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Sample records for amide attenuates allergic

  1. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  2. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun Ho; Jin, Guang Yu; Guo, Hui Shu; Piao, Hong Mei; Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao; Lin, Zhen Hua; Yan, Guang Hai

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  3. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  4. Topical levamisole hydrochloride therapy attenuates experimental murine allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyao; Zhang, Jiali; Gao, Chunsheng; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Chen; Zheng, Wenjie

    2007-12-22

    Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common chronic diseases. There are a number of effective therapeutic options for allergic rhinitis patients, such as intranasal corticosteroids. How to avoid the adverse effects of these traditional medicines has come to public attention and started the search for effective and safe medicine. We used BALB/c mice with experimental allergic rhinitis, and determined that levamisole delivered locally (intranasal, i.n.) could attenuate early-phase inflammatory response, decrease histamine, suppress edema and eosinophil infiltration, and diminish the ovalbumin-specific serum IgE level. Detailed analysis of cytokine gene expression showed that levamisole can decrease IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA and increase IL-12, IL-18 and IFN-gamma mRNA. Levamisole showed analogous effects of down-regulating Th2 cytokines with budesonide and distinct up-regulating effects on Th1 cytokines gene expression. Our findings offer potential options for allergic rhinitis therapy.

  5. Galangin attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Bae, Yunju; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. In this study, we investigated anti-allergic inflammatory effect of galangin and underlying mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo models. Galangin inhibited histamine release by the reduction of intracellular calcium in phorbol 12-mystate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Galangin decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and IL-8. The inhibitory effect of galangin on theses pro-inflammatory cytokines was related with c-Jun N-terminal kinases, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and caspase-1. Furthermore, galangin attenuated IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and the expression of histamine receptor 1 at the inflamed tissue. The inhibitory effects of galangin were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Our results showed that galangin down-regulates mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In light of in vitro and in vivo anti-allergic inflammatory effects, galangin could be a beneficial anti-allergic inflammatory agent.

  6. Superoxide dismutase 3 attenuates experimental Th2-driven allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Shin, Soojung; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Chung, So-Hyang

    2017-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory eye disease mediated by Th2 type immune response. The role of extracellular superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) in immune response and allergic conjunctival inflammation was examined in a murine model for experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC). Allergic conjunctivitis was induced in mice by allergen challenge with ovalbumin in alum via the conjunctival sac. SOD3 was topically applied and allergy indicators were compared. Clinical signs associated with conjunctivitis, such as OVA-specific IgE production, IgG1/G2a ratio and eosinophil infiltration, were drastically reduced in mice treated with SOD3. They also had less dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells in conjunctiva than controls. Attenuated allergic inflammation was accredited to reduced Th2 type cytokine responses and increased Treg cytokine in draining lymph node. The characteristics of EAC were attributed to the absence of SOD3. Our findings suggest that SOD3 might be considered as a potential target for Th2-driven allergic conjunctival inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  8. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY:
    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 signalling attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Chung, S-H; Choi, S H; Cho, K J; Joo, C-K

    2011-05-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis from an allergen-driven T helper type 2 (Th2) response is characterized by conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Association between signalling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and adaptive immune responses has been observed in allergic airway disease. We examined whether administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a prototypic bacterial product that activates immune cells via TLR-4, could affect the development of allergic conjunctivitis and modify the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen in an experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model. Mice were challenged with two doses of OVA via conjunctival sac after systemic challenge with OVA in alum. Several indicators for allergy were evaluated in wild-type and TLR-4(-/-) mice with or without adding of different doses of LPS into OVA in alum. Mice challenged with OVA via conjunctival sac following systemic challenge with OVA in alum had severe allergic conjunctivitis. Of interest, LPS administration markedly suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated and eosinophil-dependent conjunctival inflammation. In addition, mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS had less interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and eotaxin secretion than mice sensitized with OVA only. The suppression of allergic response by LPS administration was due to Th1 shift. In contrast, the presence of LPS during sensitization with OVA had no effect on severity of allergic conjunctivitis and Th2 responses in TLR4-4(-/-) mice. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LPS suppresses Th2 responses via the TLR-4-dependent pathway in the EAC model. © 2011 The Authors; Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 signalling attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S-H; Choi, S H; Cho, K J; Joo, C-K

