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Sample records for americium recovery service

  1. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  2. RECOVERY OF AMERICIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ader, M.; Hyman, H.H.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for separating americium and plutonium and recovering the americium. Plutonium is extracted from a solution containing plutonium and americium with a water-insoluble solvent, and americium is precipitated from the aqueous phase by adding a ferric salt and an alkali metal hydroxide thereto. The precipitate may then be dissolved in hydrochloric acid and the ferric salt extracted from the americium with an organlc solvent.

  3. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton; Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  4. The production, recovery, properties, and applications of americium and curium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, James D.; Schulz, Wallace W.

    1993-02-01

    Nuclear reactors produce mixtures of Am-241 and Am-242, and beta decay of plutonium produces radioactively pure Am-241. Curium is a product of intense neutron exposure of Pu-239. Separation and purification processes for americium and curium include ion exchange, precipitation, and both liquid-liquid and molten-salt extraction. This article reviews the principal production, recovery, and waste treatment processes and briefly discusses the chemical properties and uses of americium and curium.

  5. Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James L

    2012-06-01

    The element americium marks the end of interesting behavior in the periodic table. I will talk about how this was predicted by Johansson and Rosengren and demonstrated by me. I will talk about other questions of localization.

  6. Americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runde, Wolfgang H.; Schulz, Wallace W.

    Americium, element 95, was discovered in 1944-45 by Seaborg et al. (1950) at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago as a product of the irradiation of plutonium with neutrons: 239{Pu}( n,γ )^{240} Put( n,γ )^{241} Pu → - β ^-}^{241}{Am} This reaction is still the best method for the production of pure 241Am. In post-World War II work at the University of Chicago, Cunningham isolated Am(OH)3 and measured the first absorption spectrum of the Am3+ aquo ion (Cunningham, 1948). By the 1950s, the major center for americium chemistry research in the world was at Los Alamos. Since the 1970s, the majority of publications on americium have come from researchers in the former USSR and West Germany. Extensive reviews of americium chemistry can be found in Freeman and Keller (1985), Gmelin (1979), Penneman and Asprey (1955), and Schulz (1976).

  7. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  8. Hexavalent Americium recovery using Copper(III) periodate

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2016-10-31

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate autoreduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-plutonium uranium redox extraction (post-PUREX) simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. Furthermore, the manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  9. Hexavalent Americium recovery using Copper(III) periodate

    DOE PAGES

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; ...

    2016-10-31

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate autoreduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant,more » solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-plutonium uranium redox extraction (post-PUREX) simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. Furthermore, the manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.« less

  10. Hexavalent Americium Recovery Using Copper(III) Periodate

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2016-11-21

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate auto-reduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-PUREX simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. The manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  11. Hexavalent Americium Recovery Using Copper(III) Periodate.

    PubMed

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C

    2016-11-21

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu(3+) periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu(3+) periodate autoreduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu(3+) periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-plutonium uranium redox extraction (post-PUREX) simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of (241)Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu(3+) periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. The manuscript demonstrates Cu(3+) periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  12. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    About 5 kg of ingrown /sup 241/Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the /sup 241/Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% /sup 241/AmO/sub 2/; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel.

  13. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Adam C.; Belooussova, Olga N.; Hetrick, Lucas Duane

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  14. Hospital service recovery.

    PubMed

    Gutbezahl, Cary; Haan, Perry

    2006-01-01

    An organization's ability to correct service errors is an important factor in achieving success in today's service economy. This paper examines service recovery in hospitals in the U.S. First is a general review of service recovery theories. Next is a discussion of specific service issues related to the hospital environment. The literature on service recovery is used to make specific recommendations to hospitals for ways to improve their ability to remedy service errors when they occur. Suggestions for future research in the field of service recovery are also made.

  15. SEPARATION OF AMERICIUM FROM PROMETHIUM

    DOEpatents

    Pressly, R.E.

    1959-07-01

    Promethium-147 is separated from americium in acidic aqueous solution by adding fluosilicic acid to the solution, heating the solution to form a promethium precipitate and separating the precipitate from solution. The precipitate is then re-dissolved by ihe addition of boric acid and nitric acid, and re-precipitated by the addition of fluosilicic acid. This procedure is repeated six or more times to obtain a relatively americium-free promeihium precipitate. Americium may be separately recovered from the supernatant liquids. This process is applicable to the recovery of promethium from fission-product solutions which have been allowed to decay for a period of two to four years.

  16. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  17. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  18. Recovery in Scotland: Beyond service development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland – including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network – and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland. PMID:22385428

  19. Recovery in Scotland: beyond service development.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Simon; McBrierty, Rona

    2012-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland - including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network - and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland.

  20. Radionuclide Basics: Americium-241

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Americium (chemical symbol Am) is a man-made radioactive metal that is solid under normal conditions. Exposure to a significant amount of Am-241 is generally unlikely. Small amounts are found in the soil, plants and water from nuclear weapons testing.

  1. Disaster Relief and Recovery Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Work Disaster Relief Lifesaving Blood Training & Certification Military Families International Services Who We Are Mission & Values ... Resources for Schools Types of Emergencies Mobile Apps Military Families Emergency Communication Financial Assistance Deployment Information & Referral ...

  2. RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

  3. SEPARATION OF CURIUM AND AMERICIUM

    DOEpatents

    Fields, P.R.; Isaac, N.M.

    1962-02-20

    Curium and americium are contained in an anhydrous molten salt medium having a low melting point. Curium is preferentially extracted from the molten salt by a hot organic solvent containing preferably less than 10% alkyl phosphate. (AEC)

  4. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and recovery...

  5. Service engagement: psychopathology, recovery style and treatments.

    PubMed

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  6. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  7. The profitable art of service recovery.

    PubMed

    Hart, C W; Heskett, J L; Sasser, W E

    1990-01-01

    In services, mistakes are a fact of life. No matter how hard companies try, they can't prevent the occasional late flight or missed delivery. But they can learn to recover from them. Consider how Club Med-Cancun turned a service nightmare into a memorable experience. When a flight to Cancun left New York six hours late, made two unexpected stops, ran out of food, and had a rough landing, the vacationers on board were certain their holiday was ruined. But the Club Med manager greeted the travelers with food and music and chauffeured them back to the resort. In the end, the vacationers had a better time than if the flight had gone like clockwork. Service recovery starts with identifying the problem. The Bank of Maine in Portland pays customers $1 for writing a letter about the service they received. American Express uses an "800" number to solicit customer complaints. Once they've identified a problem, service companies must act fast. When Smith & Hawken realized that it was taking months to resolve customers' problems by mail, the company decided to use the phone instead. Most important, service companies should encourage frontline employees to deviate from the rules when necessary. Some companies use role playing to help employees develop the creative thinking needed to deal with unusual situations. Sonesta Hotels uses a game in which teams win points for coming up with good solutions to realistic problems. Also, employees must have the authority and responsibility to act on their beliefs-to make phone calls, credit accounts, or send flowers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The role of complaint management in the service recovery process.

    PubMed

    Bendall-Lyon, D; Powers, T L

    2001-05-01

    Patient satisfaction and retention can be influenced by the development of an effective service recovery program that can identify complaints and remedy failure points in the service system. Patient complaints provide organizations with an opportunity to resolve unsatisfactory situations and to track complaint data for quality improvement purposes. Service recovery is an important and effective customer retention tool. One way an organization can ensure repeat business is by developing a strong customer service program that includes service recovery as an essential component. The concept of service recovery involves the service provider taking responsive action to "recover" lost or dissatisfied customers and convert them into satisfied customers. Service recovery has proven to be cost-effective in other service industries. The complaint management process involves six steps that organizations can use to influence effective service recovery: (1) encourage complaints as a quality improvement tool; (2) establish a team of representatives to handle complaints; (3) resolve customer problems quickly and effectively; (4) develop a complaint database; (5) commit to identifying failure points in the service system; and (6) track trends and use information to improve service processes. Customer retention is enhanced when an organization can reclaim disgruntled patients through the development of effective service recovery programs. Health care organizations can become more customer oriented by taking advantage of the information provided by patient complaints, increasing patient satisfaction and retention in the process.

  9. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  10. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  11. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  12. 42 CFR 66.110 - Service, payback, and recovery requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service, payback, and recovery requirements. 66.110 Section 66.110 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE AWARDS Direct Awards § 66.110 Service, payback, and...

  13. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry.

  14. The role of service recovery in HMO satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H

    1999-01-01

    Complaint handling and service recovery by HMOs may be more efficient to implement and more determinant of customer satisfaction and retention than other approaches such as improving access to care. The current findings are consistent with research on recovery efforts in other industries. Complaint handling systems must achieve rapid and comprehensive identification and resolution of HMO member problems. Both cultural change and appropriate incentives to re-educate employees within HMO organizations are additional requisites to effective service recovery. The benefits to the HMO of expenditures on service recovery should be more immediate and sustainable than the benefits derived from other methods of increasing member satisfaction.

  15. Recovery: what mental health nurses and service users say about the concept of recovery.

    PubMed

    Aston, V; Coffey, M

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a thematic analysis of focus group talk to examine what recovery in mental health means to service users and nurses. Data were collected from two focus groups, one group of service users and one group of nurses. The service user group (n=6) were adults with previous or recent experience of inpatient mental health services. The nursing group were registered nurses (n=5) of various grades and experience currently working in inpatient mental health services in one region of the U.K. Thematic analysis using Krueger and Casey's framework led to four themes being developed. These were 'understandings of recovery', 'semantics', 'therapeutics' and 'a journey'. While the recovery concept was not new to either group, understandings of recovery were vague and contradictory.

  16. The Recovery College: A unique service approach and qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stone, Nicola; Valentine, Paul; Hooks, Zoe; Sault, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the impact of a Recovery College, an educational service model focusing specifically on health care to engage people's hope, agency, and opportunities for recovery. For the purpose of the study, a qualitative approach was used given the absence of research in this area. Eleven people completed semistructured interviews conducted by an independent researcher. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analyses yielded themes emphasizing the impact of the organizational structure of the college. Coproduction of service delivery was contrasted with traditional provision and identified as fundamental to personal and professional changes made. Recovery College participants described clear gains. These findings are discussed in relation to the recovery literature and highlight the need for routine coproduction of services to facilitate recovery from the often devastating impact of mental ill-health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Phonon dynamics of americium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Ahirwar, Ashok K.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    We report for the first time the complete phonon dispersion curves for Americium telluride (AmTe) using a breathing shell models (BSM) to establish their predominant ionic nature. The results obtained in the present study show the general features of the phonon spectrum. We could not compare our results with the experimental measurements as they are not available so far. We emphasize the need of neutron scattering measurements to compare our results. We also report, for the first time specific heat for this compound.

  18. Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew T; Pagano, Maria E; Johnson, Byron R; Post, Stephen G

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationships among a specific combination of "spiritual virtues" (helping others and the experience of divine love) and outcomes related to criminal involvement, sobriety, and character development among adolescents. One-hundred ninety five adolescents with substance dependency court-referred to residential treatment were assessed at intake, discharge, and 6 months post-treatment. Higher service to others predicted reduced recidivism, reduced relapse, and greater character development. Experiencing divine love enhanced the effect of service on recidivism. Greater attention to spiritual virtues might improve treatment for youth involved with alcohol, drugs, and certain forms of crime.

  19. Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew T.; Pagano, Maria E.; Johnson, Byron R.; Post, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationships among a specific combination of “spiritual virtues” (helping others and the experience of divine love) and outcomes related to criminal involvement, sobriety, and character development among adolescents. One-hundred ninety five adolescents with substance dependency court-referred to residential treatment were assessed at intake, discharge, and 6 months post-treatment. Higher service to others predicted reduced recidivism, reduced relapse, and greater character development. Experiencing divine love enhanced the effect of service on recidivism. Greater attention to spiritual virtues might improve treatment for youth involved with alcohol, drugs, and certain forms of crime. PMID:27482142

  20. The Most Useful Actinide Isotope: Americium-241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navratil, James D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed is the discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses of an isotope of Americium (Am-241). Production and separation techniques used in industry are emphasized. Processes are illustrated in flow sheets. (CW)

  1. The Most Useful Actinide Isotope: Americium-241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navratil, James D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed is the discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses of an isotope of Americium (Am-241). Production and separation techniques used in industry are emphasized. Processes are illustrated in flow sheets. (CW)

  2. Neutron production in several americium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    Americium, like other alpha emitting actinides, may indirectly produce neutrons when combined with light target materials. These (alpha,n) reaction neutrons, along with well known photon lines, have been an advantage of the {sup 241}Am isotope for diverse applications such as radiography, thickness gauges, neutron sources, and even common household smoke detectors. To characterize these sources, the SOURCES code was used to calculate neutron yields and spectra from {sup 241}Am metal, americium oxide, and americium aluminum alloys. Such information may be used as source terms for future transport problems (e.g. shielding calculations). Table 1 contains neutron yields for six americium configurations. The metal, oxides, and alloys were run as homogeneous problems while the interface case was run in both two- and three-region interface modes.

  3. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  4. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-08-11

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  5. What are your priorities right now? Identifying service needs across recovery stages to inform service development.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William

    2010-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are, for many, chronic conditions that are typically associated with severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. "Recovery" from SUD is, for most, a lengthy process; improvements in other areas of functioning do not necessarily follow the attainment of abstinence. The current SUD service model providing intense, short-term, symptom-focused services is ill-suited to address these issues. A recovery-oriented model of care is emerging, which provides coordinated recovery-support services using a chronic-care model of sustained recovery management. Information is needed about substance users' priorities, particularly persons in recovery who are not currently enrolled in treatment, to guide the development of recovery-oriented systems. As a first step in filling this gap, we present qualitative data on current life priorities among a sample of individuals that collectively represent successive recovery stages (N = 356). Findings suggest that many areas of functioning remain challenging long after abstinence is attained, most notably employment and education, family/social relations, and housing. Although the ranking of priorities changes somewhat across recovery stages, employment is consistently the second most important priority, behind working on one's recovery. Study limitations are noted, and the implications of findings for the development and evaluation of recovery-oriented services are discussed.

  6. Utilization, measurement, and funding of recovery supports and services.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Sarah J; Antonini, Valerie P; Rawson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    An environmental survey was conducted regarding substance abuse recovery supports and services (RSS) delivered across California, where these services are offered, and by whom. Inquiries were made regarding RSS measurement efforts, funding mechanisms, and technical assistance needs. A survey was disseminated to all 57 administrators of county alcohol and other drug or behavioral departments. Results indicate that 62% (23 of 37) of responding counties offer RSS. Overall, certified addiction counselors (CACs) were the staff most utilized to provide RSS, followed by peers, clinicians, and volunteers. Among recovery-community organizations (RCOs), peers, volunteers, and CACs were the most utilized staff. Sober living homes were the most prevalent type of RCO, followed by recovery centers, faith-based/recovery ministries, and recovery schools. Forty-five percent of counties reported funding RSS; 37.8% collect data. RSS may provide valuable support services for individuals recovering from alcohol/drug use; however, the field must further define RSS and develop measurement strategies to justify RSS funding.

  7. Nature and determinants of customer expectations of service recovery in health care.

    PubMed

    Dasu, S; Rao, J

    1999-01-01

    Service recovery refers to the service provider's response to a dissatisfied customer. This article proposes a model of customer expectations of service recovery in health care services. The model discusses two types of service recovery expectations: will and should. An exploratory study indicates that industry reputation and personal experiences drive customers' "will-expectations" of service recovery while "should-expectations" can be explained via norm, fairness, social contract and hospitality theories.

  8. Consumer Attitude Towards Service Failure and Recovery in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure in particular. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data are collected from 120 students of three undergraduate colleges of…

  9. Consumer Attitude Towards Service Failure and Recovery in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore consumer attitude towards service failure and recovery in the higher education in general and with respect to teaching, examination, library, computer lab, administration and infrastructure in particular. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data are collected from 120 students of three undergraduate colleges of…

  10. Treatment of accidental intakes of plutonium and americium: guidance notes.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier, F; Grappin, L; Raynaud, P; Courtay, C; Wood, R; Joussineau, S; List, V; Stradling, G N; Taylor, D M; Bérard, Ph; Morcillo, M A; Rencova, J

    2005-06-01

    The scientific basis for the treatment of the contamination of the human body by plutonium, americium and other actinides is reviewed. Guidance Notes are presented for the assistance of physicians and others who may be called upon to treat workers or members of the public who may become contaminated internally with inhaled plutonium nitrate, plutonium tributyl phosphate, americium nitrate or americium oxide.

  11. Mental health recovery for psychiatric inpatient services: perceived importance of the elements of recovery.

    PubMed

    Siu, B W M; Ng, B F L; Li, V C K; Yeung, Y M; Lee, M K L; Leung, A Y H

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. To develop a questionnaire for measuring the perceived importance of the elements of mental health recovery in psychiatric inpatients in Hong Kong and to test the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. METHODS. Thematic content analysis of identified literature on mental health recovery was performed to identify the elements related to mental health recovery. A questionnaire was developed to assess the perceived importance of the identified elements. An expert panel was set up to evaluate the content validity and patient focus group's face validity of the questionnaire. Participants were recruited from medium-stay and rehabilitation wards of Castle Peak Hospital. RESULTS. A total of 101 psychiatric inpatients completed the questionnaire, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia (75%). Having meaning in life was rated by 91% of the participants as an important element of recovery, followed by hope (86%) and general health and wellness (85%). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.91. Explorative factor analysis yielded 7 factors and intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a fair-to-good test-retest reliability. CONCLUSIONS. The results supported the psychometric properties of the questionnaire for measurement of mental health recovery and serve as a basis for the future development of recovery-oriented services in the psychiatric inpatient settings in this locality.

  12. Americium binding to humic acid.

    PubMed

    Peters, A J; Hamilton-Taylor, J; Tipping, E

    2001-09-01

    The binding of americium (Am) by peat humic acid (PHA) has been investigated at Am concentrations between 10(-1) and 10(-7) M at pH approximately 2.6 in the presence and absence of Cu as a competing ion. Cu-PHA binding was also investigated in order to derive independent binding constants for use in modeling the competitive binding studies. Humic ion-binding model VI was used to compare the acquired data with previously published binding data and to investigate the importance of high-affinity binding sites in metal-PHA binding. Am was not observed to bind to high-affinity, low-concentration binding sites. The model VI parameter deltaLK2 takes into accountthe small number of strong sites in PHA and was found to be important for Cu-PHA binding but not for Am-PHA binding, regardless of whether Cu was present. Analysis of the PHA sample revealed that it contained a considerable quantity of Fe not removed by the extraction procedure, much of which is believed to be present as Fe(III). Model VI was then used to investigate the possible importance of the presence of Fe(III) in the Am-PHA binding experiments. When Fe(III) was assumed to be present, improved descriptions of the data by model VI were obtained by assuming that all of the metals [Am, Cu, and Fe(III)] undergo strong binding. This highlights the importance of Fe(III) competition in metal-PHA binding studies and possible shortcomings in the extraction procedure used to extract PHA.

  13. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption on Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resin. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2+/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessing of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  14. Socioeconomic assessment of Forest Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act projects: key findings and lessons learned

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Pamela Jakes; John Schelhas

    2012-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act) aimed to create jobs and promote economic growth while addressing the Nation’s social and environmental needs. The USDA Forest Service received $1.15 billion in economic recovery funding. This report contains key findings and lessons learned from a socioeconomic assessment of Forest Service Recovery...

  15. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  16. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  17. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  18. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  19. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  20. Recovery in Hong Kong: service user participation in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Cheung, Eric; Kan, Alice; Ng, Roger; Yau, Sania

    2012-02-01

    This article provides an overview of mental health services (MHS) and the application of the recovery concept in Hong Kong, focusing on user participation. It presents stakeholders' views of the recovery movement in a round-table discussion format, demonstrating agreement that user participation merits more public and official attention. Some of the present difficulties with the movement are also reviewed. Social identity theory (SIT) is then analysed as a potentially useful framework for theorizing how service users' identities change as they become service providers. The paper then provides an overview of the current financial and political position of MHS, and identifies signs that the recovery approach is becoming accepted. It also addresses the cultural meanings of the concept, and sets out examples of its implementation in the health and social welfare sectors. Lastly, it summarizes the challenges facing service providers and users and concludes that as the recovery movement is still in its infancy in Hong Kong, more coordinated efforts are needed to establish the organizational support and policy framework, so that sustainable and evidence-based service provision can be achieved.

  1. Recovery from mental illness: a service user perspective on facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Wind, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living in supported housing services are interviewed. The analysis is guided by a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach and the interpretation involves theories from critical theory, sociology, and learning. Learning, social relations, and willpower are identified as having an impact on recovery. Stigmatization and social barriers occurred. Social relations to peer residents and staff were reported as potentially having a positive and negative impact on recovery. Studies have explored the user's perspectives on recovery but this study contributes with knowledge on how recovery-oriented services have an impact on recovery.

  2. Recovery-Oriented Services--The Role of Training in Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Izabela; Switaj, Piotr; Anczewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recovery oriented practice/service provision is how workers and services support people in their recovery journey. There are four identified practice domains: promoting citizenship, organizational commitment, supporting personally defined recovery, and working relationship. Professionals might be helpful if they are willing to be open, respectful…

  3. Choice, perceived control, and customer satisfaction: the psychology of online service recovery.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chi

    2008-06-01

    Service failures and consequent recoveries have been identified as critical determinants of customer retention. Therefore, effective service recovery programs warrant further exploration, particularly in the online shopping environment, where consumers can receive immediate and tangible service recovery. The results of the present study suggest that by providing a choice of recovery options, customers' sense of control is increased, as is their satisfaction with the particular recovery efforts and their overall satisfaction with the entire service experience. Also, service importance accentuated the impact of choice on perceived control. Specifically, when the service was of greater importance, giving customers a choice of recovery options augmented customers' sense of control more than when the service was of lesser importance. The implications of the findings are also discussed.

  4. Effects of a recovery management intervention on Chinese heroin users' community recovery through the mediation effect of enhanced service utilization.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Fu, L M; Hser, Y H

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates whether a recovery management intervention (RMI) can improve the utilization of community drug treatment and wraparound services among heroin users in China and subsequently lead to positive recovery outcomes. Secondary analysis was conducted drawing data from a randomized controlled trial; 100 heroin users with no severe mental health problems were recruited in two Shanghai districts (Hongkou and Yangpu) upon their release from compulsory rehabilitation facilities. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to test whether the RMI influences heroin users' perceived motivation and readiness for treatment, enhances treatment and wraparound service participation, and, in turn, predicts better recovery outcomes. Enrollment in drug treatment and other social service utilization increased significantly as a result of RMI rather than an individual drug user's motivation and readiness for treatment. Increased service utilization thus led to more positive individual recovery outcomes. In addition to this mediation effect through service utilization, the RMI also improved participants' community recovery directly. Findings suggest that better drug treatment enrollment, community service utilization and recovery outcomes can be potentially achieved among heroin users in China with carefully designed case management interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. What Factors Influence Employee Service Recovery Performance and What Are the Consequences in Health Care?

    PubMed

    Nadiri, Halil; Tanova, Cem

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the extent to which the service recovery performance of frontline employees in private health care institutions is influenced by employee perceptions of manager attitudes toward service quality, workplace support, and manager fairness and organizational commitment. We also examined the relationship of service recovery performance to employee job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Partial least square path modeling of data from 178 frontline employees in private health care institutions in North Cyprus was utilized. Although empowerment and role clarity were positively related to service recovery performance, perceived managerial attitudes toward hospital customer service, teamwork, and customer service-oriented training as indicators of workplace support were not related to frontline employees' service recovery performance. Organizational justice was related to affective commitment, which in turn was related to service recovery performance. Although service recovery performance was not related to employee turnover intentions, it was related to job satisfaction. Managerial implications of these study findings are presented in the light of the cognitive evaluation theory. Health services differ from other service organizations in the way that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards influence the service recovery efforts of frontline employees. To ensure high quality services, managers should focus on intrinsic rewards, empower and give more autonomy to staff.

  6. "Speeding up the road to recovery": The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service.

    PubMed

    Davis Le Brun, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The number of bed closures in mental health is on the rise, creating additional pressure on services, including acute mental health services. An efficient way of working is required in order to streamline the acute care pathway and decrease unnecessary delays to length of stay, ensuring all individuals can be offered an inpatient bed when in crisis. The Complex Recovery Assessment and Consultation (CRAC) service was created in order to support acute mental health inpatient clinicians in streamlining hospital stays for service users who present with complex presentations that require lengthier admissions (over 40 days) by offering assessment, advice, and intervention from a rehabilitation perspective. The team was also created to understand why individuals may require a lengthy hospital stay. Preliminary data showed that requiring a placement on discharge proved to be the most significant factor in increased length of stay and so the team took on a new role of discharge coordinator after around a year of operating. This involved assisting in decreasing any delays out of hospital through improved communication and dedicated time to complete tasks, such as completing paperwork for placement referrals and funding panels. Since taking on this role it was found that the time taken for individuals to be discharged to a rehabilitation or specialist placement decreased; a rehabilitation placement by 13.12 days and a specialist placement by 9.22 days. Discharge to a family address also decreased by 2.9 days and a home address by 2.47 days. Those patients with complex presentations benefit from having one dedicated team to coordinate the discharge process. Their lengthier acute inpatient stay is improved through streamlining care pathways, ultimately decreasing delays in discharge.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    PubMed

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.

    PubMed

    Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

    2012-09-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established.

  9. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  10. Electron heat capacity and lattice properties of Americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povzner, A. A.; Filanovich, A. N.; Os'kina, V. A.; Volkov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron heat capacity of americium is calculated using the concepts on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of this element. The Debye temperature, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the bulk modulus of americium are determined on the basis of the results of calculations and experimental data on heat capacity.

  11. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Americium-241 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  12. Americium/curium extraction from a lanthanide borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.; Pareizs, J.M.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    A solution containing kilogram quantities of highly radioactive isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) and lanthanide fission products is currently stored in a process tank at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). This tank and its vital support systems are old, subject to deterioration, and prone to possible leakage. For this reason, a program has been initiated to stabilize this material as a lanthanide borosilicate (LBS) glass. The Am/Cm has commercial value and is desired for use by the heavy isotope programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A recovery flowsheet was demonstrated using a curium containing glass to extract the Am/Cm from the glass matrix. The procedure involved grinding the glass to less than 200 mesh and dissolving in concentrated nitric acid at 110 {degrees}C. Under these conditions, the dissolution was essentially 100% after 2 hours except for the insoluble silicon. Using a nonradioactive surrogate, the expected glass dissolution rate during Am/Cm recovery was bracketed by using both static and agitated conditions. The measured rates, 0.0082 and 0.040 g/hr.sq cm, were used to develop a predictive model for the time required to dissolve a spherical glass particle in terms of the glass density, particle size, and measured rate. The calculated dissolution time was in agreement with the experimental observation that the curium glass dissolution was complete in less than 2 hrs.

  13. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high…

  14. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high…

  15. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors’ studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg and Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg and Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high schools. Descriptive and qualitative findings are presented. The focus is on characteristics of RHS students and, in light of those student characteristics, findings regarding academic and recovery support programming in recovery high schools. PMID:24976659

  16. Recovery orientation of treatment, consumer empowerment, and satisfaction with services: a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Blake; Young, M Scott; Teague, Gregory B; Winarski, James T; Moore, Kathleen A; Ochshorn, Ezra

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the recovery orientation of treatment and subjective experiences of consumer empowerment and satisfaction with services for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. Instruments measuring perceptions of empowerment, recovery orientation of treatment, and satisfaction with services were administered to 45 participants enrolled in two demographically similar mental health treatment programs in Tampa, Florida - a community mental health center and an Assertive Community Treatment team. Analyses were conducted according to traditional mediation models. Empowerment was expected to mediate the relationship between the recovery orientation of treatment and consumer satisfaction with services. A recovery-based treatment orientation significantly predicted both consumer empowerment and satisfaction with services. Empowerment mediated the relationship between treatment orientation and consumer satisfaction. These preliminary findings highlight the impact of the recovery orientation of treatment on empowerment and satisfaction with services among individuals with severe and persistent mental illness.

  17. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory for Measurement of Nursing Student Views on Recovery-oriented Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented services are a goal for policy and practice in the Australian mental health service system. Evidence-based reform requires an instrument to measure knowledge of recovery concepts. The Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) was designed for this purpose, however, its suitability and validity for student health professionals has not been evaluated. The purpose of the current article is to report the psychometric features of the RKI for measuring nursing students' views on recovery. The RKI, a self-report measure, consists of four scales: (I) Roles and Responsibilities, (II) Non-Linearity of the Recovery Process, (III) Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and (IV) Expectations Regarding Recovery. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the baseline data (n = 167) were applied to assess validity and reliability. Exploratory factor analyses generally replicated the item structure suggested by the three main scales, however more stringent analyses (confirmatory factor analysis) did not provide strong support for convergent validity. A refined RKI with 16 items had internal reliabilities of α = .75 for Roles and Responsibilities, α = .49 for Roles of Self-Definition and Peers, and α = .72, for Recovery as Non-Linear Process. If the RKI is to be applied to nursing student populations, the conceptual underpinning of the instrument needs to be reworked, and new items should be generated to evaluate and improve scale validity and reliability.

  18. Can we risk recovery? A grounded theory of clinical psychologists' perceptions of risk and recovery-oriented mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Anna; Brown, Dora; Hayward, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to explore the views of clinical psychologists towards the concepts of 'risk' and 'recovery' and to set those views against the context of mental health services. An exploratory, social constructionist grounded theory methodology was adopted. Eleven clinical psychologists working in adult mental health services each participated in one individual semistructured interview. The clinical psychologists studied were aware of the emergence of recovery-oriented approaches, but felt unable to incorporate them in practice because of perceptions of being bound by both their own limitations and those of their circumstances, including issues of risk, thus giving rise to dilemmas in professional practice. Narrow definitions of risk as equated to danger dominated over broader conceptualizations of risk with positive consequences. The existing culture of mental health services was seen as emphasizing the need to avoid harmful consequences of taking risks, which in turn was seen to limit innovations in implementing recovery-oriented approaches. Participants' ability to work in a recovery-oriented manner seemed to be limited by the way in which services perceived and responded to risk. Participants did not discuss risks arising from stigma, social exclusion, racism, sexism, or iatrogenic effects of psychiatric treatment. Narrow conceptualizations of risk as related to harm and danger seen in this study contribute to a sense of needing to be risk averse. However, the implications for practice included ideas about what might increase the possibilities for adopting recovery approaches across disciplines. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-07-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs.

  20. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, Denis; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  1. Grove Mountains meteorite recovery and relevant data distribution service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunxia; Ai, Songtao; Chen, Nengcheng; Wang, Zemin; E, Dongchen

    2011-11-01

    Meteorites are extremely valuable in providing clues about the origin, evolution, and composition of the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, other planets, and asteroids. Since the first discovery of a meteorite in Antarctica, more and more meteorite concentrations on bare ice stranding sites were discovered. Antarctica is identified as a prolific source of extraterrestrial materials. The Grove Mountains area, covered by ice, snow, and nunataks, is located in the Antarctic inland area. It is about 380 km away from the Chinese Zhongshan Antarctic Research Station in East Antarctica. Since 1998, 11,452 meteorites have been collected from the Grove Mountains by the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). It is confirmed that the Grove Mountains area is a productive search area for meteorites in Antarctica. More and more meteorite recoveries led to the recognition that unique mechanisms relating to meteorite concentrations exist in Antarctica. Besides meteorite field collections, the extraction of blue ice based on satellite images, meteorite concentration mechanisms, and meteorite data distribution service are discussed in this paper. Wide distribution of blue ice indicates the enrichment of meteorites. Based on the different spectrum characteristics and coherence of snow, blue ice, and bare rocks, blue ice areas are extracted from optical images and coherence maps. According to meteorite field collections and optical images, moraines are also identified as meteorite concentration sites in the Grove Mountains area. The meteorite concentration theories should be further analyzed by taking into account ice-flow dynamics, mountains' blocking effect, katabatic wind and ice ablation, and others. Moreover, in order to strengthen the visualization and network sharing of the valuable meteorite data, desktop software based on ArcObjects and web software based on ArcIMS are developed within this study. The desktop software also enables further analysis of the meteorite

  2. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-12-31

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

  3. Recovery in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): a qualitative study of service users' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Katsakou, Christina; Marougka, Stamatina; Barnicot, Kirsten; Savill, Mark; White, Hayley; Lockwood, Kate; Priebe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Symptom improvement in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is more common than previously hypothesised. However, it remains unclear whether it reflects service users' personal goals of recovery. The present study aimed to explore what service users with BPD view as recovery. 48 service users were recruited from secondary mental health services and their views on their personal goals and the meaning of recovery were explored in in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study drew on grounded theory and thematic analysis. Service users believed that recovery involved developing self-acceptance and self-confidence, gaining control over emotions, improving relationships, employment, and making progress in symptoms like suicidality and self-harming. They felt that psychotherapies for BPD often had an extreme focus on specific areas, like self-harming or relationships, and that some of their goals were neglected. Although full recovery was seen as a distant goal, interviewees felt that they could learn how to deal with their problems in more effective ways and make meaningful progress in their lives. Specialist therapies for BPD explicitly address some of the recovery goals that are important to service users, whereas other goals are only indirectly or poorly addressed. Professionals might need to work with service users towards devising comprehensive individualised case formulations, including all treatment targets that are important to service users, their priorities, and long-term plans on how their targets might be met and which services might be involved.

