015). Salverda asserts that our data do not support our conclusion that native signers and late-learning signers show variable patterns of activation in the presence of phonological competitors. We provide a logical rationale for our study design and present a reanalysis of our data using a modified time window, providing additional evidence for our claim. We maintain that target fixation patterns provide an important window into real-time processing of sign language. We conclude that the use of eye-tracking methods to study real-time processing in a visually perceived language such as ASL is a promising avenue for further exploration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. War and Peace Studies: War and War Prevention. World Order. Preliminary Edition, 1974-75. History and Social Science Resource Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Albert

    A central purpose of this curriculum resource is to help students at the secondary level gain mental images, concepts, vocabulary, and learning skills they can use to comprehend the rather vast idea of world order and gain a world perspective on contemporary affairs. Emphasis is on presenting learning experiences designed to arouse controversy,…

  3. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  4. The contributions made by multinational enterprises to the economic development and political stabilization of less developed countries seen in its dependence on the world economic order.

    PubMed

    Biermann, H

    1977-12-01

    For their own advantage, developing countries should attempt to extend and not to limit liberalication directed at improving competition. Particularly, developing countries should argue that the private export of capital, which is combined with the transfer of growth-promoting technology, should be increased rather than restricted and the security of private ownership should also be increased. A scheme insuring property rights should be established, whereby the amounts contributed would be fixed according to the political stability of the country concerned. Some thoughts are presented on the basic principles of the world economy and on the way in which the world economic order should be shaped. On the basis of this plan, the world economy is understood as a system of varying developed regions. Attention is focused on the basic principle of the world economic order, suggestions for a new world economic order, the concept of a functional world economic order, starting points and goals of an economic policy orientated towards development, instruments of a national structural policy orientated by the world economy -- cooperative association and/or multinational firms, and demands made upon single economic orders and upon the system of their cooperation.

  5. Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

    PubMed

    Lillquist, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."

  6. American Influence on Post-World War I Recovery of Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    capital to meet the needs of a balanced budget for that country, and the infrastructure that the economy relies upon must be restored . If the economy is...not restored , then the government cannot fund those services that are necessary to maintain peace and order. The question becomes, where does the...practical understanding.”85 Dawes and Young feared that if Schacht implemented a plan to restore a gold standard of his own accord, it could be

  7. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  8. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L; Jager, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10-17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs.

  9. Diabetes Island: Preliminary Impact of a Virtual World Self-Care Educational Intervention for African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moadsiri, Ada; Quinn, Lauretta T; Riley, Barth B; Danielson, Kirstie K; Monahan, Colleen; Bangs, Valerie A; Gerber, Ben S

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a serious worldwide public health challenge. The burden of diabetes, including prevalence and risk of complications, is greater for minorities, particularly African Americans. Internet-based immersive virtual worlds offer a unique opportunity to reach large and diverse populations with diabetes for self-management education and support. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the acceptability, usage, and preliminary outcome of a virtual world intervention, Diabetes Island, in low-income African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The main hypotheses were that the intervention would: (1) be perceived as acceptable and useful; and (2) improve diabetes self-care (eg, behaviors and barriers) and self-care related outcomes, including glycemic control (A1C), body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial factors (ie, empowerment and distress) over six months. Methods The evaluation of the intervention impact used a single-group repeated measures design, including three assessment time points: (1) baseline, (2) 3 month (mid intervention), and (3) 6 month (immediate post intervention). Participants were recruited from a university primary care clinic. A total of 41 participants enrolled in the 6 month intervention study. The intervention components included: (1) a study website for communication, feedback, and tracking; and (2) access to an immersive virtual world (Diabetes Island) through Second Life, where a variety of diabetes self-care education activities and resources were available. Outcome measures included A1C, BMI, self-care behaviors, barriers to adherence, eating habits, empowerment, and distress. In addition, acceptability and usage were examined. A series of mixed-effects analyses, with time as a single repeated measures factor, were performed to examine preliminary outcomes. Results The intervention study sample (N=41) characteristics were: (1) mean age of 55 years, (2) 71% (29/41) female, (3) 100% (41/41) African American, and (4

  10. 3 CFR 13515 - Executive Order 13515 of October 14, 2009. Increasing Participation of Asian Americans and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... community also continues to face barriers to employment and workplace advancement. Specific challenges..., including language barriers. Each agency, in its plan, shall provide appropriate measurable objectives and..., indigenous, or native peoples of Hawaii and other Pacific Islands. (f) This order is not intended to,...

  11. Family size, birth order, and intelligence in a large South American sample.

    PubMed

    Velandia, W; Grandon, G M; Page, E B

    1978-01-01

    The confluence theory, which hypothesizes a relationship between intellectual development birth order, and family size, was examined in a colombian study of more than 36,000 college applicants. The results of the study did not support the confluence theory. The confluence theory states that the intellectual development of a child is related to average mental age of the members of his family at the time of his birth. The mental age of the parents is always assigned a value of 30 and siblings are given scores equivalent to their chronological age at the birth of the subject. Therefore, the average mental age of family members for a 1st born child is 30, or 60 divided by 2. If a subject is born into a family consisting of 2 parents and a 6-year old sibling, the average mental age of family members tends, therefore, to decrease with each birth order. The hypothesis derived from the confluence theory states that there is a positive relationship between average mental age of a subject's family and the subject's performance on intelligence tests. In the Colombian study, data on family size, birth order and socioeconomic status was derived from college application forms. Intelligence test scores for each subject was obtained from college entrance exams. The mental age of each applicant's family at the time of the applicant's birth was calculated. Multiple correlation analysis and path analysis were used to assess the relationship. Results were 1) the test scores of subjects from families with 2,3,4, and 5 children were higher than test scores of the 1st born subjects; 2) the rank order of intelligence by family size was 3,4,5,2,6,1 instead of the hypothesized 1,2,3,4,5,6; and 3) only 1% of the variability in test scores was explained by the variables of birth order and family size. Further analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was a far more powerful explanatory variable than family size.

  12. Higher-order repeat structure in alpha satellite DNA occurs in New World monkeys and is not confined to hominoids.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2015-05-14

    Centromeres usually contain large amounts of tandem repeat DNA. Alpha satellite DNA (AS) is the most abundant tandem repeat DNA found in the centromeres of simian primates. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, which are tandem arrays of larger repeat units consisting of multiple basic repeat units. HOR-carrying AS also occurs in other hominoids, but results reported to date for phylogenetically more remote taxa have been negative. Here we show direct evidence for clear HOR structures in AS of the owl monkey and common marmoset. These monkeys are New World monkey species that are located phylogenetically outside of hominoids. It is currently postulated that the presence of HOR structures in AS is unique to hominoids. Our results suggest that this view must be modified. A plausible explanation is that generation of HOR structures is a general event that occurs occasionally or frequently in primate centromeres, and that, in humans, HOR-carrying AS became predominant in the central region of the centromere. It is often difficult to assemble sequence reads of tandem repeat DNAs into accurate contig sequences; our careful sequencing strategy allowed us to overcome this problem.

  13. Shaping the New World Order: International Cultural Opportunities and the Private Sector. Edited Proceedings of an International Cultural Forum (Washington, D.C., December 13, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Malcolm, Ed.; And Others

    This publication presents the proceedings of a forum held at the U.S. State Department (Washington, D.C.) on the influence of international cultural opportunities in the new world order taking shape since the demise of Communism. The speeches, introductions, and forum discussions are offered in the order that they occurred over the course of a…

  14. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  15. The 1944 Nisei Draft at Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Its Relationship to the Historical Representation of the World War II Japanese American Evacuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Arthur A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that not only illuminates a little-known incident in Asian American history but also questions how history is constructed and communicated. Provides an excellent historical account of the draft resistance movement within the Nisei internment camps during World War II. Includes handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  16. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory



    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  17. Report of the Associated Country Women of the World's National Seminar of American Indian Women (Fort Collins, August 2-8, 1970). Indian Women Plan for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Country Women's Council, U.S.A.

    Sponsored by the Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) and Country Women's Council (CWC), the seminar marked the first time that: (1) American Indian women met on a national basis and (2) Anglo women met with them. Attending the week-long seminar were 67 delegates representing 43 tribes from 23 states. Participants were selected who would…

  18. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  19. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory



    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  20. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  1. World War I origins of the syphilis epidemic among 20th century black Americans: a biohistorical analysis.

    PubMed

    Miles, T P; McBride, D

    1997-07-01

    Syphilis outbreaks and differentials have been an ongoing issue in modern preventive medicine and public health. Since the early 20th Century, a variety of approaches has been employed to explain demographic and temporal variations in the prevalence of syphilis in the U.S. Public health experts and physicians have tended to rely on case-by-case approaches to explain group-specific patterns. This study, however, shows that population-level disease dynamics cannot be ascertained from these individual-level studies. We offer a biohistorical methodology to study syphilis prevalence differentials in U.S. populations. Using historical health data, this study suggests that the social disruption brought on by World War I was the critical and unique environmental condition which ignited an epidemic of syphilis among black Americans. By establishing this beginning point for the epidemic, this study further shows the persistence of the epidemic for the next 40 years and its decline. This biohistorical methodology could be applied to the analysis of STD epidemics in other populations and regions experiencing mass exposure events.

  2. The influence of world view on African-American college students' decisions to study science: An interpretive investigation of four cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Bradford F.

    In the United States, African Americans are underrepresented among employed Ph.D. holding scientists; they comprise less than 2% of the scientific population and 12% of the United States population. Educational theorists, focusing on the career choices of African Americans as the cause of underrepresentation, have identified many factors that are associated with the underrepresentation of African Americans in science. Some of these factors are: lack of interest in science, poor academic preparation, high interest in social-oriented careers, poor educational and career planning, unfavorable images of scientists, impoverished family backgrounds, and lack of confidence in ability. This plethora of factors indicates that there is yet equivocation in literature as to the cause of underrepresentation. The objective of this study is to deepen current understanding, by providing explanations for the career decisions of African American students. Adopting a theoretical framework which maintains that human behavior is directed by world view and that world view is shaped by environment, the present study seeks to analyze the world view contents of three African American college students: two science majors and one non-science major. The aim of this study is to analyze the world view contents of the students to identify the salient world view images and assumptions that influence their career decisions. The research employs interpretive methodology and a case study design. Primary methods of data collection are interview and interview analysis. The dissertation reports the results of interviews, which include explanations for each respondent's career decisions; and the influence of three factors (expectation of monetary gain, the impact of role models, and respondents' level of self-confidence in ability) on the respondents' career decisions. Findings indicate that the science major has a greater capacity, than the non-science majors, to accommodate world view images and

  3. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Christein, John D

    2017-08-01

    Dr. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973) was an American surgeon who is well known for developing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, which is known as the "Puestow procedure" in his honor. Puestow served in the American military during the Second World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital, which provided medical and surgical services to wounded individuals in Europe and North Africa. In 1946, he founded the surgical residency training program at the Hines Veterans Hospital, which was the first such program in the United States based at a veterans hospital.

  4. Balancing acts: A mixed methods study of the figured world of African American 7th graders in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.