    2011-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis from an allergen-driven T helper type 2 (Th2) response is characterized by conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Association between signalling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and adaptive immune responses has been observed in allergic airway disease. We examined whether administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a prototypic bacterial product that activates immune cells via TLR-4, could affect the development of allergic conjunctivitis and modify the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen in an experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model. Mice were challenged with two doses of OVA via conjunctival sac after systemic challenge with OVA in alum. Several indicators for allergy were evaluated in wild-type and TLR-4−/− mice with or without adding of different doses of LPS into OVA in alum. Mice challenged with OVA via conjunctival sac following systemic challenge with OVA in alum had severe allergic conjunctivitis. Of interest, LPS administration markedly suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated and eosinophil-dependent conjunctival inflammation. In addition, mice sensitized with OVA plus LPS had less interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and eotaxin secretion than mice sensitized with OVA only. The suppression of allergic response by LPS administration was due to Th1 shift. In contrast, the presence of LPS during sensitization with OVA had no effect on severity of allergic conjunctivitis and Th2 responses in TLR4-4−/− mice. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LPS suppresses Th2 responses via the TLR-4-dependent pathway in the EAC model. PMID:21391988

  11. Astragalin Attenuates Allergic Inflammation in a Murine Asthma Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Cheng, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Shuxian; Hu, Zongmiao; Zhou, Chunmei; Zhang, Enhu; Ma, Shiping

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of astragalin (AG) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Our study demonstrated that AG inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IgE were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that AG substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Western blot analysis demonstrated that AG treatments markedly inhibited OVA-induced SOCS-3 expression and enhancement of SOCS-5 expression in an asthma model. Our findings support the possible use of AG as a therapeutic drug for patients with allergic asthma.

  12. Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products attenuate allergic lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jitka S; Nørgaard, Asger W; Koponen, Ismo K; Sørli, Jorid B; Paidi, Maya D; Hansen, Søren W K; Clausen, Per Axel; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Wolkoff, Peder; Larsen, Søren Thor

    2016-11-01

    Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene, is used as a fragrance in numerous consumer products. When limonene reacts with the pulmonary irritant ozone, a complex mixture of gas and particle phase products is formed, which causes sensory irritation. This study investigated whether limonene, ozone or the reaction mixture can exacerbate allergic lung inflammation and whether airway irritation is enhanced in allergic BALB/cJ mice. Naïve and allergic (ovalbumin sensitized) mice were exposed via inhalation for three consecutive days to clean air, ozone, limonene or an ozone-limonene reaction mixture. Sensory and pulmonary irritation was investigated in addition to ovalbumin-specific antibodies, inflammatory cells, total protein and surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and hemeoxygenase-1 and cytokines in lung tissue. Overall, airway allergy was not exacerbated by any of the exposures. In contrast, it was found that limonene and the ozone-limonene reaction mixture reduced allergic inflammation possibly due to antioxidant properties. Ozone induced sensory irritation in both naïve and allergic mice. However, allergic but not naïve mice were protected from pulmonary irritation induced by ozone. This study showed that irritation responses might be modulated by airway allergy. However, aggravation of allergic symptoms was observed by neither exposure to ozone nor exposure to ozone-initiated limonene reaction products. In contrast, anti-inflammatory properties of the tested limonene-containing pollutants might attenuate airway allergy.

  13. Attenuated allergic inflammatory response in the lungs during lactation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Amaya, Julieta E; Marino, Larissa P; Tobaruela, Carla N; Namazu, Lilian B; Calefi, Atilio S; Margatho, Rafael; Gonçalves, Vagner; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Klein, Marianne O; Palermo-Neto, João; de Oliveira, Ana P Ligeiro; de O Massoco, Cristina; Felicio, Luciano F

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the influence of lactation on lung immune function during allergic inflammation. Female rats, 60-90days old, were divided into three groups: no lung allergy virgins (N group), ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized and sensitized virgins (V group), and OVA-immunized and sensitized lactating females (L group). On gestation day (GD) 10, all animals in L group received a subcutaneous injection of 0.1mg·kg(-1) OVA plus aluminum hydroxide. On GD17, the L group received a subcutaneous booster injection of 10μg OVA plus 10mg aluminum hydroxide. After 7days, an inhalatory challenge with 1% OVA was given in 15min sessions for 3 consecutive days. Animals from the V group received the same treatment, meaning both tests and time intervals between OVA treatment and inhalatory challenge were the same as in the L group. Twenty-four hours after the last inhalation session, the animals were euthanized, and the following tests were performed: total and differential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and femoral marrow lavage (FML) leukocyte counts, quantification of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) levels in BAL fluid, and quantification of plasma corticosterone and catecholamine levels. The L group presented lower BAL total leukocyte counts and decreases in the number of eosinophils and macrophages compared with the V group. They also expressed higher BAL IFN-γ and lower plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in the L group than in the N and V groups. Lactating female rats presented less intense allergic lung inflammation. Our findings suggest that lactation may protect females from asthmatic crises. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycation of clinically relevant chickpea allergen attenuates its allergic immune response in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Raghav, Alok; Sharma, Akanksha; Gupta, Kriti; Neelabh; Mandal, Payal; Tripathi, Anurag; Ansari, Irfan Ahmad; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2017-11-15