  4. Developing the philosophy of recovery in South African mental health services.

    PubMed

    Parker, J S

    2012-11-01

    The recovery movement has emerged as an important and powerful force in the design and implementation of mental health care in many countries around the world. This involves new and more positive understandings of the concept of recovery, both as an individual outcome and as a goal of services. The basis for these understandings is examined, with particular emphasis on long-term outcomes in schizophrenia, and a brief history of the origins of the recovery movement is given. An argument is made for the implementation of a recovery framework within South African mental health services.

  5. Antiservice Within the Medical Service Encounter: Lessons for Radiologists Beyond Service Recovery.

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul Armstrong; Hill, Ronald Paul

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications in the metrics for reimbursement have reinforced the importance of radiology service-delivery experiences of patients. Evaluating current radiology practices calls for reflection on the various touch points with patients, as well as their overall satisfaction. If problems occur during encounters, service failure, or lack of satisfactory medical experiences can be transformed through service recovery, whereby patients-as-customers are given chances to voice their concerns, and health care providers across the spectrum can work together to resolve problematic issues. This paper takes a systemic view of the patient experience as embedded in the care continuum, recognizing that different beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of members of the health care team can negatively affect or sabotage patient satisfaction. Although radiologists are only one of many roles in the care continuum, recommendations are discussed for how they can integrate service satisfaction as a pervasive communal goal among all health care team members. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The vision of recovery today: what it is and what it means for services

    PubMed Central

    FARKAS, MARIANNE

    2007-01-01

    In the past, practice in mental health was guided by the belief that individuals with serious mental illnesses do not recover. The course of their illness was either seen pessimistically, as deteriorative, or optimistically, as a maintenance course. Research over the past thirty to forty years has indicted that belief and shown that a vision of recovery can be achieved for many individuals. People with serious mental illnesses have themselves published accounts of their own recovery as well as advocated for the development of recovery promoting services. In North America and other regions, policies have been developed to make recovery the guiding vision of services. Today, particularly in the United States, much effort is going into the transformation of services and systems to achieve recovery outcomes. Despite these trends, the idea of recovery remains controversial and, some say, even illusory. This article clarifies the meaning of the term "recovery", reviews the research and first person accounts providing a rationale for recovery, and sets out implications for developing recovery oriented services. PMID:18235855

  7. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  8. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  9. 75 FR 53970 - Office of Community Services; Expansion Supplements Under 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... is designed to support T/TA that strengthens the ability of the Community Action Network to comply... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Community Services; Expansion Supplements Under 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Community Services (OCS), ACF...

  10. Frontiers of Chemistry for Americium and Curium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Keller, O. L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discoveries of americium and curium were made only after Seaborg had formulated his actinide concept in order to design the chemistry needed to separate them from irradiated /sup 239/Pu targets. Their discoveries thus furnished the first clear-cut evidence that the series exists and justified Seaborg`s bold assumption that even though Th and Pa appeared to presage a following 6d series, the pattern established by the periodic table after Cs and Ba would be repeated exactly after Fr and Ra. That is to say, a new 5f element rare earth series (the actinides) would follow Ac in the same way the 4f rare earth series (the lanthanides) follows La. The consequences of the resulting half-filled 5f/sup 7/ shell at Cm were originally presented by Seaborg as a test of his hypothesis. Recent research is outlined that substantiates Seaborg`s predictions in new and definitive ways.

  11. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Law, Jack D.; Goff, George S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Burns, Jon D.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Shehee, Thomas C.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  12. Frontiers of chemistry for americium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, O.L. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The discoveries of americium and curium were made only after Seaborg had formulated his actinide concept in order to design the chemistry needed to separate them from irradiated /sup 239/Pu targets. Their discoveries thus furnished the first clear-cut evidence that the series exists and justified Seaborg's bold assumption that even though Th and Pa appeared to presage a following 6d series, the pattern established by the periodic table after Cs and Ba would be repeated exactly after Fr and Ra. That is to say, a new 5f element rare earth series (the actinides) would follow Ac in the same way the 4f rare earth series (the lanthanides) follows La. The consequences of the resulting half-filled 5f/sup 7/ shell at Cm were originally presented by Seaborg as a test of his hypothesis. Recent research is outlined that substantiates Seaborg's predictions in new and definitive ways. 15 references, 4 figures.

  13. Coulometric determination of americium in acetonitrile solution of phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Perevalov, S.A.; Kulyakov, Yu.M.; Lebedev, I.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-10-20

    A procedure was developed for the coulometric determination of americium using the electrochemical couple Am(IV)-Am(III). An acetonitrile solution of 0.3-0.2 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used as the electrolyte. Americium can be determined in the presence of large amounts of Cm, Pu, Ce, and other impurities; limit of detection approx. 10 ..mu..g.

  14. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Hanson, Justine; Greene, R Neil; Richard, Molly; Laudet, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review identifies, appraises, and summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness of peer-delivered recovery support services for people in recovery from alcohol and drug addiction. Nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. They were assessed for quality and outcomes including substance use and recovery-related factors. Despite significant methodological limitations found in the included studies, the body of evidence suggests salutary effects on participants. Current limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  16. Tributylphosphate extraction behavior of bismuthate-oxidized americium.

    PubMed

    Mincher, Bruce J; Martin, Leigh R; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2008-08-04

    Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am (3+) in acidic solution. Room-temperature oxidation produced AmO 2 (2+) quantitatively, whereas oxidation at 80 degrees C produced AmO 2 (+) quantitatively. The efficacy of the method for the production of oxidized americium was verified by fluoride precipitation and by spectroscopic absorbance measurements. We performed absorbance measurements using a conventional 1 cm cell for high americium concentrations and a 100 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell for low americium concentrations. Extinction coefficients for the absorbance of Am (3+) at 503 nm, AmO 2 (+) at 514 nm, and AmO 2 (2+) at 666 nm in 0.1 M nitric acid are reported. We also performed solvent extraction experiments with the hexavalent americium using the common actinide extraction ligand tributyl phosphate (TBP) for comparison to the other hexavalent actinides. Contact with 30% tributyl phosphate in dodecane reduced americium; it was nevertheless extracted using short contact times. The TBP extraction of AmO 2 (2+) over a range of nitric acid concentrations is shown for the first time and was found to be analogous to that of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions.

  17. Tributylphosphate Extraction Behavior of Bismuthate-Oxidized Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2008-08-01

    Higher oxidation states of americium have long been known; however, options for their preparation in acidic solution are limited. The conventional choice, silver-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, is not useful at nitric acid concentrations above about 0.3 M. We investigated the use of sodium bismuthate as an oxidant for Am3+ in acidic solution. Room-temperature oxidation produced AmO2 2+ quantitatively, whereas oxidation at 80 °C produced AmO2+ quantitatively. The efficacy of the method for the production of oxidized americium was verified by fluoride precipitation and by spectroscopic absorbance measurements. We performed absorbance measurements using a conventional 1 cm cell for high americium concentrations and a 100 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell for low americium concentrations. Extinction coefficients for the absorbance of Am3+ at 503 nm, AmO2+ at 514 nm, and AmO2 2+ at 666 nm in 0.1 M nitric acid are reported. We also performed solvent extraction experiments with the hexavalent americium using the common actinide extraction ligand tributyl phosphate (TBP) for comparison to the other hexavalent actinides. Contact with 30% tributyl phosphate in dodecane reduced americium; it was nevertheless extracted using short contact times. The TBP extraction of AmO2 2+ over a range of nitric acid concentrations is shown for the first time and was found to be analogous to that of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl ions.

  18. Consumer and case manager perspectives of service empowerment: relationship to mental health recovery.

    PubMed

    Crane-Ross, Dushka; Lutz, Wilma J; Roth, Dee

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between service empowerment and recovery. Service empowerment is defined as the extent to which consumers participate in service decisions and the level of reciprocity and respect within the relationship with their case managers. Assessments were made from two perspectives: consumers and their case managers. Structural equation models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of service empowerment on four recovery outcomes: Quality of Life, Level of Functioning, Consumer-Reported Symptomatology, and Case Manager-Reported Symptomatology. Consumers' perceptions of service empowerment were the most powerful predictor of recovery outcomes across the four models. Consumers' and case managers' perceptions were related but the magnitude of the relationship was small, indicating that considerable differences exist between their perceptions of service empowerment.

  19. An Integrated Recovery-oriented Model (IRM) for mental health services: evolution and challenges.

    PubMed

    Frost, Barry G; Tirupati, Srinivasan; Johnston, Suzanne; Turrell, Megan; Lewin, Terry J; Sly, Ketrina A; Conrad, Agatha M

    2017-01-17

    Over past decades, improvements in longer-term clinical and personal outcomes for individuals experiencing serious mental illness (SMI) have been moderate, although recovery has clearly been shown to be possible. Recovery experiences are inherently personal, and recovery can be complex and non-linear; however, there are a broad range of potential recovery contexts and contributors, both non-professional and professional. Ongoing refinement of recovery-oriented models for mental health (MH) services needs to be fostered. This descriptive paper outlines a service-wide Integrated Recovery-oriented Model (IRM) for MH services, designed to enhance personally valued health, wellbeing and social inclusion outcomes by increasing access to evidenced-based psychosocial interventions (EBIs) within a service context that supports recovery as both a process and an outcome. Evolution of the IRM is characterised as a series of five broad challenges, which draw together: relevant recovery perspectives; overall service delivery frameworks; psychiatric and psychosocial rehabilitation approaches and literature; our own clinical and service delivery experience; and implementation, evaluation and review strategies. The model revolves around the person's changing recovery needs, focusing on underlying processes and the service frameworks to support and reinforce hope as a primary catalyst for symptomatic and functional recovery. Within the IRM, clinical rehabilitation (CR) practices, processes and partnerships facilitate access to psychosocial EBIs to promote hope, recovery, self-agency and social inclusion. Core IRM components are detailed (remediation of functioning; collaborative restoration of skills and competencies; and active community reconnection), together with associated phases, processes, evaluation strategies, and an illustrative IRM scenario. The achievement of these goals requires ongoing collaboration with community organisations. Improved outcomes are achievable for

  20. Guided reflection: a participatory evaluation and planning process to promote recovery in mental health services agencies.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nora; Greenley, Dianne; Breedlove, Lynn; Roschke, Ruth; Koberstein, Jen

    2003-01-01

    This brief report describes a participatory evaluation and planning process--a "guided reflection"--that mental health services agencies can use to examine the state of recovery awareness and implementation in their organizations. The process revolves around structured small group discussions, identification of agency strengths and weaknesses, and the formation of an agency "recovery action team" to set priorities and plan for change.

  1. A socioeconomic assessment of Forest Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act projects: eight case studies

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Pamela J. Jakes; John Schelhas

    2011-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 aimed to create jobs and jumpstart the economy while addressing the Nation’s social and environmental needs. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, received $1.15 billion in recovery funding to support projects in wildland fire management, capital improvement and maintenance, and biomass utilization. This...

  2. Mental health outcome measures in the age of recovery-based services.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Geoff

    Patient based outcomes tools such as Health of the Nation Outcome Scales can help users and providers to assess whether mental health services promote wellbeing, and can also inform research and clinical audit. With some exceptions, however, completion rates of routine outcomes ratings are poor, and some argue that current tools are not sufficiently service user-oriented. Concurrently, the recovery model as an approach to mental health care, emphasizing concepts such as hope, meaning and sense of self, has come to prominence. The emerging model creates a need to measure whether recovery-led services deliver positive outcomes. To answer this, it is necessary to first ask whether current routine outcomes tools are suitable measures of recovery-related concepts. This article examines the current state of outcomes measurement in UK mental health services in the age of the recovery model and proposes that a twin-track approach is required.

  3. Improving Service Utilization for Parents with Substance Abuse Problems: Experimenting with Recovery Coaches in Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Substance abusers often face substantial systematic and personal barriers to receiving required substance abuse treatment services as well as other services; hence, various linkage mechanisms have been proposed for drug abuse treatment programs to overcome such barriers. Although there is a growing interest in the use of case management with a substance abuse background, its effectiveness in child welfare has yet to be explored. In this study the author attempts to investigate the effectiveness of case management in service utilization by systematically evaluating the five-year Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AODA) waiver demonstration project with Recovery Coaches in Illinois. A classic experimental design with a control group was used. Random assignment occurs at the agency level. Parents in the experimental group (N = 1562) received recovery coaches in addition to traditional child welfare services while parents in the control group (N = 598) only received traditional child welfare services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses (Ordinary Last Square regressions) were used. Compared to parents in the control group, parents in the experimental group were more likely to utilize substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that gender, education level, employment status, and the number of service needs were significantly associated with service utilization. Controlling other factors, recovery coaches improved overall service utilization. Because the outcome of child welfare often depends on the improvement of risks or resolution, it is important for parents to utilize the needed services. Future studies need to address what aspects of recovery coaches facilitate the services utilization.

  4. RAPID METHOD FOR PLUTONIUM, AMERICIUM AND CURIUM IN VERY LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S

    2007-01-08

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  5. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater-bentonite-fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L(-1)) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10(-10) M (241)Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (k(f)) of 0.01-0.02 h(-1). Am recoveries in each column were 55-60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h(-1) in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. Our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long distance scales because

  6. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-07-13

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater–bentonite–fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L–1) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10–10 M241Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (kf) of 0.01–0.02 h–1. Am recoveries in each column were 55–60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h–1 in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. As a result, our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill

  7. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids

    DOE PAGES

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; ...

    2015-07-13

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater–bentonite–fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. Themore » colloidal suspension (100 mg L–1) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10–10 M241Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (kf) of 0.01–0.02 h–1. Am recoveries in each column were 55–60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h–1 in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. As a result, our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long

  8. An intake of americium oxide powder: implications for biokinetic models for americium.

    PubMed

    Bull, R K; Morrison, R T; Talbot, R; Roberts, G A

    2003-01-01

    A worker inhaled 241AmO2 powder. Air sampling showed low activities but a nose blow revealed 92 Bq. Results from faecal sampling and lung and whole-body monitoring indicated an intake of about 200 Bq, but urine sampling, though commencing only 1 d after intake, showed below-threshold activities (< 0.2 mBq). This conflicts with predictions based on the ICRP Publication 67 biokinetic model for americium and the ICRP Publication 66 model for the human respiratory tract, if default lung parameters are used.

  9. Australian mental health consumers contributions to the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented service provision.

    PubMed

    Marshal, Sarah L; Oades, Lindsay G; Growe, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    One key component of recovery-oriented mental health services, typically overlooked, involves genuine collaboration between researchers and consumers to evaluate and improve services delivered within a recovery framework. Eighteen mental health consumers working with staff who had received training in the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) took part in in-depth focus group meetings, of approximately 2.5 hours each, to generate feedback to guide improvement of the CRM and its use in mental health services. Consumers identified clear avenues for improvement for the CRM both specific to the model and broadly applicable to recovery-oriented service provision. Findings suggest consumers want to be more engaged and empowered in the use of the CRM from the outset. Improved sampling procedures may have led to the identification of additional dissatisfied consumers. Collaboration with mental health consumers in the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented practice is crucial with an emphasis on rebuilding mental health services that are genuinely oriented to support recovery.

  10. Service user experiences of REFOCUS: a process evaluation of a pro-recovery complex intervention.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Genevieve; Bird, Victoria; Leamy, Mary; Bacon, Faye; Le Boutillier, Clair; Janosik, Monika; MacPherson, Rob; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Policy is increasingly focused on implementing a recovery-orientation within mental health services, yet the subjective experience of individuals receiving a pro-recovery intervention is under-studied. The aim of this study was to explore the service user experience of receiving a complex, pro-recovery intervention (REFOCUS), which aimed to encourage the use of recovery-supporting tools and support recovery-promoting relationships. Interviews (n = 24) and two focus groups (n = 13) were conducted as part of a process evaluation and included a purposive sample of service users who received the complex, pro-recovery intervention within the REFOCUS randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940). Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Participants reported that the intervention supported the development of an open and collaborative relationship with staff, with new conversations around values, strengths and goals. This was experienced as hope-inspiring and empowering. However, others described how the recovery tools were used without context, meaning participants were unclear of their purpose and did not see their benefit. During the interviews, some individuals struggled to report any new tasks or conversations occurring during the intervention. Recovery-supporting tools can support the development of a recovery-promoting relationship, which can contribute to positive outcomes for individuals. The tools should be used in a collaborative and flexible manner. Information exchanged around values, strengths and goals should be used in care-planning. As some service users struggled to report their experience of the intervention, alternative evaluation approaches need to be considered if the service user experience is to be fully captured.

  11. Promoting recovery in an evolving policy context: What do we know and what do we need to know about recovery support services?

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Humphreys, Keith

    2013-01-01

    As both a concept and a movement, “recovery” is increasingly guiding substance use disorder (SUD) services and policy. One sign of this change is the emergence of recovery support services that attempt to help addicted individuals using a comprehensive continuing care model. This paper reviews the policy environment surrounding recovery support services, the needs to which they should respond, and the status of current recovery support models. We conclude that recovery support services (RSS) should be further assessed for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, that greater efforts must be made to develop the RSS delivery workforce, and that RSS should capitalize on ongoing efforts to create a comprehensive, integrated and patient-centered health care system. As the SUD treatment system undergoes its most important transformation in at least 40 years, recovery research and the lived experience of recovery from addiction should be central to reform. PMID:23506781

  12. Transforming mental health services: a participatory mixed methods study to promote and evaluate the implementation of recovery-oriented services.

    PubMed

    Park, Melissa M; Zafran, Hiba; Stewart, Janet; Salsberg, Jon; Ells, Carolyn; Rouleau, Suzanne; Estein, Orly; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-09-10

    Since 2007, the Mental Health Commission of Canada has worked collaboratively across all provinces to publish a framework and strategy for recovery and well-being. This federal document is now mandated as policy for implementation between 2012 and 2017. The proposed strategies have been written into provincial health plans, hospital accreditation standards, and annual objectives of psychiatric departments and community organizations. The core premise is: to empower persons with mental illness and their families to become participants in designing their own care, while meeting the needs of a diverse Canadian population. However, recovery principles do not come with an implementation guide to fit the variability of different local contexts. How can policy recommendations and accreditation standards be effectively tailored to support a diversity of stakeholder values? To our knowledge, there is little evidence indicating the most effective manner to accelerate the uptake of recovery-oriented services among providers in a given/particular mental health treatment setting. This three-year Canadian Institute of Health Research Partnership in Health System Improvement and The Rx&D Health Research Foundation (HRF) Fostering Canadian Innovation in Research study (2013 to 2017) proposed participatory approaches to implementing recovery principles in a Department of Psychiatry serving a highly diverse Canadian and immigrant population. This project will be conducted in overlapping and recursive phases: I) Conduct formative research to (a) measure the current knowledge and attitudes toward recovery and recovery-oriented practices among service providers, while concurrently (b) exploring the experiential knowledge of recovery service-users and family members; II) Collaborate with service-users and the network-identified opinion leaders among providers to tailor Recovery-in-Action Initiatives to fit the needs and resources of a Department of Psychiatry; and III) Conduct a

  13. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained <500 ppM americium and <2500 ppM magnesium. The process operates by sorbing PuCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO/sub 3/-4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO/sub 3/ precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed.

  14. Recovery, non-profit organisations and mental health services: 'Hit and miss' or 'dump and run'?

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Catherine; Hungerford, Alice; Fox, Cathy; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-03-08

    The evolution of Recovery-oriented mental health services in Western nations across the globe has given rise to a growth in community-based psychosocial support services, to assist in meeting the diverse needs of consumers. This article reports findings of research that explored the perceptions of community workers who are employed by non-profit organisations and deliver psychosocial support services to support delivery of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services. The focus of the research reported in this article includes the benefits and challenges encountered by the community workers when working with clinicians. The research was undertaken as part of a single-case embedded study, which evaluated the implementation of Recovery-oriented approaches to the delivery of clinical mental health services in a major urban centre located in south-eastern Australia. Generally, community workers employed by the non-profit organisations perceived the implementation of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services to be a positive step forward for consumers. Challenges to the delivery of Recovery-oriented services included issues arising from the many different understandings of what it means to experience mental health Recovery, the quality of communication between the community workers and clinicians and the clinicians' lack of understanding of the role of non-profit organisations and community workers. The article concludes with recommendations to address the challenges involved, with a view to improving the partnerships between community workers and clinicians, and the Recovery journey of people with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Covalency in Americium(III) Hexachloride

    DOE PAGES

    Cross, Justin Neil; Su, Jing; Batista, Enrigue R.; ...

    2017-06-14

    Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by SEABORG and COWORKERS (1954) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium inmore » chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in – arguably – one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am–Cl interaction within AmCl63-. We observed both 5fand 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl63- indicated similar bonding for the AmIII 6d- and EuIII 5d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed SEABORG’S 1954 hypothesis that AmIII 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4forbital mixing for EuIII.« less

  16. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlait, Denis; Caraballo, Richard; Lebreton, Florent; Jégou, Christophe; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO2) and sesquioxide (Am2O3) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am2O3 and P-3m1 A-type Am2O3 are identified. For AmO2, a clear band is noted at 390 cm-1. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am2O3 evolution under ambient conditions and against 241Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am2O3 as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO2-δ over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed.

  17. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study.

  18. Perceived assistance in pursuing personal goals and personal recovery among mental health consumers across housing services.

    PubMed

    Moran, Galia S; Westman, Kinneret; Weissberg, Esther; Melamed, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Personal goals/plans play a central role in personal recovery and psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with mental illnesses. Yet, few studies have explored whether perceiving practitioners' assistance towards the pursuit of goals are associated with personal recovery and other favorable rehabilitation outcomes. A total of 2121 mental health consumers, of which 1222 use supported-housing services and 899 use group-home services, completed self-report questionnaires as part of a larger quality-assurance study conducted during the years 2013-2014. Eighty percent of participants living in supported-housing and 72% living in group-homes reported having personal goals/plans for the forthcoming year. Furthermore, their type of goals was different. Irrespective of the type of goal or housing service, participants who reported having goals/plans (compared with those who did not) showed higher levels of personal recovery and more favorable psychosocial outcomes. Regression analyses showed that perceiving professional staff members (but not para-professionals) as assisting in pursuing goals/plans was positively associated with personal recovery. This study empirically validates the value of having personal goals and professionals' assistance in pursuing goals/plans in regards to personal recovery. We propose that recovery-oriented services should seek to enhance goal setting and goal-pursuit, and to train practitioners in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A TRUEX-based separation of americium from the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt; Mary E. Case

    2011-03-01

    Abstract: The inextractability of the actinide AnO2+ ions in the TRUEX process suggests the possibility of a separation of americium from the lanthanides using oxidation to Am(V). The only current method for the direct oxidation of americium to Am(V) in strongly acidic media is with sodium bismuthate. We prepared Am(V) over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and investigated its solvent extraction behavior for comparison to europium. While a separation is achievable in principal, the presence of macro amounts of cerium competes for the sparingly soluble oxidant and the oxidant itself competes for CMPO complexation. These factors conspire to reduce the Eu/Am separation factor from ~40 using tracer solutions to ~5 for extractions from first cycle raffinate simulant solution. To separate pentavalent americium directly from the lanthanides using the TRUEX process, an alternative oxidizing agent will be necessary.

  20. Apoptosis of rat kidney cells after 241-americium administration.

    PubMed

    Labéjof, L; Berry, J P; Duchambon, P; Poncy, J L; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Tumors induction by americium is well known but there are no data on the biological effects of this radionucleide at subcellular level. In order to study the possible ultrastructural lesions induced by this element, a group of rats were injected with 241-Americium-citrate (9 kBq), once a week for five weeks and sacrificed 7 days after the last injection. We describe the alterations observed in the cortex kidney using cytochemical (TUNEL reaction) and histochemical (PAS staining) methods for light microscopy as well as electron microscopy techniques. Various types of lesions were detected: condensation of nuclear chromatine, fragmentation of the nuclei, swollen mitochondria, disappearance of mitochondrial crests and skrinking of the cytoplasm. This study clearly demonstrated the induction of apoptosis by americium in rat cortex kidney cells.

  1. Getting By, Getting Back, and Getting On: Matching Mental Health Services to Consumers’ Recovery Goals

    PubMed Central

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Yarborough, Micah T.; Janoff, Shannon L.; Green, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to better understand mental health recovery from the point of view of mental health consumers in order to identify opportunities for practice improvements that align services closely with consumer goals and consumer-preferred outcomes. Methods As part of an exploratory study of recovery, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 177 integrated health plan members diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or affective psychosis. Transcripts of in-depth interviews were coded using Atlas.ti and definitions of recovery were further subcoded. A qualitative analysis using a modified grounded theory approach and constant comparative method identified common themes and less common but potentially important recovery-related experiences and perspectives. Results Three primary and two cross-cutting themes emerged. “Getting by” meant coping and meeting basic needs. “Getting back” meant learning to live with mental illness. “Getting on” meant living a life where mental illness was no longer prominent. Regaining control and recouping losses were cross-cutting themes. Conclusions/Implications for Practice Mental health recovery is complex and dynamic; individuals’ recovery goals can be expected to change over time. Person-centered care must accommodate changing consumer priorities, services must be flexible and responsive, and outcomes need to match consumers’ objectives. Clinicians can assist in: 1) identifying recovery goals, 2) monitoring progress toward and recognizing movement away from goals, 3) tailoring support to different phases/stages, and 4) supporting transitions between phases/stages. PMID:26414748

  2. An americium-fueled gas core nuclear rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.; Jan, T. )

    1993-01-10

    A gas core fission reactor that utilizes americium in place of uranium is examined for potential utilization as a nuclear rocket for space propulsion. The isomer [sup 242m]Am with a half life of 141 years is obtained from an (n, [gamma]) capture reaction with [sup 241]Am, and has the highest known thermal fission cross section. We consider a 7500 MW reactor, whose propulsion characteristics with [sup 235]U have already been established, and re-examine it using americium. We find that the same performance can be achieved at a comparable fuel density, and a radial size reduction (of both core and moderator/reflector) of about 70%.

  3. Recovery of HIV service provision post-earthquake.

    PubMed

    Walldorf, Jenny A; Joseph, Patrice; Valles, Jean S; Sabatier, Jennifer F; Marston, Barbara J; Jean-Charles, Kurt; Louissant, Edieu; Tappero, Jordan W

    2012-07-17

    To describe the level of functionality of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-supported HIV clinical services following the devastating earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010. Available program-monitoring data from sites providing voluntary counseling and testing for HIV (VCT), antenatal care (ANC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) were described, comparing pre-earthquake and post-earthquake periods during October 2008 to May 2010. Pre-earthquake HIV service baselines for VCT, PMTCT, and ART enrollment were defined as monthly mean total number of patients served over 15 months pre-earthquake. ART baseline was defined as total current patients by December 2009. Sites were categorized as high-earthquake or low-earthquake intensity based on location and instrumental shake intensity data. Pre-earthquake mean monthly baselines were 41 087 (VCT), 11 909 (HIV testing at ANC sites), 648 (ART enrollment), and 296 (PMTCT enrollment); baseline total current patients on ART was 24 863. Service provision in January and May 2010, reported as percentage of baseline, was 43 and 78.7% (VCT), 50.8 and 88.7% (HIV testing at ANC), 46 and 81% (PMTCT), and 41 and 82.7% (ART enrollment), respectively. Current patients on ART decreased to 97% of baseline in April, rising to 103.9% by May; the initial decline was restricted to high-earthquake intensity areas. Following the Haiti earthquake, there was a transient, marked decline in VCT and new ART patient enrollment, whereas follow-up of established ART patients remained impressively high. HIV treatment continuity should be reinforced in disaster preparedness and response strategies in HIV epidemic settings.

  4. The meaning of recovery in a regional mental health service: an action research study.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Susan; Kenny, Amanda; McKinstry, Carol

    2015-01-01

    To explore the meaning of the term recovery to people with experience providing and receiving mental health services. Internationally, governments have proposed recovery-oriented mental health policy. In practice, people managing mental health difficulties struggle to recover, self-manage, or improve their quality of life. Mental health services increasingly provide acutely focused and poorly coordinated services to people experiencing mental health difficulties, with self-management, wellness and recovery overlooked. A cooperative enquiry, action research design guided the study. Participants were people with experience of mental health difficulties from consumer, carer and clinician perspectives. Data were collected between August 2012-July 2013. Analysis was conducted using an iterative process for the duration of the study. A thematic network was developed that reflected key organizing themes. The overarching theme developed from the participants' group discussions, reflections, actions and observations was recovery as an ongoing quest in life. This global theme was constructed from five organizing themes: 'finding meaning', 'an invisible disability', 'empowerment and agency' 'connection' and 'the passage of time'. Participatory approaches support the inclusion of lived experience perspectives. Structured processes are needed to bring different perspectives together to find solutions, through dialogue, and acknowledge the barriers to participation that people who use mental health services experience. The lack of integration of lived experience perspectives demonstrates forms of discrimination that inhibit consumer participation and prevent the recovery-oriented transformation required in mental health systems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery.

    PubMed

    Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Shortridge, Ashton M; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Conflicts between local people's livelihoods and conservation have led to many unsuccessful conservation efforts and have stimulated debates on policies that might simultaneously promote sustainable management of protected areas and improve the living conditions of local people. Many government-sponsored payments-for-ecosystem-services (PES) schemes have been implemented around the world. However, few empirical assessments of their effectiveness have been conducted, and even fewer assessments have directly measured their effects on ecosystem services. We conducted an empirical and spatially explicit assessment of the conservation effectiveness of one of the world's largest PES programs through the use of a long-term empirical data set, a satellite-based habitat model, and spatial autoregressive analyses on direct measures of change in an ecosystem service (i.e., the provision of wildlife species habitat). Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat improved in Wolong Nature Reserve of China after the implementation of the Natural Forest Conservation Program. The improvement was more pronounced in areas monitored by local residents than those monitored by the local government, but only when a higher payment was provided. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of a PES program depends on who receives the payment and on whether the payment provides sufficient incentives. As engagement of local residents has not been incorporated in many conservation strategies elsewhere in China or around the world, our results also suggest that using an incentive-based strategy as a complement to command-and-control, community- and norm-based strategies may help achieve greater conservation effectiveness and provide a potential solution for the park versus people conflict. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Halocarbon Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation: Issues, Equipment, and Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    oft. Sendc wmmim ft fgt burden euikies o an y o1w 50909t dt ml d 0 ft.ndki hInclling suggestons for reducing thi burden, lo V~hGWOn HsadquIVISNrs...specific functions is also included. It is based strictly on claims by the equipment manufacturers. D . METHODOLOGY Companies known to be involved in...Engineering Research Division Chief, Engineering and Services Systems Division / . , - "L( ’Robert W. Rettie D . Evans, Lt Col, USAF Project Officer Deputy

  7. The Setting is the Service: How the Architecture of Sober Living Residences Supports Community Based Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L.; Henderson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting – building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city – function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research. PMID:25328377

  8. The Setting is the Service: How the Architecture of Sober Living Residences Supports Community Based Recovery.

    PubMed

    Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L; Henderson, Diane

    2014-07-01

    The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting - building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city - function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research.

  9. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J.; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J.; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  10. The Mental Health Recovery Measure Can Be Used to Assess Aspects of Both Customer-Based and Service-Based Recovery in the Context of Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Mendonça, Carina; Pessoa, Maria J; Camacho, Marta; Gago, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness (SMI) has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery). However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery). Here, we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from SMI, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed, respectively, using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20) and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from SMI may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for comprehensive assessment of recovery and subjective

  11. Behavior of Americium in Simulated Wounds in Nonhuman Primates

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Bertelli, Luiz; ...