    What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths

  5. Substance Use Prevention for Urban American Indian Youth: A Efficacy Trial of the Culturally Adapted Living in 2 Worlds Program.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L

    2017-04-01

    This article describes a small efficacy trial of the Living in 2 Worlds (L2W) substance use prevention curriculum, a culturally adapted version of keepin' it REAL (kiR) redesigned for urban American Indian (AI) middle school students. Focused on strengthening resiliency and AI cultural engagement, L2W teaches drug resistance skills, decision making, and culturally grounded prevention messages. Using cluster random assignment, the research team randomized three urban middle schools with enrichment classes for AI students. AI teachers of these classes delivered the L2W curriculum in two schools; the remaining school implemented kiR, unadapted, and became the comparison group. AI students (N = 107) completed a pretest questionnaire before they received the manualized curriculum lessons, and a posttest (85% completion) 1 month after the final lesson. We assessed the adapted L2W intervention, compared to kiR, with paired t tests, baseline adjusted general linear models, and effect size estimates (Cohen's d). Differences between the L2W and kiR groups reached statistically significant thresholds for four outcomes. Youth receiving L2W, compared to kiR, reported less growth in cigarette use from pretest to posttest, less frequent use of the Leave drug resistance strategy, and less loss of connections to AI spirituality and cultural traditions. For other substance use behaviors and antecedents, the direction of the non-significant effects in small sample tests was toward more positive outcomes in L2W and small to medium effect sizes. Results suggest that evidence-based substance use prevention programs that are culturally adapted for urban AI adolescents, like L2W, can be a foundation for prevention approaches to help delay initiation and slow increases in substance use. In addition to study limitations, we discuss implementation challenges in delivering school-based interventions for urban AI populations.

  6. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-08

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus <3.5), with a significant trend of decreasing risk for increasing adherence (p < 0.001). Consistent results were found for colon (OR 0.67) and rectal cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Big lie, small world: what E. Lynn Harris wanted readers to understand about the struggle for African American, homosexual males seeking to attain the American dream.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.

  9. A Virtual World Versus Face-to-Face Intervention Format to Promote Diabetes Self-Management Among African American Women: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heyden, Robin; Mejilla, Roanne; Capelson, Roberta; Chalmers, Karen A; Rizzo DePaoli, Maria; Veerappa, Chetty; Wiecha, John M

    2014-01-01

    Background Virtual world environments have the potential to increase access to diabetes self-management interventions and may lower cost. Objective We tested the feasibility and comparative effectiveness of a virtual world versus a face-to-face diabetes self-management group intervention. Methods We recruited African American women with type 2 diabetes to participate in an 8-week diabetes self-management program adapted from Power to Prevent, a behavior-change in-person group program for African Americans with diabetes or pre-diabetes. The program is social cognitive theory–guided, evidence-based, and culturally tailored. Participants were randomized to participate in the program via virtual world (Second Life) or face-to-face, both delivered by a single intervention team. Blinded assessors conducted in-person clinical (HbA1c), behavioral, and psychosocial measurements at baseline and 4-month follow-up. Pre-post differences within and between intervention groups were assessed using t tests and chi-square tests (two-sided and intention-to-treat analyses for all comparisons). Results Participants (N=89) were an average of 52 years old (SD 10), 60% had ≤high school, 82% had household incomes world was slightly superior for total activity, light activity, and inactivity (P=.05, P=.07, and P=.025, respectively). HbA1c reduction was significant within face-to-face (−0.46, P=02) but not within virtual world (−0.31, P=.19), although there were no significant between group differences in HbA1c (P=.52). In both groups, 14% fewer patients had post-intervention HbA1c ≥9% (virtual world P=.014; face-to-face P=.002), with no significant between group difference (P=.493). Compared to virtual world, face-to-face was marginally superior for reducing depression symptoms (P=.051). The virtual world

  10. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Facing Higher Education Curricula Reform Challenges in a "New World (Dis)Order"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a previous article for "EJHE," I detailed Curricula Reform (CR) efforts in Higher Education (HE) in four (relatively) well developed regional and national settings (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong SAR China, and Singapore). I detailed the backdrop motivating the moves by policymakers to reform the curricula in such "world class"…

  11. Less Developed Countries (LDCs) Facing Higher Education Curricula Reform Challenges in a "New World (Dis)Order"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In a previous article for "EJHE," I detailed Curricula Reform (CR) efforts in Higher Education (HE) in four (relatively) well developed regional and national settings (The EU, the USA, Hong Kong SAR China, and Singapore). I detailed the backdrop motivating the moves by policymakers to reform the curricula in such "world class"…

  12. War neurosis, adjustment problems in veterans, and an ill nation: The disciplinary project of American psychiatry during and after World War II.

    PubMed

    Pols, Hans

    2007-01-01

    After World War II, the confidence of American psychiatrists was at an all-time high as a result of their successful participation in the war. When the incidence of mental breakdown in the American armed forces rose to unprecedented heights, new and effective psychotherapeutic methods were developed to treat the traumatic effects of the extraordinary stresses of warfare. At the same time, social scientists concluded that breakdown incidence was inversely related to morale, which led to the development of preventive measures aimed at specific groups. Both initiatives stimulated a number of psychiatrists to plan projects of social engineering after the war. They first focused on aiding the reintegration of returning veterans. Later, they addressed the poor mental health of the American population as a whole, which they considered to be the consequence of faulty child-rearing methods.

  13. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Order parameters and synchronization of FitzHugh-Nagumo small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Long; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yan-Jun

    2009-10-01

    This paper numerically investigates the order parameter and synchronisation in the small world connected FitzHugh-Nagumo excitable systems. The simulations show that the order parameter continuously decreases with increasing D, the quality of the synchronisation worsens for large noise intensity. As the coupling intensity goes up, the quality of the synchronisation worsens, and it finds that the larger rewiring probability becomes the larger order parameter. It obtains the complete phase diagram for a wide range of values of noise intensity D and control parameter g.

  14. The Effects of Incorporation into the World-System on Ethnic Persistence: The American Conquest of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Thomas D.

    The varying results of incorporation on the survival of groups such as bands, tribes, chiefdoms and mercantile states can be explained by applying the historical process to the American conquest of the Southwest. The American Southwest (the region covered by Arizona, New Mexico, parts of Texas, California, Utah, Nevada, and Colorado) was occupied…

  15. From "Wops and Dagoes and Hunkies" to "Caucasian": Changing Racial Discourse in American Classrooms during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how public schools have functioned in the ideological production of race in America and their critical role in shaping the way Americans understand specific definitions of race as well as the muted rules of racial etiquette. The author analyzes American schools as racializing institutions, that is institutions with the…

  16. The Balance of Two Worlds: A Study of the Perceptions of African American Female Principals and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caprica

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the power of story and narrative through examining the perceptions of African American female principals who are passionate about social justice leadership and making a real difference in the lives of students. The study also shared the perceptions of African American female principals regarding the challenges…

  17. The Balance of Two Worlds: A Study of the Perceptions of African American Female Principals and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Caprica

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the power of story and narrative through examining the perceptions of African American female principals who are passionate about social justice leadership and making a real difference in the lives of students. The study also shared the perceptions of African American female principals regarding the challenges…

  18. The Effects of Incorporation into the World-System on Ethnic Persistence: The American Conquest of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Thomas D.

    The varying results of incorporation on the survival of groups such as bands, tribes, chiefdoms and mercantile states can be explained by applying the historical process to the American conquest of the Southwest. The American Southwest (the region covered by Arizona, New Mexico, parts of Texas, California, Utah, Nevada, and Colorado) was occupied…

  19. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  20. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    principles for air intelligence which remains relevant to this day. The successes of Fifth and Fourteenth Air Force, and later Tenth Air Force...Pacific developed some of the most successful , as well as the most disappointing, intelligence operations in World War II. The limited resources...each Air Force organized its intelligence operations largely determined the Air Force’s success . The intelligence experience in the CBI and Pacific

  1. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  2. Motivational Factors in Combat: A Comparison of German and American Soldiers in World War II Using Content Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Robert K. Merton and Paul F. Lazarsfeld . GlencoelL: The Free Press, 1950. Shils, Edward A. and Morris Janowitz. "Cohesion and Disintegration in the...Results and Discussion - Ground Troops 84 American Ground Troops 84 Overview 84 Paul Boesch, Road To Huertgen 85 Robert Leckie, Helmet for my...by Robert Scott Target Ploesti by Leroy Newby Roar of the Tiger by James H. Howard American Ground Troops: Road to Huertgen by Paul Boesch

  3. Higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity in Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph M.; Harvey, Erin M.; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children from a highly astigmatic population differ from population norms and whether HOAs are associated with astigmatism and reduced best-corrected visual acuity. Methods Subjects were 218 Tohono O’odham Native American children 5–9 years of age. Noncycloplegic HOA measurements were obtained with a handheld Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). Signed (z06s to z14s) and unsigned (z06u to z14u) wavefront aberration Zernike coefficients Z(3,−3) to Z(4,4) were rescaled for a 4 mm diameter pupil and compared to adult population norms. Cycloplegic refraction and best-corrected logMAR letter visual acuity (BCVA) were also measured. Regression analyses assessed the contribution of astigmatism (J0) and HOAs to BCVA. Results The mean root-mean-square (RMS) HOA of 0.191 ± 0.072 μm was significantly greater than population norms (0.100 ± 0.044 μm. All unsigned HOA coefficients (z06u to z14u) and all signed coefficients except z09s, z10s, and z11s were significantly larger than population norms. Decreased BCVA was associated with astigmatism (J0) and spherical aberration (z12u) but not RMS coma, with the effect of J0 about 4 times as great as z12u. Conclusions Tohono O’odham children show elevated HOAs compared to population norms. Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. PMID:26239206

  4. Students' Views Concerning Worldview Presuppositions Underpinning Science: Is the World Really Ordered, Uniform, and Comprehensible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    That nature and the universe are ordered, uniform, and comprehensible is a starting point in science. However, such worldview presuppositions are often taken for granted, rather than explicitly mentioned, in science and in science class. This article takes a worldview perspective and reports from interviews (N = 26) with upper secondary students…

  5. Students' Views Concerning Worldview Presuppositions Underpinning Science: Is the World Really Ordered, Uniform, and Comprehensible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    That nature and the universe are ordered, uniform, and comprehensible is a starting point in science. However, such worldview presuppositions are often taken for granted, rather than explicitly mentioned, in science and in science class. This article takes a worldview perspective and reports from interviews (N = 26) with upper secondary students…

  6. The County Council of the Order of Physicians in Ille et Vilaine (France) during the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Marc E

    2013-06-01

    Initially, the examination of the archives from the Ille et Vilaine Council of the College of Physicians was based solely on the findings of Dr. George from Rennes who had helped Jews during the Occupation. Gradually I perceived that the quality of available documents permitted writing this article to show a contrasting view of this dark period in our history. This work aimed to analyze the role of the County Council (CC) of Ille et Vilaine through minutes of their meetings and to compare, year by year, directives and circulars from the Supreme Council of the Order of Physicians (SCO) sent to CC at this period. We will observe see that between the institution, acting by strictly following the orders from the "French State", and the county councils, for some at least, there was a gap that men of good will knew not to cross.

  7. Cirrhosis mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Miller, R N

    2000-10-01

    In our earlier, 30-year follow-up of American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean conflict, we found evidence of increased cirrhosis mortality. Using federal records, we have now extended our follow-up to 50 years (42 years for Korean conflict veterans) and have used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs with that of controls. Compared with their controls, World War II POWs had a 32% higher risk of cirrhosis mortality (statistically significant), and mortality risk was higher in the first 30 years of follow-up and also among those aged 51 years and older. Korean POWs had roughly the same risk of cirrhosis mortality as their controls. Neither self-reported data on alcohol consumption nor supplemental morbidity data satisfactorily explained the differences in risk between POWs and controls, although there was evidence that POWs tended to have higher rates of hepatitis, helminthiasis, and nutritional deprivation.