    Glycation of food allergens may alter their immunological behaviour. We sought to investigate the impact of glycation on the allergenicity of a food protein. Herein, a chickpea protein (≈26kDa) was purified and characterized as lectin. Further, glycation of this purified protein was carried out. Thereafter, allergic behaviour of this glycated protein was compared with its native form, using various allergic parameters in Balb/c mice. The reduced allergenicity of glycated protein was observed as lesser allergic phenotypes, reduced serum immunoglobulins and allergic mediators, lower mast cells and eosinophil counts, lower protein expressions of Th2 cytokines and associated transcription factors. In addition, more Th1 and less Th2 cytokine production in exposed splenocyte, were evident in the glycated protein treated mice as compared to its native protein treatment. Thus, glycation of the chickpea allergen attenuated the sensitizing potential and allergic responses in Balb/c mice significantly and could also be clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuated allergic airway inflammation in Cd39 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Idzko, Marco; Ayata, C. Korcan; Müller, Tobias; Dürk, Thorsten; Grimm, Melanie; Baudiß, Kristin; Vieira, Rodolfo P.; Cicko, Sanja; Boehlke, Christopher; Zech, Andreas; Sorichter, Stephan; Pelletier, Julie; Sévigny, Jean; Robson, Simon C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracellular ATP is known to accumulate in the lung, following allergen challenge, and contributes via activation of purinergic receptors on dendritic cells (DC), to the development of allergic airway inflammation (AAI). Extracellular ATP-levels in the airways are normally tightly regulated by CD39. This ectonucleotidase is highly expressed by DC purified from skin (Langerhans cells) and bone marrow, and has been shown to modulate DC adaptive/haptenic immune responses. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of Cd39 deletion and associated perturbation of purinergic signaling in AAI. Methods Standard OVA-alum and house dust mite (HDM) bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) dependent models of AAI were used to study effects of Cd39. Migration assays, time lapse microscopy and T-cell priming assays were further used to determine functional relevance of Cd39 expression on BMDC in the setting of immune and Th2-mediated responses in these models. Results Cd39−/− mice exhibited marked increases in BALF ATP-levels but paradoxically exhibited limited AAI in both OVA-alum and HDM models. These pathophysiological abnormalities were associated with decreased myeloid DC activation and chemotaxis towards ATP, and were linked to purinergic receptor desensitization responses. Further, Cd39−/− DCs exhibited limited capacity to both prime Th2-responses and form stable immune synaptic interactions with OVA-transgenic naïve T-cells. Conclusions Cd39-deficient DCs exhibit limited capacity to induce Th2 immunity in a DC-driven model of AAI in vivo. Our data demonstrate a role of CD39 and perturbed purinergic signaling in models of AAI, PMID:23452076

  16. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  17. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  18. Doxycycline exerts multiple anti-allergy effects to attenuate murine allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Han, Longhui; Huang, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Allergic diseases, which affect up to 20-30% of the world population, are still therapeutic challenge for allergists. Tetracyclines, which belong to an antibiotic drug family that possesses a striking variety of non-antibiotic properties, have been successfully applied to a wide range of diseases. However, their roles in allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis and their underlying anti-allergy mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reported that treatment with doxycycline significantly reduced IgE release from mouse B cells and the degranulation and inflammatory cytokines production of mouse mast cells (MCs) activated by IgE-dependent way. Furthermore, doxycycline treatment significantly inhibited histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro. Mechanistically, the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs and histamine may occur via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vivo, our results demonstrated that treatment with doxycycline significantly attenuated clinical symptoms of mouse models of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, IgE production, histamine release, and a decrease in TNF-α and IL-4 production. Using mouse models of MCs-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), we further confirmed anti-allergy effects of doxycycline and doxycycline-mediated inhibitory effects on MCs. Furthermore, our results showed that doxycycline significantly attenuate histamine-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction (HISA) with a significantly downregulation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VE-cadherin pathway. The doxycycline-mediated anti-allergy effects during EAC, PSA and HISA were abrogated when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. These findings suggest that doxycycline inhibits B cell, MC and histamine function and attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis by possible modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  19. Adoptive transfer of induced-Treg cells effectively attenuates murine airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Lan, Qin; Chen, Maogen; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Julie; Fan, Huimin; Yan, Chun-Song; Kuang, Jiu-Long; Warburton, David; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Ryffel, Bernhard; Zheng, Song-Guo; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Both nature and induced regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes are potent regulators of autoimmune and allergic disorders. Defects in endogenous Treg cells have been reported in patients with allergic asthma, suggesting that disrupted Treg cell-mediated immunological regulation may play an important role in airway allergic inflammation. In order to determine whether adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells generated in vitro can be used as an effective therapeutic approach to suppress airway allergic inflammation, exogenously induced Treg cells were infused into ovalbumin-sensitized mice prior to or during intranasal ovalbumin challenge. The results showed that adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells prior to allergen challenge markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, mucus hyper-production, airway remodeling, and IgE levels. This effect was associated with increase of Treg cells (CD4(+)FoxP3(+)) and decrease of dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes, and with reduction of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell response as compared to the controls. Moreover, adoptive transfer of induced Treg cells during allergen challenge also effectively attenuate airway inflammation and improve airway function, which are comparable to those by natural Treg cell infusion. Therefore, adoptive transfer of in vitro induced Treg cells may be a promising therapeutic approach to prevent and treat severe asthma.