    2017-06-01

    An americium solution injected intramuscularly into several nonhuman primates (NHPs) was found to behave differently than predicted by the wound models described in the NCRP Report 156. This was because the injection was made along with a citrate solution, which is known to be more soluble than chlorides, oxides, or nitrates on which the NCRP Report was based. We developed a multi-exponential wound model specific to the injected americium solution based on the retention in the intramuscular sites. The model was coupled with the americium systemic model to interpret the urinary excretion data and assess the intake, and it wasmore » determined that the models were adequate to predict early urinary excretion in most cases but unable to predict late urinary excretion. This was attributed to the differences in the systemic handling of americium between humans and nonhuman primates. Furthermore, information on the type of wounds, solubility, particle size, mass, chemical form, etc., should always be considered when performing wound dosimetry.« less

  12. The concept of recovery as an organizing principle for integrating mental health and addiction services.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Larry; White, William

    2007-04-01

    Despite a range of long-standing historical, political, ideological, professional, structural, and practical barriers, there has been, and continues to be, a clear consensus that integration between mental health and addiction services is sorely needed and long overdue. This paper focuses on one dimension of the challenge of integration from among the several - the conceptual - and proposes the construct of recovery as an organizing principle for bridging the divide between the two domains. After reviewing briefly the parallel history of the two traditions and their shared need for transformation to a recovery orientation, the authors offer an integrated model of recovery for persons with co-occurring disorders. They then derive from this model the underlying values, guiding principles, key strategies, and essential ingredients of recovery-oriented systems of care that comprise a common approach across both addictions and mental illness, offering a strengths-based solution to achieving integration where pathology-focused approaches have failed.

  13. A descriptive analysis of change in eligibility status for the USDA Forest Service Economic Recovery Program

    Treesearch

    Krista M. Gebert; Susan L. Odell

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 2004 analysis of county-level eligibility for financial and technical assistance through the USDA Forest Service Economic Recovery program and contrasts those results to the initial eligibility analysis performed in 1993. County-level eligibility was based on three criteria: (1) proximity to a National Forest or National...

  14. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  15. Service user engagement: A co-created interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Claire-Odile; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; McLaughlin, Derek

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to co-create of an interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in collaboration with young adult service users. Service user involvement in research has been increasingly recognized as providing a vital authentic insight into mental health recovery. Engagement and collaboration with service users have facilitated the exploration of inaccessible or under-investigated aspects of the lived experience of mental health recovery, not only directing the trajectory of research, but making it relevant to their own contextual experience. A qualitative content analysis framework was employed in the co-creation of a semi-structured interview schedule through an engagement process with service users. Two separate engagement groups took place at the premises of the service user organizations, between January - February 2014. Miles and Huberman's analysis framework was chosen for this phase as it enabled the visual presentation of factors, concepts or variables and the established relationship between them. The lived experience of mental ill health in young adulthood and how this was understood by others was a particularly relevant theme for participants. Further themes were identified between the impact of painful experiences at this developmental life stage leading to a deeper understanding of others through finding meaning in their own mental health recovery journey. Our findings identified that suffering painful experiences is an integral aspect in the process of mental health recovery. This understanding has particular relevance to mental health nursing practice, ensuring the care delivered is cognizant of the suffering or painful experiences that young adults are encountering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Recovery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  17. South African mental health care service user views on priorities for supporting recovery: implications for policy and service development.

    PubMed

    Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, Crick; Swartz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The paper documents the views of South African mental health care service users on policy directions and service developments that are required to support their recovery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty service users and service user advocates. A framework analysis approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Service user priorities included addressing stigma, discrimination and disempowerment, and the links between mental health and poverty. They suggested that these challenges be addressed through public awareness campaigns, legislative and policy reform for rights protection, development of a national lobby to advocate for changes, and user empowerment. Users suggested that empowerment can be facilitated through opportunities for improved social relatedness and equitable access to social and economic resources. This study suggests three strategies to bridge the gap between mental health care service users rights and needs on one hand, and unsupportive attitudes, policies and practices on the other. These are: giving priority to service user involvement in policy and service reform, creating empathic alliances to promote user priorities, and building enabling partnerships to effect these priorities.

  18. An experimental investigation of justice-based service recovery on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and word-of-mouth intentions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Terri; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer M; Andreoli, Nicole A; Trimarco-Beta, Darlene

    2006-12-01

    Service recovery is related to many important organizational outcomes such as customer satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability. Within the theoretical framework of organizational justice, an experiment using a simulated "live" service failure was used to assess the effects of justice-based service-recovery strategies on customer satisfaction, loyalty, positive word-of-mouth intentions, and negative word-of-mouth intentions. Analysis indicated that strategies including interactional justice, distributive justice, and a combination of these were equally effective in maintaining customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word of mouth, and minimizing negative word of mouth after a service failure. No support for the service recovery paradox, that is, increased satisfaction following service failure and recovery compared to never having a problem, was found. Satisfaction and loyalty for those in the failure conditions were equal to, although not higher than, in the no-failure control condition. Practical implications for organizational practices are discussed.

  19. Effects of intense alpha irradiation on the behavior of americium in perchlorate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kornilov, A.S.; Frolov, A.A.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.

    1987-05-01

    Studies have been made on the radiation chemistry of americium(VI) and americium(V) in solutions of perchloric acid and sodium perchlorate. The reduction rate is related to the dose rate and perchlorate concentration. The radiolysis products in perchlorate solutions are vigorous reducing agents for americium(VI). There is a correlation between the yield in the reduction of americium(VI) and the yield of radiolysis products. Prolonged storage of saturated weakly acid solutions of sodium perchlorate containing americium(III) and curium(III) causes the deposition of the actinoid hydroxides as well as sodium chlorate and chloride. The americium in the precipitate is partially oxidized to the pentavalent state.

  20. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  1. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  2. The work and recovery project: changing organizational culture and practice in New York City outpatient services.

    PubMed

    Pascaris, Alysia; Shields, Leslie Reed; Wolf, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Complex and multiple barriers confront out-patient programs in promoting recovery and addressing mental health recipients' work-related goals. This article describes a focused organizational change project utilizing intensive consultation and technical assistance within five New York City outpatient psychiatric services. The project aimed to increase staff exposure to, understanding and use of work-related and recovery-based concepts to promote consumers' recovery and attainment of employment goals. Tailored assessment, curriculum delivery, and identification and implementation of change objectives were useful strategies in promoting change. This change model can serve to assist programs in their efforts to integrate new approaches and to better understand changes among leadership, staff and consumers, and changes in organizational culture and practice required to support a work and recovery-oriented service paradigm. The project experience suggests that adopting and embracing new practices takes time. Varied and incremental steps toward programmatic and operational changes can be significant and can reap authentic sustainable change occurring in the process of learning, experiencing, internalizing and adjusting to new methods of practice.

  3. Service users' expectations of treatment and support at the Community Mental Health Centre in their recovery.

    PubMed

    Biringer, Eva; Davidson, Larry; Sundfør, Bengt; Ruud, Torleif; Borg, Marit

    2016-08-03

    Focus on service users' needs, coping and empowerment, user involvement, and comprehensiveness are supposed to be key elements of the Community Mental Health Centres in Norway. Taking a user-oriented approach means acknowledging the individual's own expectations, aims and hopes. However, studies that have investigated service users' expectations of treatment and support at Community Mental Health Centres are hard to find. The aim of the study was therefore to explore service users' expectations at the start of treatment at a Community Mental Health Centre. Within a collaborative framework, taking a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, ten service users participated in in-depth interviews about their expectations, hopes and aims for treatment and recovery. The participants sought help due to various mental health issues that had interfered with their lives and created disability and suffering. A data-driven stepwise approach in line with thematic analysis was used. The study was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The following four main themes representing participants' expectations at the start of treatment were elicited: hope for recovery, developing understanding, finding tools for coping and receiving counselling and practical assistance. Participants' expectations about treatment were tightly interwoven with their personal aims and hopes for their future life, and expectations were often related to practical and financial problems, the solution of which being deemed necessary to gain a safe basis for recovery in the long run. The transferability of the results may be limited by the small number of participants. The study emphasises how important it is that service users' personal aims and expectations guide the collaborative treatment process. In addition to providing treatment aimed at improving symptoms, Community Mental Health Centres should take a more comprehensive approach than today by providing more support with family issues

  4. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  5. Americium in the beagle dog: biokinetic and dosimetric model.

    PubMed

    Luciani, A; Polig, E; Lloyd, R D; Miller, S C

    2006-05-01

    A biokinetic model of the systemic distribution of americium in the beagle dog is presented. The model is based on a previous biokinetic model of plutonium. The data sets used for the development of the model were the measurements of excreted activity (urine and feces) and organ burdens (skeleton, liver, and other soft tissues) for different levels of initial injected activity. In developing the model, the compartmental structure of the skeleton of the plutonium model was adopted, and only the numerical values of parameters were adapted. The model well describes the fractions of americium in the skeleton, liver, and soft tissues and the total fraction excreted in urine and feces. The tuning of the liver clearance parameter provides a realistic description of the change in the partitioning between liver and skeleton for different injection levels. The most significant features of the biokinetics and dosimetry of americium and plutonium in beagles are compared. The total fractions of the clearance to the skeleton and the liver are roughly equal to the value for plutonium, but the partitioning of americium between these organs is reversed with respect to the partitioning of plutonium. 241Am doses to liver and skeleton are similar to 239Pu doses, owing to some counteracting factors. For the highest injection level, the liver mass is dependent on the time post injection. For the skeletal tissues, the dose to the cortical endosteum by far exceeds the dose to the trabecular endosteum and the red marrow. The model provides the basis for statistical survival analyses and risk estimates.

  6. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    PubMed

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  7. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  8. Plutonium and Americium Alpha Radiolysis of Nitric Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Horne, Gregory P; Gregson, Colin R; Sims, Howard E; Orr, Robin M; Taylor, Robin J; Pimblott, Simon M

    2017-02-02

    The yield of HNO2, as a function of absorbed dose and HNO3 concentration, from the α-radiolysis of aerated HNO3 solutions containing plutonium or americium has been investigated. There are significant differences in the yields measured from solutions of the two different radionuclides. For 0.1 mol dm(-3) HNO3 solutions, the radiolytic yield of HNO2 produced by americium α-decay is below the detection limit, whereas for plutonium α-decay the yield is considerably greater than that found previously for γ-radiolysis. The differences between the solutions of the two radionuclides are a consequence of redox reactions involving plutonium and the products of aqueous HNO3 radiolysis, in particular H2O2 and HNO2 and its precursors. This radiation chemical behavior is HNO3 concentration dependent with the differences between plutonium and americium α-radiolysis decreasing with increasing HNO3 concentration. This change may be interpreted as a combination of α-radiolysis direct effects and acidity influencing the plutonium oxidation state distribution, which in turn affects the radiation chemistry of the system.

  9. Service and infrastructure needs to support recovery programmes for Indigenous community mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Jan M; Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Burmeister, Oliver K

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern in Indigenous communities, as Indigenous people experience poorer health outcomes generally, and poorer social and emotional well-being throughout their lives, compared to non-Indigenous populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 mental health workers from a housing assistance programme for Indigenous clients with mental illness. Service and infrastructure needs identified to support clients were classified under the following overarching theme 'supports along the road to recovery'. Subthemes were: (i) It is OK to seek help; (ii) linking in to the local community; (iii) trusting the workers; and (iv) help with goal setting and having activities that support their achievement. This paper highlights the importance of targeted housing and accommodation support programmes for Indigenous people to prevent homelessness, and the essential services and infrastructure required to support Indigenous clients' mental health needs. These insights may inform service review, workforce development, and further research. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. A comparison of two coaching approaches to enhance implementation of a recovery-oriented service model.

    PubMed

    Deane, Frank P; Andresen, Retta; Crowe, Trevor P; Oades, Lindsay G; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Williams, Virginia

    2014-09-01

    Moving to recovery-oriented service provision in mental health may entail retraining existing staff, as well as training new staff. This represents a substantial burden on organisations, particularly since transfer of training into practice is often poor. Follow-up supervision and/or coaching have been found to improve the implementation and sustainment of new approaches. We compared the effect of two coaching conditions, skills-based and transformational coaching, on the implementation of a recovery-oriented model following training. Training followed by coaching led to significant sustained improvements in the quality of care planning in accordance with the new model over the 12-month study period. No interaction effect was observed between the two conditions. However, post hoc analyses suggest that transformational coaching warrants further exploration. The results support the provision of supervision in the form of coaching in the implementation of a recovery-oriented service model, and suggest the need to better elucidate the mechanisms within different coaching approaches that might contribute to improved care.

  11. Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.

    2004-08-15

    The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

  12. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko

    Purpose of this study is to explore service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. We designed and implemented conversation support service via coimagination method based on multiscale service design method, both were proposed by the author. Multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Interactive conversation supported by coimagination method activates cognitive functions so as to prevent progress of dementia. This paper proposes theoretical bases for science of lethe. Firstly, relationship among coimagination method and three cognitive functions including division of attention, planning, episodic memory which decline at mild cognitive imparement. Secondly, thought state transition model during conversation which describes cognitive enhancement via interactive communication. Thirdly, Set Theoretical Measure of Interaction is proposed for evaluating effectiveness of conversation to cognitive enhancement. Simulation result suggests that the ideas which cannot be explored by each speaker are explored during interactive conversation. Finally, coimagination method compared with reminiscence therapy and its possibility for collaboration is discussed.

  13. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  14. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  15. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  16. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  17. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  18. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  19. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  20. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  1. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  2. 10 CFR 32.102 - Schedule C-prototype tests for calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sources containing americium-241 or radium-226. 32.102 Section 32.102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... americium-241 or radium-226. An applicant for a license under § 32.57 shall, for any type of source which is designed to contain more than 0.185 kilobecquerel (0.005 microcurie) of americium-241 or...

  3. Neptunium and americium speciation in selected basalt, granite, shale, and tuff ground waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Neptunium and americium are relatively insoluble in ground waters containing high sulfate concentrations, particularly at 90??C. The insoluble neptunium species is Np(IV); hence reducing waters should enhance its formation. Americium can exist only in the trivalent state under these conditions, and its solubility also should be representative of that of curium.

  4. What does it take? California county funding requests for recovery-oriented full service partnerships under the Mental Health Services Act.

    PubMed

    Felton, Mistique C; Cashin, Cheryl E; Brown, Timothy T

    2010-10-01

    The need to move mental health systems toward more recovery-oriented treatment modes is well established. Progress has been made to define needed changes but evidence is lacking about the resources required to implement them. The Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in California was designed to implement more recovery-oriented treatment modes. We use data from county funding requests and annual updates to examine how counties budgeted for recovery-oriented programs targeted to different age groups under MHSA. Findings indicate that initial per-client budgeting for Full Services Partnerships under MHSA was maintained in future cycles and counties budgeted less per client for children. With this analysis, we begin to benchmark resource allocation for programs that are intended to be recovery-oriented, which should be evaluated against appropriate outcome measures in the future to determine the degree of recovery-orientation.

  5. The recovery model and complex health needs: what health psychology can learn from mental health and substance misuse service provision.

    PubMed

    Webb, Lucy

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews key arguments around evidence-based practice and outlines the methodological demands for effective adoption of recovery model principles. The recovery model is outlined and demonstrated as compatible with current needs in substance misuse service provision. However, the concepts of evidence-based practice and the recovery model are currently incompatible unless the current value system of evidence-based practice changes to accommodate the methodologies demanded by the recovery model. It is suggested that critical health psychology has an important role to play in widening the scope of evidence-based practice to better accommodate complex social health needs.

  6. Consumer-operated service program members' explanatory models of mental illness and recovery.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Janet M

    2014-10-01

    Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The steps to recovery program: Evaluation of a group-based intervention for older individuals receiving mental health services.

    PubMed

    Flaherty-Jones, Graeme M; Carne, Alexandra S; Dexter-Smith, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    This study reports on the evaluation of a group-based intervention for older individuals receiving mental health services. A prospective cohort repeated-measure design was used for 48 participants who accessed secondary care mental health services for older people. Changes on the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWEBS), and a postevaluation questionnaire were analyzed. A paired sample t test examined changes in participant's scores on the WEMWEBS and RAS from baseline to postintervention. Participants qualitatively evaluated the Steps to Recovery group as having a positive effect on their recovery. Following involvement in this group intervention, participants reported improved mental well-being and recovery from mental health difficulty. These results suggest that the program has the potential to provide an accessible framework for developing recovery-orientated approaches in mental health care that can be delivered by care staff at all levels. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  9. Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO(2) containing americium in rats.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Chau, Quang; Renault, Daniel; Abram, Marie-Claire; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2010-11-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetraminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds.

  10. High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, B. S.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2013-06-01

    The structural and elastic properties of Americium Telluride (AmTe) have been investigated by using a modified inter-ionic potential theory (MIPT). This theory is capable of explaining first order phase transition with a crystallographic change NaCl to CsCl structure for this compound. The values of optimized lattice constant, phase transition pressure, zero pressure bulk modulus and second order elastic constants (C11, C44) agree well with their corresponding experimental data. Debye temperature (θD) is also calculated for this compound for the first time.

  11. Measuring mental health in the clinical setting: what is important to service users? The Mini-Service user Recovery Evaluation scale (Mini-SeRvE).

    PubMed

    Barber, Joanna M; Parsons, Helen; Wilson, Carol A; Cook, Christopher C H

    2017-07-04

    Since 2001, a policy of positive mental health recovery has been promoted in the UK, with service user involvement. This has not been easy to implement in the clinical setting. To develop and validate a brief self-report, service user-designed, outcome measure (Mini-SeRvE), for clinical use, including spiritual and religious issues. From the previously developed Service user Recovery Evaluation scale (SeRvE), 15 questions were selected for Mini-SeRvE which was self-completed by 207 people; 100 service users and, for comparison, 107 staff. Results were analysed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Mini-SeRvE is reliable, Cronbach's alpha 0.852. Correlation with another recovery scale, Mental Health Recovery Measure, was high, r = 0.819. Three reliable subscales emerged; existential well-being (EWB), mental ill-being (MIB) and religious well-being (RWB). Scores of the EWB and MIB subscales were higher for staff, consistent with higher mental well-being. Religious well-being scores were higher in service users, who also rated religion as more important to them. Mini-SeRvE is a valid measure of service user recovery. The importance of religion/spiritual belief for our users is highlighted, this being reflected in the subject matter of Mini-SeRvE. Mini-SeRvE assessments could show individual priorities, evaluate therapy and aid clinical decision-making.

  12. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Mihoko

    This paper proposes multiscale service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. Proposed multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Firstly, the author proposes and practices coimagination method as an ``event'', which is expected to prevent the progress of cognitive impairment. Coimagination support system was developed as a ``tool''. Experimental results suggest the effective activation of episodic memory, division of attention, and planning function of participants by the measurement of cognitive activities during the coimagination. Then, Fonobono Research Institute was established as a ''network'' for ``human'' who studies coimagination, which is a multisector research organization including elderly people living around Kashiwa city, companies including instrument and welfare companies, Kashiwa city and Chiba prefecture, researchers of the University of Tokyo. The institute proposes and realizes lifelong research as a novel life ``style'' for elderly people, and discusses life with two rounds as an innovative ``rule'' for social system of aged society.

  13. Extraction of americium in different oxidation states in a two-phase aqueous system based on poly(ethylene glycol)

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', B.F.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-09-01

    The extraction of americium in different states of oxidation was studied in a two-phase aqueous system based on poly(ethylene glycol). Conditions were found for the quantitative extraction of americium (III) and americium (V) from solutions of ammonium sulfate in the pH range of 3-5 and in the presence of arsenazo III. The composition of the complexes of americium with the reagent was determined; americium (III) reacts with arsenazo III in solutions of ammonium sulfate to form complexes with the composition of MeR and Me/sub 2/R. Characteristics of the absorption spectra of complexes of americium (III) and (V) with arsenazo III in ammonium sulfate solutions and in extracts based on aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) were found. The molar extinction coefficients of complexes of americium with arsenazo III were determined in these solutions.

  14. Protocol for a mixed studies systematic review on the implementation of the recovery approach in adult mental health services.

    PubMed

    Piat, Myra; Sofouli, Eleni; Sabetti, Judith; Lambrou, Angella; Chodos, Howard; Briand, Catherine; Vachon, Brigitte; Curran, Janet

    2017-08-30

    Recovery is integral to mental health planning in G-8 countries including Canada. A recovery-oriented approach to care aims to promote personal empowerment, illness self-management and a life beyond services for people with serious mental illness (SMI), while reducing the financial burden associated with mental illness. Although there is a growing body of literature on recovery, no synthesis of research on the implementation of recovery into mental health services exists. The objective is to conduct a mixed studies systematic review on the operationalisation of recovery into mental health services for adults with SMI. It will inform the transformation of Canadian services to a recovery orientation, but may be applicable to other countries. Seven databases including PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Scopus will be searched for peer-reviewed empirical studies published from 1998 to December 2016. Systematic reviews and studies using quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies will be included. Secondary searches will be conducted in reference lists of all selected full text articles. Handsearches will also be performed in the tables of contents of three recovery-focused journals for the last 5 years. International experts in the field will be contacted for comments and advice. Data extraction will include identification and methodological synthesis of each study; definition of recovery; information on recovery implementation; facilitators and barriers and study outcomes. A quality assessment will be conducted on each study. The data will be synthesised and a stepwise thematic analysis performed. Ethics approval is not required for this knowledge synthesis. Findings will be disseminated through knowledge translation activities including: (1) a 1-day symposium; (2) presentations in national and international conferences and to local stakeholders; (3) publications in peer-reviewed journals; (4) posts on the

  15. Do it right this time: the role of employee service recovery performance in customer-perceived justice and customer loyalty after service failures.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui

    2007-03-01

    Integrating justice and customer service literatures, this research examines the role of customer service employees' behaviors of handling customer complaints, or service recovery performance (SRP), in conveying a just image of service organizations and achieving desirable customer outcomes. Results from a field study and a laboratory study demonstrate that the dimensions of SRP--making an apology, problem solving, being courteous, and prompt handling--positively influenced customer satisfaction and then customer repurchase intent through the mediation of customer-perceived justice. In addition, service failure severity and repeated failures reduced the positive impact of some dimensions of SRP on customer satisfaction, and customer-perceived justice again mediated these moderated effects.

  16. The biodistribution and toxicity of plutonium, americium and neptunium.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M

    1989-07-15

    In the nuclear fuel cycle the transuranic radionuclides plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 would probably present the most serious hazard to human health if released into the environment. Despite differences in their solution chemistry the three elements exhibit remarkable similarity in their biochemical behaviour, apparently sharing similar transport pathways in blood and cells. After entering the blood the elements deposit predominantly in liver and skeleton, where retention appears to be prolonged, with half-times of the order of years. The principal late effects of all three radionuclides are the induction of cancers of bone, lung or liver. For the latter tumours the induction risk per unit radiation dose appears similar for the three radionuclides. But in bone there are indications that, due to microscopic differences in the distribution of the alpha-particle radiation dose, the efficiency of bone cancer induction may increase in the order americium-241 less than plutonium-239 less than neptunium-237. No case of human cancer induced by these radionuclides is known.

  17. A Density Functional Study of the Americium (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Da; Ray, Asok Kumar

    2006-03-01

    Electronic structure properties of the fcc americium (001) surface, modeled by periodically repeated fcc Am (001) surface slabs, have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The alternative basis set APW+lo is used inside the atomic spheres for chemically important orbitals that are difficult to converge, whereas LAPW is used for others. The core states are treated fully relativistically and for valence states, two levels of treatments are implemented: (1) a scalar relativistic scheme including the mass-velocity correction and the Darwin s-shift and (2) a fully relativistic scheme with spin-orbit coupling included in a second variational treatment using the scalar-relativistic eigenfunctions as basis. Our results indicate that the ground state of Am (001) surface is anti-ferromagnetic. The quantum size effects in the surface energies and the work functions of the (001) fcc americium ultra thin films (UTF) have been examined up to seven layers. In addition, the Am (001) surface properties are compared with our earlier study of the Am (111) surface.

  18. XAFS study of americium sorbed onto groundwater colloids.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, Claude; Reed, Donald; Kropf, A Jeremy; Mertz, Carol

    2004-03-01

    The sorption of americium, as Am(III), onto groundwater colloids obtained from a marl aquifer was studied in 2 x 10(-2)M sodium bicarbonate groundwater and 2 x 10(-2)M sodium chloride bicarbonate-free solutions. At the in situ groundwater pH of 8.6, the americium was strongly sorbed onto the colloids. XAFS analyses were performed on these sorbed Am species to establish the oxidation state and its near-neighbour bonding. These XAFS data, obtained at 400 mg l(-1) colloid concentrations and total Am concentration of 1.53 x 10(-5)M (dissolved and onto colloids), indicated that Am remains trivalent, and that surface complexes are formed with the colloids without surface precipitation. This conclusion is based on the absence of Am-Am interactions in the second or third shells. The surface complexes generated by the Am(III) sorbed onto active sites are described on the basis of the XAFS data. They include the presence of about seven water molecules around the ternary surface complexes of this trivalent actinide.

  19. Challenges in recovery and recycling of refrigerants from Indian refrigeration and air-conditioning service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devotta, Sukumar; Asthana, Saroja; Joshi, Rahul

    India is a large producer and user of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) sector. Government of India has taken several steps to restrict the production and consumption of CFCs. Refrigerant conservation through recovery, recycling (R&R) and reclamation is one way of reducing emissions and encouraging timely phase out of CFCs in developing countries. CFC recovery, recycling and reclamation have been mandated in many developed countries. However, this practice is yet to make an impact in India although it is practiced in MAC sector to some extent. India is planning for the final phase out of CFCs in the RAC service sector, in which R&R will be one of the components. A model has been developed to assess the economics of R&R for some typical parameters in developing counties like India. The model suggests that the enterprises recycling 1500 kg/a will break even within 1 year for all scenarios. However, R&R may not be cost effective for small workshops and low volume refrigerant vendors until either the price of CFC goes up or the cost of R&R unit is subsidized. A nationwide survey on RAC service sector revealed that in India, there are very few enterprises handling more than 500 kg/a. Therefore, there is a need to provide the RAC service sector with adequate and innovative financial incentives. This paper attempts to study the issues related to R&R for various sub-sectors of RAC in developing countries with an emphasis on cost effectiveness. India is used as a model for this study.

  20. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaras, Sean A.; Knight, Travis W.

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non

  1. 'Recovery work' and 'magic' among long-term mental health service-users.

    PubMed

    Laws, Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    Based on an extended period of qualitative research with mental health service-users in north-east England, this article considers the various forms of 'magical work' and 'recovery work' that emerge in the lives of people living with severe mental health problems. Given the now sizeable body of literature which seeks to problematize traditional conceptual boundaries of work, the article asks to what extent these hidden and unusual work-forms might also be considered legitimate members of the category. Rather than argue for the expansion of the construct to accommodate these activities, the paper attempts simply to problematize the extent to which so-called 'mad' forms of work are irresolvably different to more conventional forms of occupation. In challenging notions of the psychiatric patient as inevitably inactive, new vocabularies for service-user work are explored. Concluding remarks are also directed to recent policy debates concerning 'back-to-work' welfare reform for long-term out of work service-users.

  2. Comparison of cation exchange resins for recovering americium and plutonium from chloride wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.; Smith, C.M.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1984-04-25

    Macroreticular and microreticular cation exchange resins were compared for their capability of recovering americium and plutonium from solutions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium chlorides. Americium and plutonium breakthrough capacity and elution behavior of the resins were determined. Of the resins tested, Dowex MSC-1 was selected as the most efficient because of its favorable capacity and excellent elution behavior. Actinide eluting agents were also studied. More concentrated (9.0M) nitric acid was found to elute plutonium faster than 7.0M HNO/sub 3/ used previously, while 7.0M HNO/sub 3/-0.1M NANO/sub 2/ eluted americium fastest.

  3. Determining the effectiveness of mental health services from a consumer perspective: part 2: barriers to recovery and principles for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda

    2008-04-01

    The routine use of standardized outcome measures has been introduced to assess the effectiveness of mental health service delivery throughout Australia. The use of these measures has been criticized for failing to reflect those aspects of treatment consumers consider to affect their recovery. This is the second of a two-part paper. Its aim is to explore the views of consumers regarding factors that impede recovery and to explore the principles that ideally should underpin the evaluation of mental health services. Focus group interviews were conducted with consumers of mental health services (n = 16) from one rural and one metropolitan mental health service in Victoria, Australia. This paper presents the findings, pertaining to aspects of mental health services that pose barriers to recovery. The main themes to emerge were: staffing issues; hearing the person not the illness; lack of safety and security; and, isolation. The main themes to emerge regarding the evaluation of mental health services were: consumer involvement; peer support and more responsive care and treatment. The views of participants suggest that the effective evaluation of mental health services requires an increased focus on the views and opinions of consumers in order to develop more responsive mental health services.

  4. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  5. Introducing an enhanced recovery programme to an established totally intracorporeal robot-assisted radical cystectomy service.

    PubMed

    Collins, Justin W; Adding, Christofer; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Nyberg, Tommy; Pini, Giovannalberto; Dey, Linda; Wiklund, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of introducing an enhanced recovery programme (ERP) to an established robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) service. Data were prospectively collected on 221 consecutive patients undergoing totally intracorporeal RARC between December 2003 and May 2014. The ERP was specifically designed to support an evolving RARC service, where increasing proportions of patients requiring radical cystectomy underwent RARC. Patient demographics and outcomes before and after implementation of the ERP were compared. The primary endpoint was length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, preoperative staging, operative time, complications and readmissions. Differences in outcomes between patients before and after implementation of ERP were tested with the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test and quantile regression with backward selection. Following implementation of the ERP, the demographics of the patients (n = 135) changed, with median age increasing from 66 to 70 years (p < 0.01), higher ASA grade (p < 0.001), higher preoperative stage cancer (pT ≥ 2, p < 0.05) and increased likelihood of undergoing an ileal conduit diversion (p < 0.001). Median LOS before ERP was 9 days [interquartile range (IQR) 8-13 days] and after ERP was 8 days (IQR 6-10 days) (p < 0.001). ASA grade and neoadjuvant chemotherapy also affected LOS (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference in 30 day complication rates, readmission rates or 90 day mortality, with 59% experiencing complications before ERP implementation and 57% after implementation. The majority of complications were low grade. Patient demographics changed as the RARC service evolved from selected patients to a general service. Despite worsening demographics, LOS decreased following ERP implementation. This evidence-based ERP safely standardized perioperative care, resulting in decreased LOS and decreased

  6. Podoconiosis patients' willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Abreham; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil

    2014-03-19

    Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient's willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n=393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government's primary health care system.

  7. Promoting recovery-oriented practice in mental health services: a quasi-experimental mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Gilburt, Helen; Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Oduola, Sheri; Craig, Tom K J

    2013-06-13

    Recovery has become an increasingly prominent concept in mental health policy internationally. However, there is a lack of guidance regarding organisational transformation towards a recovery orientation. This study evaluated the implementation of recovery-orientated practice through training across a system of mental health services. The intervention comprised four full-day workshops and an in-team half-day session on supporting recovery. It was offered to 383 staff in 22 multidisciplinary community and rehabilitation teams providing mental health services across two contiguous regions. A quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation, comparing behavioural intent with staff from a third contiguous region. Behavioural intent was rated by coding points of action on the care plans of a random sample of 700 patients (400 intervention, 300 control), before and three months after the intervention. Action points were coded for (a) focus of action, using predetermined categories of care; and (b) responsibility for action. Qualitative inquiry was used to explore staff understanding of recovery, implementation in services and the wider system, and the perceived impact of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention group team leaders post-training and an inductive thematic analysis undertaken. A total of 342 (89%) staff received the intervention. Care plans of patients in the intervention group had significantly more changes with evidence of change in the content of patient's care plans (OR 10.94. 95% CI 7.01-17.07) and the attributed responsibility for the actions detailed (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.68-5.18). Nine themes emerged from the qualitative analysis split into two superordinate categories. 'Recovery, individual and practice', describes the perception and provision of recovery orientated care by individuals and at a team level. It includes themes on care provision, the role of hope, language of recovery, ownership and

  8. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  9. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  10. The 1976 Hanford Americium Accident: Then and Now

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2013-10-02

    The 1976 chemical explosion of an 241Am ion exchange column at a Hanford Site waste management facility resulted in the extreme contamination of a worker with 241Am, nitric acid and debris. The worker underwent medical treatment for acid burns, as well as wound debridement, extensive personal skin decontamination and long-term DTPA chelation therapy for decorporation of americium-241. Because of the contamination levels and prolonged decontamination efforts, care was provided for the first three months at the unique Emergency Decontamination Facility with gradual transition to the patient’s home occurring over another two months. The medical treatment, management, and dosimetry of the patient have been well documented in numerous reports and journal articles. The lessons learned with regard to patient treatment and effectiveness of therapy still form the underlying philosophy of treatment for contaminated injuries. Changes in infrastructure and facilities as well as societal expectations make for interesting speculation as to how responses might differ today.

  11. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-03-18

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

  12. Separation of americium from curium by oxidation and ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jonathan D; Shehee, Thomas C; Clearfield, Abraham; Hobbs, David T

    2012-08-21

    Nuclear energy has the potential to be a clean alternative to fossil fuels, but in order for it to play a major role in the US, many questions about the back end of the fuel cycle must be addressed. One of these questions is the difficult separation of americium from curium. Here, we report the oxidation of Am in two systems, perchloric acid and nitric acid and the affect of changing the acid has on the oxidation. K(d) values were observed and a direct separation factor was calculated and was seen to be as high as 20 for four metal(IV) pillared phosphate phosphonate inorganic organic hybrid ion exchange materials. These ion exchangers are characterized by very low selectivity for cations with low charge but extremely high uptake of ions of high charge.