  8. From New World to New Nation and Teacher's Guide. Readings in American History (In Their Own Words), Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jack

    This skills-text is the first of four books in the series "Readings in American History." The materials allow opportunities to improve reading and comprehension skills in a subject matter context by using certain primary sources related to the topic. Book I covers the time from the European discovery of the Americas in 1492 to the end of…

  9. Participation in a Technological World: The Meaning of Educational Technology in the Lives of Young Adult Central American Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt-Mentle, Davina S.

    Many communities throughout the United States are experiencing a large influx of Central American immigrants. Langley Park, Maryland is typical of the pockets that are formed by the new arrivals. Community members of Latino background now account for 60% of the population, while in 1990 they were only 40% (US Census, 2000). As the immigrants move…

  10. Welcome to a New World: Experiences of American Indian Tribal College and University Transfer Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew Van Alstine

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes an Indigenous methodology and phenomenological methods to better understand the experiences of eight American Indian tribal college and university (TCU) students who transferred to four-year Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). The participants attended TCUs and PWIs located in the Midwest, a geographic area that is…

  11. Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites: How American Teens Navigate the New World of "Digital Citizenship"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…

  12. The Significance of Learning Nicknames of Public Figures in Modern English and American Language Models of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garayeva, Almira K.; Akhmetzyanov, Ildar G.; Khismatullina, Lutsia G.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the topic of this study is determined by several factors: increased interest of linguists to the problem of interaction between language and culture; the need to study the onomastic units as body language. The purpose of this article is to identify the types of motivational nick names of famous American and English public…

  13. Welcome to a New World: Experiences of American Indian Tribal College and University Transfer Students at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makomenaw, Matthew Van Alstine

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes an Indigenous methodology and phenomenological methods to better understand the experiences of eight American Indian tribal college and university (TCU) students who transferred to four-year Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). The participants attended TCUs and PWIs located in the Midwest, a geographic area that is…

  14. World City/Regional City: Latinos and African-Americans in Chicago and St. Louis. JSRI Working Paper No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Margaret; Erdman, Brian; Howlett, Larry

    This paper traces the effects of economic restructuring through comparative socioeconomic profiles of African American and Latinos in the Midwest, with a focus on Chicago and Kansas City. Globalization has been associated with deindustrialization, relocation of jobs to developing countries with cheaper labor, and expansion of the service sector. A…

  15. From New World to New Nation and Teacher's Guide. Readings in American History (In Their Own Words), Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jack

    This skills-text is the first of four books in the series "Readings in American History." The materials allow opportunities to improve reading and comprehension skills in a subject matter context by using certain primary sources related to the topic. Book I covers the time from the European discovery of the Americas in 1492 to the end of…

  16. Negotiating Worlds, Managing Subjectivities, and Redefining Selves: The Lived Experiences of African American Undergraduate Females at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ayana Ma-el

    2010-01-01

    A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…

  17. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  18. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  19. Educating the Female Citizen in a Post-war World: Competing Ideologies for American Women, 1945-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2002-01-01

    In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…

  20. Rosie the Riveter and Her Latchkey Children: What Americans Can Learn about Child Day Care from the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that concern for "latchkey" children during World War II was hyperbolic. Examines the variety of successful solutions parents devised for child day care: (1) day care arrangements made by families themselves; (2) Lanham Act child day care centers; (3) centers operated by private industry; and (4) the very successful Extended…

  1. Teaching Competitive Intelligence Skills to North American and Overseas Audiences: A World of Difference in Pedagogical Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blenkhorn, David L.; Fleisher, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    This article contrasts teaching methodologies and pedagogical effectiveness in executive development programs delivered in North America and three diverse regions of the world. Based on the authors' collective teaching experience exceeding 40 years encompassing over 24 countries, and augmented by a review of the literature, a theoretical model is…

  2. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  3. Naked in the Old and the New World: Differences and Analogies in Descriptions of European and American herbae nudae in the Sixteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Čermáková, Lucie; Černá, Jana

    2017-03-20

    The sixteenth century could be understand as a period of renaissance of interest in nature and as a period of development of natural history as a discipline. The spreading of the printing press was connected to the preparation of new editions of Classical texts and to the act of correcting and commenting on these texts. This forced scholars to confront texts with living nature and to subject it to more careful investigation. The discovery of America uncovered new horizons and brought new natural products, which were exotic and unknown to Classical tradition. The aim of this study is to compare strategies and categories, which were used in describing plants of the Old and the New World. Attention will be paid to the first reactions to the new flora, to the methods of naming and describing plants, to the ways of gaining knowledge about plants from local sources or by means of one's own observation. The confrontation with novelty puts naturalists in the Old World and in the New World in a similar situation. It reveals the limits of traditional knowledge based on Classical authorities. A closer investigation, however, brings to light not only the sometimes unexpected similarities, but also the differences which were due to the radical otherness of American plants.

  4. Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N

    2007-02-05

    The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.

  5. "Brown" Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the Resegregation of American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Grewal, Elena Tej; Kalogrides, Demetra; Greenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased…

  6. "Brown" Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the Resegregation of American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Grewal, Elena; Kalogrides, Demetra; Greenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased…

  7. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  8. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  9. 3 CFR 13647 - Executive Order 13647 of June 26, 2013. Establishing the White House Council on Native American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... demands for greater tribal control over tribal education, consistent with Executive Order 13592 of... Transportation; (xi) the Department of Energy; (xii) the Department of Education; (xiii) the Department of... Science and Technology Policy; (xxvi) the Council on Environmental Quality; (xxvii) the White House...

  10. World lines.

    PubMed

    Waser, Jürgen; Fuchs, Raphael; Ribicić, Hrvoje; Schindler, Benjamin; Blöschl, Günther; Gröller, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas, decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting, the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation, visualization and computational steering into a single unified system that is capable of dealing with the extended solution space. World Lines represent simulation runs as causally connected tracks that share a common time axis. This setup enables users to interfere and add new information quickly. A World Line is introduced as a visual combination of user events and their effects in order to present a possible future. To quickly find the most attractive outcome, we suggest World Lines as the governing component in a system of multiple linked views and a simulation component. World Lines employ linking and brushing to enable comparative visual analysis of multiple simulations in linked views. Analysis results can be mapped to various visual variables that World Lines provide in order to highlight the most compelling solutions. To demonstrate this technique we present a flooding scenario and show the usefulness of the integrated approach to support informed decision making.

  11. Strategies for Exploiting American Inventiveness in the World Marketplace. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technoloyg. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (June 24-26, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    The need to ensure that the United States would become more economically competitive and would effectively translate scientific leadership into technological innovations is addressed in this report of a 3-day series of hearings on strategies for exploiting American inventiveness in the world marketplace. Testimonies are offered from…

  12. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Castelló, Adela; Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Lope, Virginia; Antolín, Silvia; Sánchez, Pedro; Ramos, Manuel; Antón, Antonio; Muñoz, Montserrat; Bermejo, Begoña; De Juan-Ferré, Ana; Jara, Carlos; Chacón, José I; Jimeno, María A.; Rosado, Petra; Díaz, Elena; Guillem, Vicente; Lluch, Ana; Carrasco, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1)Maintain adequate body weight; 2)Be physically active; 3)Limit the intake of high density foods; 4)Eat mostly plant foods; 5)Limit the intake of animal foods; 6)Limit alcohol intake; 7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8)Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1)Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2-) using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively. Results Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59)), especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47)) and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05)) and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78)) tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28); p for interaction=0.014) and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63)); the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44)) and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31)); and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19)) showed the strongest associations. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention might

  13. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    PubMed

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  14. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Casas, Ana M; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Lope, Virginia; Antolín, Silvia; Sánchez, Pedro; Ramos, Manuel; Antón, Antonio; Muñoz, Montserrat; Bermejo, Begoña; De Juan-Ferré, Ana; Jara, Carlos; Chacón, José I; Jimeno, María A; Rosado, Petra; Díaz, Elena; Guillem, Vicente; Lluch, Ana; Carrasco, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-01-01

    According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1)Maintain adequate body weight; 2)Be physically active; 3)Limit the intake of high density foods; 4)Eat mostly plant foods; 5)Limit the intake of animal foods; 6)Limit alcohol intake; 7)Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8)Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1)Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2-) using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively. Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59)), especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47)) and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05)) and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78)) tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28); p for interaction=0.014) and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63)); the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44)) and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31)); and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19)) showed the strongest associations. Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research

  15. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Colonisation, the New World Order, and the eradication of traditional food habits in East Africa: historical perspective on the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Verena; Cheema, Bobby

    2008-07-01

    To discuss factors which have underpinned the nutrition transition in the countries of East Africa, including Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, from early colonisation to the current, oppressive political-economic structure. Colonisation and neocolonisation in accordance with the desires of the New World Order have ensured the systematic extirpation of indigenous and traditional food habits in East Africa. These indigenous and traditional food habits, associated with myriad health benefits, have been progressively replaced by the globalised food system of the multinational corporations, a system inherently associated with the creation of non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemics throughout this region and globally. While the simplification of the East African food culture may be most apparent today, the nutrition transition has actually occurred over the past 400 years, since the onset of colonial occupation. It is imperative that greater efforts be directed towards exposing the colonial and neocolonial forces which have undermined food security and health status in East Africa. Heightened awareness of these forces is essential for proposing genuine solutions to the nutrition transition and related NCD epidemics throughout this region and, indeed, worldwide.

  17. Monitoring and ordering practices for human papillomavirus in cervical cytology: findings from the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference working group 5.

    PubMed

    Booth, Christine N; Bashleben, Christine; Filomena, Carol A; Means, Marilee M; Wasserman, Patricia G; Souers, Rhona J; Henry, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The association of certain types of human papillomavirus with cervical carcinoma is well established. Human papillomavirus testing is now routinely used to screen for cervical carcinoma and precursor lesions of the cervix (cotesting and reflex testing) and these results are considered in patient triage and management. To provide information about current laboratory practices in human papillomavirus testing and consensus best practice statements based on results from the College of American Pathologists' laboratory-based survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The College of American Pathologists submitted a paper-based survey to 1245 laboratories in the United States. After review of the initial results, follow-up Web-based survey results, and a literature review by an expert working group, consensus best practice statements were constructed by working group members for presentation at a national consensus conference. These best practice statements were discussed and then voted upon by conference participants. A total of 525 laboratories responded to survey questions about human papillomavirus ordering and monitoring practices, whereas 546 responded to the overall survey. In most laboratories (87.6%), the high-risk human papillomavirus test is ordered as a reflex test by providers. A minority of laboratories (11.9%) routinely bundle low- and high-risk human papillomavirus tests. Most laboratories (84.4%) do not limit testing in patients with atypical squamous cells to women older than 20 years. More than half of laboratories (53.3%) monitor human papillomavirus positive rates in Papanicolaou tests with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. It is not appropriate for laboratories to offer low-risk human papillomavirus testing for any clinical circumstance in gynecologic cytology. Laboratories should not order human papillomavirus testing to resolve diagnostic discrepancies. It is a valuable broad measure of laboratory quality

  18. Evaluating concordance with the 1997 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research cancer prevention guidelines: challenges for the research community.

    PubMed

    Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Anderson, Annie S

    2008-12-01

    Diet, nutritional status and lifestyle practices are significant determinants of the risk of certain cancers. In 1997 The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) developed a series of evidence-based recommendations to help reduce the population and individual risk of cancer. However, guidance for evaluating concordance or compliance with these recommendations is limited. To illustrate the challenges in evaluation, four publications were reviewed that explored the task of creating operative criteria from which to assess concordance with the tenets of the WCRF/AICR recommendations. Three documents dealt with secondary analysis, whereas one was a prospective inquiry, with procedures and instruments designed to obtain responses to WCRF/AICR cancer-prevention specification. One considered only population-goal criteria, and two dealt implicitly or explicitly with criteria at both population and individual levels. The assessment approaches used by the authors were compared with alternative semantic and conceptual interpretations of the WCRF/AICR population goals and individual guidelines. Attempts to develop operative criteria for assessment of concordance (reflecting either a more superficial or more in-depth parsing of recommendations) have been inconsistent. The results indicate that the language of the WCRF/AICR leaves a certain degree of semantic ambiguity for evaluation purposes. Future design of prospective studies for analyses of behaviours and relevant exposures (including those reported in the 2007 WCRF/AICR report) should carefully consider evaluation criteria and fully document detailed methodology.