  20. Oral supplementation with areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arecae semen, the dried slice of areca nuts, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat intestinal parasitosis, rectal tenesmus and diarrhea. Areca nuts contain a rich amount of polyphenols that have been shown to modulate the functionality of mast cells and T cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polyphenol-enriched areca nut extracts (PANE) against food allergy, a T cell-mediated immune disorder. Methods BALB/c mice were left untreated or administered with PANE (0.05% and 0.1%) via drinking water throughout the entire experiment. The mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) twice by intraperitoneal injection, and then repeatedly challenged with OVA by gavage to induce food allergic responses. Results PANE administration attenuated OVA-induced allergic responses, including the occurrence of diarrhea and the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells in the duodenum. The serum level of OVA-specific IgE and the expression of interleukin-4 in the duodenum were suppressed by PANE treatment. In addition, PANE administration induced Gr-1+, IL-10+ and Gr-1+IL-10+ cells in the duodenum. Conclusion These results demonstrate that oral intake of areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses accompanied with a decreased Th2 immunity and an enhanced induction of functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells. PMID:23816049

  1. Attenuated allergic responses to house dust mite antigen in feed-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, W; Kari, F W; Selgrade, M K; Gilmour, M I

    2000-12-01

    Caloric restriction has been shown to alter a broad range of immunological end points in both experimental animals and humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term moderate feed restriction (25% reduction) on allergic immune responses in Brown Norway rats. After 3 weeks of acclimation to their feed regimens, rats were sensitized and 2 weeks later challenged with house dust mite (HDM) antigen via intratracheal instillation. Feed restriction resulted in lower levels of antigen-specific IgE in serum and reduced antigen specific lymphoproliferative activity in pulmonary lymph nodes. Feed restriction also attenuated pulmonary inflammation, as evidenced by lower levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total protein, decreased infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha] in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, feed restriction decreased TNF-[alpha] secretion in serum and decreased mRNA expression of TNF-[alpha] and interleukin-6 in pulmonary lymph nodes. We conclude that feed restriction strongly dampened the allergic immune responses to HDM in rats and that this attenuation was associated with decreased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Oxidized cellulose binding to allergens with a carbohydrate-binding module attenuates allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Shani, Nir; Shani, Ziv; Shoseyov, Oded; Mruwat, Rufayda; Shoseyov, David

    2011-01-15

    Grass and mite allergens are of the main causes of allergy and asthma. A carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) represents a common motif to groups I (β-expansin) and II/III (expansin-like) grass allergens and is suggested to mediate allergen-IgE binding. House dust mite group II allergen (Der p 2 and Der f 2) structures bear strong similarity to expansin's CBM, suggesting their ability to bind carbohydrates. Thus, this study proposes the design of a carbohydrate-based treatment in which allergen binding to carbohydrate particles will promote allergen airway clearance and prevent allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to identify a polysaccharide with high allergen-binding capacities and to explore its ability to prevent allergy. Oxidized cellulose (OC) demonstrated allergen-binding capacities toward grass and mite allergens that surpassed those of any other polysaccharide examined in this study. Furthermore, inhalant preparations of OC microparticles attenuated allergic lung inflammation in rye grass-sensitized Brown Norway rats and OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Fluorescently labeled OC efficiently cleared from the mouse airways and body organs. Moreover, long-term administration of OC inhalant to Wistar rats did not result in toxicity. In conclusion, many allergens, such as grass and dust mite, contain a common CBM motif. OC demonstrates a strong and relatively specific allergen-binding capacity to CBM-containing allergens. OC's ability to attenuate allergic inflammation, together with its documented safety record, forms a firm basis for its application as an alternative treatment for prevention and relief of allergy and asthma.