  13. Americium/Curium Vitrification Pilot Tests - Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Baich, M.A.; Fellinger, A.P.; Hardy, B.J.; Herman, D.T.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T. K.; Stone, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing.

  14. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: in vivo measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Icayan, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed external measurement were made of internally deposited /sup 241/Am in a nuclear chemical operator involved in an americium exposure accident at the Hanford plant. Despite some interference from high-level external contamination, quantitative measurements of the /sup 241/Am content in the lung, liver, and bones were made starting on the third day after the accident. The rate of excretion of /sup 241/Am from these organs was determined. The /sup 241/Am embedded in the skin of the face and head was carefully mapped. The distribution over the total length of the body was also determined. Linear and rectilinear scanners, gamma cameras, large and small scintillation detectors, proportional counters, and Si(Li) and intrinsic germanium detectors were used to evaluate the internal deposition. Methods of calibration for quantitative measurement included simulation of the /sup 241/Am activity in both phantom and cadaver parts.

  15. The biokinetics and radiotoxicology of curium: a comparison with americium.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier, F; Taylor, D M; Comte, A

    2008-05-01

    The human and animal data on the biokinetics of (242)Cm and (244)Cm are reviewed and shown to be very similar to those for (241)Am. Liver and skeleton are the main organs of deposition and the retention of curium in the skeleton is very prolonged in all the species examined. Retention of both curium and americium in the liver appears to be species-dependent, being relatively rapidly removed from the liver of rats, and probably humans, but being tenaciously retained in dogs and some other species. The radiotoxicity of curium is also reviewed and it is shown that, as with (241)Am, lung and bone tumour induction are the major hazards from inhaled and systemically deposited (244)Cm. The use of chelating agents for the treatment of accidental contamination of the human body with (242,244)Cm is also discussed.

  16. Monte Carlo modeling of spallation targets containing uranium and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, Yury; Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2014-09-01

    Neutron production and transport in spallation targets made of uranium and americium are studied with a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems). A good agreement of MCADS results with experimental data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions on 241Am and 243Am nuclei allows to use this model for simulations with extended Am targets. It was demonstrated that MCADS model can be used for calculating the values of critical mass for 233,235U, 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am. Several geometry options and material compositions (U, U + Am, Am, Am2O3) are considered for spallation targets to be used in Accelerator Driven Systems. All considered options operate as deep subcritical targets having neutron multiplication factor of k∼0.5. It is found that more than 4 kg of Am can be burned in one spallation target during the first year of operation.

  17. Plutonium, americium, and neptunium speciation in selected groundwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Speciation was determined at 25 and 90 degree C in four groundwaters from diverse sources: the Sparta aquifer in Louisiana, near the Vacherie salt dome; Mansfield No. 2 well in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; the Stripa mine in Sweden; and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Neptunium generally was soluble in all waters and was present exclusively as Np(V) and Np(VI), regardless of initial oxidation state. The results indicated that plutonium and neptunium solubilities were determined by the oxidation-reduction properties of the waters, i. e. , their abilities to convert these elements to soluble oxidation states. This was not the case for americium, however; Am(IV) was not detected, and the solubility of this element was determined entirely by the chemical properties of Am(III).

  18. Evaluation of three electrodeposition procedures for uranium, plutonium and americium.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung-Suk; Warwick, Phillip E; Croudace, Ian W; Lee, Sang-Han

    2014-05-01

    While both mass spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry have been widely used for measuring alpha activities, the former is preferred since many laboratories are not equipped with ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS systems. In this study, three electrodeposition techniques using ammonium chloride, ammonium oxalate and ammonium sulphate as electrolyte solutions were applied and evaluated for the preparation of uranium, plutonium and americium sources for alpha-particle spectrometry. Changes in pH and temperature throughout the electrodeposition process were measured every 15 min, together with percentage deposition every 30 min. The percentage deposition in each method was checked at 300, 400 and 500 mA, and the optimised time and current were determined.

  19. Selective recognition of americium by peptide-based reagents.

    PubMed

    Özçubukçu, Salih; Mandal, Kalyanaswer; Wegner, Seraphine; Jensen, Mark P; He, Chuan

    2011-09-05

    The separation of lanthanides from minor actinides such as americium and curium is an important step during the recycling process in the treatment of nuclear waste. However, the similar chemistry and ionic size of lanthanide and actinide ions make the separation challenging. Here, we report that a peptide-based reagent can selectively bind trivalent actinides over trivalent lanthanides by means of introducing soft-donor atoms into a peptide known as a lanthanide-binding tag (LBT). Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to measure the dissociation constant of each metal/peptide complex. A 10-fold selectivity was obtained for Am(3+) over the similarly sized lanthanide cation, Nd(3+), when the asparagine on the fifth position of a LBT was mutated to a cysteine and further functionalized by a pyridine moiety.

  20. “An Old Way to Solve an Old Problem”: Provider Perspectives on Recovery-Oriented Services and Consumer Capabilities in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Marnie K.; Bonham, Caroline A.; Willging, Cathleen E.; Hough, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of recovery has emerged as a core value in the reformation of public and private mental health services in the last twenty years. However, definitions of recovery remain as varied as methods of implementation. Through an ethnographic lens, we examine meanings of recovery in the context of a major statewide reform of mental health services in New Mexico, focusing specifically on provider-voiced concerns regarding recovery and recovery-oriented care. We argue that the concept of recovery functions as a symbol that seemingly reconciles the long-standing tension between biological and social explanations of mental illness. Drawing upon provider perspectives, we also discuss concerns that popular rhetoric about recovery may mask some needed fundamental changes to transform the mental health system to a recovery orientation. Finally, we consider recovery from a capabilities standpoint and discuss how this view lends itself to addressing both individual and social components of mental illness. PMID:21892229

  1. Economic approaches to improving access to evidence-based and recovery-oriented services for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Eric A; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E

    2011-09-01

    During the past 3 decades, research has identified several psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs) for people with severe mental illness (SMI). Starting from a different origin, the recovery movement has influenced perceptions of how EBPs and other services should be delivered, and also emphasized the value of peer supports. We now know much more than 30 years ago about the kinds of services that help people with SMI live satisfying lives in the community. Evidence-based and recovery-oriented services require additional resources but use them sparingly: they are highly individualized, often result in reductions in costs of other mental health services, such as hospitalizations, and favour reliance on and integration into community settings rather than mental health services. Nevertheless, access to such services remains very limited. During the same period, the place of medications in the services system has become a source of growing concern, and there are several reasons to believe that current spending on medications is excessive. Inadequate housing and community supports that increase lengths of stay unnecessarily and spending on ineffective, nonrecovery-oriented vocational services are only 2 additional forms of misallocation of resources. Devolving control over medication budgets to regional or local health authorities, introducing program budgeting and marginal analysis, and implementing individual budgets to give more control to service users (in addition to promoting shared decision making) merit further investigation as potential strategies to improve outcomes for people with SMI in Canada in the context of limited budgets.

  2. Service area size assessment for evaluating the spatial scale of solid waste recovery chains: A territorial perspective.

    PubMed

    Tanguy, Audrey; Villot, Jonathan; Glaus, Mathias; Laforest, Valérie; Hausler, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Waste recovery is an integrated part of municipal solid waste management systems but its strategic planning is still challenging. In particular, the service area size of facilities is a sensitive issue since its calculation depends on various factors related to treatment technologies (output products) and territorial features (sources waste production and location). This work presents a systemic approach for the estimation of a chain's service area size, based on a balance between costs and recovery profits. The model assigns a recovery performance value to each source, which can be positive, neutral or negative. If it is positive, the source should be included in the facility's service area. Applied to the case of Montreal for food waste recovery by anaerobic digestion, the approach showed that at most 23 out of the 30 districts should be included in the service area, depending on the indicator, which represents around 127,000 t of waste recovered/year. Due to the systemic approach, these districts were not necessarily the closest to the facility. Moreover, for the Montreal case, changing the facility's location did not have a great influence on the optimal service area size, showing that the distance to the facility was not a decisive factor at this scale. However, replacing anaerobic digestion by a composting plant reduced the break-even transport distances and, thus, the number of sources worth collecting (around 68,500 t/year). In this way, the methodology, applied to different management strategies, gave a sense of the spatial dynamics involved in the recovery chain's design. The map of optimal supply obtained could be used to further analyse the feasibility of multi-site and/or multi-technology systems for the territory considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health…

  4. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part I: Consumer-Led Reform of Services to Persons Diagnosed with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health…

  5. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  6. Adherence to enhanced recovery after surgery protocols across a high-volume gastrointestinal surgical service.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John S; Humphries, Sarah; Simson, Nick; Scrimshaw, Helen; Catton, James; Gornall, Christopher; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients following gastrointestinal surgery. Data on protocol adherence and how this impacts on outcome are limited. This study examines how protocol adherence changes over time and determines how this impacts on outcome across a large-volume gastrointestinal surgical service. A prospective review of patients eligible for colorectal, liver and oesophagogastric ERAS over two 3-month periods in 2010 and 2011 was performed. End points included: length of stay (LOS), overall protocol adherence, individual modality adherence, reason for pathway deviation and patient outcomes. 172 patients (110 colorectal, 31 liver and 31 oesophagogastric) were evaluated. For each sub-speciality, the introduction of ERAS led to significant reductions in LOS that were sustained for the duration of the study. Adherence was achieved across 60% (colorectal), 75% (liver) and 88% (oesophagogastric) of individual pathway modalities. The major causes of pathway deviation were: post-operative nausea and vomiting (colorectal), pain (liver) and pulmonary complications (oesophagogastric). Large-scale implementation of ERAS at a high-volume centre is feasible and offers many of the benefits demonstrated in controlled trials, but adherence may diminish over time. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given.

  8. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  10. Electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of americium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Fawei; Wang, Bao-Tian; Zhang, Ping

    2013-10-01

    By performing density functional theory (DFT) +U calculations, we systematically study the electronic, mechanical, tensile, and thermodynamic properties of AmO2. It is found that the chemical bonding character in AmO2 is similar to that in PuO2, with smaller charge transfer and stronger covalent interactions between americium and oxygen atoms. The stress-strain relationship of AmO2 is examined along the three low-index directions, showing that the [1 0 0] and [1 1 1] directions are the strongest and weakest tensile directions, respectively, but the theoretical tensile strengths of AmO2 are smaller than those of PuO2. The phonon dispersion curves of AmO2 are calculated and the heat capacities as well as lattice expansion curve are subsequently determined. The lattice thermal conductivity of AmO2 is further evaluated and compared with attainable experiments. Our present work integrally reveals various physical properties of AmO2 and can be referenced for technological applications of AmO2 based materials.

  11. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides.

    PubMed

    Alexandrova, M; Rozhko, T; Vydryakova, G; Kudryasheva, N

    2011-04-01

    The effect of americium-241 ((241)Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of (241)Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 °C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the (241)Am is discussed. The effect of (241)Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in (241)Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of (241)Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions.

  12. The availability of plutonium and americium in Irish Sea sediments for re-dissolution.

    PubMed

    McDonald, P; Vives i Batlle, J; Bousher, A; Whittall, A; Chambers, N

    2001-02-21

    The availability of plutonium and americium, for re-dissolution from offshore sediments into Irish Sea water, has been examined. Sediments collected from the mud-patch near the Cumbrian coast were characterized in terms of spatial location, particle size, partitioning of radionuclides with respect to physico-chemical bonds and availability of actinides for release into seawater. Sequential extraction investigations revealed that plutonium was predominantly associated with strongly bound sesquioxide and organic complex fractions. Americium was associated mainly with the organic complex fraction, but a significant fraction was in carbonate form. Sediment/water re-dissolution experiments with and without stirring were compared to simulate the effect of disturbing bed sediment. After 1 week, neither set of re-dissolution data provided significant trends between dissolved activity and time. Stirred systems appeared to release 2.5 times more plutonium and americium into seawater than unstirred systems. Measured 239,240Pu and 241Am distribution coefficients (Kd values) were both typically approximately 10(5) l kg(-1). 241Am Kd values are an order of magnitude lower than previously reported for the north-eastern Irish Sea, but similar to western Irish Sea values. Overall, the fractions of plutonium and americium available for re-dissolution from bed sediment are very low at < 0.1%, with proportionally more plutonium being released than americium. These findings lend further support for the extrapolation of laboratory-derived information to environmental conditions.

  13. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-10-16

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. How to Preserve and Promote School Psychological Services through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), also known as the "Stimulus Act" and "Economic Recovery Act," was signed into law by President Obama on February 17, 2009. As a response to the economic downturn that Americans are all experiencing, the ARRA is an effort to jumpstart the economy, create or save millions of jobs, and make long-term…

  15. How to Preserve and Promote School Psychological Services through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), also known as the "Stimulus Act" and "Economic Recovery Act," was signed into law by President Obama on February 17, 2009. As a response to the economic downturn that Americans are all experiencing, the ARRA is an effort to jumpstart the economy, create or save millions of jobs, and make long-term…

  16. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  17. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  18. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  19. Comparison of cation exchange resins for recovering americium and plutonium from chloride salts

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Macroreticular and microreticular cation exchange resins were compared for their capability of recovering americium and plutonium from solutions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium chlorides. Americium and plutonium breakthrough capacity and elution behavior of the resins were determined. Of the resins tested, Dowex MSC-1 was selected as the most efficient because of its favorable capacity and excellent elution behavior. Actinide eluting agents were also studied. More concentrated (9.0M) nitric acid was found to elute plutonium faster than 7.0M HNO/sub 3/ used previously while 7.0M HNO/sub 3/-0.1M NaNO/sub 2/ eluted americium fastest. 4 tables.

  20. Service Recovery in Marketing Education: It's What We Do that Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Rajesh; Muncy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    One thing that higher education has in common with other service providers is that service failures occur. There are times when students are negatively impacted by mistakes made in the classroom. An extensive body of literature has developed in the area of services marketing about what to do when such service failures occur. The current study…

  1. Service Recovery in Marketing Education: It's What We Do that Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Rajesh; Muncy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    One thing that higher education has in common with other service providers is that service failures occur. There are times when students are negatively impacted by mistakes made in the classroom. An extensive body of literature has developed in the area of services marketing about what to do when such service failures occur. The current study…

  2. The impact of risk management practice upon the implementation of recovery-oriented care in community mental health services: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Holley, Jessica; Chambers, Mary; Gillard, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Recovery-oriented care has become guiding principle for mental health policies and practice in the UK and elsewhere. However, a pre-existing culture of risk management practice may impact upon the provision of recovery-oriented mental health services. To explore how risk management practice impacts upon the implementation of recovery-oriented care within community mental health services. Semi-structured interviews using vignettes were conducted with eight mental health worker and service user dyads. Grounded theory techniques were used to develop explanatory themes. Four themes arose: (1) recovery and positive risk taking; (2) competing frameworks of practice; (3) a hybrid of risk and recovery; (4) real-life recovery in the context of risk. In abstract responses to the vignettes, mental health workers described how they would use a positive-risk taking approach in support of recovery. In practice, this was restricted by a risk-averse culture embedded within services. Mental health workers set conditions with which service users complied to gain some responsibility for recovery. A lack of strategic guidance at policy level and lack of support and guidance at practice level may result in resistance to implementing ROC in the context of RMP. Recommendations are made for policy, training and future research.

  3. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  4. Americium/curium extraction from a lanthanide borosilciate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.; Pareizs, J.M.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-12-31

    A solution containing kilogram quantities of highly radioactive isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) and lanthanide fission products is currently stored in a process tank at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). This tank and its vital support systems are old, subject to deterioration, and prone to possible leakage. For this reason, a program has been initiated to immobilize this material as a lanthanide borosilicate glass for safe long-term storage. The Am/Cm has commercial value and is desired for use by the heavy isotope programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Therefore, a flowsheet was demonstrated using a curium-containing glass to extract these elements from the glass matrix. The method involved grinding the glass to less than 200 mesh and dissolving in concentrated nitric acid at 110{degrees}C. Under these conditions, the dissolution was essentially 100% after 2 hours except for silicon which remained mostly insoluble. Since the actual process conditions at ORNL could not be exactly simulated, the dissolution rate of a surrogate glass was measured using static and agitated conditions to bracket the expected rate. The measured rates, 0.040 to 0.0082 grams/hour-centimeter, were constant which allowed development of a predictive model for the time required to dissolve a glass particle of spherical geometry in terms of the glass density, particle size, and experimentally measured rate. The calculated time required to dissolve an idealized curium glass particle was in agreement with the experimental observation that dissolution was complete in less than 2 hours.

  5. Embodying recovery: a qualitative study of peer work in a consumer-run service setting.

    PubMed

    Austin, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Hopper, Kim

    2014-11-01

    The use of peer support for persons with mental illness has been gaining force. While research has demonstrated the benefits of peer support, few studies have investigated the qualitative characteristics of how peer support aids persons recovering from mental illness. Therefore, this study sought to clarify the characteristics that constitute peer support and its contribution to recovery. We conducted ethnographic fieldwork and semi-structured interviews with nine peer advocates at a consumer-run organization in New York City, and identified three themes that describe how peer support influences recovery: transforming experience into expertise, understanding the mechanics of peer support, and launching peers towards their own recovery. Peer support plays a critical role in helping clients move beyond their patient role to an empowered sense of personhood. Additionally, the value of peer support highlights current deficiencies within the mental health system and how a bolder shift towards recovery might repair them.

  6. Americium biokinetics in benthic organisms as a function of feeding mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S.W.; Carvalho, F.P.

    1985-12-01

    Transuranic radionuclides in the environment have arisen from nuclear weapons testing, release from nuclear waste reprocessing plants and accidents with nuclear devices. Although at present the plutonium inventory is greater than that of any other transuranium element, the americium inventory will continue to increase due to the in situ decay of SU Pu. Furthermore some studies have demonstrated that americium is more bioavailable than plutonium in aquatic environments. The authors therefore undertook to delineate, experimentally, the biokinetics of SU Am in some marine benthic species with very different feeding-digestion strategies, which hitherto have not been studied in any detail in a radioecological context.

  7. Identification of the oxidation state of americium by thin-layer chromatography using domestic plates

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1994-10-01

    Methods of precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, and extraction chromatography were suggested to identify trace amounts of americium in different oxidation states. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has not been used previously for these purposes. At the same time, this method is widely used in the separation of small quantities of elements in different valence states. Previously, the chromatographic mobility of actinide ions on thin layers of silica gel and cellulose on Silufol plates (CSFR) and plates from Merck (Germany) was investigated. The behavior of americium in different oxidation states on domestic TLC plates in nitric acid solutions was determined to be of interest.

  8. Behavior of americium and berkelium ions in solutions under intense alpha radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.A.; Frolova, L.M.; Vasil'ev, V.Ya.

    1987-09-01

    The information in the literature on the radiation-chemical behavior of americium and berkelium is devoted mainly to the reduction of americium(V) and (VI) upon the irradiation of solutions by alpha particles formed as a result of the decay of /sup 241,243/Am and to the reduction of berkelium(IV) upon the irradiation of solutions by beta particles emitted by the nuclide /sup 249/Bk. In the present work they studied the behavior of ions of the elements indicated in perchlorate and nitrate solutions under intense internal alpha radiation. Curium-244, which was introduced into the solution, served as the source of the alpha particles.

  9. Synthesis of functionalised BTPhen derivatives - effects on solubility and americium extraction.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Matthew A; Kyle, Nichola D; Marsden, Olivia J; Thompson, Paul; Livens, Francis R; Heath, Sarah L

    2015-10-07

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am/Cm) from spent nuclear fuel post-PUREX process is expected to play a key part in new reprocessing methodologies. To date, a number of selective americium extractants from the BTPhen ligand family have been identified. In this investigation, we synthesise 24 novel BTPhens with additional functionality to determine the effects on solubilities and americium extraction capabilities. The data obtained will allow for tuning of steric/electronic properties of BTPhens in order to assist future extractant design.

  10. The experience of mental distress and recovery among people involved with the service user/survivor movement.

    PubMed

    Chassot, Carolina S; Mendes, Felismina

    2015-07-01

    This article examines how the personal experiences of mental distress of people involved in the British service user/survivor movement were shaped or transformed by this involvement, and the impact of involvement on their recovery journeys. The analysis was based on 12 in-depth interviews with service users/survivors who are, or were once, involved with the service user/survivor movement. Three large themes were identified regarding the ways in which social movement involvement affected the personal experience of mental distress: (a) making sense and reframing mental distress, (b) the social experience of involvement and (c) identity and identity reconstruction. We discuss how some features of the service user/survivor movement, such as self-help, user involvement, the centrality of experience to collective action, and the range of political positions adopted by activists can affect experience and recovery in different forms. As an exploratory study that looks into a complex topic, our findings illuminate the ways of surviving, recovering and experiencing mental distress in the context of a significant social movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Vitrification of F-area americium/curium: feasibility study and preliminary process recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, W.G.; Miller, D.; Minichan, R.; Coleman, L.; Schumacher, R.; Hardy, B.; Jones, R.

    1994-04-29

    Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank 17.1. Tank 17.1 contains the majority of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) contained in the DOE Complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has made a formal request for this material as fuel for production of Cf252 and other transplutonium actinides. The Am and Cm (and associated lanthanide fission products) are currently in nitric acid solution. Transportation of the intensely radioactive Am/Cm in liquid form is not considered possible. As a result, the material will either be solidified and shipped to ORNL or discarded to the Tank Farm. Nuclear Materials Processing Technology (NMPT), therefore, requested Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) to determine if the Tank 17.1 material could be vitrified, and if it was vitrified could the americium and curium be successfully recovered. Research was performed to determine if the Tank 17.1 contents could indeed be mixed with glass formers and vitrified. Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc. Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. A process has been identified which will convert the Am/Cm material into approximately 300kg of glass. This will be done by initially removing the large quantities of transition metals and aluminum. Oxalic acid will be added to Tank 17.1 and the actinides and lanthanides will be precipitated as oxalates. The remaining aqueous fraction will be removed and the lanthanides and actinides will then be redissolved. The solution will be evaporated and steam stripped down to approximately 100g/I solids and 1N nitric acid prior to being transferred into a receipt/feed tank in the Multi- Purpose Processing Facility (MPPF - formerly Section 18 of F-Canyon). The Am/Cm solution will then be fed directly into a bushing melter. Glass beads will be added

  12. Best practices for basic and advanced skills in health care service recovery: a case study of a re-admitted patient.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Anna C; Pichert, James W; Fawcett, Jodi; Moore, Ilene N; Hickson, Gerald B

    2010-07-01

    Service recovery refers to an organizations entire process for facilitating resolution of dissatisfactions, whether or not visible to patients and families. Patients are an important resource for reporting miscommunications, provider inattention, rudeness, or delays, especially if they perceive a connection to misdiagnosis or failed treatment. Health systems that encourage patients to be "the eyes and ears" of individual and team performance capitalize on a rich source of data for quality improvement and risk prevention. Effective service recovery requires organizations (1) to learn about negative perceptions and experiences and (2) to create an infrastructure that supports staff's ability to respond. Service recovery requires the exercise of both basic and advanced skills. We term certain skills as advanced because of the significant variation in their use or endorsement among 30 health care organizations in the United States. On the basis of our work with the 30 organizations, a mnemonic, HEARD, incorporates best practices for basic service recovery processes: Hearing the person's concern; Empathizing with the person raising the issue; Acknowledging, expressing appreciation to the person for sharing, and Apologizing when warranted; Responding to the problem, setting time lines and expectations for follow-up; and Documenting or Delegating the documentation to the appropriate person. Impartiality, chain of command, setting boundaries, and Documentation represent four advanced service recovery skills critical for addressing challenging situations. Using best practices in service recovery enables the organization to do its best to make right what patients and family members experience as wrong.

  13. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  14. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 241}Am can be found and {sup 241}Am behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  15. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Riddell, A E; Filipy, R; Bertelli, L; Little, T; Guilmette, R

    2007-01-01

    Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry and depend, ultimately, for their scientific validation on comparisons with human bioassay data. Three significant plutonium/americium bioassay databases, known to the authors, are described: (1) Sellafield, (2) Los Alamos and (3) the United States Transuranium Registry. A case is made for a uniform standard for database format, and the XML standard is discussed.

  16. Separation of Americium in High Oxidation States from Curium Utilizing Sodium Bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jason M; Sudowe, Ralf

    2016-05-03

    A simple separation of americium from curium would support closure of the nuclear fuel cycle, assist in nuclear forensic analysis, and allow for more accurate measurement of neutron capture properties of (241)Am. Methods for the separation of americium from curium are however complicated and time-consuming due to the similar chemical properties of these elements. In this work a novel method for the separation of americium from curium in nitric acid media was developed using sodium bismuthate to perform both the oxidation and separation. Sodium bismuthate is shown to be a promising material for performing a simple and rapid separation. Curium is more strongly retained than americium on the undissolved sodium bismuthate at nitric acid concentrations below 1.0 M. A separation factor of ∼90 was obtained in 0.1 M nitric acid. This separation factor is achieved within the first minute of contact and is maintained for at least 2 h of contact. Separations using sodium bismuthate were performed using solid-liquid extraction as well as column chromatography.

  17. [Rapid analysis of the radionuclides plutonium and americium-241 in soils].

    PubMed

    Egorov, A V; Klochkova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The paper shows it possible to perform a rapid analysis of the isotopes of plutomium and americium-241. The basis of the developed rapid analysis is X-spectrometric determination of the amount of plutonium isotopes and gamma-spectrometric determination of the radionuclide 241AM.

  18. Understanding the Chemistry of Uncommon Americium Oxidation States for Application to Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh Martin; Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2007-09-01

    A spectroscopic study of the stability of Am(V) and Am(VI) produced by oxidizing Am(III) with sodium bismuthate is presented, varying the initial americium concentration, temperature and length of the oxidation was seen to have profound effects on the resultant solutions.

  19. Environmental impacts of the release of a transuranic actinide, americium-241, from a contaminated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Want, J.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-10-29

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body because of its high dose conversion factor. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. In Ohio, a gemologist's laboratory was contaminated with americium-241. Prior to decontamination of the laboratory, potential radiological impacts to the surrounding environment were assessed. A hypothetical fire accident resulting in a unit release (1 curie) was assumed. Potential radiological impacts were simulated using an atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry model with local meteorological data, population census data, and detailed information regarding the neighborhood. The results indicate that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion if a major catastrophic release had occurred prior to contamination and decommissioning of the laboratory. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. People living with psychosocial disability: Rehabilitation and recovery-informed service provision within the second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Carol; Brophy, Lisa; Parsons, Samuel; Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Grigg, Margaret; Siskind, Dan

    2016-06-01

    People with psychosocial disability are an important, although often neglected, subgroup of those living with severe and persistent mental illness. Rehabilitation, provided through clinical and non-government organisations in Australia, may contribute to their personal recovery goals. We hypothesised that people with psychoses with the greatest disability and complex needs would receive services from both sectors, reflecting treatment and rehabilitation needs. Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year. Two subgroups were created and compared: those using services from community mental health with, and without, non-governmental organisation involvement. Group membership was predicted by hierarchical logistic regression using variables selected on a priori grounds. Usefulness of the final model was examined by calculating improvement over the rate of accuracy achievable by chance alone. The model was statistically significant but fell just short of useful (criterion 71.6%, model achieved 70.6%). Four independent variables contributed uniquely to predicting whether participants received both services (never married, childhood trauma, group accommodation, poor global functioning) consistent with the hypothesis. However, severe dysfunction in socialising was less likely to predict membership of the combined services group when compared with no dysfunction (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 0.384, confidence interval = [0.218, 0.677]), as was current smoking compared with none (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 0.606, confidence interval = [0.445, 0.824]). Findings suggest services provided by non-governmental organisations are targeted to those with the greatest disability although targeting could be improved. A subgroup of people with psychosis and severe disability in community mental health

  1. Mental Health Services as a Vital Component of Psychosocial Recovery for Victims of Child Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2017-04-10

    There has been a plethora of outcomes associated with child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation; however little attention has been paid to how outcomes are addressed for children who are placed into residential aftercare recovery programs following their identification as victims. Field-based qualitative research was undertaken in South and Southeast Asia, and involved interviews with 213 representatives from U.N. and governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and residential aftercare recovery programs. Findings highlight the mental health needs of child victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation, describe the availability and quality of mental health services and supports in aftercare programs to address prevailing needs and repair the psychological damage caused by trafficking, and report on lessons learned pertaining to elements of good practice and related challenges associated with the availability and quality of mental health services and supports. It concludes by highlighting the implications of the findings for mental health policy and practice and offers suggestions for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Product recovery of ponderosa pine in Arizona and New Mexico. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, T.D.; Ayer Sachet, J.K.

    1993-11-01

    A mill recovery of ponderosa pine in Arizona and New Mexico showed wide variation in quality within the resource. Lumber grade ranged widely by log grade and diameter, with a major difference within grade 5 logs between old growth and young growth. Old growth produced mostly Shop and Selects grades of lumber while young growth produced mostly Dimension grades of lumber; small-diameter young growth developed severe problems of warpage. Log grades separated logs into distinct value classes, and separating young-growth timber (as an additional grade) allowed better segregation of logs by product type and expected value.

  3. Evaluating an early intervention in psychosis service for 'high-risk' adolescents: symptomatic and social recovery outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lower, Rebecca; Wilson, Jonathan; Medin, Evelina; Corlett, Emma; Turner, Ruth; Wheeler, Karen; Fowler, David

    2015-06-01

    This study presents client characteristics and treatment outcomes for a group of young people seen by Central Norfolk Early Intervention Team (CNEIT). The team offers an intensive outreach model of treatment to young people with complex co-morbid emotional, behavioural and social problems, as well as the presence of psychotic symptoms. Outcomes include both client self-report and clinician-rated measures. Data are routinely collected at acceptance into service, after 12 months of service and at point of discharge. Data show that clients seen by the CNEIT youth team are a group of young people at high risk of developing long-term mental illness and social disability. Outcomes show significant reductions in not only psychotic symptomatology, but also co-morbid anxiety and depression, as well as improvements in social recovery. At the end of their time with the service, the majority of clients are discharged back to the care of their general practitioner, which indicates that the team successfully managed to reduce the complexity of needs and difficulties associated with this client group. Outcomes support the use of an intensive outreach approach for young people at high risk of developing psychotic disorders. It has been suggested that this model may be successfully broadened to young people with other emerging, potentially severe or complex mental disorders. Norfolk and Suffolk NHS Foundation Trust has built on the success of its youth early intervention team and innovatively redesigned its services in line with this model by developing a specific youth mental health service. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Art Therapy Applications of Dolls in Grief Recovery, Identity, and Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; McIntyre, Barbara; Sands-Goldstein, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the history of dollmaking that is relevant to art therapy, and the application of dolls as therapeutic media in clinical and educational settings. The authors describe their experiences using dollmaking in the resolution of grief, in professional identity construction, and in community service. The article addresses the…

  5. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  6. Applying the Recovery Approach to the Interface between Mental Health and Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joe; Davidson, Gavin; Kavanagh, Damien

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of theoretical approaches which may inform the interface between child protection and adult mental health services. These theoretical perspectives tend to be focused on either child protection or mental health with no agreed integrating framework. The interface continues to be identified, in research, case management reviews and…

  7. Service-Learning in Disaster Recovery: Rebuilding the Mississippi Gulf Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Cowley, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a course in the City and Regional Planning program at the Ohio State University. Its overarching goal was to offer service-learning by providing students with an opportunity to apply what they learned in the classroom by meeting community needs following Hurricane Katrina and to reflect on their experiences through…

  8. Recovery work’ and ‘magic’ among long-term mental health service-users

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Based on an extended period of qualitative research with mental health service-users in north-east England, this article considers the various forms of ‘magical work’ and ‘recovery work’ that emerge in the lives of people living with severe mental health problems. Given the now sizeable body of literature which seeks to problematize traditional conceptual boundaries of work, the article asks to what extent these hidden and unusual work-forms might also be considered legitimate members of the category. Rather than argue for the expansion of the construct to accommodate these activities, the paper attempts simply to problematize the extent to which so-called ‘mad’ forms of work are irresolvably different to more conventional forms of occupation. In challenging notions of the psychiatric patient as inevitably inactive, new vocabularies for service-user work are explored. Concluding remarks are also directed to recent policy debates concerning ‘back-to-work’ welfare reform for long-term out of work service-users. PMID:24223439

  9. Facilitators of recovery for step-up and step-down clients of a sub-acute residential mental health service.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kerry A; Rickwood, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    Sub-acute residential mental health services provide care for people who are not acutely unwell but require more support than generally available when living in the community. Little is known about how these services facilitate recovery and whether these facilitators differ for clients entering from the community (step-up) or from inpatient settings (step-down). To identify features of a sub-acute residential service that have assisted step-up and step-down clients in their recovery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 step-up and 21 step-down clients. Interview transcripts were examined using an inductive, semantic content analysis approach. Themes identified included the community context, personal support, the formal program offered and assistance in personal recovery processes, with the level of support for these themes differing for step-up and step-down clients. Step-up and step-down clients have differing needs to be addressed in a sub-acute service. These services can better meet the needs of clients if they are aware of the setting the client has come from and tailor their services accordingly. Step-up clients prefer support in developing social skills and illness management techniques; step-down clients prefer a less structured environment with assistance in living skills and personal processes of recovery.