  19. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  20. American Nurses Association Nursing World

    MedlinePlus

    ... ANA » My ANA » Shop » ANA Nursing Knowledge Center Nursing Insider News 09/28/17 ANA Enterprise CEO ... Wake of Police Abuse of Registered Nurse More Nursing Insider News Upcoming Events 10/17/2017 - 10/ ...

  1. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  2. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  3. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  4. The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).

    PubMed

    Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring

  5. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors: results of the PROFILES registry.

    PubMed

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, Floortje; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the need for dietary advice. Adherence to these recommendations may putatively reduce the risk of recurrence and death. Studies on adherence to these recommendations in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors are lacking. Adherence was assessed in a cross-sectional study among 1196 CRC survivors and could range between 0 (no adherence) and 8 points (complete adherence). Participants completed questionnaires on dietary intake, physical activity, and body weight. Prevalence Ratios were calculated to assess whether adherence to recommendations were associated with dietary intentions and needs. Twelve percentage of the survivors adhered to 6 or more recommendations; 65% had a score between >4 and 6 points; 23% scored no more than 4 points. The recommendation for to be modest with consumption of meat showed lowest adherence: 8% adhered; whereas the recommendation not to use dietary supplements showed highest adherence (75%). 18% reported a need for dietary advice, but this was not associated with adherence to recommendations. Survivors with higher adherence reported less often that they had received dietary advice, were less likely to have the intention to eat healthier, but reported more often that they had changed their diet since diagnosis. There is ample room for improvement of lifestyle recommendations in virtually all CRC survivors. A minor part of CRC survivors expressed a need for dietary advice which was not associated with adherence to the recommendations. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  7. Dimensionalism: The Missing Element in American Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Ascribes the basic flaw in American education to lack of dimensionalism, the sense of at-homeness in an ordered world and universe. Praises the Hellenic educators who inspired youth to self-confidence and suprahuman effort, in contrast to Salinger's hero Holden Caufield's feelings of alienation and self-doubt. Cites four references. (MLH)

  8. Scanning Our Future. A Report from the NGO Forum on the World Economic Order in Support of the Seventh Special Session of the UN General Assembly on Development and International Economic Cooperation (September 1-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Angus, Ed.

    This report of the Seventh Special Session at the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) presents an account of the Forum on World Economic Order. Its purpose is to gain public awareness of the issues debated. The core of this report is the unique exchange of over 50 opinions which provide a compendium of ideas and judgments in the…

  9. Internment of Japanese Americans. Documents from the National Archives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides samples of documents relating to the internment of some 122,000 Japanese Americans during World War II by Executive Order 9066. The documents cover the time span from the Executive Order in 1942 to 1988 when the U.S. government formally acknowledged the injustice of the internment and provided restitution to the victims. The…

  10. Survival Analyses for Patients With Surgically Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors by World Health Organization 2010 Grading Classifications and American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 Staging Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ke, Neng-wen; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Chun-lu; Zhang, Hao; Mai, Gang; Tian, Bo-le; Liu, Xu-bao

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into 4 main groups: neuroendocrine tumor G1 (NET G1), neuroendocrine tumor G2 (NET G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma G3 (NEC G3), mixed adeno and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Clinical value of these newly updated WHO grading criteria has not been rigorously validated. The authors aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency of the new 2010 grading classifications by WHO and the 2010 tumor-node metastasis staging systems by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) on survivals for patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Moreover, the authors would validate the prognostic value of both criteria for p-NETs.The authors retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data of 120 eligible patients who were all surgically treated and histopathologically diagnosed as p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our single institution. The new WHO criteria were assigned to 4 stratified groups with a respective distribution of 62, 35, 17, and 6 patients. Patients with NET G1 or NET G2 obtained a statistically better survival compared with those with NEC G3 or MANEC (P < 0.001). Survivals of NET G1 was also better than those of NET G2 (P = 0.023), whereas difference of survivals between NEC G3 and MANEC present no obvious significance (P = 0.071). The AJCC 2010 staging systems were respectively defined in 61, 36, 12, and 11 patients for each stage. Differences of survivals of stage I with stage III and IV were significant (P < 0.001), as well as those of stage II with III and IV (P < 0.001); whereas comparisons of stage I with stage II and stage III with IV were not statistically significant (P = 0.129, P = 0.286; respectively). Together with radical resection, these 2 systems were both significant in univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).The newly updated WHO 2010 grading classifications and the AJCC 2010 staging systems could consistently reflect the clinical outcome

  11. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  12. On Observing World English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdang, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)

  13. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  14. Science for All Americans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, F. James; Ahlgren, Andrew

    1991-02-01

    In order to compete in the modern world, any society today must rank education in science, mathematics, and technology as one of its highest priorities. It's a sad but true fact, however, that most Americans are not scientifically literate. International studies of educational performance reveal that U.S. students consistently rank near the bottom in science and mathematics. The latest study of the National Assessment of Educational Progress has found that despite some small gains recently, the average performance of seventeen-year-olds in 1986 remained substantially lower than it had been in 1969. As the world approaches the twenty-first century, American schools--when it comes to the advancement of scientific knowledge--seem to be stuck in the Victorian age. In Science for All Americans , F. James Rutherford and Andrew Ahlgren brilliantly tackle this devastating problem. Based on Project 2061, a scientific literacy initiative sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, this wide-ranging, important volume explores what constitutes scientific literacy in a modern society; the knowledge, skills, and attitudes all students should acquire from their total school experience from kindergarten through high school; and what steps this country must take to begin reforming its system of education in science, mathematics, and technology. Science for All Americans describes the scientifically literate person as one who knows that science, mathematics, and technology are interdependent enterprises with strengths and limitations; who understands key concepts and principles of science; who recognizes both the diversity and unity of the natural world; and who uses scientific knowledge and scientific ways of thinking for personal and social purposes. Its recommendations for educational reform downplay traditional subject categories and instead highlight the connections between them. It also emphasizes ideas and thinking skills over the memorization of

  15. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Schellackia parasites (Apicomplexa) detected in American lizards are closely related to the genus Lankesterella: is the range of Schellackia restricted to the Old World?

    PubMed

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Paranjpe, Dhanashree; D'Amico, Verónica; Aguilar, Rocío; Palacios, María Gabriela; Cooper, Robert; Ferri-Yáñez, Francisco; Sinervo, Barry; Merino, Santiago

    2017-10-10

    Species of Schellackia Reichenow, 1919 have been described from the blood of reptiles distributed worldwide. Recently, Schellackia spp. detected in European and Asian lizards have been molecularly characterised. However, parasites detected in American lizard hosts remain uncharacterised. Thus, phylogenetic affinities between the Old and New World parasite species are unknown. In the present study, we characterised morphologically and molecularly the hemococcidian parasites (sporozoites) that infect three lizard hosts from North America and two from South America. In total, we generated 12 new 18S rRNA gene sequences of hemococcidian parasites infecting New World lizard hosts. By the microscopic examination of the smears we identified Schellackia golvani Rogier & Landau, 1975 (ex Anolis carolinensis Voigt) and Schellackia occidentalis Bonorris & Ball, 1955 (ex Uta stansburiana Baird & Girard and Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) in some samples, but the phylogenetic analysis indicated that all 18S rDNA sequences are distant from Schellackia species found in Old World lizards. In fact, the hemococcidian parasites detected in the New World lizards (including S. occidentalis and S. golvani) were closely related to the genus Lankesterella Labbé, 1899. Consequently, we suggest these two species to be included within the genus Lankesterella. Life history traits of hemococcidian parasites such as the type of host blood cells infected, host species or number of refractile bodies are not valid diagnostic characteristics to differentiate the parasites between the genera Schellackia and Lankesterella. Indeed, lankesterellid parasites with a different number of refractile bodies had a close phylogenetic origin. Based on the phylogenetic results we provide a systematic revision of the North American hemococcidians. Our recommendation is to include the species formerly described in the genus Schellackia that infect American lizards into Lankesterella (Lankesterellidae) as

  16. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  17. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  18. [Summary of the World Conference on Education for All.] The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This bulletin features four papers, a summary of the World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand in March of 1990, the World Declaration on Education for All, and a framework for action to meet basic learning needs. The four presentations include: "Educational Planning in the Future" (Jesus M. Gurriaran); "An…

  19. Going where no doctor has gone before: the role of Cuba's Latin American School of Medicine in meeting the needs of some of the world's most vulnerable populations.

    PubMed

    Huish, Robert

    2008-06-01

    To explore the institutional ethics of Cuba's Latin American School of Medicine (ELAM). As a response to the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Cuba recruited over 11,000 students from marginalized communities in 29 countries to study medicine free of charge. ELAM's stated goal is for students to return to their home communities to apply their skills after a 6-year programme. The aim of this research was to determine if ELAM builds capacity for students to serve vulnerable communities in the global South. This paper focuses on ELAM's selection process and curriculum in order to build understanding of its institutional ethics. Much has been written about how medical schools, in the North and South alike, do a great deal to build institutional ethics where graduates seek employment in urban and wealthy centres. By exploring ELAM's training programme, this study aimed to determine if the school is capable of forming an alternative ethic where graduates seek service to vulnerable populations. First-person interviews with students, instructors, administrators and government officials were undertaken to build a sense of ELAM's institutional ethics. In addition, a literature review of ELAM's curriculum was conducted through documents obtained via Cuba's online web-portal 'INFOMED'. Document analysis and first person interviews revealed themes of community oriented primary care (COPC), within ELAM's core curriculum and an institutional ethics of serving vulnerable populations in the global South. Students are taught the importance of practising prevention and health promotion at the community level, and alongside rigorous training in core clinical competency, students are to embrace COPC practices as part of their daily routines. ELAM is an important human resource for health capacity building projects. While the quantity of ELAM graduates is remarkable, the importance of this project is the development of an institutional ethic that values success as a graduate

  20. Japanese American Identity Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maykovich, Minako K.

    The major theme of this book is the label "Quiet American" for the Japanese American. In order to locate Japanese Americans sociologically and psychologically in the structure of American society, various concepts such as "marginal man,""alienation," and "inauthenticity" are examined, specifying these…

  1. Your World, My World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Americans of all ages are concerned with the effects of pollution on the environment. This booklet is designed to explain to students the environmental problems related with pollution and its control. The role of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in pollution control is defined and its goals explained. Topics of discussion include clean…

  2. Impact of Battalion and Smaller African-American Combat Units on Integration of the U.S. Army in the European Theater of Operations During World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    were not based on any scientific facts. The Army War College’s negative stereotypical portrayal of African American performance had a great influence...reports coming up to Washington about you have been of a superior nature, and we are expecting great things of your battalion in combat.”220 Their

  3. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  4. An Analysis of the Perceptions of "U.S. News and World Report" College Ranking Systems by Enrollment Managers of American Jesuit Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study involves the perceptions held by enrollment managers at the American Jesuit Catholic colleges and universities of national rankings of colleges and universities and the strategic use of this information. Enrollment management emerged within colleges and universities in response to increasing competition for incoming…

  5. Labonté Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order Comment on "Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality".