  3. Attenuated allergic airway hyperresponsiveness in C57BL/6 mice is associated with enhanced surfactant protein (SP)-D production following allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Atochina, Elena N; Beers, Michael F; Tomer, Yaniv; Scanlon, Seth T; Russo, Scott J; Panettieri, Reynold A; Haczku, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Background C57BL/6 mice have attenuated allergic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when compared with Balb/c mice but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. SP-D, an innate immune molecule with potent immunosuppressive activities may have an important modulatory role in the allergic airway response and the consequent physiological changes. We hypothesized that an elevated SP-D production is associated with the impaired ability of C57BL/6 mice to develop allergic AHR. Methods SP-D mRNA and protein expression was investigated during development of allergic airway changes in a model of Aspergillus fumigatus (Af)-induced allergic inflammation. To study whether strain dependency of allergic AHR is associated with different levels of SP-D in the lung, Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice were compared. Results Sensitization and exposure to Af induced significant airway inflammation in both mouse strains in comparison with naïve controls. AHR to acetylcholine however was significantly attenuated in C57BL/6 mice in spite of increased eosinophilia and serum IgE when compared with Balb/c mice (p < 0.05). Af challenge of sensitized C57BL/6 mice induced a markedly increased SP-D protein expression in the SA surfactant fraction (1,894 ± 170% of naïve controls) that was 1.5 fold greater than the increase in Balb/c mice (1,234 ± 121% p < 0.01). These changes were selective since levels of the hydrophobic SP-B and SP-C and the hydrophilic SP-A were significantly decreased following sensitization and challenge with Af in both strains. Further, sensitized and exposed C57BL/6 mice had significantly lower IL-4 and IL-5 in the BAL fluid than that of Balb/c mice (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that enhanced SP-D production in the lung of C57BL/6 mice may contribute to an attenuated AHR in response to allergic airway sensitization. SP-D may act by inhibiting synthesis of Th2 cytokines. PMID:14748931

  4. Sesamin attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangchang; Piao, Hongmei; Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Zhewu; Zhao, Liguang; Yan, Guanghai

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the role of sesamin, the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil, on the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. A BALB/c mouse model with allergic asthma was used to evaluate the effects of sesamin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine histological changes. Moreover, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins in tissues. Prior to administering sesamin, the mice developed the following pathophysiological features of asthma: An increase in the number of inflammatory cells, increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, decreased levels of interferon-γ in BAL fluids and lung tissues, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and an increased activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Following treatment with sesamin, the mice had evidently reduced peribronchiolar inflammation and airway inflammatory cell recruitment, inhibited production of several cytokines in BAL fluids and lung tissues, and decreased IgE levels. Following inhalation of ovalbumin, the administration of sesamin also inhibited the activation of NF-κB. In addition, sesamin administration reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The present study demonstrates that sesamin decreases the activation of NF-κB in order to attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma, possibly via the regulation of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These observations provide an important molecular mechanism for the potential use of sesamin in preventing and/or treating asthma, as well as other airway inflammatory disorders.

  5. Sesamin attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangchang; Piao, Hongmei; Zheng, Mingyu; Jin, Zhewu; Zhao, Liguang; Yan, Guanghai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the role of sesamin, the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil, on the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model. A BALB/c mouse model with allergic asthma was used to evaluate the effects of sesamin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to examine histological changes. Moreover, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins in tissues. Prior to administering sesamin, the mice developed the following pathophysiological features of asthma: An increase in the number of inflammatory cells, increased levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, decreased levels of interferon-γ in BAL fluids and lung tissues, increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in the serum and an increased activation of NF-κB in lung tissues. Following treatment with sesamin, the mice had evidently reduced peribronchiolar inflammation and airway inflammatory cell recruitment, inhibited production of several cytokines in BAL fluids and lung tissues, and decreased IgE levels. Following inhalation of ovalbumin, the administration of sesamin also inhibited the activation of NF-κB. In addition, sesamin administration reduced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The present study demonstrates that sesamin decreases the activation of NF-κB in order to attenuate allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma, possibly via the regulation of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These observations provide an important molecular mechanism for the potential use of sesamin in preventing and/or treating asthma, as well as other airway inflammatory disorders. PMID:28105144

  6. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  7. BLOCKADE OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR (NGF) RECEPTOR TRKA ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Recent studies have shown that asthmatics have increased levels of the neurotrophin, NGF, in their lungs. In addition, antibody blockade of NGF in mice attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses. DEP has been linked to asthma exacerbation in many c...