  10. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  11. [Study of the influence of peroral zincacin on the removing of ingested Americium].

    PubMed

    Zhorova, E S; Il'in, L A; Ivannikov, A T; Popov, B A; Parfenova, I M

    2002-01-01

    Effect of different cincacine doses was studied in rats ingesting americium citrate during 2 weeks. As a result new data showing the possibility and efficacy of per oral cincacine administration at americium intake into digestive tract have been obtained. Dose dependence of cincacine efficacy has been stated for per oral 241Am intake. Preparation administration at a dose of 25 mumol/kg reduces amount of 241Am in skeleton, liver and kidney by 93, 90 and 33%, respectively and is optimum for radionuclide removal from the body and for the prevention of its deposition in organs. Digestive system organs and kidney structure at cincacine administration at a dose of 150 and 300 mumol/kg) to the rats ingesting 241Am have been studied.

  12. The road to recovery and rehabilitation for injured service members with limb loss: a focus on Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brad M; Weeks, Sharon R; Pasquina, Paul F; Webster, Joseph B; Beck, James P; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2010-01-01

    Amputation of an extremity due to traumatic injury or a vascular occlusive disease is a life-altering event that occurs when limb salvage is not possible. While an amputation is viewed as a life saving procedure clinically, limb deficiency may result in an immediate loss in social, physical and financial well-being for the patient. Military personnel returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom face unique challenges due to short residual limbs, unplanned amputations, high incidences of multiple limb loss, and accustomed activity levels prior to an amputation. The primary rehabilitation goal for these individuals is to provide them with an expedited recovery and progressive reintroduction into the civilian or active duty population. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the most frequent rehabilitation hardships service members endure following combat related trauma and future of prosthetic limb technology.

  13. [Emergency care for acute wound entering of plutonium and americium into the body (real case)].

    PubMed

    Krasniuk, V I; Gasteva, G N; Blinov, A P; Kuz'menko, L G

    2005-01-01

    The article describes a case of slowly soluble plutonium and americium compounds entering human body via skin wound. During the wound healing, the authors followed features of biokinetics of the radioactive substances, determined the major route of their excretion, evaluated efficiency of surgical d-bridement and complexation medicine (pentacin). clinical and biophysicdata collected could serve to increase efficiency of urgent therapeutic and prophylactic measures aimed to individuals with wounds contaminated with radioactive substances.

  14. Enhanced ionization efficiency in TIMS analyses of plutonium and americium using porous ion emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Baruzzini, Matthew L.; Hall, Howard L.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.

    2016-12-05

    Investigations of enhanced sample utilization in thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using porous ion emitter (PIE) techniques for the analyses of trace quantities of americium and plutonium were performed. Repeat ionization efficiency (i.e., the ratio of ions detected to atoms loaded on the filament) measurements were conducted on sample sizes ranging from 10–100 pg for americium and 1–100 pg for plutonium using PIE and traditional (i.e., a single, zone-refined rhenium, flat filament ribbon with a carbon ionization enhancer) TIMS filament sources. When compared to traditional filaments, PIEs exhibited an average boost in ionization efficiency of ~550% for plutonium and ~1100% for americium. A maximum average efficiency of 1.09% was observed at a 1 pg plutonium sample loading using PIEs. Supplementary trials were conducted using newly developed platinum PIEs to analyze 10 pg mass loadings of plutonium. As a result, platinum PIEs exhibited an additional ~134% boost in ion yield over standard PIEs and ~736% over traditional filaments at the same sample loading level.

  15. Structure of a single model to describe plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a single modeling structure to describe both plutonium and americium decorporation by DTPA, which is based on hypotheses mostly validated by experimental data. Decorporation efficacy of extracellular retention depends on the concentration ratio of DTPA vs. actinides and varies in each compartment according to the amount of biological ligands and their affinity for actinides. By contrast, because the relatively long residence time of DTPA after its cell internalization and the stability of actinide-DTPA complexes, intracellular decorporation efficacy is mainly controlled by a DTPA/actinide ratio, which is specific to each retention compartment. Although the affinity of DTPA is much lower for americium than for plutonium, a larger decorporation of americium can be obtained, which is explained by different biological ligands and/or their affinity for the actinide. Altogether, these results show that the relative contribution of intra vs. extracellular decorporation varies depending on the actinide, the chemical form of radionuclides, the galenic formulation of DTPA, and the treatment schedule.

  16. Enhanced ionization efficiency in TIMS analyses of plutonium and americium using porous ion emitters

    DOE PAGES

    Baruzzini, Matthew L.; Hall, Howard L.; Watrous, Matthew G.; ...

    2016-12-05

    Investigations of enhanced sample utilization in thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using porous ion emitter (PIE) techniques for the analyses of trace quantities of americium and plutonium were performed. Repeat ionization efficiency (i.e., the ratio of ions detected to atoms loaded on the filament) measurements were conducted on sample sizes ranging from 10–100 pg for americium and 1–100 pg for plutonium using PIE and traditional (i.e., a single, zone-refined rhenium, flat filament ribbon with a carbon ionization enhancer) TIMS filament sources. When compared to traditional filaments, PIEs exhibited an average boost in ionization efficiency of ~550% for plutonium and ~1100%more » for americium. A maximum average efficiency of 1.09% was observed at a 1 pg plutonium sample loading using PIEs. Supplementary trials were conducted using newly developed platinum PIEs to analyze 10 pg mass loadings of plutonium. As a result, platinum PIEs exhibited an additional ~134% boost in ion yield over standard PIEs and ~736% over traditional filaments at the same sample loading level.« less

  17. Solid-liquid separation of oxidized americium from fission product lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehee, T. C.; Martin, L. R.; Nash, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    The separation of americium from the lanthanides and curium is a requirement if transmutation of americium is to be performed in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Oxidation of Am3+ to AmO2+ or AmO22+ may allow separation of Am from Ln and Cm in one step, since the lanthanides and curium do not have higher oxidation states as accessible. Two possible solid-liquid separation methods have been developed to address this difficult separation. Under acidic conditions using oxone or persulfate, the oxidation and retention of tracer Am in the aqueous phase has been observed with a separation factor of 11 ± 1. Most of these studies have been conducted using 237NpO2(NO3), 233UO2(NO3)2, 238Pu(NO3)4 and 241Am(NO3)3 at radiotracer concentrations. Lanthanides precipitate as the sodium or potassium europium double sulfate salt. Under basic conditions, ozone oxidation of Am(CO3)OH(s) solubilizes Am from a lanthanide carbonate hydroxide solid phase to the aqueous phase as the AmO2(CO3)34-or AmO2(CO3)35- species. For the ozone oxidation of the americium tracer a separation factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 and 47 ± 2 for the oxidation/separation in Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 respectively.

  18. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22/sup 0/C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90/sup 0/C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22/sup 0/C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  19. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, E.; Picart, S.; Delahaye, T.; Jobelin, I.; Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D.; Bisel, I.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.

    2014-10-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  20. [Fundación Mundo Bipolar: learning among peers in the service of recovery].

    PubMed

    Morales Cano, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Due to severe mental illness, such as a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, people's quality of life may be seriously compromised and they may bear the risk of losing opportunities and being socially isolated as a result of stigma and discrimination. Early diagnosis is crucial, as a recovery process is possible with appropriate medical and psychosocial treatment. A person affected by such circumstances, with adequate training, can learn to handle his condition by himself and become expert by experience. This article depicts how learning among peers, based to a large degree on empathy, enables and promotes self management and, at the same time, a larger political and social consciousness. This has been affirmed by the virtual community of bipolarweb since 2002 and, subsequently, as a further development by the Fundación Mundo Bipolar. This foundation, which offers a training program for people affected by bipolar disorder, engages in several activities and goals which are described in this paper. It also has developed a multidisciplinary program for the training of trainers. Some features of these programs are summarized, with a special emphasis on the fact that trained students are encouraged to give lectures for high school students. This paper summarizes qualitative evaluations made by participants that have followed each of the sessions of the training programs.

  1. Maturing out, natural recovery, and dual diagnosis: What are the implications for older adult mental health services?

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-12-01

    In 1962, Charles Winick proposed that addiction was a self-limiting process, whereby individuals stopped using substances once the stresses of life transitions ceased. The notion of maturing out, as labelled by Winick, often forms the basis of the natural recovery movement in alcohol and other drug (AOD) research, aiding the notion that older individuals either cease their substance use or fall victim to the higher mortality rates prevalent in substance-using populations. As more consumers present to adult mental health treatment settings with co-occurring substance use disorders, the idea that individuals will simply cease using AOD is outdated. Given the future challenges of an ageing population, it is prudent to explore those who fail to mature out of substance use, as well as challenge the notion that older adult mental health services rarely encounter substance-using individuals. The present study explores Winick's research in the context of an ageing population and older adult mental health services. It also ponders the proposition put forth in subsequent research that older individuals with lifelong substance use switch to substances that are easier to obtain and better tolerated by their ageing bodies.

  2. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  3. The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gehart, Diane R

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued a consensus statement on mental health recovery based on the New Freedom Commission's recommendation that public mental health organizations adopt a "recovery" approach to severe and persistent mental illness, including services to those dually diagnosed with mental health and substance abuse issues. By formally adopting and promoting a recovery orientation to severe mental illness, the United States followed suit with other first-world nations that have also adopted this approach based on two decades of research by the World Health Organization. This movement represents a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of severe mental health, a shift that is more closely aligned with the nonpathologizing and strength-based traditions in marriage and family therapy. Furthermore, the recovery movement is the first consumer-led movement to have a transformational effect on professional practice, thus a watershed moment for the field. Part I of this article introduces family therapists to the concept of mental health recovery, providing an overview of its history, key concepts, and practice implications. Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts.

  4. Recovery and well-being among Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) pilots.

    PubMed

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of a compressed working week with high cognitive and emotional work demands within the population of Dutch Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) pilots. Work stressors were measured and levels of well-being were examined before, during and after a series of day and night shifts. Results revealed that (i) the start of a series of day shifts was more taxing for well-being than the start of a series of night shifts, (ii) there were no differences in the decrease in well-being during day and night shifts, (iii) distress during shifts was more strongly related to a decrease in well-being during night than during day shifts and (iv) it took HEMS pilots more time to recover from a series of night shifts than from a series of day shifts. It is concluded that HEMS pilots should not start earlier during day shifts, nor have longer series of night shifts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Stakeholder views on a recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation art therapy program in a rural Australian mental health service: a qualitative description.

    PubMed

    De Vecchi, Nadia; Kenny, Amanda; Kidd, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Recovery-oriented care is a guiding principle for mental health services in Australia, and internationally. Recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation supports people experiencing mental illness to pursue a meaningful life. In Australia, people with unremitting mental illness and psychosocial disability are often detained for months or years in secure extended care facilities. Psychiatric services have struggled to provide rehabilitation options for residents of these facilities. Researchers have argued that art participation can support recovery in inpatient populations. This study addressed the research question: Is there a role for the creative arts in the delivery of recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation for people with enduring mental illness and significant psychosocial disability detained in a secure extended care unit? The study had two major aims: to explore the experiences of consumers detained in a rural Australian secure extended care unit of an art therapy project, and to examine the views of nurse managers and an art therapist on recovery-oriented rehabilitation programs with regard to the art therapy project. A qualitative descriptive design guided the study, and a thematic network approach guided data analysis. Ethics approval was granted from the local ethics committee (AU/1/9E5D07). Data were collected from three stakeholders groups. Five consumers participated in a focus group; six managers and the art therapist from the project participated in individual interviews. The findings indicate that consumer participants benefitted from art participation and wanted more access to rehabilitation-focussed programs. Consumer participants identified that art making provided a forum for sharing, self-expression, and relationships that built confidence, absent in the regular rehabilitation program. Nurse manager and the art therapist participants agreed that art participation was a recovery-oriented rehabilitation tool, however, systemic barriers

  6. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  7. Separation of Americium from Europium using Camphor-BisTriazinyl Pyridine: A Fundamental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tevepaugh, Kayron N.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Tai, Serene; Coonce, Janet G.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Ensor, Dale D.

    2015-10-27

    Among the different components present in spent nuclear fuel, long-lived trivalent actinides are particularly difficult to separate from the shorter-lived lanthanide fission products due to their similar chemical properties. We achieved selective extraction of americium from acidic solution (up to 2M HNO3) containing tenth molar quantities of lanthanides using neutral pyridine-based ligands dissolved in polar diluents. Nitrogen-based Bis Triazinyl Pyridine (BTP) ligands are desirable for both their excellent An/Ln selectivity and incinerability. Our results pertaining to ligand solubility, kinetics, hydrolytic stability, and extraction performance in various nitric acid environments are presented.

  8. Separation of Americium from Europium using Camphor-BisTriazinyl Pyridine: A Fundamental Study

    DOE PAGES

    Tevepaugh, Kayron N.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Tai, Serene; ...

    2015-10-27

    Among the different components present in spent nuclear fuel, long-lived trivalent actinides are particularly difficult to separate from the shorter-lived lanthanide fission products due to their similar chemical properties. We achieved selective extraction of americium from acidic solution (up to 2M HNO3) containing tenth molar quantities of lanthanides using neutral pyridine-based ligands dissolved in polar diluents. Nitrogen-based Bis Triazinyl Pyridine (BTP) ligands are desirable for both their excellent An/Ln selectivity and incinerability. Our results pertaining to ligand solubility, kinetics, hydrolytic stability, and extraction performance in various nitric acid environments are presented.

  9. Magnetic Polarization of the Americium J =0 Ground State in AmFe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, N.; Caciuffo, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Colineau, E.; Eloirdi, R.; Griveau, J.-C.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Rogalev, A.; Lander, G. H.

    2015-03-01

    Trivalent americium has a nonmagnetic (J =0 ) ground state arising from the cancellation of the orbital and spin moments. However, magnetism can be induced by a large molecular field if Am3 + is embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix. Using the technique of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that this is the case in AmFe2 . Since ⟨Jz⟩=0 , the spin component is exactly twice as large as the orbital one, the total Am moment is opposite to that of Fe, and the magnetic dipole operator ⟨Tz⟩ can be determined directly; we discuss the progression of the latter across the actinide series.

  10. Synergistic extraction of europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate and dodecaethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Vaňura, Petr; Selucký, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of microamounts of europium and americium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H+B-) in the presence of dodecaethylene glycol (DDEG, L) has been investigated. The equilibrium data have been explained assuming that the species HL+, H2L2+, ML3+ and MH-1L2+ (M3+ = Eu3+, Am3+; L = DDEG) are extracted into the organic phase. The values of extraction and stability constants of the complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water have been determined. It was found that in this nitrobenzene medium, the stability constant of the EuL3+ complex is comparable with that of AmL3+.

  11. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy.

  12. Americium/europium separation by synergistic extraction mixtures of bis-tetrazolyl pyridines with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, I.V.; Babain, V.A.; Chirkov, A.V.

    2008-07-01

    Americium and europium extraction by synergistic mixtures of 2,6-bis(1-aryl-1 H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridines (ATP) with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in polar diluents from acidic media was studied. The effect of diluent, composition of aqueous phase, and substituent nature in the aryl ring of ATPs on the extraction efficiency and selectivity of americium and europium separation was investigated. The Am-Eu separation factor was close to 100 at the optimal ratio of ATPs:CCD {approx}1:1 in the synergistic mixture. High resistance of 2,6-bis-aryl-tetrazolyl pyridines to the action of acids and radiolysis was demonstrated. (authors)

  13. Developing an Australian-first recovery model for parents in Victorian mental health and family services: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; Reupert, Andrea; Sheen, Jade; Cann, Warren; Dalziel, Kim; Tchernagovski, Phillip; O'Hanlon, Brendan; von Doussa, Henry

    2017-05-26

    A considerable number of people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. For those with a mental illness, parenting can provide a sense of competence, belonging, identity and hope and hence is well aligned to the concept of personal recovery. However, little research has focused on the recovery journey of those who are parents and have a mental illness. This randomised controlled trial aims to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention model of recovery for parents (Let's Talk about Children) in three different mental health service sectors and (ii) examine the economic value of a larger roll out (longer term) of the parent recovery model. A two arm parallel randomised controlled trial will be used with participants, who are being treated for their mental illness in adult mental health, non-government community mental health or family welfare services. The study will involve 192 parents, who are considered by their treating practitioner to be sufficiently well to provide informed consent and participate in an intervention (Let's Talk about Children) or control group (treatment as usual). Participant randomisation will occur at the level of the treating practitioner and will be based on whether the randomised practitioner is trained in the intervention. Outcomes are compared at pre, post intervention and six-month follow-up. Recovery, parenting and family functioning, and quality of life questionnaires will be used to measure parent wellbeing and the economic benefits of the intervention. This is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of a parenting intervention on recovery outcomes and the first to provide an economic evaluation of an intervention for parents with a mental illness. An implementation model is required to embed the intervention in different sectors. The trial was retrospectively registered: ACTRN12616000460404 on the 8/4/2016.

  14. Penetration and decontamination of americium-241 ex vivo using fresh and frozen pig skin.

    PubMed

    Tazrart, A; Bolzinger, M A; Moureau, A; Molina, T; Coudert, S; Angulo, J F; Briancon, S; Griffiths, N M

    2017-04-01

    Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents. However, accidents involving skin contamination with radionuclides may occur in the nuclear industry, in research laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments. This work aims to measure the penetration of the radiological contaminant Americium ((241)Am) in fresh and frozen skin and to evaluate the distribution of the contamination in the skin. Decontamination tests were performed using water, Fuller's earth and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is the recommended treatment in case of skin contamination with actinides such as plutonium or americium. To assess these parameters, we used the Franz cell diffusion system with full-thickness skin obtained from pigs' ears, representative of human skin. Solutions of (241)Am were deposited on the skin samples. The radioactivity content in each compartment and skin layers was measured after 24 h by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrophotometry. The Am cutaneous penetration to the receiver compartment is almost negligible in fresh and frozen skin. Multiple washings with water and DTPA recovered about 90% of the initial activity. The rest remains fixed mainly in the stratum corneum. Traces of activity were detected within the epidermis and dermis which is fixed and not accessible to the decontamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent Extraction Separation of Trivalent Americium from Curium and the Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mark P.; Chiarizia, Renato; Ulicki, Joseph S.; Spindler, Brian D.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Hossain, M; Roca-Sabio, Adrian; de Blas, Andres; Rodriguez-Blas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The sterically constrained, macrocyclic, aqueous soluble ligand N,N′-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 (H2BP18C6) was investigated for separating americium from curium and all the lanthanides by solvent extraction. Pairing H2BP18C6, which favors complexation of larger f-element cations, with acidic organophosphorus extractants that favor extraction of smaller f-element cations, such as bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or (2-ethylhexyl)phosphonic acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEH[EHP]), created solvent extraction systems with good Cm/Am selectivity, excellent trans-lanthanide selectivity (Kex,Lu/Kex,La = 108), but poor selectivity for Am against the lightest lanthanides. However, using an organic phase containing both a neutral extractant, N,N,N’,N’-tetra(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA), and HEH[EHP] enabled rejection of the lightest lanthanides during loading of the organic phase from aqueous nitric acid, eliminating their interference in the americium stripping stages. In addition, although it is a macrocyclic ligand, H2BP18C6 does not significantly impede the mass transfer kinetics of the HDEHP solvent extraction system

  16. Comparative skeletal distribution of americium and plutonium in man, monkey and baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, T.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.

    1988-10-01

    The skeletal distributions of americium and plutonium in four humans were compared with the skeletal distributions of these radioelements in baboons and monkeys. With respect to the skeletal distribution of these elements, excellent agreement was noted among the four human cases; americium data was available for all four cases and plutonium for three. The human case database was thus adequate for comparison with those of other primates. A statistically significant correlation was found between the /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu + /sup 240/Pu skeletal distributions in the humans and those in non-human primates. Trabecular bone had the highest concentrations of /sup 241/Am and /sup 239 +240/Pu in man, baboon, and monkey. Scaling factors are proposed to convert the percentages of skeletal activity in animal bones to the corresponding percentages in the bones of the human skeleton. However, considerable variation was found between the humans and animals in the percentages of the skeletal activity found in the same bone. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  18. Ditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes as unique receptors for efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III).

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Wu, Lei; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Wen; Liu, Ning; Xu, Dingguo; Li, Shoujian; Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-03-11

    A unique host-guest recognition process involving a new class of homoditopic CMPO-pillar[5]arenes and lanthanides was revealed to proceed in a stepwise manner, and correlated with the efficient separation of americium(III) and europium(III) under acidic feed conditions.

  19. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of americium in a USTUR leg phantom.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Broggio, D; Capello, K; Cardenas-Mendez, E; El-Faramawy, N; Franck, D; James, A C; Kramer, G H; Lacerenza, G; Lynch, T P; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Rühm, W; Tolmachev, S Y; Weitzenegger, E

    2011-03-01

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here.

  20. Bringing Science to the Service of Culture: The Recovery of Endangered Birds of Prey and the Recovery of Our Relationship with Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl

    1996-01-01

    For 20 years, Robert Mestas, a Native American biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has devoted his career to the study, conservation, and management of endangered birds of prey. The study of his own Yaqui culture and of other traditional Indian cultures has deepened his conviction regarding the cultural significance of preserving…

  1. Bringing Science to the Service of Culture: The Recovery of Endangered Birds of Prey and the Recovery of Our Relationship with Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl

    1996-01-01

    For 20 years, Robert Mestas, a Native American biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has devoted his career to the study, conservation, and management of endangered birds of prey. The study of his own Yaqui culture and of other traditional Indian cultures has deepened his conviction regarding the cultural significance of preserving…

  2. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-20

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.

  3. Effect of a package of health and nutrition services on sustained recovery in children after moderate acute malnutrition and factors related to sustaining recovery: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stobaugh, Heather C; Bollinger, Lucy B; Adams, Sara E; Crocker, Audrey H; Grise, Jennifer B; Kennedy, Julie A; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M; Dietzen, Dennis J; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2017-08-01

    Background: Children who recover from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have high rates of relapse in the year after nutritional recovery. Interventions to decrease these adverse outcomes are needed to maximize the overall effectiveness of supplemental feeding programs (SFPs).Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a package of health and nutrition interventions on improving the proportion of children who sustained recovery for 1 y after MAM treatment. We further explored factors related to sustained recovery.Design: We conducted a cluster-randomized clinical effectiveness trial involving rural Malawian children aged 6-62 mo who were enrolled on discharge from an SFP for MAM. We enrolled 718 children at 10 control sites and 769 children at 11 intervention sites. In addition to routine health and nutrition counseling, the intervention group received a package of health and nutrition interventions that consisted of a lipid nutrient supplement, deworming medication, zinc supplementation, a bed net, and malaria chemoprophylaxis. A survival analysis was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention as well as to identify factors associated with sustained recovery.Results: Of 1383 children who returned for the full 12-mo follow-up period, 407 children (56%) and 347 children (53%) sustained recovery in the intervention and control groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in relapse-free survival curves between the treatment and control groups (P = 0.380; log-rank test). The risk factors for relapse or death after initial recovery were a smaller midupper arm circumference on SFP admission (P = 0.01) and discharge (P < 0.001), a lower weight-for-height z score on discharge (P < 0.01), and the receipt of ready-to-use supplementary food as opposed to ready-to-use therapeutic food during treatment (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The provision of a package of health and nutrition services in addition to traditional SFP treatment has no significant effect

  4. Toward Understanding Music Therapy as a Recovery-Oriented Practice within Mental Health Care: A Meta-Synthesis of Service Users' Experiences.

    PubMed

    Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi; Borg, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of mental health recovery is increasingly shaping mental health care policies. Current texts in music therapy identify the importance of this critical and user-oriented perspective, but the relevance and implications for music therapy need to be outlined. This study explores service users' experiences of music therapy in mental health care, and the potential role of music therapy in the development of recovery-oriented service provision. We conducted a qualitative meta-synthesis of studies examining service users' experiences in music therapy; included were 14 studies with a total of 113 participants. Both first-hand account of participants and the researchers' representations of such statements were taken into account in the analysis. A taxonomy of four areas of users' experiences was identified: "having a good time;" "being together;" "feeling;" and "being someone." These core categories point towards music therapy as an arena that can be used by persons with mental health problems in their personal and social recovery process. Music therapy can contribute to the quality of mental health care by providing an arena for stimulation and development of strengths and resources that may contribute to growth of positive identity and hope for people with mental illness. The findings from this meta-synthesis indicate that the provision of music therapy closely resembles recognized benefits of a recovery-oriented practice. Awareness of users' self-determination and the development of a strength-based and contextual approach to music therapy that fosters mutual empowering relationships are recommended. © 2013 by the American Music Therapy Association.

  5. Evaluation of the United States Public Health Service guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Colvin, Ryan; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Bardsley, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate US Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anti-CMV therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Design Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Methods Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/uL or fewer enrolled from 1998 to 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (two consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/uL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we employed propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Results Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery; 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 who continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years, P=0.09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%, P=0.10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL, P<0.001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P<0.01). Conclusion Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery. PMID:21742304

  6. Evaluation of the United States public health service guidelines for discontinuation of anticytomegalovirus therapy after immune recovery in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Janet T; Colvin, Ryan; van Natta, Mark L; Thorne, Jennifer E; Bardsley, Mark; Jabs, Douglas A

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate United States Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines for discontinuing anticytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in patients with AIDS who have immune recovery and quiescent retinitis after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS). Participants had CMV retinitis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 50 cells/μL or fewer enrolled from 1998 through 2009 who demonstrated sustained immune recovery (2 consecutive CD4+ T-cell counts of 100 cells/μL or more at least 6 months apart) and inactive retinitis. Participants were classified into 2 groups according to anti-CMV treatment after immune recover: (1) continued anti-CMV therapy and (2) discontinued therapy. We evaluated survival, visual acuity, and CMV retinitis activity; we used propensity scores to adjust for confounding factors for these analyses. Of 152 participants reviewed, 71 demonstrated immune recovery, 37 of whom discontinued therapy and 34 of whom continued therapy. At immune recovery, participants continuing therapy tended to be older (44 vs 40 years; P = .09), have bilateral retinitis (53% vs 32%; P = .10), and have lower CD4+ T-cell counts (148 vs 207 cells/μL; P < .001). There were no statistical differences in any of the clinical outcomes (death, retinitis progress, visual acuity, or incidence of bilateral retinitis). Both groups lost visual acuity during follow-up, on average 1.2 letters per year (P < .01). Discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after immune recovery did not increase the risk of poor outcomes. These results support the current guidelines for discontinuation of anti-CMV therapy after achievement of sustained immune recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  8. Head Start and Hurricane Recovery: Using a Family Outcomes Measure to Assess the Impact of Program Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiak, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In Head Start, family service workers facilitate the process for guiding and assisting families in securing services needed for specific family issues regarding health care, housing, employment, education, and/or crisis management. These services were particularly important to families following Hurricane Charley and the subsequent recovery…

  9. Head Start and Hurricane Recovery: Using a Family Outcomes Measure to Assess the Impact of Program Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janiak, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In Head Start, family service workers facilitate the process for guiding and assisting families in securing services needed for specific family issues regarding health care, housing, employment, education, and/or crisis management. These services were particularly important to families following Hurricane Charley and the subsequent recovery…

  10. EPA Method: Rapid Radiochemical Method for Americium-241, Radium-226, Plutonium-238/-239, Radiostronium, and Isotopic Uranium in Water for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method for the qualitative determination of Americium-241, Radium-226, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239 and isotopic uranium in drinking water samples using alpha spectrometry and radiostrontium using beta counting.

  11. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  12. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  13. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization

  14. Magnetic polarization of the americium J=0 ground state in AmFe(2).

    PubMed

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Wilhelm, F; Colineau, E; Eloirdi, R; Griveau, J-C; Rusz, J; Oppeneer, P M; Rogalev, A; Lander, G H

    2015-03-06

    Trivalent americium has a nonmagnetic (J=0) ground state arising from the cancellation of the orbital and spin moments. However, magnetism can be induced by a large molecular field if Am^{3+} is embedded in a ferromagnetic matrix. Using the technique of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that this is the case in AmFe_{2}. Since ⟨J_{z}⟩=0, the spin component is exactly twice as large as the orbital one, the total Am moment is opposite to that of Fe, and the magnetic dipole operator ⟨T_{z}⟩ can be determined directly; we discuss the progression of the latter across the actinide series.

  15. Separation and measurement of thorium, plutonium, americium, uranium and strontium in environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jennifer J; Zawadzki, Atun; Chisari, Robert; Wong, Henri K Y

    2011-10-01

    A technique for the isolation of thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) isotopes from various environmental matrices has been adapted from a previously published method specific to water samples (Maxwell, 2006). Separation and isolation of the various elemental fractions from a single sub-sample is possible, thereby eliminating the need for multiple analyses. The technique involves sample dissolution, concentration via calcium phosphate co-precipitation, rapid column extraction using TEVA™, TRU™ and Sr-Spec™ resin cartridges, alpha spectrometry for Th, Pu, U and Am and Cerenkov counting for Sr. Various standard reference materials were analysed and chemical yields are in the range of 70-80% for Th, Am, U and Sr and 50-60% for Pu. Sample sizes of up to 10 L for water, 5 g for dry soil and sediment and 10 g for dry vegetation and seaweed can be processed using this technique. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of Americium Heat Source into the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Erich; Quinn, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The Lockheed Martin developed Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) design uses similar technology as proposed for the European Space Agency (ESA) Radioisotope Power System (RPS) development program but different isotopes. The RPS uses americium, 241Am isotope, while the ASRG uses plutonium, 238Pu isotope. The 238Pu isotope provides four times greater thermal output per kilogram than the 241Am isotope. Lockheed Martin performed an internally funded feasibility assessment that determined integration of a 241Am fueled heat source into the ASRG is achievable with no changes to ASRG technology and only structural and volumetric design considerations required. Lockheed Martin is interested in developing collaborative partnerships with the United Kingdom (UK) for the ESA RPS development program.

  17. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives for americium and curium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The long-lived nuclides of the americium curium elements are of interest for their use in certain safeguard applications and for nuclear reactor burnup studies in waste management. Recommended values are presented for /sup 241,242m,243/Am, and for /sup 242,243,244,245,246,247,248,250/Cm. These values result from a consistent evaluation of all these half-lives. These preliminary estimates were presented earlier. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values. It will be noted that many of the recommended errors considerably exceed errors quoted by individual authors in their publication, by up to an order of magnitude, e.g., the total half-life of /sup 242,246,248/Cm and the spontaneous fission half-life of /sup 244/Cm. 65 refs., 18 tabs.

  18. Total and spontaneous fission half-lives for americium and curium nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, N. E.

    The long-lived nuclides of the americium curium elements are of interest for their use in certain safeguard applications and for nuclear reactor burnup studies in waste management. Recommended values are presented for /sup 241,242m,243/Am, and for /sup 242,243,244,245,246,247,248,250/Cm. These values result from a consistent evaluation of all these half-lives. These preliminary estimates were presented earlier. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values. It will be noted that many of the recommended errors considerably exceed errors quoted by individual authors in their publication, by up to an order of magnitude, e.g., the total half-life of /sup 242,246,248/Cm and the spontaneous fission half-life of (244)Cm.

  19. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-07-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain up to 5 g of a soil sample, and under optimal operational conditions it does not give rise to creation of back pressure. Attention has been placed on studies of the readsorption problems during sequential extraction using a modified Standards, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) scheme with four-step sequential extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems is compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns of the two radionuclides. However, the dynamic system is fully automated, eliminates manual separations, significantly reduces the operational time required, and offers detailed kinetic information.

  20. The Role of Colloids in the Transport of Plutonium and Americium: Implications for

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B

    2003-09-17

    Colloids are small particulates (ranging in size from 1 to 0.001 micron) composed of inorganic and organic material and found in all natural water. Due to their small size, they have the ability to remain suspended in water and transported. Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) can adsorb (attach) to colloids, and/or form colloidal-sized polymers and migrate in water. At Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) sedimentation and resuspension of particulates and colloids in surface waters represent the dominant process for Pu and Am migration. The amount of Pu and Am that can be transported at RFETS has been quantified in the Pathway Analysis Report. The Pathway Analysis Report shows that the two dominant pathways for Pu and Am transport at RFETS are air and surface water. Shallow groundwater and biological pathways are minor.