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis Raphael

    2016-11-02

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to - and opportunities for -health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations. In his recent commentary, Labonté shows how the United Nations' 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can offer a new direction for health promoters in these difficult times. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  7. Trapped in a Moral Order: Moral Identity, Positioning and Reflexivity in Stories of Confrontation among Latin American Teenage School Girls in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiño-Santos, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the forms of reflexivity that emerge in the conversational narratives of Latin American teenage school girls co-produced during sociolinguistic interviews, in a multicultural school in the centre of Madrid. The narratives about confrontation at school portray the girls' actions and ways of making sense of such behaviours, in…

  8. Trapped in a Moral Order: Moral Identity, Positioning and Reflexivity in Stories of Confrontation among Latin American Teenage School Girls in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiño-Santos, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the forms of reflexivity that emerge in the conversational narratives of Latin American teenage school girls co-produced during sociolinguistic interviews, in a multicultural school in the centre of Madrid. The narratives about confrontation at school portray the girls' actions and ways of making sense of such behaviours, in…

  9. Research-Policy Issues for Childhood Programs in the Third World. A Report on Papers from the 1982 Meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Karen M.; Wagner, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses symposium papers focused on the socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality, the relationship between fertility and child development, the effects of maternal employment on child welfare, the consequences of urban migration for children, and indigenous education in the developing world.(Author/RH)

  10. The State of 21st Century Learning in the K-12 World of the United States: Online and Blended Learning Opportunities for American Elementary and Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kimberly; Hale, William

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the current state of blended and online learning throughout the K-12 world in the United States. The analysis is predicated upon the potential of electronically-mediated learning (e-learning) to effectively prepare students for the demands of 21st century citizenship through the affordances of such learning…

  11. Military influence upon the development of anaesthesia from the American Civil War (1861-1865) to the outbreak of the First World War.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, N H

    2005-12-01

    The American Civil War (1861-1865) helped cement the place of anaesthesia in American medical practice and offered new insights into the specialty. The advantages that ensued were to offer long-term security to anaesthesia but the short-term gains were negligible. The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) exerted a negative influence upon nitrous oxide and oxygen research through the loss of leading civilian scientists to military duty. Later, the Boer Wars (1899-1902) helped stabilise the popularity of chloroform after the Hyderabad Commissions but were of little experimental value to anaesthesia. In the early 20th Century, the military continued to be operational without either specialist anaesthetists or an interest in developing military anaesthesia. However, the lack of anaesthetic development was largely due to problems with economics and academic infrastructure rather than to simple military neglect.

  12. Real-world experience with interferon-free, direct acting antiviral therapies in Asian Americans with chronic hepatitis C and advanced liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Nguyen, Pauline; Le, An; Zhao, Changqing; Ahmed, Aijaz; Daugherty, Tami; Garcia, Gabriel; Lutchman, Glen; Kumari, Radhika; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Real-life data on interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is limited for Asian Americans. To evaluate sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events (AE) in Asian Americans treated with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based, IFN-free DAA therapies. This is a retrospective study of 110 consecutive Asian Americans with HCV genotypes 1 to 3 or 6 treated with IFN-free SOF-based regimens for 8 to 24 weeks between February 2014 and March 2016 at a university center in Northern California. Mean age was 63 ± 12 years, mean BMI was 25 ± 6 (kg/m2), and about half (52%) were male. Most patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1, 64%), followed by HCV-2 (14%), HCV-6 (13%), and HCV-3 (8%). Half had cirrhosis, and the majority of these (67%) had decompensation. Overall SVR12 was 93% (102/110), and highest among patients without cirrhosis, liver transplant, or HCC (100%, 37/37). SVR12 was lower among patients with HCC (82%, 14/17), decompensated cirrhosis (84%, 31/37), or liver transplant (89%, 17/19), regardless of treatment and genotype. Most common AEs were anemia (25%), fatigue (20%), and headache (12%). Anemia was highest in patients receiving SOF/RBV (67%). There was 1 treatment-unrelated serious adverse effect (SAE). There were 7 dose reductions due to anemia or fatigue from RBV and 2 treatment discontinuations due to fatigue or loss of insurance authorization. This real-life cohort of Asian American CHC patients treated with IFN-free SOF-based therapies showed high overall treatment response and good tolerability, despite very high rates of advanced disease and prior treatment failure. PMID:28178174

  13. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  14. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  15. Operational Art and Munitions Supply: An Analysis of Munitions and Their Influence on Operational Art Practiced by the American Expeditionary Forces During World War I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    Approved by: , Monograph Director Thomas Bruscino, Ph.D. , Seminar Leader John Paganini , COL , Director, School of Advanced...Donald Smythe, Pershing, General of the Armies (Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univeristy Press , 1986). 4 Edward Coffman, The War to End All Wars...Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1998), 54. 5 James Rainey, “The Questionable Training of the AEF in World War I,” Parameters (1992): 89

  16. Mini-Mental State Exam performance of older African Americans: effect of age, gender, education, hypertension, diabetes, and the inclusion of serial 7s subtraction versus "world" backward on score.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Keith A; Cromer, Jennifer R; Piotrowski, Andrea S; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2011-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is a clinically ubiquitous yet incompletely standardized instrument. Though the test offers considerable examiner leeway, little data exist on the normative consequences of common administration variations. We sought to: (a) determine the effects of education, age, gender, health status, and a common administration variation (serial 7s subtraction vs. "world" spelled backward) on MMSE score within a minority sample, (b) provide normative data stratified on the most empirically relevant bases, and (c) briefly address item failure rates. African American citizens (N = 298) aged 55-87 living independently in the community were recruited by advertisement, community recruitment, and word of mouth. Total score with "world" spelled backward exceeded total score with serial 7s subtraction across all levels of education, replicating findings in Caucasian samples. Education is the primary source of variance on MMSE score, followed by age. In this cohort, women out-performed men when "world" spelled backward was included, but there was no gender effect when serial 7s subtraction was included in MMSE total score. To ensure an appropriate interpretation of MMSE scores, reports, whether clinical or in publications of research findings, should be explicit regarding the administration method. Stratified normative data are provided.

  17. "I'm in this world for a reason": Resilience and recovery among American Indian and Alaska Native two-spirit women.

    PubMed

    Elm, Jessica H L; Lewis, Jordan P; Walters, Karina L; Self, Jen M

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native sexual minority (two-spirit) women are vulnerable to substance misuse and mental health challenges due to multiple minority oppressed status and exposure to stress and trauma. Yet, these women find pathways toward healing and wellness. We conducted a qualitative data analysis of interviews derived from a national health study and gained an understanding of 11 two-spirit women's resilience and recovery patterns. Emergent from the data, a braided resiliency framework was developed which elucidates multilayered abilities, processes, and resources involved in their resiliency. We recommend that resilience-promoting strategies be incorporated into substance misuse and mental health interventions.

  18. Cultural adaptation of the Latin American version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) (v 3.0) for use in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Alonso, Jordi; Tormo, Ma José; Pujalte, Ma Luisa; Garriga, Ascensión; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Navarro, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To develop a Spanish version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) applicable to Spain, through cultural adaptation of its most recent Latin American (LA v 20.0) version. A 1-week training course on the WHO-CIDI was provided by certified trainers. An expert panel reviewed the LA version, identified words or expressions that needed to be adapted to the cultural or linguistic norms for Spain, and proposed alternative expressions that were agreed on through consensus. The entire process was supervised and approved by a member of the WHO-CIDI Editorial Committee. The changes were incorporated into a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) format and the feasibility and administration time were pilot tested in a convenience sample of 32 volunteers. A total of 372 questions were slightly modified (almost 7% of approximately 5000 questions in the survey) and incorporated into the CAPI version of the WHO-CIDI. Most of the changes were minor - but important - linguistic adaptations, and others were related to specific Spanish institutions and currency. In the pilot study, the instrument's mean completion administration time was 2h and 10min, with an interquartile range from 1.5 to nearly 3h. All the changes made were tested and officially approved. The Latin American version of the WHO-CIDI was successfully adapted and pilot-tested in its computerized format and is now ready for use in Spain. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Globalization and world trade

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  20. World-Smart Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Vivien

    2008-01-01

    American education must prepare students for a world where the opportunities for success require the ability to compete and cooperate on a global scale. The federal government has played a critical role in fostering foreign language and area studies expertise at the post-secondary level. Now is the time for the federal government to engage in a…

  1. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  2. The Development of American Tank Destroyers during World War II: the Impact of Doctrine, Combat Experience, and Technology on Materiel Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-11

    influential event to the military leaders in the United States had been the fall of France . Prior to World War II, the French Army was probably the most...respected in Europe. After a winter of "phony war," France was crushed in a month’s time. Although there were many reasons for the defeat of France ...beinJ massed in n&nrland durinp the first months of 1944 for the invasion of France . By 23 March, there were 19 TD battalions in England, 16 self

  3. Putting the World into World-Class Education: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Stewart, Vivien

    2004-01-01

    Ms. Kagan and Ms. Stewart, guest editors of this special section, present a discussion of the need to strengthen international education in American schools. Noting the gap between American students' international knowledge and skills and those they will need to effectively navigate an increasingly interconnected world, the editors sound a call…

  4. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  5. Long-term heart disease and stroke mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean Conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Page, W F; Brass, L M

    2001-09-01

    For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.

  6. Typical worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  7. The world of standards: order or anarchy?

    PubMed

    Mason, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    As the development of many new standards for business continuity (BC) is seen across the globe, there is the danger that some of the benefits of developing an industry code or standard are being eroded. The very definition of the term 'standard' - a level of quality or excellence that is accepted as the norm or by which actual attainments are judged - is at risk as the proliferation and diversification of standards in existence and under development today continue to grow almost unchecked. This paper seeks to provide a personal view on the necessity of an international certifiable standard within the BC industry, with the hope that it will influence the debate in this area. In this manner, the paper contributes to the international evolution of BC. The standards related information is based on the author's experience as a member of the British Standards Institute's technical committee that developed BS25999 parts 1 and 2, and his experience in implementing both standards through to certification within his own organisation. References to the Business Continuity Institute are made not as a parochial 'British' group, but in terms of its growing development into a true global professional membership organisation.

  8. International environmental law and world order

    SciTech Connect

    Guruswamy, L.D.; Palmer, G.W.R. Sir; Weston, B.H.

    1995-08-01

    A litany of dismal happenings - global warming, ozone layer depletion, desertification, destruction of biodiversity, acid rain, and nuclear and water accidents - are but some of the subjects covered by this book, a problem-solving casebook authored by three educators. This new book makes the obvious but important point, that environmental issues are not limited by national boundaries. The book is divided into three parts. The first three chapters of part I discuss the basic principals of traditional international law without any reference to environmental issues. Part II, comprised of seven chapters, deals with hypothetical problems that affect various aspects of the environment vis-a-vis the norms, institutions, and procedures through which the international legal system operates. The book concludes with two chapters dealing with future environmental concerns. The book focuses on issue-spotting, problem-solving, and synthesis over the assimilation and comprehension of raw, disembodied knowledge. The book helps to manage our common future on this planet, for which we will need a new global regime based essentially on the extension into international life of the rule of law, together with reliable mechanisms for accountability and enforcement that provide the basis for the effective functioning of national societies.