  8. Deguelin Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation via Inhibition of NF-κb Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhang; Zhang, Pei; Yao, Yinan; Lu, Guohua; Tong, Zhongkai; Yan, Bing; Tu, Lingfang; Yang, Guangdie; Zhou, Jianying

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, resulting in a substantial economic burden on both patients and society. Deguelin, a constituent of the Leguminosae family, exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in cancer mice models via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that deguelin effectively reduced OVA-induced inflammatory cell recruitment, decreased lung tissue inflammation and mucus production, suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness, and inhibited serum immunoglobulin and Th2 cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner in asthmatic mice. In addition, we found that deguelin reduced inflammatory gene expressions both in vivo and in vitro, which were closely associated with activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, we further explored the underlying mechanisms of deguelin in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Our results suggested that deguelin inhibited NF-κB binding activity by enhancing the ability of IκBα to maintain NF-κB in an inactive form in the cytoplasm and preventing the TNF-α induced translocation of p65 to the nucleus. In conclusion, our research indicates that deguelin attenuates allergic airway inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB pathway in mice model and may act as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with allergic airway inflammation. PMID:28529457

  9. Impaired mast cell maturation and degranulation and attenuated allergic responses in Ndrg1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Sunaga, Kohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Arata, Satoru; Okuda, Tomohiko; Moon, Tae-Chul; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Makoto; Kudo, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    We have previously reported that N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is an early inducible protein during the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) toward a connective tissue mast cell-like phenotype. To clarify the function of NDRG1 in mast cells and allergic responses, we herein analyzed mast cell-associated phenotypes of mice lacking the Ndrg1 gene. Allergic responses including IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylactic reactions were markedly attenuated in Ndrg1-deficient mice as compared with those in wild-type mice. In Ndrg1-deficient mice, dermal and peritoneal mast cells were decreased in number and morphologically abnormal with impaired degranulating ability. Ex vivo, Ndrg1-deficient BMMCs cocultured with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of stem cell factor, a condition that facilitates the maturation of BMMCs toward a CTMC-like phenotype, displayed less exocytosis than replicate wild-type cells after the cross-linking of FcepsilonRI or stimulation with compound 48/80, even though the exocytotic response of IL-3-maintained, immature BMMCs from both genotypes was comparable. Unlike degranulation, the production of leukotriene and cytokines by cocultured BMMCs was unaffected by NDRG1 deficiency. Taken together, the altered phenotypes of Ndrg1-deficient mast cells both in vivo and ex vivo suggest that NDRG1 has roles in the terminal maturation and effector function (degranulation) of mast cells.

  10. Attenuation of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma by silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Keun Hwa; Jang, Sunhyae; Park, Ji Won; Cha, Hye Rim; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Ju Ock; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Choong Sik; Kim, Joo Pyung; Jung, Sung Soo

    2010-01-01

    The use of silver in the past demonstrated the certain antimicrobial activity, though this has been replaced by other treatments. However, nanotechnology has provided a way of producing pure silver nanoparticles, and it shows cytoprotective activities and possible pro-healing properties. But, the mechanism of silver nanoparticles remains unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of silver nanoparticles on bronchial inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled female C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the roles of silver nanoparticles and the related molecular mechanisms in allergic airway disease. In this study with an OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease, we found that the increased inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and the increased NF-κB levels in lungs after OVA inhalation were significantly reduced by the administration of silver nanoparticles. In addition, we have also found that the increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA inhalation were decreased by the administration of silver nanoparticles. These results indicate that silver nanoparticles may attenuate antigen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. And antioxidant effect of silver nanoparticles could be one of the molecular bases in the murine model of asthma. These findings may provide a potential molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticles in preventing or treating asthma. PMID:20957173

  11. Allergen-independent immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide therapy attenuates experimental allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chae-Seo; Libet, Lev; Chisholm, Dugald; Takabayashi, Kenji; Baird, Stephen; Bigby, Timothy D; Lee, Chul Hee; Horner, Anthony A; Raz, Eyal

    2004-09-01

    While effective for the prevention and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms, currently available medications do not reverse allergen specific hypersensitivities. Therefore, pharmacotherapeutics are not curative and their daily use is often required for years. These investigations were conducted to determine whether immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide (ISS-ODN) delivery protects previously sensitized mice from AR hypersensitivity responses and modulates their allergen specific immune profiles. Mice were first sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum, twenty-four hr before beginning a series of seven daily intranasal (i.n.) allergen challenges, subsets of mice received a single i.n. or intradermal (i.d.) dose of ISS-ODN or control oligodeoxynucleotide (C-ODN), a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of dexamethasone (DXM), or no intervention. Mice receiving i.d. or i.n. ISS-ODN were found to have attenuated immediate and late phase effector cell responses to i.n. OVA challenge. Specifically, ISS-ODN treated mice had less histamine and cysteinyl leukotriene release and eosinophilic inflammation in their nasal passages than mice treated with C-ODN. In addition, splenocytes from ISS-ODN but not C-ODN treated mice displayed attenuated OVA-specific interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 but increased interferon-gamma responses. Finally, ISS-ODN was generally a more effective treatment than DXM, both in blunting AR hypersensitivity responses and in shifting T helper 2 Th2-biased immune parameters towards Th1 dominance. As ISS-ODN delivery rapidly attenuated effector cell responses in this AR model in an allergen independent manner, the present results suggest that therapy with ISS-ODN alone may be an effective alternative to corticosteroid medications for the clinical management of AR.