  1. High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2011-07-01

    Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

  2. Colloid-borne americium migration in Gorleben groundwater: significance of iron secondary phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Thorsten; Artinger, Robert; Dardenne, Kathy; Bauer, Andreas; Schuessler, Wolfram; Kim, Jae Il

    2003-04-15

    The mobility of actinides in natural water may be enhanced by colloid-mediated transport. In this context the reversibility of actinide colloid interaction is a key factor. Iron is an element that can generate colloids under conditions found in natural waters. In this paper, the impact of hematite and the low-crystalline precursor 2-line ferrihydrite on colloid-mediated transport of americium(III) is investigated. Am(III)-containing iron colloids are generated from two different approaches, namely contact between the two in aqueous solution or coprecipitation of Am(III) during iron colloid generation. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), especially humic substances, has a strong influence on the stability of inorganic colloids. In addition, humic substances interfere in the distribution and kinetics of exchange between groundwater and sediments. Four groundwaters from the Gorleben aquifer system are used with DOC concentrations varying between 0.9 and 81.6 mgC/L together with Pleistocene Aeolian quartz sand from this site. Batch and column experiments are conducted under near-natural conditions (Ar + 1% CO2). To study the influence of kinetics, contact times up to one month are studied. The dynamic light-scattering investigations show that the colloidal stability of the 2-line ferrihydrite increases with increasing DOC concentration. The low-crystalline iron colloids have a marginal influence on the Am(III) transport due to reversibility of americium sorption. Contrary to this, the crystalline hematite generated from coprecipitation of Am(III) leads to an increase of unretarded colloid-mediated Am(III) transport up to a factor of almost five. Chemical characterization of these hematite colloids shows that Am(III) is structurally entrapped in the hematite. The distribution of Am(III) and 2-line ferrihydrite between groundwater and sand sediment remained in disequilibrium even after one month. This shows that the kinetics of Am(III) distribution between the different

  3. Aqueous complexes for efficient size-based separation of americium from curium.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Chiarizia, Renato; Shkrob, Ilya A; Ulicki, Joseph S; Spindler, Brian D; Murphy, Daniel J; Hossain, Mahmun; Roca-Sabio, Adrián; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2014-06-16

    Complexation of the adjacent actinide ions americium(III) and curium(III) by the ligand N,N'-bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridyl)methyl]-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6 (H2bp18c6) in aqueous solution was studied to quantify and characterize its americium/curium selectivity. Liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric titration indicated the presence of both fully deprotonated and monoprotonated complexes, An(bp18c6)(+) and An(Hbp18c6)(2+) (An = Am or Cm), at the acidities that would be encountered when treating nuclear wastes. The stability constants of the complexes in 1 M NaNO3 determined using competitive complexation were log β101 = 15.49 ± 0.06 for Am and 14.88 ± 0.03 for Cm, indicating a reversal of the usual order of complex stability, where ligands bind the smaller Cm(III) ion more tightly than Am(III). The Am/Cm selectivity of bp18c6(2-) that is defined by the ratio of the Am and Cm stability constants (β101 Am/β101 Cm = 4.1) is the largest reported so far for binary An(III)-ligand complexes. Theoretical density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP functional suggest that the ligand's size-selectivity for larger 4f- and 5f-element cations arises from steric constraints in the crown ether ring. Enhanced 5f character in molecular orbitals involving actinide-nitrogen interactions is predicted to favor actinide(III) complexation by bp18c6(2-) over the complexation of similarly sized lanthanide(III) cations.

  4. Opportunities in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for Supports and Services for Youth Transitioning from Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn-Khan, Margaret; Langford, Barbara Hanson

    2009-01-01

    To address the economic crisis facing the country, the President signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) into law on February 17, 2009. This sweeping legislation provides $789 billion to jumpstart the economy and boost employment. This act includes $463 billion in new spending and $326 billion in tax relief directed at those…

  5. Recovery-Oriented Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Individuals with Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disabilities and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Stephanie L.; Koch, Lynn C.; Paul, Teresia M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we examined how individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disabilities and substance use disorders encounter numerous challenges when it comes to the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process. Method: A comprehensive review of the literature demonstrated barriers to service delivery (e.g., access to services, exclusionary…

  6. Recovery-Oriented Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Individuals with Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disabilities and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Stephanie L.; Koch, Lynn C.; Paul, Teresia M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we examined how individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disabilities and substance use disorders encounter numerous challenges when it comes to the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process. Method: A comprehensive review of the literature demonstrated barriers to service delivery (e.g., access to services, exclusionary…

  7. Mental health care reforms in Asia: the urgency of now: building a recovery-oriented, community mental health service in china.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yueqin; Zhu, Shimin

    2013-07-01

    For the first time in history, China has a mental health legal framework. People in China can now expect a better life and more accessible, better-quality health care services for their loved ones. Development of a community mental health service (CMHS) is at a crossroads. In this new column on mental health reforms in Asia, the authors review the current state of the CMHS in China and propose four strategic directions for future development: building on the strengths of the "686 Project," the 2004 initiative that launched China's mental health reform; improving professional skills of the mental health workforce, especially for a recovery approach; empowering families and caregivers to support individuals with severe mental illness; and using information and communications technology to promote self-help and reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders.

  8. Evaluation of several electrolyte mixture-cathode material combinations in electrodeposition of americium radioisotopes for alpha-spectrometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2017-10-01

    Three different types of electrolytes, subsequently modified and adjusted, in combination with three cathode materials used as source backings were analysed for electrodeposition of americium isotopes for alpha-spectrometric measurements. The obtained results are discussed in terms of electrodeposition yield and source quality (source homogeneity and spectral resolution, FWHM). The optimal conditions for source preparation are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Recovery Concept, "A Meaningful Day," in Community Mental Health Services for Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Myers, Neely A L; Smith, Kelly; Pope, Alicia; Alolayan, Yazeed; Broussard, Beth; Haynes, Nora; Compton, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    The recovery concept encompasses overcoming or managing one's illness, being physically and emotionally healthy, and finding meaningful purpose through work, school, or volunteering, which connects one to others in mutually fulfilling ways. Using a mixed-methods approach, we studied the emphasis on "a meaningful day" in the new Opening Doors to Recovery (ODR) program in southeast Georgia. Among 100 participants, we measured the meaningful day construct using three quantitative items at baseline (hospital discharge) and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up, finding statistically significant linear trends over time for all three measures. Complementary qualitative interviews with 30 individuals (ODR participants, family members, and ODR's Community Navigation Specialists and program leaders) revealed themes pertaining to companionship, productivity, achieving stability, and autonomy, as well as the concern about insufficient resources. The concept of "a meaningful day" can be a focus of clinical attention and measured as a person-centered outcome for clients served by recovery-oriented community mental health services.

  10. Probing the 5f electrons: A relativistic DFT study of americium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholabhai, Pratik Pankajkumar

    complex nature of the transuranium actinides. The actinides are also characterized by the increasing prominence of relativistic effects and their study can, in fact, give us an in depth understanding of the role of relativity throughout the periodic table. Among the transuranium actinides, the unique electronic properties of the manmade Americium (Am) metal, which was first successfully synthesized and isolated at the wartime Metallurgical Laboratory, have received increased interests, from both scientific and technological points of view. Am occupies a central position in the actinide series in our understanding of the behavior of the 5f electrons. It is widely believed that the properties and the behavior of the 5f electrons change dramatically starting from somewhere between Pu and Am. As a result, a large number of experimental and theoretical works have been done in recent years to gain insight into the structural and electronic properties of Am. In this work, atomic hydrogen and oxygen, molecular hydrogen and oxygen and water adsorptions on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal closed packed americium have been studied at both non-spin-orbit coupling (NSO) and spin-orbit coupling (SO) using generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) formulation for the exchange-correlation functional. For atomic and molecular adsorptions, various chemisorption sites such as, top(t1), bridge(b2) and hcp(h3) have been investigated. Details of energetics of the chemisorption process, such as chemisorption energies, adatom/admolecule separation distances and inter molecular distances will be presented. Magnetic moments are also calculated for bare americium and the chemisorbed system. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen and oxygen and possible dissociative adsorption on americium surface will be presented. The adsorbate-substrate interactions have been analyzed in detail using the partial charges inside the muffin-tin spheres

  11. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to ;produce; helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  12. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Condren, O M; Downes, A B; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    1999-09-30

    New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing their delivery to, transport in and removal from the water column within the basin. Residence times for plutonium and americium in surface waters of approximately 15 and approximately 3 years, respectively, are deduced, and it is shown that by the mid 1990s only approximately 35% of the 239,240Pu and approximately 5% of the 241Am deposited as weapons fallout still resided in the water column. Present 239,240Pu inventories in the water column and the underlying sediments are estimated to be approximately 25 TBq and approximately 40 TBq, respectively, which reconcile well with the time-integrated fallout deposition in this zone, taken to be approximately 69 TBq. The data show that there are significant net outward fluxes of plutonium and americium from the basin through the Strait of Gibraltar at the present time. These appear to be compensated by net inward fluxes of similar magnitude through the Strait of Sicily. Thus, the time-integrated fallout deposition in the western basin can be accounted for satisfactorily in terms of present water column and sediment inventories. Enhanced scavenging on the continental shelves, as evidenced by the appreciably higher transuranic concentrations in shelf sediments, supports this contention.

  13. Soil-plant transfer of plutonium and americium in contaminated regions of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Ivanova, T G; Leinova, S L

    2004-09-01

    Experimental data are presented for the soil to plant transfer of plutonium and americium into the main species of grass vegetation of Belarusian grasslands contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe of 1986. The content of radionuclides in pore soil solutions and the total reserve of biologically available forms of plutonium and americium in rooting layers of different soil varieties have been established. The distribution coefficients of (239,240)Pu and 241Am between the solid phase and pore waters of soils have been evaluated. The migration ability and biological availability of radionuclides in soils with different structures of the absorbing complex have been analyzed for various landscape conditions. The dependence of soil to plant transfer of plutonium and americium on the content and composition of organic matter, and other characteristics of the soil complex has been studied. On the basis of these data, predictions of the contamination levels of the main grass species of natural and agricultural ecosystems by 241Am are presented.

  14. A study protocol for tracking quality of life among U.S. service members wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Galarneau, Michael R; Luu, Bethi N; Sack, Daniel; Han, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    There is a need for more work to understand the quality of life (QOL) outcomes of survivors of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom combat injury to improve care and treatment, and prevent poor physical, psychological, and social outcomes. We describe the study design and methods of the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project, a study supported by the Department of Defense that will track close to 10,000 military personnel wounded in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The overall objective of the 6-year longitudinal study is to track changes in QOL and describe variations in those changes as they relate to sociodemographic factors, injury characteristics, service-related factors, clinical/diagnostic measures including traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder, and medical procedures and services. The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project study will be among the first longitudinal population-based investigations of QOL outcomes after combat injury and will provide a basis upon which large-scale epidemiological studies can be conducted. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Early Discharge After Colorectal Resection: The Positive Impact of an Enhanced Recovery Program on a Rural Colorectal Surgery Service.

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni D; Keane, Sean; Osman, Abdelsalam; Ip, Mina; Khan, Abdul Q; Perrone, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced recovery (ER) programs are policies and protocols meant to improve postoperative recovery after surgery. As a consequence of a smoother recovery, patients can be discharged early. This paper describes the impact of an ER program in colorectal surgery in a rural hospital. In total, 132 patients had colorectal resection within the ER program. Data were collected prospectively. The ER pathway affects perioperative management in the following ways in order to: (1) improve patient's general condition before surgery, (2) minimize intraoperative surgical trauma by using a laparoscopic approach in all cases, and (3) facilitation of a quicker postoperative return of physiological function. Most (86.4%) of the patients have been operated as elective cases and for a cancer (73.5%). Laparoscopic resection was performed in 63.6% of patients, with a conversion rate of 10.6%. Total morbidity was 18.2%, leak rate was 1.5%, and 90-day mortality rate was 3%. Overall median postoperative stay was 6.5 days. Total length of in-hospital stay was lower in laparoscopic resections (5.5 d), elective cases (6 d), and in younger patients (6 d). Age and laparoscopic access were independent prognostic factors significantly associated with early discharge in elective patients. Overall readmission rate was 9.1% and this was not affected by any preoperative or intraoperative factor within those in this study. The ER program positively impacted the outcome of colorectal resections also in our rural setting. Discharging patients expeditiously did not affect postoperative morbidity or readmission rate.

  16. Prognostic Differences for Functional Recovery after Major Lower Limb Amputation: Effects of the Timing and Type of Inpatient Rehabilitation Services in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Kwong, Pui L.; Xie, Dawei; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Brooks, David M.; Bidelspach, Douglas E.; Bates, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the recovery of mobility and self-care functions among veteran amputees according to the timing and type of rehabilitation services received. Design Observational study of inpatient rehabilitation care patterns of 2 types (specialized and consultative) with 2 timings (early and late). Setting Data from inpatient specialized rehabilitation units (SRUs) and consultative services within 95 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers across the United States during fiscal years 2003-2004. Patients Medical records of 1,502 patients who received early or late consultative or specialized rehabilitation. Assessment of risk factors Hypotheses were established and general categories of negative and positive risk factors specified a priori from available clinical characteristics. Linear mixed effects models were used to model motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) gain scores on patient-level variables accounting for the correlation within the same facility. Main outcome measures Recovery of activities of daily living (ADLs) and mobility (physical functioning) expressed as the magnitudes of gains in motor FIM™ scores achieved by rehabilitation discharge. Results After adjustment, amputees who received specialized rehabilitation had motor FIM™ gains that were on average 8.0 points higher than those amputees who received consultative rehabilitation. Although patients whose rehabilitation was delayed until after discharge from the index surgical stay tended to be more clinically complex, they had comparable gains to patients who received early rehabilitation. Advanced age, trans-femoral amputation, paralysis, serious nutritional compromise, and psychosis were associated with lower motor FIM™ gains. The variance for the random effect for facility was statistically significant, suggesting extraneous variation within facility that was not explainable by observed patient-level variables. Conclusion Based on this analysis, those patients who receive

  17. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  18. A highly efficient solvent system containing functionalized diglycolamides and an ionic liquid for americium recovery from radioactive wastes.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arijit; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2012-06-21

    Three room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), viz. C(4)mim(+)·PF(6)(-), C(6)mim(+)·PF(6)(-) and C(8)mim(+)·PF(6)(-), were evaluated as diluents for the extraction of Am(III) by N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA). At 3 M HNO(3), the D(Am)-values by 0.01 M TODGA were found to be 102, 34 and 74 for C(4)mim(+)·PF(6)(-), C(6)mim(+)·PF(6)(-) and C(8)mim(+)·PF(6)(-), respectively. The extraction of Am(III) decreased with increasing feed acidity for all three diluents, indicating an ion exchange mechanism for the extraction. The stoichiometry of the extracted species suggested that two TODGA molecules were associated with Am(III) during the extraction for all three RTILs and the conditional extraction constants have been determined. The D(M)-values for different metal ions followed the order: 75 (Am(III)) > 30.7 (Pu(IV)) > 3.9 (Np(IV)) > 1.19 (Pu(VI)) > 0.52 (U(VI)) > 0.12 (Cs(I)) > 0.024 (Sr(II)). The distribution behaviour of Am(III) was also studied with a recently synthesized calix[4]arene-4DGA (C4DGA) extractant dissolved in C(8)mim(+)·PF(6)(-). Using this extractant diluent combination, the D(Am)-value was 194 at 3 M HNO(3) using 5 × 10(-5) M C4DGA, suggesting a very high distribution coefficient at very low extractant concentrations. The stoichiometry of the extracted species containing Am was found to be 1:2 (M:L) in C(8)mim(+)·PF(6)(-). The thermodynamics of the extraction was also studied for both extractants in C(8)mim(+)·PF(6)(-). The use of RTILs gives rise to significantly improved extraction properties than the commonly used n-dodecane and an unusual increase in separation factor values was seen for the first time which can lead to selective separation of Am from wastes containing a mixture of U, Pu and Am.

  19. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Reinald Dreas

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  20. Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden

    The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

  1. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  2. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  3. Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment.

  4. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  5. Sequential isotopic determination of plutonium, thorium, americium, strontium and uranium in environmental and bioassay samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeng-Jong; Chen, Ing-Jane; Chiu, Jih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to provide sequential analysis of 238Pu, 230Th, 241Am, 238U, and 90Sr in environmental and bioassay samples. Tracers and/or carriers (242Pu, 243Am, 232U, and stable strontium) are added into the sample as chemical yield monitors, and then, plutonium, thorium, strontium, americium, and uranium are sequentially separated and purified by Dowex ion-exchange resin, EiChroM Sr-resin, EiChroM TRU-resin, and Chelate-100 resin, respectively. The radioactivities of 90Sr and the actinides are measured using the liquid scintillation counter and alpha-particle spectrometer, respectively. Acidified water, glass-fiber air filter, soil, synthetic urine and synthetic feces samples of US National Institute of Standard and Technology Radiochemical Intercomparison Program(NRIP) were analyzed to verify this method. All the analytical results of 238Pu, 230Th, 90Sr, 241Am and 238U meet the traceability limit per ANSI N42.22, and when appropriate, evaluation of radiobioassay measurement bias and precision per ANSI N13.30.

  6. Americium and curium total half-lives and for the spontaneous fission branch

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The long-lived nuclides of the americium and curium elements are of interest for their use in certain safeguard applications and for nuclear reactor burnup studies in waste management. Recommended values are presented for /sup 241,242m,243/Am, and for /sup 242,243,244,245,246,247,248,250/Cm. These values result from a consistent evaluation of all these half-lives. These preliminary estimates were presented earlier. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values. It will be noted that many of the recommended errors considerably exceed errors quoted by individual authors in their publication, by up to an order of magnitude, e.g. the total half-life of /sup 242,246,248/Cm and the spontaneous fission half-life of /sup 244/Cm. These preliminary estimates for the half-lives were given previously. Efforts continue to reevaluate the various experiments to better gauge the systematic errors involved and reassess the total error.

  7. Americium and trivalent Lanthanides incorporation in high-level waste glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardez-Giboire, Isabelle; Kidari, Abdessamad; Magnin, Magali; Dussossoy, Jean-Luc; Peuget, Sylvain; Caraballo, Richard; Tribet, Magaly; Doreau, Franck; Jégou, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The incorporation and partitioning of americium and trivalent lanthanides were investigated in aluminoborosilicate glass-ceramics with apatite-like silicate crystals of general formula Ca2(Ln,Am)8(SiO4)6O2. A microstructural and structural study of two glass-ceramics containing Am2O3 - La2O3 or Nd2O3 - La2O3, respectively, was carried out by XRD, SEM/EDS and EMPA so as to assess a comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides partitioning into apatite crystals and residual glass. Moreover, Raman analyses of residual glasses were performed to compare the role of Am and Nd on the glassy structure. Results put forward that shape, composition, Ln/Am stoichiometry and cell parameters of apatite crystals of both (Am-La) and (Nd-La) glass-ceramics are very close. This paper thus shows similar results for (Am-La) and (Nd-La) glass-ceramics in terms of apatite/glass partitioning and in terms of structural role on glassy structure. It can be therefore put forward that Nd3+ and Am3+ behaviors are close, either in the glass or in the crystalline structure.

  8. Characterization of neutron calibration fields at the TINT's 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liamsuwan, T.; Channuie, J.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2015-05-01

    Reliable measurement of neutron radiation is important for monitoring and protection in workplace where neutrons are present. Although Thailand has been familiar with applications of neutron sources and neutron beams for many decades, there is no calibration facility dedicated to neutron measuring devices available in the country. Recently, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has set up a multi-purpose irradiation facility equipped with a 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator. The facility is planned to be used for research, nuclear analytical techniques and, among other applications, calibration of neutron measuring devices. In this work, the neutron calibration fields were investigated in terms of neutron energy spectra and dose equivalent rates using Monte Carlo simulations, an in-house developed neutron spectrometer and commercial survey meters. The characterized neutron fields can generate neutron dose equivalent rates ranging from 156 μSv/h to 3.5 mSv/h with nearly 100% of dose contributed by neutrons of energies larger than 0.01 MeV. The gamma contamination was less than 4.2-7.5% depending on the irradiation configuration. It is possible to use the described neutron fields for calibration test and routine quality assurance of neutron dose rate meters and passive dosemeters commonly used in radiation protection dosimetry.

  9. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Gauthé, Aurélie; Caisso, Marie; Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium-americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U0.85Am0.15O2±δ powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  10. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  11. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 ..mu..Ci) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 ..mu..rem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 ..mu..Sv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 ..mu..Sv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated to be about 0.38 person-Sv (38 person-rem) to total body and 00 ft/sup 2/).

  12. Comparative biokinetics of trivalent radionuclides with similar ionic dimensions: promethium-147, curium-242 and americium-241.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D

    2007-09-01

    Data on the distribution and redistribution patterns in the laboratory rat of three trivalent elements with a similar ionic radius have been compared. This showed that these distributions for the two ions with the same ionic radius (111 pm), i.e., those of promethium (a lanthanoid) and curium (an actinoid), were indistinguishable and that americium, with a slightly larger ion size (111.5 pm), behaved similarly. The results are consistent with the suggestion that ion size is the only important factor controlling the deposition and redistribution patterns of trivalent lanthanoids and actinoids in rats. The result is important because it suggests that the same radiological protection dosimetry models should be used for trivalent actinoids and lanthanoids, that human volunteer data generated for lanthanoid isotopes can be used to predict the behavior of actinoids with the same ion size, and that appropriate pairs of beta-particle-emitting lanthanoid and alpha-particle-emitting actinoids could be used to study the relative toxicity of alpha and beta particles in experimental animals.

  13. Recovering Americium and Curium from Mark-42 Target Materials- New Processing Approaches to Enhance Separations and Integrate Waste Stream Disposition - 12228

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Brad D.; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Robinson, Sharon M.; Wham, Robert M.

    2012-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and to address waste streams associated with recovery of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from Mark-42 (Mk-42) target materials stored at ORNL. The objective of this work was to identify the most effective flowsheet with which to process the 104 Mk-42 oxide capsules holding a total of 80 g of plutonium (Pu), 190 g of Cm, 480 g of Am, and 5 kg of lanthanide (Ln) oxides for the recovery and purification of the Am/Cm for future use as feedstock for heavy actinide production. Studies were also conducted to solidify the process flowsheet waste streams for disposal. ORNL is investigating flowsheets to enhance processing efficiencies and address waste streams associated with recovery of Am and Cm from Mk-42 target materials stored at ORNL. A series of small-scale runs are being performed to demonstrate an improved process to recover Am/Cm and to optimize the separations of Ln fission products from the Am/Cm constituents. The first of these runs has been completed using one of the Am/Cm/Ln oxide capsules stored at ORNL. The demonstration run showed promising results with a Ln DF of 40 for the Am/Cm product and an Am/Cm DF of 75 for the Ln product. In addition, the total losses of Am, Cm, and Ln to the waste solvents and raffinates were very low at <0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.04%, respectively. However, the Ln-actinide separation was less than desired. For future Reverse TALSPEAK demonstration runs, several parameters will be adjusted (flow rates, the ratio of scrub to strip stages, etc.) to improve the removal of Ln from the actinides. The next step will also include scale-up of the processing flowsheet to use more concentrated solutions (15 g/L Ln versus 5 g/L) and larger volumes and to recycle the HDEHP solvent. This should improve the overall processing efficiency and further reduce losses to waste streams. Studies have been performed with simulated wastes to develop solidification

  14. Recovery Act: Head Start Grantees Expand Services, but More Consistent Communication Could Improve Accountability and Decisions about Spending. Report to the Congress. GAO-11-166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.; Jones, Yvonne D.

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to two mandates for GAO under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). First, it is the latest report on the uses of and accountability for Recovery Act funds in selected states and localities. Second, it comments on recipients' reports of the jobs created and retained. The Recovery Act provided $2.1…

  15. Isotopic ratio correlation for the isotopic composition analysis of plutonium in Am-Pu mixed samples having high americium content.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sabyasachi; Agarwal, Chhavi; Chaudhury, Sanhita; Newton Nathaniel, T; Gathibandhe, M; Goswami, A

    2013-08-01

    Interference of high amount of americium in the plutonium isotopic composition analysis has been studied by simulating gamma-ray spectra for Am-Pu samples over a wide composition range (5-97% (241)Am) for both power and research reactor grade plutonium. An alternate way for isotopic composition analysis has been proposed by correlating the isotopic ratios available in our old database with the experimentally obtained (241)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio. The proposed method has been validated using simulated spectra of known isotopic compositions.

  16. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  17. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, George S.; Long, Kristy Marie; Reilly, Sean D.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Runde, Wolfgang H.

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  18. Sintering trials of analogues of americium oxides for radioisotope power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Kramer, D. P.; Williams, H. R.; Reece, M. J.; Chen, K.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Barklay, C. D.; Fenwick, H.; Weston, D. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2017-08-01

    European Space Agency radioisotope power systems will use americium oxide as the heat source in pellet or disc form. The oxide form is yet to be decided. Sintering trials with CeO2 and Nd2O3 as analogues for AmO2 and Am2O3 were conducted. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) and cold-press-and-sinter methods were compared. Different sintering parameters and particle characteristics were investigated with commercial and synthesised powders. The synthesised powders contained lath-shaped particles, and batches with different particle sizes and specific surface areas were made and sintered. This is the first study in the public literature to report the sintering of lath-shaped CeO2. The targeted density range of 85-90% was met using both techniques. No ball-milling was required. Cold-pressing-and-sintering CeO2 produced intact discs. Large cracking was prevalent in the SPS discs. Some powders pressed more successfully than others. Powder morphology had a significant effect on the result but it was not possible to fully quantify the effects in this study. The cold-pressed-and-sintered CeO2 discs had comparable Vickers hardness values to a nuclear ceramic (UO2). The hardness values were greater than the spark plasma sintered CeO2 sample. Efforts to SPS near-net shaped pellets using CeO2 and Nd2O3 are reported. A follow on investigation was conducted to assess how the 85-90% T.D. target could be achieved. The aspect ratio impacts the sintering parameters and behaviour. The Vickers hardness of Nd2O3 is reported for the first time and compared to the results of sintered CeO2.

  19. Investigation of the neutron spectrum of americium-beryllium sources by Bonner sphere spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Roberts, N.; Thomas, D. J.; Chiti, M.; Esposito, A.; Garcia, M. J.; Gentile, A.; Liu, Z. Z.; de-San-Pedro, M.

    2014-11-01

    Americium-beryllium neutron sources are certainly the most widely used in neutron dosimetry laboratories, basically due to their long half-life and their energy distribution, which covers the energy domain of interest for many applications in ambient and personal dosimetry. Nevertheless, the spectrum of this source depends on the materials and dimension of the capsule and on the amount and physical-chemical properties of the active material, thus affecting relevant quantities such as the spectrum-averaged fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient. A EURAMET (European Association of National Metrology Institutes) project (n. 1104) was initiated to experimentally investigate how the neutron spectrum changes for different source sizes and encapsulations with a view to providing improved data for a planned revision of the ISO 8529 Standard Series. The experimental campaign was carried out in the low scatter facility at NPL. Here three different Bonner sphere spectrometers, BSSs, were exposed to the neutron fields produced by three different neutron sources formats: one X3 capsule (1 Ci) and two X14 capsules (10 Ci and 15 Ci). The specific advantage of the BSS is the large sensitivity to low-energy neutrons (E<0.1 MeV) which is the component expected to be most affected by the capsule-to-capsule variations and the component which is least well known. This paper summarises the results of the campaign with emphasis on (1) estimating the low-energy component of the Am-Be neutron spectrum, according to the encapsulation type; (2) evaluating the coherence between the Bonner spheres data and the previous studies performed with high-resolution spectrometers but limited in energy to E>0.1 MeV; (3) understanding whether the ISO-recommended Am-Be spectrum needs to be amended, and for which source formats.

  20. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  1. Some elements for a revision of the americium reference biokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Blanchardon, E; Leggett, R W; Eckerman, K F

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of individual activity measurement after a contamination by 241Am or its parent nuclide 241Pu is based on the reference americium (Am) biokinetic model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1993 [International Commission on Radiological Protection. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Part 2 Ingestion dose coefficients. ICRP Publication 67. Ann. ICRP 23(3/4) (1993)]. The authors analysed the new data about Am biokinetics reported afterwards to propose an update of the current model. The most interesting results, from the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries post-mortem measurement database [Filipy, R. E. and Russel, J. J. The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries as sources for actinide dosimetry and bioeffects. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 105(1-4), 185-187 (2003)] and the long-term follow-up of cases of inhalation intake [Malátová, I., Foltánová, S., Becková, V., Filgas, R., Pospísilová, H. and Hölgye, Z. Assessment of occupational doses from internal contamination with 241Am. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 105(1-4), 325-328 (2003)], seemed to show that the current model underestimates the retention in the massive soft tissues and overestimates the retention in the skeleton and the late urinary excretion. However, a critical review of the data demonstrated that all were not equally reliable and suggested that only a slight revision of the model, possibly involving a change in the balance of activity between massive soft tissues, cortical and trabecular bone surfaces, may be required.

  2. Americium and plutonium association with magnesium hydroxide colloids in alkaline nuclear industry process environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Zoe; Ivanov, Peter; O'Brien, Luke; Sims, Howard; Taylor, Robin J.; Heath, Sarah L.; Livens, Francis R.; Goddard, David; Kellet, Simon; Rand, Peter; Bryan, Nick D.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviours of Pu, Am and colloids in feed solutions to the Site Ion-exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in the U.K. have been studied. For both Pu and Am, fractions were found to be associated with material in the colloidal size range, with ˜50% of the Pu in the range 1-200 nm. The concentration of soluble Pu (<1 nm) was ˜1 nM, which is very similar to the solubility limit for Pu(V). The soluble Am concentration was of the order of 10-11 M, which was below the solubility limit of americium hydroxide. The size, morphology and elemental composition of the particulates and colloids in the feed solutions were investigated. Magnesium is homogeneously distributed throughout the particles, whereas U, Si, Fe, and Ca were present in localised areas only. Amongst some heterogeneous material, particles were identified that were consistent with hydrotalcite. The distribution of 241Am(III) on brucite (magnesium hydroxide) colloids of different sizes was studied under alkaline conditions representative of nuclear fuel storage pond and effluent feed solution conditions. The morphology of the brucite particles in the bulk material observed by ESEM was predominantly hexagonal, while that of the carbonated brucite consisted of hexagonal species mixed with platelets. The association of 241Am(III) with the brucite colloids was studied by ultrafiltration coupled with gamma ray-spectrometry. For carbonate concentrations up to 10-3 M, the 241Am(III) was mainly associated with larger colloids (>300 kDa), and there was a shift from the smaller size fractions to the larger over a period of 6 months. At higher carbonate concentrations (10-2 M), the Am was predominantly detected in the true solution fraction (<3 kDa) and in smaller size colloidal fractions, in the range 3-100 kDa.

  3. A review on the mass spectrometric studies of americium: Present status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar

    2016-05-06

    The manuscript reviews the various mass spectrometric techniques for analysis and chemical studies of Americium. These methods include thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of Am isotope ratios and concentration in nuclear fuel samples of interest in nuclear technology, and in complex biological and environmental samples. Ultra-sensitive mass spectrometric techniques of resonance-ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), and accelerator-based mass spectrometry (AMS) are also discussed. The novel applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) to understand the solution chemistry of Am and other actinides are presented. These studies are important in view of the world-wide efforts to develop novel complexing agents to separate lanthanides and minor actinides (Am, Np, and Cm) for partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides from the point of view of nuclear waste management. These mass spectrometry experiments are also of great interest to examine the covalent character of actinides with increasing atomic number. Studies on gas-phase chemistry of Am and its oxides with Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), and laser-based experiments with reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (R-ToF) are highlighted. These studies are important to understand the fundamental chemistry of 5f electrons in actinides. Requirement of certified isotopic reference materials of Am to improve the accuracy of experimental nuclear data (e.g., the half-life of (243) Am) is emphasized. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.

  4. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    PubMed

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  5. Swelling under irradiation of MgO pellets containing americium oxide: The ECRIX-H irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, J.; Béjaoui, S.; Hanifi, K.; Valot, Ch.; Loubet, L.

    2011-06-01

    The ECRIX-H irradiation experiment studied the behaviour of pellets containing americium dispersed in MgO. The purpose of the irradiation was to demonstrate the capacity of magnesia to provide an efficient support matrix. After fabrication, the sintered pellets contained 16.65 wt.% of Am microdispersed in the inert matrix. The ECRIX-H pellets were irradiated under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) for 318 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD). Post-test calculations indicated that the fission and transmutation rates of americium at the maximum flux plane reached 33.9% and 92.6% respectively at the end of the irradiation phase. The results of the post-irradiation examinations - both non-destructive and destructive - are discussed in this paper. These results indicate a satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix. Particularly, a moderate swelling occurs in the pellets under irradiation even with significant quantities of helium generated and at high transmutation rate.