  9. Professionalism in the New World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Sue L.T.

    2005-01-01

    Being a Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) professional in today's multiple environments is a challenge, mainly because the environments are always changing. The familial, social, economic, political, cultural, legal, ecological, and technological environments are continually in flux. The feature that is shaping all of these environs--both from…

  10. Nuclear Strategy in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    on motivation theory— behavior modification —best explains successfully deterring an opponent, or failing to deter.7 B.F. Skinner suggests that by...is relevant with regard to negative outcomes such as those addressed in Skinner’s negative reinforcement, behavior modification theory. By combing

  11. Airpower in the New World Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Although one can deliver nuclear weapons by other means, in practicable terms, any large scale employment of nucleair weapons will almost certainly...continue to rely on aerial means of delivery. The future may see the prevention of nucleair weapons proliferation rival the importance of traditional...such concept was suggested, almost by accident , by the conduct of the air campaign in the Gulf War. Allied planners developed a four-phased air campaign

  12. Professionalism in the New World Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Sue L.T.

    2005-01-01

    Being a Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) professional in today's multiple environments is a challenge, mainly because the environments are always changing. The familial, social, economic, political, cultural, legal, ecological, and technological environments are continually in flux. The feature that is shaping all of these environs--both from…

  13. Evaluating the drug use “gateway” theory using cross-national data: Consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys*

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Dierker, Lisa; Chiu, Wai Tat; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Neumark, Yehuda; Sampson, Nancy; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Anthony, James C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the normative sequence of drug use initiation, beginning with tobacco and alcohol, progressing to cannabis and then other illicit drugs, is due to causal effects of specific earlier drug use promoting progression, or to influences of other variables such as drug availability and attitudes. One way to investigate this is to see whether risk of later drug use in the sequence, conditional on use of drugs earlier in the sequence, changes according to time-space variation in use prevalence. We compared patterns and order of initiation of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use across 17 countries with a wide range of drug use prevalence. Method Analyses used data from World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, a series of parallel community epidemiological surveys using the same instruments and field procedures carried out in 17 countries throughout the world. Results Initiation of “gateway” substances (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) was differentially associated with subsequent onset of other illicit drug use based on background prevalence of gateway substance use. Cross-country differences in substance use prevalence also corresponded to differences in the likelihood of individuals reporting a non- normative sequence of substance initiation. Conclusion These results suggest the “gateway” pattern at least partially reflects unmeasured common causes rather than causal effects of specific drugs on subsequent use of others. This implies that successful efforts to prevent use of specific “gateway” drugs may not in themselves lead to major reductions in the use of later drugs. PMID:20060657

  14. Evaluating the drug use "gateway" theory using cross-national data: consistency and associations of the order of initiation of drug use among participants in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Dierker, Lisa; Chiu, Wai Tat; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Neumark, Yehuda; Sampson, Nancy; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Anthony, James C; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Aimee N; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan; Wells, J Elisabeth; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-04-01

    It is unclear whether the normative sequence of drug use initiation, beginning with tobacco and alcohol, progressing to cannabis and then other illicit drugs, is due to causal effects of specific earlier drug use promoting progression, or to influences of other variables such as drug availability and attitudes. One way to investigate this is to see whether risk of later drug use in the sequence, conditional on use of drugs earlier in the sequence, changes according to time-space variation in use prevalence. We compared patterns and order of initiation of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use across 17 countries with a wide range of drug use prevalence. Analyses used data from World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys, a series of parallel community epidemiological surveys using the same instruments and field procedures carried out in 17 countries throughout the world. Initiation of "gateway" substances (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) was differentially associated with subsequent onset of other illicit drug use based on background prevalence of gateway substance use. Cross-country differences in substance use prevalence also corresponded to differences in the likelihood of individuals reporting a non-normative sequence of substance initiation. These results suggest the "gateway" pattern at least partially reflects unmeasured common causes rather than causal effects of specific drugs on subsequent use of others. This implies that successful efforts to prevent use of specific "gateway" drugs may not in themselves lead to major reductions in the use of later drugs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indian Season in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Reminds teachers that American Indians played a major role in shaping the modern world. Notes that the indigenous peoples of the Americas introduced European American settlers to a variety of foods and agricultural methods. Argues that American Indians also contributed to U.S. concepts of democracy and federalism. Provides guidelines for teaching…

  16. Indian Season in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Reminds teachers that American Indians played a major role in shaping the modern world. Notes that the indigenous peoples of the Americas introduced European American settlers to a variety of foods and agricultural methods. Argues that American Indians also contributed to U.S. concepts of democracy and federalism. Provides guidelines for teaching…

  17. Beyond the Cameo School: Decolonizing the Academy in a World of Postmodern Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripes, James

    1995-01-01

    In the new order of academic worlds, marked by multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the interdiscipline of cultural studies, American Indian studies offers an alternative to Eurocentric domination of 21st-century scholarship if, and only if, it does not become encircled by the benevolent imperialism of neocolonial versions of multiculturalism.…

  18. To Teach Standard English or World Englishes? A Balanced Approach to Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Martin, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that English language teachers should consider all varieties of English, not just British Standard English or American Standard English. In order to better prepare students for the global world, and to show them that their own English is valued, teachers can implement a balanced approach that incorporates the teaching and…

  19. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  20. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... 8827 of May 21, 2012 World Trade Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... services designed and produced by Americans. During World Trade Week, we reaffirm the essential role... Week. I encourage all Americans to observe this week with events, trade shows, and educational programs...

  1. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  2. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    nuclear weapons in great part because of an existing tacit, mutually beneficial threshold for high-order war. Israeli leaders, on the other hand...pressure to further its interests in Iraq at great U.S. expense. At least through mid-2015, the U.S. responses to these actions have been halting and...guard into withdrawing from a protracted standoff with its Chinese counterparts over the Scarborough Reef in the South China Sea. China and the

  3. Manufacturing combustible briquettes from forestry and timber industries` wastes in order to reduce the overexploitation of fuelwood in Central American forests

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, L.; Gonzalez, E.

    1993-12-31

    A serious degradation of Central American forest is currently taking place because of uncontrolled fuelwood overexploitation. As an example, in Guatemala over 40% of forest destruction is caused by this reason. In the meanwhile, waste biomass from the sawmills representing 30 to 50% of total wood volume processed, due to low technological level of the facilities, and having an energetic potential equivalent to their thermal and electric needs is destroyed through uncontrolled burning, thus causing important environmental and landscape impact, since the byproducts are incinerated outdoors on the spot the constant smoke together with the noise level produced by the diesel power generators makes working conditions painful for the large labor force usually operating these sawmills because of low wages in these countries. To help solve this increasing problem, it would be possible to use the waste biomass for the production of electric power, through cogeneration, for sawmill selfuse or selling to the public electric lines, or even manufacturing of fuel briquettes which would have a potential market in countries such as Republica Dominicana, Honduras Guatemala, etc. as a substitute for charcoal and fuelwood, thus permitting a considerable reduction of the environmental degradation and predation suffered by forest areas in these countries. For these reasons, we consider it of interest to study briquetting techniques and their intrinsic problems in depth. For such purpose, we have carried out a series of real scale briquetting experiences with different types of lignocelulosic wastes and mixtures of them under different conditions, aiming to optimize procedure methodology and reduce production expenses, thus making offer increase easier. Manufacturing procedure and analytics developed to carry out the experiences are described in the present document. Main results obtained are summarized, and mathematical, energetic, analytical and economic aspects are discussed as well.

  4. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  5. Arab Muslim Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    explanations but few have identified the basis for this growing anti-American sentiment throughout the Arab Muslim world. This thesis investigates...Palestinian conflict? This thesis utilized quantitative survey data to investigate the degree of anti-American sentiment among Arab Muslims while using...Arab Muslim anti-American sentiment . Finally, this thesis provides suggestions for dealing with this growing anti-American phenomenon and

  6. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-07

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  7. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of…

  8. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of…

  9. Intergenerational communication of race-related trauma by Japanese American former internees.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Donna K; Cheng, Wendy J Y

    2003-07-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational communications between Japanese Americans who were unjustly ordered into U.S. concentration camps during World War II and their offspring born after the war. Survey data were collected from 450 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese American former internees to assess patterns of communication with their children about the internment. The study and its results are discussed in relation to racial socialization and the influence of ethnicity on reactions to traumatic stress.

  10. 76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011 World Trade Week, 2011 By the President of the United... interdependent. World Trade Week is a time to highlight the vital connection between the global economy and the... hereby proclaim May 15 through May 21, 2011, as World Trade Week. I encourage all Americans to observe...

  11. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  12. Japanese Americans During World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, Peter; Masugi, Ken

    1986-01-01

    The arguments in favor of and against monetary redress for survivors of America's wartime internment camps are presented. Pro-redress arguments emphasize the injustices done the victims. Anti-redress arguments focus on the duties for citizenship and the reasonable actions politicians might have concluded were necessary to win the war. (PS)

  13. American Focus on World Constitutions. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stanley T., III

    This curriculum project was designed to familiarize high school students with their own constitutional roots while gaining a better understanding of governmental systems developed by other nations. The project uses the U.S. Constitution as a baseline for analyzing the constitutions of other nations, and is intended to supplement courses in such…

  14. American Orthopaedic Surgeons in World War I.

    PubMed

    Green, David P; DeLee, Jesse C

    2017-04-05

    On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany and entered what was then called the Great War. Among the first officers sent to Europe were 21 orthopaedic surgeons in the so-called First Goldthwait Unit. Prior to the war, orthopaedics had been a nonoperative "strap-and-buckle" specialty that dealt primarily with infections, congenital abnormalities, and posttraumatic deformity. The Great War changed all of that forever, creating a new surgical specialty with emphasis on acute treatment, prevention of deformity, restoration of function, and rehabilitation.

  15. The American Aid to the Russian Reforms at the End of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasova, Yuliya A.; Bolshakova, Lyubov S.; Yasenitsky, Igor A.; Larionova, Marija B.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the studied problem is caused by the USA's leading role in the development of modern world order and the economy, its influence in the international economic organizations. The article is aimed at revealing the reasons of choosing neoliberal strategy for Russian reforms, the amount and results of the American financial and…

  16. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  17. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  18. Dispersal scaling from the world's rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Fong, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Although rivers provide important biogeochemical inputs to oceans, there are currently no descriptive or predictive relationships of the spatial scales of these river influences. Our combined satellite, laboratory, field and modeling results show that the coastal dispersal areas of small, mountainous rivers exhibit remarkable self-similar scaling relationships over many orders of magnitude. River plume areas scale with source drainage area to a power significantly less than one (average = 0.65), and this power relationship decreases significantly with distance offshore of the river mouth. Observations of plumes from large rivers reveal that this scaling continues over six orders of magnitude of river drainage basin areas. This suggests that the cumulative area of coastal influence for many of the smallest rivers of the world is greater than that of single rivers of equal watershed size. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. 1980 World Refugee Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sherbinin, Michael J., Ed.; Weeg, Carol, Ed.

    This report describes the current numbers and status of Asian, European, Soviet, Latin American, and African refugees worldwide and discusses the role of various governments and voluntary agencies in dealing with refugee problems. The need to strengthen the partnership between government and voluntary agencies in order to improve refugee…

  20. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene. PMID:26465141

  1. Electronic Publishing and the Journals of the American Chemical Society

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Jeffrey D.; Garson, Lorrin R.