  12. Attenuation of pulmonary inflammation after exposure to blast overpressure by N-acetylcysteine amide.

    PubMed

    Chavko, Mikulas; Adeeb, Saleena; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    Lung contusion is a common problem from blunt chest trauma caused by mechanical forces and by exposure to blast overpressure, often with fatal consequences. Lung contusion is also a risk factor for the development of pneumonia, severe clinical acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Infiltrating neutrophils are considered to be central mediators of lung injuries after blunt trauma. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants reduced pulmonary inflammation in different models of lung damage. This study examined the effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) on the progression of lung inflammation after exposure to a moderate level of blast overpressure (140 kPa). Rats were administered with NACA (i.p. 100 mg/kg) or placebo (PBS) 30, 60 min and 24 h after exposure. Nonblasted sham-injected animals served as controls. Neutrophil infiltration measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung was significantly increased at 2 days after blast and returned to controls at 8 days. This increase corresponded with activation of integrin CD11b mRNA and lung inflammatory chemokine mRNA expression; macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1). At 8 days, all inflammatory mediators returned to control levels. In addition, expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA increased at 2 days after exposure. No changes were detected in the lung manganase superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or glutathione reductase (GR) mRNA expression after blast. N-Acetylcysteine amide significantly reduced infiltration of neutrophils and CD11b mRNA activation in lungs, and completely blocked activation of MIP-1, MCP-1 and CINC-1 mRNA. The relatively higher inhibition of chemokine mRNAs compared with reduction in MPO activity and CD11b is in accordance with an antioxidant effect of NACA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, rather than by an effect on

  13. Electronic transitions in liquid amides studied by using attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisawa, Yusuke; Yasunaga, Manaka; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-10-01

    Attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra in the 140-260 nm region were measured for several types of liquid amides (formamide, FA; N-methylformamide, NMF; N-methylacetamide, NMA; N,N-dimethylformamide, NdMF; and N,N-dimethylacetamide, NdMA) to investigate their electronic transitions in the FUV region. The spectra were compared with the corresponding gas-phase spectra to examine the shift in the major absorption band in the 180-200 nm region going from the gas phase to the liquid phase, and it was found that the peak shift was dependent on the particular amide. FA and NMF, which exhibit intermolecular C=O…H-N hydrogen bonding, show a large shift of ˜0.60 eV to lower energy; however, NMA, which also exhibits hydrogen bonding, shows only a small shift. In NdMF and NdMA, C=O groups seem to be coupled, which results in a small peak shift. Two types of quantum chemical calculations, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method, were performed to elucidate the origin of the shifts and the band assignments. The shift estimated by the monomer and dimer models with TD-DFT reproduced well the observed shift from the gas phase to the liquid phase. This suggests that the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction significantly affects the magnitude of the shift. The many-body effects were also considered using the larger cluster models (trimer to pentamer). The energy shift calculated using SAC-CI with the monomer and the state-specific polarizable continuum model was also accurate, indicating that the nonlinear polarization effect appears to be important. As for the band assignments, it was found that though the major band can be mainly attributed to the π-π* transition, several types of Rydberg transitions also exist in its vicinity and mixing of orbitals with the same symmetry occurs. The number and type of Rydberg transitions in the spectra depend upon the type of amide

  14. Intrauterine undernourishment alters TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and attenuates lung allergic inflammation in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Maristella A; Landgraf, Richardt G; Silva, Reinaldo C; Semedo, Patrícia; Câmara, Niels O S; Fortes, Zuleica B