  6. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu. Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-15

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures (T > {Theta}{sub D}, {Theta}{sub D} is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  7. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    PubMed

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  8. [Assessment of the distribution in the body and the dose on the respiratory tract and organs after single, short-term and long-term inhalation of americium-241].

    PubMed

    Malykhin, V M

    1991-04-01

    On the basis of comparison of publications on accidental human intake of americium-241 and animal experimental studies dosimetric characteristics were obtained reflecting the dynamics of accumulation, formation of the dose on the organs and parts of the respiratory tract, as well as of the 24-hour elimination from the organism of the mentioned radionuclide following single, short- and long-term administration of americium-241 from the air. Results were obtained with the use of computers for quantitative modelling of the most complete metabolic transport scheme of americium.

  9. Peculiar Behavior of (U,Am)O(2-δ) Compounds for High Americium Contents Evidenced by XRD, XAS, and Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis; Caraballo, Richard; Martin, Philippe M; Scheinost, Andreas C; Rossberg, Andre; Jégou, Christophe; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2015-10-19

    In U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) compounds with low americium content (x ≤ 20 atom %) and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratios close to 2.0, Am(III+) cations are charge-balanced by an equivalent amount of U(V+) cations while the fluorite structure of pure U(IV+)O2 is maintained. Up to now, it is unknown whether this observation also holds for higher americium contents. In this study, we combined X-ray diffraction with Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate a U(0.5)Am(0.5)O(2±δ) compound. Our results indicate that americium is again only present as Am(III+), while U(V+) remains below the amount required for charge balance. Unlike lower americium contents, this leads to an overall oxygen hypostoichiometry with an average O/M ratio of 1.92(2). The cationic sublattice is only slightly affected by the coexistence of large amounts of reduced (Am(III+)) and oxidized (U(V+)) cations, whereas significant deviations from the fluorite structure are evidenced by both extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopies in the oxygen sublattice, with the observation of both vacancies and interstitials, the latter being apparently consistent with the insertion of U6O12 cuboctahedral-type clusters (as observed in the U4O9 or U3O7 phases). These results thus highlight the specificities of uranium-americium mixed oxides, which behave more like trivalent lanthanide-doped UO2 than U(1-x)Pu(x)O(2±δ) MOX fuels.

  10. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Elizabeth J.; Berg, John M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N.; Barefield, James E.

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  11. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  12. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  13. Complete recovery of actinides from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of hard and soft donor ligands. II. soft donor structure variation

    SciTech Connect

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Klaehn, John R.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2015-07-30

    The feasibility of simultaneous separation of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from a simulated dissolved used fuel simulant adjusted to 1.0 M nitric acid is investigated using a mixture of the soft donor bis(bis-3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (“0”) and the hard donor synergist trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in toluene. The results reported in this work are compared to our recent demonstration of a complete actinide recovery from a simulated dissolved fuel solution using a synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (“1”) and TOPO dissolved in either toluene or trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone. While the extraction efficiency of americium was enhanced for the liquid-liquid system containing “0”, enabling to accomplish a trivalent An/Ln separation at 1.0 M HNO3, the extraction of neptunium was drastically diminished, relative to “1”. The partitioning behavior of curium was also negatively impacted, introducing an effective opportunity for americium/curium separation. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies demonstrate that the complete actinide recovery using the solvent based upon “0” and TOPO is not feasible. Additionally, the importance of radiolytic degradation processes is discussed through the comparisons of extraction properties of liquid-liquid systems based on both soft donor reagents.

  14. Complete recovery of actinides from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of hard and soft donor ligands. II. soft donor structure variation

    DOE PAGES

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Klaehn, John R.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2015-07-30

    The feasibility of simultaneous separation of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from a simulated dissolved used fuel simulant adjusted to 1.0 M nitric acid is investigated using a mixture of the soft donor bis(bis-3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (“0”) and the hard donor synergist trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in toluene. The results reported in this work are compared to our recent demonstration of a complete actinide recovery from a simulated dissolved fuel solution using a synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (“1”) and TOPO dissolved in either toluene or trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone. While the extraction efficiency of americium was enhanced for the liquid-liquidmore » system containing “0”, enabling to accomplish a trivalent An/Ln separation at 1.0 M HNO3, the extraction of neptunium was drastically diminished, relative to “1”. The partitioning behavior of curium was also negatively impacted, introducing an effective opportunity for americium/curium separation. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies demonstrate that the complete actinide recovery using the solvent based upon “0” and TOPO is not feasible. Additionally, the importance of radiolytic degradation processes is discussed through the comparisons of extraction properties of liquid-liquid systems based on both soft donor reagents.« less

  15. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  16. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A.…

  17. Monte Carlo modelling for in vivo measurements of Americium in a knee voxel phantom: general criteria for an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ros, J M; de Carlan, L; Franck, D; Gualdrini, G; Lis, M; López, M A; Moraleda, M; Zankl, M

    2007-01-01

    The general criteria and the scientific approach adopted for an 'International comparison on Monte Carlo modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' that is being organised within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) are described her. Detection system and a knee voxel phantom based on a computerised axial tomography of the Spitz anthropometric knee phantom with a homogeneous distribution of 241Am in bone have been considered for the simulation of three specific situations: (a) a single Low Energy Germanium detector for a point 241Am source in air; (b) the calculation of photon fluence spectra in air around the voxel phantom; and (c) the calculation of the energy distribution of pulses and peak detection efficiency in the real detection system geometry.

  18. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    SciTech Connect

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am

  19. Thermodynamic Features of the Complexation of Neodymium(III) and Americium(III) by Lactate in Trifluoromethanesulfonate Media.

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R. Zalupski; Leigh R. Martin; Kenneth L. Nash

    2010-10-01

    The protonation of lactate has been studied in a variety of electrolyte solutions using microcalorimetry to reveal a distinct medium influence imposed on the thermochemistry of the investigated equilibrium. The thermochemistry of lactate protonation, when studied directly in 1.0 M sodium lactate, agreed well with the studies performed in trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate). This thermodynamic agreement suggests that the physical chemistry of lactate in the solutions applicable to the TALSPEAK process – a solvent extraction method for separating trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides within the scope of used nuclear fuel processing efforts – may be simulated in triflate solutions. Potentiometry, spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry have been subsequently used to study the thermodynamic features of neodymium and americium complexation by lactate using triflate as a strong background electrolyte. Three successive mononuclear lactate complexes were identified for Nd(III) and Am(III). The stability constants for neodymium, log ß1 = 2.60 ± 0.01, log ß2 = 4.66 ± 0.02 and log ß3 = 5.6 ± 0.1, and for americium, log ß1 = 2.60 ± 0.06, log ß2 = 4.7 ± 0.1 and log ß3 = 6.2 ± 0.2, were found to closely agree with the thermodynamic studies reported in sodium perchlorate solutions. Consequently, the thermodynamic medium effect, imposed on the TALSPEAK-related solution equilibria by the presence of strong background electrolytes such as NaClO4 and NaNO3, do not significantly impact the speciation in solution.

  20. Service Based Internship Training to Prepare Workers to Support the Recovery of People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Trevor P.; Kelly, Peter; Pepper, James; McLennan, Ross; Deane, Frank P.; Buckingham, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A repeated measures design was used to evaluate a 12 month on-site counsellor internship programme aimed at training staff to support the recovery needs of people with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders. Fifty-four interns completed measures of recovery knowledge, attitudes, confidence/competence, as well as identifying…

  1. Service Based Internship Training to Prepare Workers to Support the Recovery of People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Trevor P.; Kelly, Peter; Pepper, James; McLennan, Ross; Deane, Frank P.; Buckingham, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A repeated measures design was used to evaluate a 12 month on-site counsellor internship programme aimed at training staff to support the recovery needs of people with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders. Fifty-four interns completed measures of recovery knowledge, attitudes, confidence/competence, as well as identifying…

  2. Use of two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separtion of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-11-01

    The feasibility has been demonstrated of using two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and dextran sulfate, in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separation of actinides. A convenient method has been proposed for continuous recovery of {sup 239}Np from {sup 243}Am, originating from differences in sorption of tri- and pentavalent actinides from sulfate solutions containing potassium phosphotungstate by silica gel impregnated with polyethylene glycol. New plates for thin-layer chromatography using water-soluble polymers have been developed. These plates were used to study behavior of americium in various oxidation states in thin sorbent layers.

  3. A Study Protocol for Tracking Quality of Life Among U.S. Service Members Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Wounded Warrior Recovery Project Susan I. Woodruff Michael R . Galarneau Bethi N. Luu Daniel Sack Peggy Han Report No. 13-37 The views...Wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project Susan I. Woodruff, PhD; Michael R . Galarneau, MS, NREMT; Bethi N. Luu, MPH; Daniel...Warrior Recovery Project ^O^NDED WARRIO R R E C O V E R Y P R O J E C T NOW ENROLLING WE’LL BE COHTACTING YOU SOONÍ FIGURE 3. Introductory postcard

  4. Selective separation of americium from europium using 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthrolines in ionic liquids: a new twist on an old story

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Neil J.; Dehaudt, Jeremy; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; ...

    2017-02-10

    Bis-triazine phenanthrolines have shown great promise for f-block metal separations, attributable to their highly preorganized structure, nitrogen donors, and more enhanced covalent bonding with actinides over lanthanides. However, their limited solubility in traditional solvents remains a technological bottleneck. Here in this paper we report our recent work using a simple 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthroline (Me-BTPhen) dissolved in an ionic liquid (IL), demonstrating the efficacy of IL extraction systems for the selective separation of americium from europium, achieving separation factors in excess of 7500 and selectively removing up to 99% of the americium. Characterization of the coordination environment was performed using a combination ofmore » X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.« less

  5. Selective separation of americium from europium using 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthrolines in ionic liquids: a new twist on an old story.

    PubMed

    Williams, Neil J; Dehaudt, Jérémy; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Luo, Huimin; Abney, Carter W; Dai, Sheng

    2017-02-28

    Bis-triazine phenanthrolines have shown great promise for f-block metal separations, attributable to their highly preorganized structure, nitrogen donors, and more enhanced covalent bonding with actinides over lanthanides. However, their limited solubility in traditional solvents remains a technological bottleneck. Herein we report our recent work using a simple 2,9-bis(triazine)-1,10-phenanthroline (Me-BTPhen) dissolved in an ionic liquid (IL), demonstrating the efficacy of IL extraction systems for the selective separation of americium from europium, achieving separation factors in excess of 7500 and selectively removing up to 99% of the americium. Characterization of the coordination environment was performed using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  6. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.; Lebreton, F.; Martin, P. M.; Caisso, M.; Butzbach, R.; Somers, J.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U1-xAmxO2±δ samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U1-xAmxO2±δ leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am+III and U+V in equimolar proportions.

  7. Model-based assessment of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery as a groundwater ecosystem service for the Brussels-Capital Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Urban areas are characterized by their concentrated demand of energy, applying a high pressure on urban ecosystems including atmosphere, soils and groundwater. In the light of global warming, urbanization and an evolving energy system, it is important to know how urbanized areas can contribute to their own energy demands. One option is to use the possibilities aquifers offer as an ecosystem service (BONTE et al., 2011). If used effectively an improvement in air and groundwater quality is achieved. Additionally, the more efficient distribution of the used energy may also lead to a decrease in primary energy consumption (ZUURBIER, 2013). Therefore, investigations of the potential of seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage and recovery (ATES) for the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium is being conducted. The potential of ATES systems are of special interest for energy demands in high density urban areas because of such infrastructure as office buildings, schools, hospitals and shopping malls. In an open water circuit ATES systems consist of two or more groundwater wells, where in seasonal cycles one subtracts and the other recharges water to the aquifer. Heat pumps use the heat capacity of water for heating or cooling a building. An important limitation of the methodology is the quality of the groundwater used (i.e. precipitation of Fe- or Mn-oxides can decrease the yield). However, ATES systems on the other hand can also improve groundwater quality and groundwater ecosystems. The current knowledge of the potential for ATES systems in the Brussels-Capital Region is based on geological assessments from VITO (2007). The Brussels-Capital Region is divided into a western and eastern section with respect to geology. While the western part has less favorable conditions for ATES, the eastern is composed of the Brussels Sand formation, which is a 20-40 m thick aquifer layer that has the highest potential for ATES systems in the region. By applying groundwater flow and heat

  8. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium–americium mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Prieur, D.; Lebreton, F.; Somers, J.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-10-15

    Uranium–americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am{sup +III} and U{sup +V} in equimolar proportions. - Graphical abstract: Formation of (U{sup IV/V},Am{sup III})O{sup 2} solid solution by sol–gel and by powder metallurgy. - Highlights: • Uranium–americium mixed oxides were synthesized by sol–gel and powder metallurgy. • Fluorite solid solutions with similar local environment have been obtained. • U{sup V} and Am{sup III} are formed in equimolar proportions.

  9. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  10. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  11. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  12. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Larkin; Jordan, Iain; McCarron, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry. Medical students' knowledge of recovery from mental illness was assessed before and after either a 6-week traditional or recovery-focused clinical placement in psychiatry, using the Recovery Knowledge Inventory. A validated questionnaire was used to assess attitudes toward mental illness before and after the placements. Focus groups were conducted before and after the recovery teaching. One hundred nineteen medical students participated; 23 experienced the recovery teaching program while 96 had a traditional placement (23 in the same center as the recovery teaching program and 73 in other centers). There were no significant differences between groups at baseline. After recovery teaching, medical students significantly increased their recovery knowledge and had more positive attitudes toward mental illness and psychiatry when compared with those who had a traditional placement. The focus groups revealed greater optimism and more holistic concepts of recovery from mental illness. The recovery teaching program was associated with increased knowledge of recovery principles and more positive attitudes toward mental illness. Psychiatric clinical placements for medical students should include an explicit recovery focus. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    PubMed

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E

    2015-09-01

    The term "recovery" is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The "What Is Recovery?" project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n=1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach's alpha was estimated. Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent "What Is Recovery?" survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries...

  15. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; Abergel, R. J.

    2016-03-10

    In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (AmIII) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10–3 to 10–2%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of AmIII assigned to the 5D17F1 f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these AmIII complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  16. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; ...

    2016-03-10

    In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (AmIII) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10–3 to 10–2%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of AmIII assigned to the 5D1 → 7F1 f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formedmore » with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these AmIII complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.« less

  17. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISON ON MEASUREMENTS AND MONTE CARLO MODELLING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AMERICIUM IN A USTUR LEG PHANTOM

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, M. A.; Broggio, D.; Capello, K.; Cardenas-Mendez, E.; El-Faramawy, N.; Franck, D.; James, Anthony C.; Kramer, Gary H.; Lacerenza, G.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Navarro, J. F.; Navarro, T.; Perez, B.; Ruhm, W.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Weitzenegger, E.

    2011-03-01

    United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) Case 0102 was the first whole-body donation to the USTUR (1979), of a worker affected by a substantial accidental 241Am intake(1). Half of this man’s skeleton, encased in tissue-quivalent plastic, provides a unique human ‘phantom’ for calibrating in vivo counting systems. In this case, the 241Am skeletal activity was measured 25 y after the intake. Approximately 82 % of the 241Am remaining in the body was found in the bones and teeth. The241Am activity concentration throughout the skeleton (in all types of bone) was fairly uniform(2). A protocol has been proposed by a group of in vivo laboratories from Europe [CIEMAT-Spain, IRSN-France and Helmholtz Zentrum Mu¨nchen (HMGU)-Germany] and Canada (HML) participating in this DOS/USTUR intercomparison. The focus areas for the study included: (1) the efficiency pattern along the leg phantom using Germanium detectors (experimental and computational), (2) the comparison of Monte Carlo (MC) results with experimental values in counting efficiency data and (3) the inflence of americium distribution in the bone material (volume or surface).

  18. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  19. Treatment of human contamination with plutonium and americium: would orally administered Ca- or Zn-DTPA be effective?

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Hodgson, Susan A; Stradling, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Accidental or deliberate dispersion of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) into the public environment could contaminate large numbers of people by inhalation. If measures to reduce the internal dose are considered appropriate, oral administration of either calcium (Ca) or zinc (Zn) diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) would be the simplest treatment. Published experimental data from rats on the effects of oral DTPA on the retention of inhaled Pu and Am show that: (1) orally administered Zn-DTPA is as effective as repeated intravenous injection for the decorporation of Pu and Am inhaled as nitrates, although higher dosages are required; (2) oral Zn-DTPA appears to be an effective treatment for Am dioxide but not Pu dioxide; (3) maximum decorporation of Pu, by oral or intravenous administration, requires a large molar excess of Zn-DTPA over Pu (>1 x 10(6)); (4) neither oral nor injected Zn-DTPA are likely to be effective for Pu oxides, nor when Pu and Am nitrates are mixed with other dusts. It is concluded that oral administration of a simple aqueous solution of Zn-DTPA could be an important treatment in accident or emergency scenarios after intake of pure chemical forms of Pu and Am, which are highly or moderately soluble in biological fluids. However, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment when these forms are mixed with other materials. Importantly, studies designed to increase the efficiency of uptake of DTPA from the gastrointestinal tract could appreciably reduce the dosage.

  20. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  1. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Svane, A.; Christensen, N. E.; Sikka, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state properties and pressure-induced structural transitions. Both methods yield equilibrium volume and bulk modulus in good agreement with the experimental results. The GGA+spin orbit coupling+U method reproduced all structural transitions under pressure correctly, but the HYB-DFT method failed to reproduce the observed Am-I to Am-II transition. Good agreement was found between calculated and experimental equations of states for all phases, but the first three phases need larger U (α) parameters (where α represents the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange energy replacing the DFT exchange energy) than the fourth phase in order to match the experimental data. Thus, neither the GGA+U nor the HYB-DFT methods are able to describe the energetics of Am metal properly in the entire pressure range from 0 GPa to 50 GPa with a single choice of their respective U and α parameters. Low binding-energy peaks in the experimental photoemission spectrum at ambient pressure relate, for some parameter choices, well to peak positions in the calculated density of states function of Am-I.

  2. Characterization of a Sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) Source by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    James Sommers; Marcos Jimenez; Mary Adamic; Jeffrey Giglio; Kevin Carney

    2009-12-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as “age” since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The “age” since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic errors in the “age” determination were ± 4 % 2s. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n=8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n=3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52 % (1s). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5 % (1s). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Source 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W.

  3. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Jones, M.M.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.

    1997-12-31

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for {sup 241}Am(III) and {sup 238}Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4.

  4. Chemical Speciation of Strontium, Americium, and Curium in High Level Waste: Predictive Modeling of Phase Partitioning During Tank Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Choppin, Gregory; Dixon, David A.; Campbell, James A.

    1999-06-01

    In this research program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Florida State University (FSU) are investigating the speciation of strontium and americium/curium in the presence of selected organic chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl) aethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and iminodiacetic acid (IDA)) over ranges of hydroxide, carbonate, ionic strength, and competing metal ion concentrations present in high-level waste tanks. The project is composed of integrated research tasks that approach the problem of chemical speciation using macroscopic thermodynamic measurements of metal-ligand competition reactions, molecular modeling studies to identify structures or complexes of unusual stability, and mass spectrometry measurements of complex charge/mass ratio that can be applied to mixed metal-chelate systems. This fundamental information is then used to develop thermodynamic models, which allow the prediction of changes in chemical speciation and solubility that can occur in response to changes in tank processing conditions. In this way, we can develop new approaches that address fundamental problems in aqueous speciation and at the same time provide useful and practical information needed for tank processing.

  5. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  6. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  7. Recovery definitions: Do they change?

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Witbrodt, Jane; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “recovery” is widely used in the substance abuse literature and clinical settings, but data have not been available to empirically validate how recovery is defined by individuals who are themselves in recovery. The “What Is Recovery?” project developed a 39-item definition of recovery based on a large nationwide online survey of individuals in recovery. The objective of this paper is to report on the stability of those definitions one to two years later. Methods To obtain a sample for studying recovery definitions that reflected the different pathways to recovery, the parent study involved intensive outreach. Follow-up interviews (n = 1237) were conducted online and by telephone among respondents who consented to participate in follow-up studies. Descriptive analyses considered endorsement of individual recovery items at both surveys, and t-tests of summary scores studied significant change in the sample overall and among key subgroups. To assess item reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was estimated. Results Rates of endorsement of individual items at both interviews was above 90% for a majority of the recovery elements, and there was about as much transition into endorsement as out of endorsement. Statistically significant t-test scores were of modest magnitude, and reliability statistics were high (ranging from .782 to .899). Conclusions Longitudinal analyses found little evidence of meaningful change in recovery definitions at follow-up. Results thus suggest that the recovery definitions developed in the parent “What Is Recovery?” survey represent stable definitions of recovery that can be used to guide service provision in Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care. PMID:26166666

  8. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  9. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241

  10. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries.

    PubMed

    White, William L

    2007-10-01

    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  11. Artist's rendering of Transearch Injection and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Transearch Injection and Recovery: The Service [Module] propulsion engine fires to thrust the spacecraft Earthward. The Service Module is jettisoned and the Command Module hits the atmosphere at about 24,500 miles per hour. Three 83-1/2-foot- diameter parachutes lower it to the Pacific Ocean where Department of Defense recovery forces retrieve the crew and spacecraft.

  12. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Zakir H; Cornett, Jack R; Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam

    2014-06-04

    A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8M HNO3 with 0.05 M NaNO2 before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO3, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl3 facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca(2+), Fe(3+)) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO3. Using NdF3, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7±5.3% and 95.5±4.6% for (241)Am and (242)Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1±6.0 and 96.8±5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1-100 Bq kg(-1). The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  13. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship.

  14. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  15. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides.

  16. Increased retention of americium in kidneys as compared with plutonium in an actinide wound contamination model in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Molina, Thibaut; Wilk, Jean-Claude; Renault, Daniel; Berard, Philippe; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Americium-241 ((241)Am) presents a potential risk for nuclear industry workers associated with reactor decommissioning and aging combustible materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate Am renal retention after actinide contamination by wounding in the rat. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with Mixed Oxide (MOX) (7.1% Plutonium [Pu] by mass and containing 27% Am as % total alpha activity), Pu or Am nitrate following an incision wound of the hind leg. Times of euthanasia ranged from 2 hours to 5 months after contamination. Pu and Am levels were quantified following radiochemistry and alpha-spectrophotometry. Initial data show that over the experimental period the proportion of Am in kidneys as a fraction of total kidney alpha activity was elevated as compared to MOX powder indicating a specific retention in this organ. The percentage of Pu was similar to the powder. After MOX contamination, kidney to liver ratios appeared to increase more markedly for Am (from 0.2 at 7 days to 0.6 at 90 days) as compared with Pu (0.1 at 7 days to 0.2 at 90 days). In accordance with tissue actinide retention the dose from Am to the kidney increases with time. For comparison, the ratio of estimated equivalent doses due to Am to kidney is 1.5-fold greater than for Pu (around 90 versus 60 mSv). After actinide contamination of wounds, Am is concentrated in the kidneys as compared to Pu leading to potential exposure of renal tissue to both alpha particles and gamma radiation.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of U1-xAmxO2±δ compounds with high americium contents (x = 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis; Delahaye, Thibaud; Blanchart, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are considered promising compounds for americium transmutation in fast neutron reactors. A better understanding of these materials and of the U-Am-O phase diagram is, however, needed. Though many results in the literature describe U1-xAmxO2±δ (x ⩽ 0.2) compounds, very few studies concern higher Am contents. In this context, this article reports the fabrication method of U1-xAmxO2±δ (0.3 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5) and their preliminary characterization, notably by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Recovery through the Lens of Cultural Diversity.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nora; Farah, Deqa

    2012-01-01

    This Brief Report is based on a project entitled Recovery through the Lens of Cultural Diversity that sought to develop an enhanced model of recovery that accounts for culture. The purpose of the project was to increase the ability of mental health organizations in Toronto, Canada to design and deliver culturally relevant and responsive recovery-oriented services to the diverse communities they serve. For the purposes of this report, sources used included an interdisciplinary and culturally diverse group of service providers; focus groups that included service users and family members; and a community forum. To assist practitioners to better meet the service needs of their culturally diverse service recipients, recommendations are available to guide the continuing advancement of culturally relevant recovery-promoting practices for service users and family members.

  19. Colloid-borne Americium Migration in Gorleben Groundwater: Significance of Iron Secondary Phase Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, T.; Artinger, R.; Bauer, A.; Dardenne, K.; Kim, J.

    2001-12-01

    The relevance of colloidal transport to enhance the actinide mobility in the natural environment depends among other things on the reversibility of metal colloid binding. The influence of the metastable, low crystalline precursor phase 2-line ferrihydrite (2LFh) and the possible structural entrapment of Am(III) in transformation products (thermal treatment at 70° C over 7d) on the colloidal mobility of Am was investigated in batch and column migration experiments. Time-resolved dynamic laser light scattering analysis (PCS) demonstrated a fast 2LFh aggregation (1.8-5.6 mg2LFh/L) in Gorleben groundwater of low humic content (1-7 mgC/L), which can be attributed to surface charge neutralization detected via zeta potential measurements. The column experiments supported the PCS analysis and showed in groundwater with low humic content (GoHy-182) no significant enhancement of humic colloid bond Am recovery (R = 0.5 %). This can be attributed to the filtration of 2LFh aggregates. Contrary to this, in humic rich groundwater (30-90 mgC/L) the 2LFh colloids remained stable and showed an almost fivefold increase of the unretarded Am mobility in the case of transformed 2LFh. The Am mobilization was limited by the mobile 2LFh colloid concentration. Iron oxide/hydroxide selective extractions indicated a strengthening of Am from exchangeable (1M MgCl2 extraction) in 2LFh to NH4-oxalate-oxalic acid extractable in transformed 2LFh. Batch experiments revealed no equilibrium state of 2LFh colloid and Am-241 sorption onto Gorleben sand after 165 days, therefore indicating that metal colloid association/dissociation and colloid sediment attachment kinetics are a key issue for the actinide mobility.

  20. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute/high security units from those in medium or in low secure/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway. PMID:21722396

  1. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  2. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  3. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  4. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  5. 7 CFR 766.206 - Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. 766.206... Agreements and Net Recovery Buyout Agreements § 766.206 Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreement. (a) Servicing existing Net Recovery Buyout Recapture Agreements. Prior to July 3, 1996, the Agency...

  6. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  7. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  8. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey.

    PubMed

    Leamy, M; Clarke, E; Le Boutillier, C; Bird, V; Choudhury, R; MacPherson, R; Pesola, F; Sabas, K; Williams, J; Williams, P; Slade, M

    2016-10-01

    There is consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development... permit. There must be a reasonable relationship between the size of the recovery area and the...

  10. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development... permit. There must be a reasonable relationship between the size of the recovery area and the...

  11. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development... permit. There must be a reasonable relationship between the size of the recovery area and the...

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ( ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance, U.S. General Services Administration - Project 194 U.S. Custom Cargo Inspection Facility, Detroit, MI

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-05-31

    This report documents the findings of an on-site audit of the U.S. Customs Cargo Inspection Facility (CIF) in Detroit, Michigan. The federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy-efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electrical and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.

  13. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  14. Elements that define recovery: the experiential perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-11-01

    Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here--e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use.

  15. Course of Recovery from Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Matzger, Helen; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Willenbring, Mark L.; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California, organized and chaired by Kamilla L. Venner. This symposium integrated current empirical research on the course of recovery from alcoholism from multiple perspectives, an aim that is consistent with NIAAA's new focus on the process of recovery. The presentations and presenters were as follows: (1) The Role of Community Services and Informal Support on 7-Year Drinking Outcomes in Treated and Untreated Drinkers, by Helen Matzger; (2) The Sequence of Recovery Events in a Native American Sample, by Kamilla L. Venner; (3) Transformational Change in Recovery, by Alyssa A. Forcehimes; (4) Social Settings and Substance Use: Contextual Factors in Recovery, by Rudolf H. Moos; and (5) A Broader View of Change in Drinking Behavior, by discussant Mark L. Willenbring. A theme connecting the presentations was that treatment is but one discrete aspect to recovery and that sustained recovery is often influenced by an individual interaction with others within a social context. Collectively, presentations underscored the need to think more broadly about factors contributing to the remission of alcohol dependence. PMID:16737468

  16. The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining their separation properties.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Löfström-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Geist, Andreas; Lundberg, Daniel; Denecke, Melissa; Persson, Ingmar

    2015-11-14

    Separation of trivalent actinoid (An(iii)) and lanthanoid (Ln(iii)) ions is extremely challenging due to their similar ionic radii and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic nitrogen compounds acting as tetradentate chelating ligands to the metal ions in the extraction, have the ability to sufficiently separate An(iii) from Ln(iii). One of these compounds, 6,6'-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzol[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)[2,2]bipyridine, CyMe4-BTBP, has proven to be resistant towards acidic environments and strong radiation from radioactive decomposition. EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(iii) and europium(iii) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. The predominating complexes independent of solvent used are [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) and [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+), respectively, which are present as outer-sphere ion-pairs with nitrate ions in the studied solvents with low relative permittivity. The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(iii) complex compensates the charge density of the complex considerably in comparison when only outer-sphere ion-pairs are formed as for the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex. The stability and solubility of a complex in a solvent with low relative permittivity increase with decreasing charge density. The [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) complex will therefore be increasingly soluble and stabilized over the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex in solvents with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent. The separation of americium(iii) from europium(iii) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. The choice of solvent is therefore a balance of a high separation factor and sufficient solubility of the CyMe4-BTBP

  17. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds of any amounts...

  18. 7 CFR 3575.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 3575.95 Section 3575.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.95 Future recovery. After a loan has been...

  19. 7 CFR 4287.169 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4287.169 Section 4287.169 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Loans § 4287.169 Future recovery. After a loan has been liquidated and a final loss has been paid by...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.95 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 1779.95 Section 1779.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.95 Future recovery. After a loan...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds of...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.377 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 1980.377 Section 1980.377 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.377 Future recovery. The proceeds of...

  4. What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, N; Greenley, D

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a conceptual model of recovery from mental illness developed to aid the state of Wisconsin in moving toward its goal of developing a "recovery-oriented" mental health system. In the model, recovery refers to both internal conditions experienced by persons who describe themselves as being in recovery--hope, healing, empowerment, and connection--and external conditions that facilitate recovery--implementation of the principle of human rights, a positive culture of healing, and recovery-oriented services. The aim of the model is to link the abstract concepts that define recovery with specific strategies that systems, agencies, and individuals can use to facilitate it.

  5. Hurricane Katrina: Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children Persist in Greater New Orleans, Although Federal Grants Are Helping to Address Them. Testimony before the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. GAO-09-935T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    The greater New Orleans area has yet to fully recover from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall on August 29, 2005. One issue of concern in the recovery is the availability of mental health services for children. It is estimated that in 2008 about 187,000 children were living in the greater New Orleans area. Many children in the…

  6. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  7. On the stoichiometry and stability of americium(III) complexes with a hydrophilic SO3-Ph-BTP ligand, studied by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Steczek, Łukasz; Rejnis, Magdalena; Narbutt, Jerzy; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Moisy, Philippe

    1:1 and 1:2 complexes of americium(III) with a hydrophilic anionic SO3-Ph-BTP(4-) ligand were detected in acidic aqueous nitrate solutions by a solvent extraction method. The determined conditional stability constants of these complexes, logβ1 = 4.35 ± 0.07 and logβ2 = 7.67 ± 0.06, related to 1 M aqueous solutions, are much lower than the literature values for the analogous curium species, determined by TRLFS in very dilute aqueous solutions. There is also no evidence for the existence of the 1:3 Am(3+) complex similar to the reported curium(III) complex. A hypothesis has been formulated to explain these discrepancies. It suggests the necessity to carefully check the equilibria in each phase of solvent extraction systems containing two competing ligands-lipophilic and hydrophilic.