    1996-01-01

    The American Chemical Society is developing a number of initiatives that implement emerging electronic technologies in order to provide a broad range of products and services to members and subscribers. Examples of products currently available, or under development, for access via the World Wide Web include supporting information for journals, electronic ads, color graphics and entire journals. Other activities employ e-mail, CD-ROMs, and softcopy text. PMID:27805172

  2. Differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization definition of impaired fasting glucose in European Caucasian subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Filippatos, Theodosios D.; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Gazi, Irene F.; Lagos, Konstantinos; Agouridis, Dimitrios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting plasma glucose concentration of 100–125 mg/dl, whereas the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) define IFG as fasting plasma glucose levels of 110–125 mg/dl. We identified differences in metabolic parameters and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to the ADA or WHO/IDF definition of IFG. Material and methods Healthy drug-naive Caucasian (Greek) subjects (n = 396; age 55 ±12 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Results Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and uric acid levels were higher in the subjects with glucose 100–109 mg/dl compared with those with glucose < 100 mg/dl (87 ±9 mm Hg vs. 84 ±11 mm Hg, p = 0.004 for DBP, 5.6 ±1.5 mg/dl vs. 5.0 ±1.0 mg/dl, p = 0.002 for uric acid), whereas triglyceride levels were lower in subjects with glucose 100–109 mg/dl compared with those with glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl (169 mg/dl (interquartile range (IQR) = 102–186) vs. 186 mg/dl (IQR = 115–242), p = 0.002). Only the ADA definition recognized subjects with significantly increased 10-year CVD risk estimation (SCORE risk calculation) compared with their respective controls (5.4% (IQR = 0.9–7.3) vs. 4.1% (IQR = 0.7–5.8), p = 0.002). Conclusions The ADA IFG definition recognized more subjects with significantly increased CVD risk (SCORE model) compared with the WHO/IDF definition. PMID:24273558

  3. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    PubMed

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend <0.01) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.31, 0.73, P trend<0.01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk. The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  4. Ring World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    Our robotic emissary, flying high above Saturn, captured this view of an alien copper-colored ring world. The overexposed planet has deliberately been removed to show the unlit rings alone, seen from an elevation of 60 degrees

  5. Obesity and asian americans in the United States: systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sanggon

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world today. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African Americans and Hispanic Americans, but the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing, especially in younger generations. This research examines Asian American obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research. In this research literature review, Asian American obesity using existing research as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American obesity intervention research is examined. A systematic review is done in order to find Asian American obesity research, due to the minimal amount of existing studies. In total, there were only nine papers which were not duplicates and which still met the criteria for inclusion, from an initial 106 papers. There is very little research on obesity in Asian Americans. Although the rate of obesity among Asian Americans is increasing, there are few related articles, projects, and surveys, and there is little information. There is a need for more specific and in-depth analysis of Asian American obesity. Asian Americans are associated with a lower waist circumference (WC) and BMI, while Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders are associated with a higher WC and BMI. Typically, Asian Americans who were born in the United States (US) tend to be overweight and more obese than those born in foreign countries. Based on this literature review, it is concluded that there is a shortage of Asian American obesity research, even though there is an evident need for particular obesity intervention programs that target Asian Americans.

  6. Americans Confront the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Political Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an America Jewish Committee telephone survey of Americans who viewed one or more episodes of the television series on Nazi treatment of Jews during World War II ("Holocaust"), the article concluded that a majority of viewers approved of the presentation and wanted the schools to teach about the Holocaust. (DB)

  7. BASEBALL IN AMERICAN FICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRABER, RALPH S.

    BASEBALL FICTION HAS MOVED FROM THE JUVENILE STORIES OF THE TURN OF THE CENTURY TO ADULT FICTION IN WHICH THE GAME IS EXAMINED FOR THE LIGHT IT SHEDS ON THE PARADOXES OF AMERICAN LIFE. EARLY BASEBALL FICTION WAS DIRECTED TOWARD THE DIME-NOVEL AUDIENCE, BUT AFTER WORLD WAR I, SUCH WRITERS AS HEYWOOD BROUN AND RING LARDNER AIMED FOR ADULT READERS…

  8. We the American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The 1970 United States census counted a female population of 104,299,734. Of all the nations in the world, only three have larger female populations: China, India, and the Soviet Union. Females made up 51.3 percent of the United States population. Over 70 million American women are of voting age--that's nearly seven million more than the number of…

  9. Americans Confront the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Political Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of an America Jewish Committee telephone survey of Americans who viewed one or more episodes of the television series on Nazi treatment of Jews during World War II ("Holocaust"), the article concluded that a majority of viewers approved of the presentation and wanted the schools to teach about the Holocaust. (DB)

  10. Teaching Japanese-American Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksch, Karen L.; Ghere, David

    2004-01-01

    Few events in American history are so universally deplored as the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. The United States government has acknowledged the error and the injustice that resulted with an official Presidential apology and a Congressional disbursement of reparations to the victims of the incarceration policy. The…

  11. The Asian American Employment Market: The Japanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Kazuo

    The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…

  12. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  13. The Asian American Employment Market: The Japanese Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Kazuo

    The Japanese Americans are numerically the largest of all the Asian American ethnic groups. In contrast to the other Asian American groups in the United States, the Japanese Americans are predominantly native born. Although first and second generation Japanese Americans had been subject to intense employment discrimination before World War II and…

  14. New World Symphony and Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author features the life and works of Antonin Dvorak, a Czech classical musician. In the throes of a New World epiphany, Dvorak has espoused a future for American music based on "negro melodies." For three years, beginning in the fall of 1892, Dvorak found himself embroiled in a sustained and often bitter debate over issues of…

  15. New World Symphony and Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author features the life and works of Antonin Dvorak, a Czech classical musician. In the throes of a New World epiphany, Dvorak has espoused a future for American music based on "negro melodies." For three years, beginning in the fall of 1892, Dvorak found himself embroiled in a sustained and often bitter debate over issues of…

  16. What Is World History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  17. The World's Writing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Peter T., Ed.; Bright, William, Ed.

    This survey of the world's written languages consists of a series of historical sketches of different languages, each including a table of signforms in their standard order and their variations, but focusing primarily on how the sounds of the language are represented in writing. A brief text in the language(s) the script is used for is also…

  18. The World's Writing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Peter T., Ed.; Bright, William, Ed.

    This survey of the world's written languages consists of a series of historical sketches of different languages, each including a table of signforms in their standard order and their variations, but focusing primarily on how the sounds of the language are represented in writing. A brief text in the language(s) the script is used for is also…

  19. Story as World Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Kathy G.

    2012-01-01

    Stories are woven so tightly into the fabric of our everyday lives that it's easy to overlook their significance in framing how we think about ourselves and the world. Stories are meaning making, providing a means of structuring and reflecting on our experiences in order to understand their significance. Story is also life making, a way of…

  20. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  1. Between Two Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnikoff, Eugene B.

    Lynton Keith Caldwell can fairly be considered the dean of American political scientists concerned with environmental issues. He has published many books on various aspects of environmental politics and policy and has had an influential role in the development of environmental legislation in the United States. This most recent book is different from his others, however, for it presents a philosophical and personal summary of the extent of the environmental crisis he perceives to be facing the world, and what he believes is required to avoid the plight he sees as near at hand. Lynton Keith Caldwel can fairly be considered the dean of American political scientists concerned with environmental issues. He has published many books on various aspects of environmental politics and policy and has had an influential role in the development of environmental legislation in the United States. This most recent book is different from his others, however, for it presents a philosophical and personal summary of the extent of the environmental crisis he perceives to be facing the world, and what he believes is required to avoid the plight he sees as near at hand.Writing in the style of an extended essay or memoir, Caldwell takes the reader gradually through his deeply troubled analysis of how we came to the present situation. In his view, “modern society has reached a point in time and circumstance when its customary behaviors can no longer be continued. New ways of relating to the Earth have become necessary, and so the world is passing through a historical discontinuity.” He proceeds in a deceptively calm manner, avoiding inflammatory language, to present a radical view of what he believes is necessary to bring about a different world that “must be created if civilization, and perhaps humanity, are to survive.”

  2. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  3. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  4. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  5. The Enduring Communities Project of Japanese American Experiences in New Mexico during World War II and Beyond: A Teacher's Journey in Creating Meaningful Curriculum for the Secondary Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Diane Leslie

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Japanese American National Museum funded a three year curriculum development project entitled "Enduring Communities: Japanese Americans in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas and Utah." As a member of the team of teachers from New Mexico, I used this experience to study my process of developing meaningful content and…

  6. The Enduring Communities Project of Japanese American Experiences in New Mexico during World War II and Beyond: A Teacher's Journey in Creating Meaningful Curriculum for the Secondary Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Diane Leslie

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Japanese American National Museum funded a three year curriculum development project entitled "Enduring Communities: Japanese Americans in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas and Utah." As a member of the team of teachers from New Mexico, I used this experience to study my process of developing meaningful content and…

  7. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... (Jun. 25, 1996) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts'') and American Beacon Advisors, Inc. (``American Beacon'' and collectively...

  8. American Women and American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  9. The new world disorder.

    PubMed

    Checa, Nicolas; Maguire, John; Barney, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    On January 1, 1995, representatives from 76 countries signed the World Trade Organization charter, which for years had been part of a temporary trade agreement. The WTO's emergence as a fully empowered supranational body seemed to reflect the triumph of what the first President Bush had described as the "new world order." That order was based on two assumptions: that a healthy economy and a sound financial system make for political stability, and that countries in business together do not fight each other. The number one priority of U.S. foreign policy was thus to encourage the former Communist countries of Europe and the developing nations in Latin America, Asia, and Africa to adopt business-friendly policies. Private capital would flow from the developed world into these countries, creating economic growth. It sounded too good to be true, and so it proved. The new world order of Bush père and his successor, Bill Clinton, has been replaced by the new world disorder of Bush fils. Under the second Bush's administration, the economic and political rationale-behind the Washington consensus of the 1990s has unraveled, forcing a radical change in our perceptions of which countries are safe for business. Negotiating this new environment will require companies to more rigorously evaluate political events and more carefully assess the links between political, economic, and financial risk factors. They'll need to be more selective about which markets to enter, and they'll need to think differently about how to position themselves in those markets. The geopolitical events of the past year, the Bush administration's global war on terror, as well as ongoing convulsions in traditional political and economic relationships must be understood and managed by corporate leaders worldwide. With careful analysis, business leaders can increase their companies' visibility and better respond to the uncertainties of the new world disorder.

  10. A New World of Mathematics Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The "flat" world described by Friedman (2006) is one of global supply chains and economic networks, outsourcing, international personal entrepreneurial opportunities, and nearly unlimited, universal information availability. American children will inherit a world in which their competition and opportunities are international. In light of these…

  11. A New World of Mathematics Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The "flat" world described by Friedman (2006) is one of global supply chains and economic networks, outsourcing, international personal entrepreneurial opportunities, and nearly unlimited, universal information availability. American children will inherit a world in which their competition and opportunities are international. In light of these…

  12. A Study of Future Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The book suggests models of new world organizations that will be necessary to achieve the elimination of global poverty, injustice, war, and environmental imbalance by the end of the 20th century. The book was developed by the World Order Models Project (WOMP), an international group of researchers and scholars established in 1968 to explore…

  13. A Study of Future Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Richard A.

    The book suggests models of new world organizations that will be necessary to achieve the elimination of global poverty, injustice, war, and environmental imbalance by the end of the 20th century. The book was developed by the World Order Models Project (WOMP), an international group of researchers and scholars established in 1968 to explore…

  14. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  15. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  16. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    while recognizing its third-order impact of the nuanced and volatile cultures within the Arab and Muslim community, and the threat to the homeland...created by this impact. 15. SUBJECT TEEMS Policymaking, Muslim and Arab ideology, Middle East, American exceptionalism, foreign policy, cultural nuances 16...its third-order impact of the nuanced and volatile cultures within the Arab and Muslim community’, and the threat to the homeland created by this

  17. A bill to provide for a point of order against any legislation that eliminates or reduces the ability of Americans to keep their health plan or their choice of doctor or that decreases the number of Americans enrolled in private health insurance, while increasing the number of Americans enrolled in government-managed health care.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. DeMint, Jim [R-SC

    2009-08-04

    Senate - 08/05/2009 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 152. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. A bill to provide for a point of order against any legislation that eliminates or reduces the ability of Americans to keep their health plan or their choice of doctor or that decreases the number of Americans enrolled in private health insurance, while increasing the number of Americans enrolled in government-managed health care.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. DeMint, Jim [R-SC

    2009-08-04

    08/05/2009 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 152. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. A bill to provide for a point of order against any legislation that eliminates or reduces the ability of Americans to keep their health plan or their choice of doctor or that decreases the number of Americans enrolled in private health insurance, while increasing the number of Americans enrolled in government-managed health care.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. DeMint, Jim [R-SC

    2009-08-04

    08/05/2009 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 152. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. [Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].