  8. Americium-241 Decorporation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    levels of exposure are required to reach doses that will induce acute effects in the lung such as radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis . The I50...compartments over time with and without treatment, excretion rates, and radiation doses to critical organs. Calculations from the model may be used to...foot2 (moment of inertia) 4.214 011 x E – 2 kilogram-meter2 (kg*m2) pound-mass/foot3 1.601 846 x E + 1 kilogram/m3 (kg/m3) rad ( radiation absorbed

  9. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  10. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  11. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  12. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  13. Global Patterns of Drought Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C.; Anderegg, W.; Biondi, F.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Shaw, J.; Wolf, A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Y.; Fang, Y.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jain, A. K.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of drought on carbon metabolism is crucial to elucidate how global environmental change will alter the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by terrestrial vegetation. Notwithstanding past and anticipated future changes in drought regime the interplay between hydrologic (amelioration of precipitation deficit) and functional (return to pre-drought levels of carbon metabolism) post-drought recovery is not well understood. Recovery time is however a prime determinant of whether ecosystems revert to their initial state or transition to a new equilibrium. Here we quantify post-drought recovery time of gross primary productivity (GPP) at grid cell (0.5° spatial resolution) to global scales using three reconstructions: MODIS, upscaled FLUXNET, and an ensemble of state-of-the-art standardized land surface model runs taken from MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project). Drought is tracked using the multiscalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index drought metric where the integration period (the retrospective window used to calculate the metric) is varied from 1 to 24-months. We define recovery time as a function of both hydrologic and GPP recovery, i.e., both must attain pre-drought levels for recovery to occur. Despite the diverse provenance of the reconstructions, different reconstruction periods, and variable integration lengths several consistent patterns emerge across the c. 4 000 000 drought events and subsequent recovery times cataloged. Recovery time scales with drought severity and drought length. Biological productivity and biodiversity exhibit response surfaces with large amplitudes and clear thresholds whereas soil fertility is a weak constraint. In general, GPP-based descriptors of drought events serve as key boundary conditions for drought recovery. The longest recovery times occur on marginal lands--non-forested, mixed tree-grass, and boreal systems--with a slight uptick for

  14. 78 FR 41911 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC008 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...'' or by writing to NMFS Protected Resources Division, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1201 NE...

  15. Recovery position - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...

  16. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diligent commercial recovery. 971.503... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development § 971.503 Diligent commercial recovery. (a) Each permittee must pursue diligently the...

  17. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery... service in the area served by the LEC, including that LEC. The LEC shall use a cost recovery...

  18. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diligent commercial recovery. 971.503... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Resource Development § 971.503 Diligent commercial recovery. (a) Each permittee must pursue diligently the...

  19. Competing priorities: staff perspectives on supporting recovery.

    PubMed

    Le Boutillier, Clair; Slade, Mike; Lawrence, Vanessa; Bird, Victoria J; Chandler, Ruth; Farkas, Marianne; Harding, Courtenay; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G; Roberts, Glenn; Shepherd, Geoff; Thornicroft, Graham; Williams, Julie; Leamy, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Recovery has come to mean living a life beyond mental illness, and recovery orientation is policy in many countries. The aims of this study were to investigate what staff say they do to support recovery and to identify what they perceive as barriers and facilitators associated with providing recovery-oriented support. Data collection included ten focus groups with multidisciplinary clinicians (n = 34) and team leaders (n = 31), and individual interviews with clinicians (n = 18), team leaders (n = 6) and senior managers (n = 8). The identified core category was Competing Priorities, with staff identifying conflicting system priorities that influence how recovery-oriented practice is implemented. Three sub-categories were: Health Process Priorities, Business Priorities, and Staff Role Perception. Efforts to transform services towards a recovery orientation require a whole-systems approach.

  20. 75 FR 12496 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... availability for public review of the draft Bi-National Recovery Plan (Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle... turtles. The Plan identifies substantive actions needed to achieve recovery by addressing the threats...

  1. 75 FR 25840 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Kemp's Ridley Recovery Plan is a bi-national plan developed... and interested parties to assist in the recovery of loggerhead turtles. The Plan...

  2. Recovery and chemical purification of actinides at JRC, Karlsruhe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokelund, H.; Apostolidis, C.; Glatz, J.-P.

    1989-07-01

    The application of actinide elements in research and in technology is many times subject to rather stringent purity requirements; often a nuclear grade quality is specified. The additional possible demand for a high isotopic purity is a special feature in the handling of these elements. The amount of actinide elements contained in or adhering to materials declared as waste should be low for safety reasons and out of economic considerations. The release of transuranium elements to the environment must be kept negligible. For these and for other reasons a keen interest in the separation of actinides from various materials exists, either for a re-use through recycling, or for their safe confinement in waste packages. This paper gives a short review of the separation methods used for recovery and purification of actinide elements over the past years in the European Institute for Transuranium Elements. The methods described here involve procedures based on precipitation, ion exchange or solvent extraction; often used in a combination. The extraction methods were preferably applied in a Chromatographie column mode. The actinide elements purified and/or separated from each other by the above methods include uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium. For the various elements the work was undertaken with different aims, ranging from reprocessing and fabrication of nuclear fuels on a kilogramme scale, over the procurement of alpha-free waste, to the preparation of neutron sources of milligramme size.

  3. Recovery - Apollo 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-24

    S69-21698 (24 July 1969) --- The three Apollo 11 crew men await pickup by a helicopter from the USS Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The fourth man in the life raft is a United States Navy underwater demolition team swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, onboard, splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the USS Hornet. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

  4. 42 CFR 124.703 - Federal right of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal right of recovery. 124.703 Section 124.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.703 Federal right...

  5. Oxford House: Deaf-Affirmative Support for Substance Abuse Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M.; Davidson, Michelle K.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse…

  6. Oxford House: Deaf-Affirmative Support for Substance Abuse Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M.; Davidson, Michelle K.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse…

  7. 42 CFR 124.703 - Federal right of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal right of recovery. 124.703 Section 124.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.703 Federal right...

  8. 42 CFR 124.703 - Federal right of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal right of recovery. 124.703 Section 124.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.703 Federal right...

  9. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    PubMed

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  10. Explication and Definition of Mental Health Recovery: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Marsha Langer; Belanger, Lindsay K; Niles, Barbara L; Evans, Leigh C; Bauer, Mark S

    2016-10-05

    This review assessed the concordance of the literature on recovery with the definition and components of recovery developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Each SAMHSA identified recovery component was first explicated with synonyms and keywords and made mutually exclusive by authors. Inter-rater reliability was established on the coding of the presence of 17 recovery components and dimensions in 67 literature reviews on the recovery concept in mental health. The review indicated that concordance varied across SAMHSA components. The components of recovery with greatest concordance were: individualized/person centered, empowerment, purpose, and hope.

  11. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  12. Recovery of minor actinides from spent fuel using TPEN-immobilized gels

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Suto, M.; Ohbayashi, H.; Oaki, H.; Takeshita, K.

    2013-07-01

    A series of separation experiments was performed in order to study the recovery process for minor actinides (MAs), such as americium (Am) and curium (Cm), from the actual spent fuel by using an extraction chromatographic technique. N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(4-propenyloxy-2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPPEN) is an N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) analogue consisting of an incorporated pyridine ring that acts as not only a ligand but also as a site for polymerization and crosslinking of the gel. The TPPEN and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) were dissolved into dimethylformamide (DMF, Wako Co., Ltd.) and a silica beads polymer, and then TTPEN was immobilized chemically in a polymer gel (so called TPEN-gel). Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which was highly irradiated up to 119 GWD/MTM in the experimental fast reactor Joyo, was used as a reference spent fuel. First, uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were separated from the irradiated fuel using an ion-exchange method, and then, the platinum group elements were removed by CMPO to leave a mixed solution of MAs and lanthanides. The 3 mol% TPPEN-gel was packed with as an extraction column (CV: 1 ml) and then rinsed by 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3}(pH 4.0) for pH adjustment. After washing the column by 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} (pH 4.0), Eu was detected and the recovery rate reached 93%. The MAs were then recovered by changing the eluent to 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} (pH 2.0), and the recovery rate of Am was 48 %. The 10 mol% TPPEN-gel was used to improve adsorption coefficient of Am and a condition of eluent temperature was changed in order to confirm the temperature swing effect on TPEN-gel for MA. More than 90% Eu was detected in the eluent after washing with 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3} (pH 3.5) at 5 Celsius degrees. Americium was backwardly detected and eluted continuously during the same condition. After removal of Eu, the eluent temperature was changed to 32 Celsius degrees, then Am was detected (pH 3.0). Finally remained Am could be stripped

  13. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  14. Americium-241 integral radiative capture cross section in over-moderated neutron spectrum from pile oscillator measurements in the Minerve reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslot, Benoit; Gruel, Adrien; Ros, Paul; Blaise, Patrick; Leconte, Pierre; Noguere, Gilles; Mathieu, Ludovic; Villamarin, David; Becares, Vicente; Plompen, Arjan; Kopecky, Stefan; Schillebeeckx, Peter

    2017-09-01

    An experimental program, called AMSTRAMGRAM, was recently conducted in the Minerve low power reactor operated by CEA Cadarache within the frame of the CHANDA initiative (Solving CHAllenges in Nuclear Data). Its aim was to measure the integral capture cross section of 241Am in the thermal domain. Motivation of this work is driven by large differences in this actinide thermal point reported by major nuclear data libraries. The AMSTRAMGRAM experiment, that made use of well characterized EC-JRC americium samples, was based on the oscillation technique commonly implemented in the Minerve reactor. First results are presented and discussed in this article. A preliminary calculation scheme was used to compare measured and calculated results. It is shown that this work confirms a bias previously observed with JEFF-3.1.1 (C/E-1 = -10.5 ± 2%). On the opposite, the experiment is in close agreement with 241Am thermal point reported in JEFF-3.2 (C/E-1 = 0.5 ± 2%).

  15. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and ⁹⁰Sr body-burden in general public.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Golec, Edward B; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Golec, Joanna; Nowak, Sebastian; Szczygiel, Elżbieta; Brudecki, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, (238)Pu, (241)Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of (238)Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and (90)Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of pentavalent and hexavalent americium complexes in nitric acid using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first-principles modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine; Czerwinski, Kenneth; Kim, Eunja; Paviet, Patricia; Weck, Philippe; Poineau, Frederic; Conradson, Steven

    2016-01-18

    We studied the speciation of pentavalent and hexavalent americium (Am) complexes in nitric acidicby X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), UV-visible spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results were consistent with the presence of a mixture of AmO2+ and AmO22+ with only a small amount AmO2 present. The resulting average bond distances we found were 1.71 Å for Am=O and 2.44 Å for Am-O. All-electron scalar relativistic calculations were also carried out using DFT to predict the equilibrium geometries and properties of the AmO2+ and AmO22+ aquo complexes. Calculated bond distances for the Am(VI) complex are in reasonable agreement with EXAFS data and the computed energy gaps between frontier molecular orbitals suggest a slightly higher kinetic stability and chemical hardness of Am(VI) compared to Am(V).

  17. Characterization of pentavalent and hexavalent americium complexes in nitric acid using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first-principles modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Riddle, Catherine; Czerwinski, Kenneth; Kim, Eunja; ...

    2016-01-18

    We studied the speciation of pentavalent and hexavalent americium (Am) complexes in nitric acidicby X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), UV-visible spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results were consistent with the presence of a mixture of AmO2+ and AmO22+ with only a small amount AmO2 present. The resulting average bond distances we found were 1.71 Å for Am=O and 2.44 Å for Am-O. All-electron scalar relativistic calculations were also carried out using DFT to predict the equilibrium geometries and properties of the AmO2+ and AmO22+ aquomore » complexes. Calculated bond distances for the Am(VI) complex are in reasonable agreement with EXAFS data and the computed energy gaps between frontier molecular orbitals suggest a slightly higher kinetic stability and chemical hardness of Am(VI) compared to Am(V).« less

  18. Recent advances in f-element separations based on a new method for the production of pentavalent americium in acidic solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2015-03-01

    The peroxydisulfate anion has long been used for the preparation of hexavalent americium (AmVI) from the normally stable AmIII valence state in mildly acidic solutions. However, there has been no satisfactory means to directly prepare the pentavalent state (AmV) in that medium. Some early literature reports indicated that the peroxydisulfate oxidation was incomplete, and silver ion catalysis in conjunction with peroxydisulfate became accepted as the means to ensure quantitative generation of AmVI. Incomplete oxidation would be expected to leave residual AmIII, or to produce AmV in treated solutions. However, until recently, the use of peroxydisulfate as an AmV reagent has not been reported. Here, parameters influencing the oxidation were investigated, including peroxydisulfate and acid concentration, temperature, duration of oxidative treatment, and the presence of higher concentrations of other redox active metals such as plutonium. Using optimized conditions determined here, quantitative AmV was prepared in an acidic solution and the UV/Vis extinction coefficients of the AmV 513 nm peak were measured over a range of nitric acid concentrations. The utility of AmV for separations from the lanthanides and curium by solvent extraction, organic column chromatography and inorganic ion exchangers was also investigated.

  19. Diluent and extractant effects on the enthalpy of extraction of uranium(VI) and americium(III) nitrates by trialkyl phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Sood, D.D.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of various diluents such as n-hexane, n-heptane n-octane, isooctane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene and o-dichlorobenzene on the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) over the temperature range 283 K--333 K has been studied. The results indicate that the enthalpy of extraction does not vary significantly with the diluents studied. Also enthalpies of extraction of uranyl nitrate and americium(III) nitrate by neutral organo phosphorous extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) and tri-n-hexyl phosphate (THP) have been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the trends, on the basis of the nature of the solvate formed and the different terms which contribute to the overall enthalpy change.

  20. The design of a multisource americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron irradiation facility using MCNP for the neutronic performance calculation.

    PubMed

    Sogbadji, R B M; Abrefah, R G; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Odoi, H C; Attakorah-Birinkorang, S

    2014-08-01

    The americium-beryllium neutron irradiation facility at the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), Ghana, was re-designed with four 20 Ci sources using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code to investigate the maximum amount of flux that is produced by the combined sources. The results were compared with a single source Am-Be irradiation facility. The main objective was to enable us to harness the maximum amount of flux for the optimization of neutron activation analysis and to enable smaller sample sized samples to be irradiated. Using MCNP for the design construction and neutronic performance calculation, it was realized that the single-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (1.8±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s and the four-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (5.4±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s which is a factor of 3.5 fold increase compared to the single-source Am-Be design. The criticality effective, k(eff), of the single-source and the four-source Am-Be designs were found to be 0.00115±0.0008 and 0.00143±0.0008, respectively.

  1. Americium(III) capture using phosphonic acid-functionalized silicas with different mesoporous morphologies: adsorption behavior study and mechanism investigation by EXAFS/XPS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; He, Xihong; Ye, Gang; Yi, Rong; Chen, Jing

    2014-06-17

    Efficient capture of highly toxic radionuclides with long half-lives such as Americium-241 is crucial to prevent radionuclides from diffusing into the biosphere. To reach this purpose, three different types of mesoporous silicas functionalized with phosphonic acid ligands (SBA-POH, MCM-POH, and BPMO-POH) were synthesized via a facile procedure. The structure, surface chemistry, and micromorphology of the materials were fully characterized by (31)P/(13)C/(29)Si MAS NMR, XPS, and XRD analysis. Efficient adsorption of Am(III) was realized with a fast rate to reach equilibrium (within 10 min). Influences including structural parameters and functionalization degree on the adsorption behavior were investigated. Slope analysis of the equilibrium data suggested that the coordination with Am(III) involved the exchange of three protons. Moreover, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, in combination with XPS survey, was employed for an in-depth probe into the binding mechanism by using Eu(III) as a simulant due to its similar coordination behavior and benign property. The results showed three phosphonic acid ligands were coordinated to Eu(III) in bidentate fashion, and Eu(P(O)O)3(H2O) species were formed with the Eu-O coordination number of 7. These phosphonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silicas should be promising for the treatment of Am-containing radioactive liquid waste.

  2. Assessment of the global fallout of plutonium isotopes and americium-241 in the soil of the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Al-Shammari, H L

    2001-01-01

    A radiochemical technique for determination of plutonium isotopes and 241Am in soil samples is tested against IAEA-standard reference materials to determine its accuracy and precision for reliable results. The technique is then used in the investigation of topsoil samples, collected from the natural environment of the central region of Saudi Arabia, to assess the effect of fallout accumulation of these radionuclides in the region. Plutonium and americium were sequentially separated from all other components of the sample by anion-exchange chromatography and co-precipitated with Nd3+ as fluorides. The precipitates were mounted on membrane filters and measured using a high-resolution alpha-spectrometer. The results of the analysis of the reference materials showed satisfactory sensitivity and precision of the technique. The results of the analyzed soil samples show activity levels ranging from < LLD to 0.089 and from

  3. Recent advances in f-element separations based on a new method for the production of pentavalent americium in acidic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Schmitt, Nicholas C.; Schuetz, Brian K.; Shehee, Thomas C.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-03-11

    The peroxydisulfate anion has long been used for the preparation of hexavalent americium (AmVI) from the normally stable AmIII valence state in mildly acidic solutions. However, there has been no satisfactory means to directly prepare the pentavalent state (AmV) in that medium. Some early literature reports indicated that the peroxydisulfate oxidation was incomplete, and silver ion catalysis in conjunction with peroxydisulfate became accepted as the means to ensure quantitative generation of AmVI. Incomplete oxidation would be expected to leave residual AmIII, or to produce AmV in treated solutions. However, until recently, the use of peroxydisulfate as an AmV reagent has not been reported. Here, parameters influencing the oxidation were investigated, including peroxydisulfate and acid concentration, temperature, duration of oxidative treatment, and the presence of higher concentrations of other redox active metals such as plutonium. Using optimized conditions determined here, quantitative AmV was prepared in an acidic solution and the UV/Vis extinction coefficients of the AmV 513 nm peak were measured over a range of nitric acid concentrations. Furthermore, the utility of AmV for separations from the lanthanides and curium by solvent extraction, organic column chromatography and inorganic ion exchangers was also investigated.

  4. Recent advances in f-element separations based on a new method for the production of pentavalent americium in acidic solution

    DOE PAGES

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Schmitt, Nicholas C.; Schuetz, Brian K.; ...

    2015-03-11

    The peroxydisulfate anion has long been used for the preparation of hexavalent americium (AmVI) from the normally stable AmIII valence state in mildly acidic solutions. However, there has been no satisfactory means to directly prepare the pentavalent state (AmV) in that medium. Some early literature reports indicated that the peroxydisulfate oxidation was incomplete, and silver ion catalysis in conjunction with peroxydisulfate became accepted as the means to ensure quantitative generation of AmVI. Incomplete oxidation would be expected to leave residual AmIII, or to produce AmV in treated solutions. However, until recently, the use of peroxydisulfate as an AmV reagent hasmore » not been reported. Here, parameters influencing the oxidation were investigated, including peroxydisulfate and acid concentration, temperature, duration of oxidative treatment, and the presence of higher concentrations of other redox active metals such as plutonium. Using optimized conditions determined here, quantitative AmV was prepared in an acidic solution and the UV/Vis extinction coefficients of the AmV 513 nm peak were measured over a range of nitric acid concentrations. Furthermore, the utility of AmV for separations from the lanthanides and curium by solvent extraction, organic column chromatography and inorganic ion exchangers was also investigated.« less

  5. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113

  6. Recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuum-sealed packages of frankfurters: comparison of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food safety and inspection service product composite enrichment method, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) product composite rinse method, and the USDA-ARS package rinse method.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto, Anna C S; Wallace, F Morgan; Call, Jeffrey E

    2002-03-01

    This study compared three methods for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from commercially prepared and vacuum-packaged frankfurters that were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of this pathogen at averages of 22 and 20,133 CFU per package over three trials. The presence and levels of the pathogen were determined by (i) the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) product composite enrichment method, involving the selective enrichment of a 25-g composite of product and the subsequent plating of this product onto selective agar plates; (ii) the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) product composite rinse method, involving the rinsing of a 25-g composite of product with 0.1% peptone water and the subsequent plating of a portion of the rinse fluid directly onto selective agar plates; and (iii) the USDA-ARS package rinse method, involving the use of 25 ml of 0.1% peptone water to rinse the entire contents of a package and the subsequent plating of a portion of the rinse fluid directly onto selective agar plates. For packages inoculated with 20,133 CFU. L. monocytogenes was recovered at a frequency (percentage of packages positive) of 100% by each of the three methods. The pathogen was recovered at efficiencies (percentages of recovery of L. monocytogenes) of 43 and 94% with the USDA-ARS product rinse method and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. For packages inoculated with 22 CFU, L. monocytogenes was recovered at frequencies of 17, 10, and 100% by the USDA-FSIS product composite enrichment method, the USDA-ARS product composite rinse method, and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. The pathogen was recovered at efficiencies of 20 and 95% with the USDA-ARS product composite rinse method and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. In a related study, the USDA-ARS package rinse method was the only method that detected the pathogen in 60 packages from each of five brands of frankfurters

  7. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  8. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2016-07-12

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  9. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  10. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  11. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  12. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  13. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  14. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time Reporting, Compensation Requirements AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time- Reporting, Compensation...

  15. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide.

  16. Transcontinental mourning dove recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Brian

    1971-01-01

    A Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) banded in New York has been reported shot in California. On 25 August 1969, near Palmyra (43°00' N, 77°10' W), New York Department of Environmental Conservation personnel placed U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service band 883-97279 on the leg of a hatching-year Mourning Dove of unknown sex. During the first weekend of the dove season in September 1970, Stan Solus (P.O. Box 594, Seiad Valley, California) recovered the band from a dove he shot in the Shasta Valley, Siskiyou County, California (41°30' N, 122°20' W). As Mr. Solus included the band with his reporting letter and, in response to my asking him for verification, reaffirmed his original information, the recovery has been accepted as authentic. I suggest this vagrancy may be explained by assuming that the inexperienced New York bird got emotionally involved with a western bird with which it shared winter quarters, perhaps in Mexico, and thus the following year ended up a flower child in California.

  17. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  18. Application of inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry for low-level environmental americium-241 analysis.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt

    2007-03-28

    An improved and novel sample preparation method for (241)Am analysis by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry has been developed. The procedure involves a selective CaF(2) pre-concentration followed by an extraction chromatographic separation using TRU resin. The achieved absolute detection limit of 0.86 fg (0.11 mBq) is comparable to that of alpha spectrometry (0.1 mBq) and suitable for low-level environmental measurements. Analysis of different kinds of environmental standard reference materials (IAEA-384--Fangataufa lagoon sediment, IAEA-385--Irish Sea sediment and IAEA-308--Mixed seaweed from the Mediterranean Sea) and alpha spectrometry were used to validate the procedure. The chemical recovery of sample preparation ranged between 72 and 94%. The results obtained are in good agreement with reference values and those measured by alpha spectrometry. The proposed method offers a rapid and less labor-intensive possibility for environmental (241)Am analysis than the conventionally applied radioanalytical techniques.

  19. 75 FR 56131 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, announce the availability of the Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix...

  20. Complexation of lanthanides(III), americium(III), and uranium(VI) with bitopic N,O ligands: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Guillaumont, Dominique; Tosseng, Arnaud; Berthon, Claude; Guilbaud, Philippe; Duvail, Magali; Bisson, Julia; Guillaneux, Denis; Pipelier, Muriel; Dubreuil, Didier

    2011-07-18

    New functionalized terpyridine-diamide ligands were recently developed for the group actinide separation by solvent extraction. In order to acquire a better understanding of their coordination mode in solution, protonation and complexation of lanthanides(III), americium(III), and uranium(VI) with these bitopic N,O-bearing ligands were studied in homogeneous methanol/water conditions by experimental and theoretical approaches. UV-visible spectrophotometry was used to determine the protonation and stability constants of te-tpyda and dedp-tpyda. The conformations of free and protonated forms of te-tpyda were investigated using NMR and theoretical calculations. The introduction of amide functional groups on the terpyridine moiety improved the extracting properties of these new ligands by lowering their basicity and enhancing the stability of the corresponding 1:1 complexes with lanthanides(III). Coordination of these ligands was studied by density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations, especially to evaluate potential participation of hard oxygen and soft nitrogen atoms in actinide coordination and to correlate with their affinity and selectivity. Two predominant inner-sphere coordination modes were found from the calculations: one mode where the cation is coordinated by the nitrogen atoms of the cavity and by the amide oxygen atoms and the other mode where the cation is only coordinated by the two amide oxygen atoms and by solvent molecules. Further simulations and analysis of UV-visible spectra using both coordination modes indicate that inner-sphere coordination with direct complexation of the three nitrogen and two oxygen atoms to the cation leads to the most likely species in a methanol/water solution.

  1. Promoting recovery through peer support: possibilities for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Loumpa, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    The Recovery Approach has been adopted by mental health services worldwide and peer support constitutes one of the main elements of recovery-based services. This article discusses the relevancy of recovery and peer support to mental health social work practice through an exploration of social work ethics and values. Furthermore, it provides an exploration of how peer support can be maximized in groupwork to assist the social work clinician to promote recovery and well-being. More specifically, this article discusses how the narrative therapy concepts of "retelling" and "witnessing" can be used in the context of peer support to promote recovery, and also how social constructionist, dialogical, and systemic therapy approaches can assist the social work practitioner to enhance peer support in recovery oriented groupwork. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. EPA Recovery Mapper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) award that EPA has funded for six programs. By integrating data reported by the recipients of Recovery Act funding and data created by EPA, this application delivers a level of transparency and public accessibility to users interested in EPA's use of Recovery Act monies. The application is relatively easy to use and builds on the same mapping model as Google, Bing, MapQuest and other commonly used mapping interfaces. EPA Recovery Mapper tracks each award made by each program and gives basic Quick Facts information for each award including award name, location, award date, dollar amounts and more. Data Summaries for each EPA program or for each state are provided displaying dollars for Total Awarded, Total Received (Paid), and Total Jobs This Quarter by Recovery for the latest quarter of data released by Recovery.gov. The data are reported to the government and EPA four times a year by the award recipients. The latest quarterly report will always be displayed in the EPA Recovery Mapper. In addition, the application provides many details about each award. Users will learn more about how to access and interpret these data later in this document. Data shown in the EPA Recovery Mapper are derived from information reported back to FederalReporting.gov from the recipients of Recovery Act funding. EPA

  3. A review of mental health recovery programs in selected industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold A; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Sara, Grant; Goldner, Elliot M; Prince, Pamela N; Ramanuj, Parashar; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Großimlinghaus, Isabell; Wrigley, Margo; van Weeghel, Jaap; Smith, Mark; Ruud, Torleif; Mitchell, John R; Patton, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The concept of recovery has gained increasing attention and many mental health systems have taken steps to move towards more recovery oriented practice and service structures. This article represents a description of current recovery-oriented programs in participating countries including recovery measurement tools. Although there is growing acceptance that recovery needs to be one of the key domains of quality in mental health care, the implementation and delivery of recovery oriented services and corresponding evaluation strategies as an integral part of mental health care have been lacking.

  4. Exploring the concept of recovery in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Gamble, C

    2005-04-01

    The concept of recovery in psychosis has gained much momentum in recent years in the UK. Current government policy describes its underpinning philosophy as the way forward for mental health services. Many mental health professionals now claim to embrace this concept yet fail to make the desired impact upon the care and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. This article reviews some of the literature and explores what the concept of recovery means. The formal evidence will be augmented with personal accounts about recovery written by individuals who have schizophrenia. In doing so the main components that appear to have influenced the recovery process will be highlighted, and the implications for mental health nurses and practitioners will be discussed.

  5. Social Stressors at Work, Sleep, and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Diana; Gross, Sven; Elfering, Achim

    2016-03-01

    Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years from the date of award of a capital grant, the grant recipient has withdrawn from the VA Homeless... status within 3 years from the time of award. Grantee B then provides services to homeless veterans for...

  7. Recovery of evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M

    2013-02-01

    Consumer recovery is now enshrined in the national mental health policy of many countries. If this construct, which stems from the consumer/user/survivor movement, is truly to be the official and formal goal of mental health services, then it must be the yardstick against which evidence-based practice (EBP) is judged. From a consumer-recovery perspective, this paper re-examines aspects of services chosen for study, methodologies, outcomes measures, and standards of evidence associated with EBP, those previously having been identified as deficient and in need of expansion. One of the significant differences between previous investigations and the present study is that the work, writing, perspectives, and advocacy of the consumer movement has developed to such a degree that we now have a much more extensive body of material upon which to critique EBP and inform and support the expansion of EBP. Our examination reinforces previous findings and the ongoing need for expansion. The consumer recovery-focused direction, resources, frameworks, and approaches identified through the present paper should be used to expand the aspects of services chosen for study, methodologies, outcomes measures, and standards of evidence. This expansion will ultimately enable services to practice in a manner consistent with the key characteristics of supporting personal recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. 12 CFR 712.5 - What activities and services are preapproved for CUSOs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... processing; (7) Wire transfer services; and (8) Cyber financial services; (f) Financial counseling services... union; (k) Record retention, security and disaster recovery services: (1) Alarm-monitoring and other security services; (2) Disaster recovery services; (3) Microfilm, microfiche, optical and electronic...

  9. Core dimensions of recovery: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sarah E; Ellis, Pete M; Siegert, Richard J; Walkey, Frank H

    2014-07-01

    Core recovery dimensions lie between the large general factor of recovery and its underlying components. Identifying these could enhance recovery frameworks, practice and research. In contrast to existing conceptually based taxonomies, we sought to empirically identify the core dimensions of recovery through further psychometric analysis of a robust eleven factor (sub-scale) consumer recovery outcome measure, My Voice, My Life. We subjected the sub-scale scores of 504 consumers to further principal components analyses, beginning with a single unrotated factor and progressing through two to nine factors with varimax rotation. We found the five-factor solution to provide an orderly intermediate configuration with the eleven recovery factors having either aligned and/or disengaged through the process to result in the following core dimensions: (1) Belonging and relating (encompassing the individual factors of spirituality, culture, and relationships); (2) Being and doing (encompassing the individual factors of physical health, day-to-day life, and quality of life); (3) Thinking and feeling (encompassing the individual factors of recovery, mental health, and hope and empowerment); (4) Resources (which maintained its independence); and (5) Satisfaction with Services (which also maintained its independence). We compare this empirical configuration with conceptually based taxonomies.

  10. Recovery in Canada: Toward social equality

    PubMed Central

    PIAT, MYRA; SABETTI, JUDITH

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews evolution of the recovery paradigm in Canadian mental health. We first trace the origins and development of the recovery concept through the literature, followed by an examination of how the recovery concept has been implemented in national and provincial mental health policy since publication of the 2006 Kirby Commission Report. Based on consultations with Canadian policymakers, and an examination of available policy documents, we explore how the dual theme of ‘recovery’ and ‘well-being’, adopted by the Mental Health Commission of Canada in its 2009 strategy: Toward Recovery and Well-being - A Framework For a Mental Health Strategy has subsequently played out in mental health policymaking at the provincial level. Findings reveal mixed support for recovery as a guiding principle for mental health reform in Canada. While policies in some provinces reflect widespread support for recovery, and strong identification with the aspirations of the consumer movement; other provinces have shifted to population-based, wellness paradigms that privilege evidence-based services and professional expertise. The recognition of social equality for people who experience mental illness emerges as an important value in Canadian mental health policy, cutting across the conceptual divide between recovery and well-being. PMID:22385423

  11. Access to Recovery and Recidivism among Former Prison Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Bradley; Grommon, Eric; Buchanan, Victoria; Brown, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Access to Recovery (ATR) is a SAMHSA-funded initiative that offers a mix of clinical and supportive services for substance abuse. ATR clients choose which services will help to overcome barriers in their road to recovery, and a recovery consultant provides vouchers and helps link the client to these community resources. One of ATR's goals was to provide services to those involved in the criminal justice system in the hopes that addressing substance abuse issues could reduce subsequent criminal behaviors. This study examines this goal by looking at recidivism among a sample of clients in one state's ATR program who returned to the community after incarceration. Results suggest there were few differential effects of service selections on subsequent recidivism. However, there are significant differences in recidivism rates among the agencies that provided ATR services. Agencies with more resources and a focus on prisoner reentry had better recidivism outcomes than those that focus only on substance abuse services. PMID:26385191

  12. Recovery and Money Management

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L.; Ablondi, Karen; Wilbur, Charles; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Methods Twenty-five transcripts out of forty-nine total qualitative interviews with persons receiving SSI or SSDI who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. Results The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Money management interventions should incorporate peoples’ recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one’s finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client’s recovery-related goals. PMID:23750764

  13. Recovery and money management.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comparative Assessment of U.S. Marine Corps Disaster Recovery Plans for Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Marine Corps were obtained from two Regional Automated Services Centers at Marine Corps Bases C’mp Pendleton, California, and Camp Lejeune, North...Regional Automated Services Center disaster recovery plan. 4 I’ * INDUSTRY PLANS FOR DISASTER RECOVERY PLANNING A. OVERVIEW Review of industry plans...DISASTER PLANNING A. DISCUSSION The disaster recovery plans that were reviewed were obtained from the Regional Automated Services Centers at Marine

  15. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Capital Recovery Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and…

  16. 7 CFR 227.41 - Recovery of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recovery of funds. 227.41 Section 227.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NUTRITION EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 227.41 Recovery of...

  17. 75 FR 27705 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... 0648-XV18 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Draft Recovery Plan for Central California Coast coho salmon (Draft Plan). In the ADDRESSES portion of... following identifier: Comments on Central Valley Salmon and Steelhead Draft Plan. We should have requested...

  18. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed commercial... requirements for resource assessment and logical mining unit (§ 971.501); (6) A description of the methods...

  19. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed commercial... requirements for resource assessment and logical mining unit (§ 971.501); (6) A description of the methods...

  20. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed commercial... requirements for resource assessment and logical mining unit (§ 971.501); (6) A description of the methods...