    PubMed

    Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012.

  1. Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients.

  2. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  3. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations.

  4. World population perspectives 1985.

    PubMed

    Loraine, J A

    1985-01-01

    Some progress has been made in curbing global population growth, yet much remains to be done, particularly in 3rd world countries. Population growth reached its zenith between 1950-70. The growth rate then remained at 2% per annum. By the early 1970s, the pace began to slow, and by 1985 it was down to 1.7%. UN sources anticipate a further drop to 1.5% by 2000. The decline has been due primarily to falling birthrates in some developing nations. China with its 1-child policy has been responsible for a major effect, but also there have been notable declines in other Asian and in Latin American countries. One important factor is the inherent dynamic of the population process. The momentum of population growth is remarkable; world numbers are destined to increase for decade upon decade. Fertility levels and overall rates of population growth will determine when different regions of the world are likely to realize stability . Regarding the level at which the world population will stabilize eventually, the figures most commonly quoted by international agencies range from 8000-10,000 million. This total would strain the earth's carrying capacity to an unacceptable degree and produce ecological malpraxis. In 1985 the developed nations accounted for about 1/4 of the world's population. The rate of growth had been slow for over 20 years and currently is 0.6% per annum. The 2 major demographic changes in the area are continuing low birthrates and a marked rise in the relative and absolute numbers of elderly people. In 1985 the less developed world of Africa, Asia, and Latin America housed 3700 million people, about 3/4 of the world's total. During the next 15 years, 85% of the births are expected to occur in the less developed world. Developing countries show great variations with respect to such demographic indices as birthrates, death rates, and infant mortality rates, but they share with developed nations the marked increase in their numbers of old people. This trend is

  5. Order Nidovirales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  6. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  7. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Shopping Cart American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Home Meetings & Courses Find a ... About Our Academy The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is the world's largest specialty ...

  8. The Impact of American Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casambre, Napoleon J.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American educational system in the Philippines and discussions of the impact of American education in that country during its colonial period and in the years following World War II. (JN)

  9. The Impact of American Education in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casambre, Napoleon J.

    1982-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American educational system in the Philippines and discussions of the impact of American education in that country during its colonial period and in the years following World War II. (JN)

  10. Foreign Blanket Orders: Precedent and practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This investigation based upon a survey of 26 American and West European booksellers attemts to provide some basic information about foreign blanket orders. The characteristics of foreign blanket orders as well as the attitudes of the booksellers are summarized. (Author)

  11. Biology and war--American biology and international science.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    The German-born American scientist Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) was one of the most important promoters of experimental biology around 1900. He was best known for his physico-chemical explanations of psychological processes and his biotechnological approach to artificial parthenogenesis. At the start of the First World War, Loeb was deeply troubled by the deterioration of the international scientific community and the growing alienation of his German and American colleagues. The aim of this paper is to examine Jacques Loeb's activities aimed at advancing scientific internationalism before, during, and after the war. Loeb, for example, tried to negotiate the publication of German authors in American journals during the war, at a time when this was categorically rejected by publishers. Immediately after the war, he tried to create a specific system aimed at disseminating scientific literature and funding selected European colleagues, in order to overcome what he considered reactionary and hegemonic forces within German scientific institutions. His correspondence with eminent scientists from all over the world (amongst them Albert Einstein, Richard Goldschmidt, Otto Meyerhof, Otto Warburg, Paul Ehrlich, Wolfgang Ostwald, Wilhelm Roux, and Ross Harrison) will serve as a source for the analysis. Special emphasis will be placed on the question how Jacques Loeb integrated epistemology, his particular world view, and his social commitment into the workings of his own life and how he tried to extend his scientific goal of controlling biological systems to the sphere of international science.

  12. Stories That Make the World: Oral Literature of the Indian Peoples of the Inland Northwest As Told by Lawrence Aripa, Tom Yellowtail, and Other Elders. The Civilization of the American Indian Series, V. 218.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Rodney, Ed.

    Coeur d'Alene School District (Idaho) developed an American Indian oral literature curriculum component with the help of the neighboring Coeur d'Alene people. This book is based on a general background guide that provides classroom teachers with a context for understanding Coeur d'Alene narratives incorporated into the curriculum. The book also…

  13. Industrial Arts: Preparation for Life in a Technological World." Addresses and Proceedings of the 41st National and 8th International Annual Conference of the American Industrial Arts Association, (San Antonio, Texas, February 26-March 2, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    Included in this document are the addresses and proceedings of the 41st National and 8th International Annual Conference of the American Industrial Arts Association. The proceedings are organized by the following subject groups: curriculum, drafting, electricity/electronics, elementary school industrial arts, energy/power, evaluation, futurology,…

  14. First North American record of the Old World cylapine Fulvius subnitens (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae) from Virginia, with descriptions and a key to the U.S. species of Fulvius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first North American record for Fulvius subnitens Poppius is reported based on one specimen collected in southcentral Virginia. Fulvius anthocoroides, F. imbecilis, F. slateri, and F. subnitens are diagnosed and described, and color images of adults, updated distributions, a review of feeding h...

  15. An Inquiry Relative to Preparation for a General World Administrative Radio Conference of the International Telecommunication Union to Consider Revision of the International Radio Regulations; Report and Order before the Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C. Docket No. 20271.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This "Report and Order" from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) represents the examination of thousands of comments and an expert determination of the future needs of the nongovernmental users of the radio spectrum in the United States. The proposals it contains will be part of the United States' proposals at the 1979 World…

  16. Korean American Parents' Communication with European American Therapist during Behavioral Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research method was employed in order to explore how Korean American parents of children with severe developmental disabilities and problem behaviors collaborate with European American service providers. Ten Korean American parents who received behavioral therapy from European American therapists participated in this study. Results of…

  17. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  18. Korean American Parents' Communication with European American Therapist during Behavioral Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research method was employed in order to explore how Korean American parents of children with severe developmental disabilities and problem behaviors collaborate with European American service providers. Ten Korean American parents who received behavioral therapy from European American therapists participated in this study. Results of…

  19. The Teaching of Asia in World History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research examines Asian history covered within a world history course in American high schools. I pose fundamental questions regarding the nature of what world history teachers classify under the category of Asian history. I research on what teachers teach as part of world history and how they instruct the Asian section of their…

  20. The Handwriting Is on the Wall. A World Development Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This anthology of writings on world development examines the widening gap between the rich and the poor of the world. Development is understood to mean the struggle to realize a just and humane life for everyone. The thoughts of third world economists and political leaders as well as those of European and North American observers are included. The…

  1. The Teaching of Asia in World History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research examines Asian history covered within a world history course in American high schools. I pose fundamental questions regarding the nature of what world history teachers classify under the category of Asian history. I research on what teachers teach as part of world history and how they instruct the Asian section of their…

  2. 78 FR 37427 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8995 of June 14, 2013 World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2013 By the President..., it takes a devastating toll on millions of older Americans each year. On World Elder Abuse Awareness... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 15, 2013, as World Elder...

  3. 76 FR 19265 - World Autism Awareness Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8647 of April 1, 2011 World Autism... health issue with a profound impact on millions of Americans. World Autism Awareness Day is an... communities across America and around the world. Yet, despite great progress in understanding ASDs,...

  4. 78 FR 20409 - World Autism Awareness Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8954 of April 1, 2013 World Autism Awareness... beginning to understand the factors behind the challenges they face. On World Autism Awareness Day, we... proclaim April 2, 2013, as World Autism Awareness Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about...

  5. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  6. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  7. The Handwriting Is on the Wall. A World Development Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This anthology of writings on world development examines the widening gap between the rich and the poor of the world. Development is understood to mean the struggle to realize a just and humane life for everyone. The thoughts of third world economists and political leaders as well as those of European and North American observers are included. The…

  8. Perception in the Invisible World of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novemsky, Lisa; Gautreau, Ronald

    Physics learning involves a change in the habitual perception of the everyday world. In order to describe the real world scientifically, an individual must develop perception and cognition capable of reconstructing the world from raw sensory data and incorporating acquired knowledge of the scientific community. The introductory physics student…

  9. World`s gas-processing expands; Canada, U.S. lead remains steady

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-06-08

    Worldwide gas-processing capacity increased in 1997, led by expansions in North America, Latin America, and the Middle East. Canada and the US continued to dominate the rest of the world in capacity, but those countries` combined share of world capacities and production was kept steady in 1997 by expansions elsewhere. The paper discusses prices of natural gas in the US, Canadian plans, North American activity, world activity, and sulfur recovery capacity.

  10. Breaking Down the Digital Walls: Learning To Teach in a Post-Modem World. SUNY Series, Education and Culture: Critical Factors in the Formation of Character and Community in American Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burniske, R. W.; Monke, Lowell

    This book describes how two teachers, half a world apart, created collaborative Internet projects for high school students worldwide. Projects helped develop critical thinking, genuine dialogue, and global understanding in the classroom. Through the development of curricular projects linking classrooms in Malaysia, Japan, Iowa, South Africa, and…

  11. Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from Imperial China, 1644-1911 and Change and Continuity: Chinese Americans in California. Exhibition Information and Curriculum Guide for Teachers Grades 2-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    The materials in this curriculum guide were designed to prepare teachers and students in grades 2-11 for the "Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from China's Imperial Palace 1644-1911" exhibition at the Oakland Museum of California Education Department, to inform teachers and students about Imperial China, and to illuminate…

  12. Gender as an Organizing Force in the World of Mass-Circulation Magazines. Report from the Project on a Social History of the American Reading Public, 1880-1980. Program Report 86-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damon-Moore, Helen

    Considering gender as an organizing force in the world of magazines is productive both because it allows historians to organize nineteenth and twentieth century magazines according to focus and because examining the relationship between gender targeting and actual audience response can reveal the validity of magazine makers' gender-role…

  13. American Minorities and 'New Nation' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan W.

    1976-01-01

    The 'Third World models' discussed in this article are, specifically the concept of 'internal colonialism' and the related idea of a 'dual economy/society' that is especially prominent in the literature on urbanization in Africa and Latin American nations.

  14. When People See News from a Non-Western Perspective: Cable News Network's "World Report."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert K.

    Much of what Americans "see" of the world is focused through the prism of the American news media. Broadcast journalists, in particular, provide the images that help shape viewers' ideas of the world. The recent introduction on U.S. television of Cable News Network's (CNN) "World Report" now provides the opportunity for…

  15. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    SciTech Connect

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  16. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations.

  17. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  18. The world energy outlook: Latin America`s role

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, G.

    1993-12-31

    Latin America`s role in helping to provide the world`s energy supplies is discussed. The following topics are discussed: crude oi lprice assumptions, world oil supply by region, OECD gas consumption by sectors, world primary energy shares, final world energy demand, world total primary energy demand, Latin American primary energy demand, and fuel shares of electricity output. It was concluded that the world`s energy use will remain carbon based, world enregy consumption will significantly increase with the non-OECD share increasing to over 50%, and the rising importance of non-OECD countries means that no solution to the world`s energy or environmental problems can be achieved without their participation.

  19. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  20. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…