    2012-01-01

    IL-4 produced by Th2 cells can block cytokine production by Th1 cells, and Th1 IFN-γ is known to counterregulate Th2 immune response, inhibiting allergic eosinophilia. As intrauterine undernutrition can attenuate lung inflammation, we investigated the influence of intrauterine undernourishment on the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and allergic lung inflammation. Intrauterine undernourished offspring were obtained from dams fed 50% of the nourished diet of their counterparts and were immunized at 9 weeks of age. We evaluated the cell counts and cytokine protein expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage, mucus production and collagen deposition, and cytokine gene expression and transcription factors in lung tissue 21 days after ovalbumin immunization. Intrauterine undernourishment significantly reduced inflammatory cell airway infiltration, mucus secretion and collagen deposition, in rats immunized and challenged. Intrauterine undernourished rats also exhibited an altered cytokine expression profile, including higher TNF-α and IL-1β expression and lower IL-6 expression than well-nourished rats following immunization and challenge. Furthermore, the intrauterine undernourished group showed reduced ratios of the IL-4/IFN-γ and the transcription factors GATA-3/T-Bet after immunization and challenge. We suggest that the attenuated allergic lung inflammation observed in intrauterine undernourished rats is related to an altered Th1/Th2 cytokine balance resulting from a reduced GATA-3/T-bet ratio. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A novel microbe-based treatment that attenuates the inflammatory profile in a mouse model of allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Biala, Agnieszka; Huff, Ryan D.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Gunn, Hal; Kalyan, Shirin; Hirota, Jeremy A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for effective new and innovative treatments for asthma. It is becoming increasingly evident that bacterial stimulation can have beneficial effects at attenuating allergic airway disease through immune modulation. Our aim was to test the ability of a novel inactivated microbe-derived therapeutic based on Klebsiella (KB) in a model of allergic airway disease in mice. BALB/c mice were exposed intranasally to house dust mite (HDM) for two weeks. Mice were treated prophylactically via subcutaneous route with either KB or placebo for one week prior to HDM exposure and throughout the two week exposure period. 24 hours after the last exposure, lungs were analysed for inflammatory cell infiltrate, gene expression, cytokine levels, goblet cell metaplasia, and serum was analysed for allergen-specific serum IgE levels. HDM exposed mice developed goblet cell hyperplasia, elevated allergen-specific serum IgE, airway eosinophilia, and a concomitant increase in TH2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. Treatment with KB attenuated HDM-mediated airway eosinophilia, total bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell numbers, BAL TH2 cytokine production, and goblet cell metaplasia. Our prophylactic intervention study illustrates the potential of subcutaneous treatment with bacterial derived biologics as a promising approach for allergic airway disease treatment. PMID:27734946

  16. Treatment of mice with fenbendazole attenuates allergic airways inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in a model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yeping; Zhou, Jiansheng; Webb, Dianne C

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models have provided a significant insight into the role of T-helper (Th) 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in regulating eosinophilia and other key features of asthma. However, the validity of these models can be compromised by inadvertent infection of experimental mouse colonies with pathogens such as oxyurid parasites (pinworms). While the benzimidazole derivative, fenbendazole (FBZ), is commonly used to treat such outbreaks, the effects of FBZ on mouse models of Th2 disease are largely unknown. In this investigation, we show that mice fed FBZ-supplemented food during the in utero and post-weaning period developed attenuated lung eosinophilia, antigen-specific IgG1 and Th2 cytokine responses in a model of asthma. Treatment of the mediastinal lymph node cells from allergic mice with FBZ in vitro attenuated cell proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production and expression of the early lymphocyte activation marker, CD69 on CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells. In addition, eosinophilia and Th2 responses remained attenuated after a 4-week withholding period in allergic mice treated preweaning with FBZ. Thus, FBZ modulates the amplitude of Th2 responses both in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  18. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objective: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modif...

  19. Cuprizone and piperonyl butoxide, proposed inhibitors of T-cell function, attenuate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL mice.

    PubMed

    Emerson, M R; Biswas, S; LeVine, S M

    2001-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), are autoimmune demyelinating diseases with autoreactive T-cells acting as important mediators of pathogenesis. Cuprizone, a copper chelator, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a pesticide synergist, are implicated to inhibit T-cell activation and function. The purpose of this study was to assess whether either of these agents would suppress PLP-peptide-induced EAE in the SJL mouse. Indeed, treatment with cuprizone beginning 1 week prior to disease induction, and PBO administration from days 1 to 9 of EAE, significantly attenuated EAE clinical severity. Furthermore, both agents decreased blood CD4+/CD8+ ratios, and reduced signs of chronic graft vs. host disease (GVHD) indicating attenuation of an immune T-cell response. These results suggest that cuprizone and PBO suppress EAE and use of these agents will provide insights into the mechanisms of T-cell mediated diseases.

  20. Culture medium from TNF-α-stimulated mesenchymal stem cells attenuates allergic conjunctivitis through multiple antiallergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Huang, Jingwen; Han, Longhui; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated in several autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, but their contribution to allergic conjunctivitis and underlying antiallergic mechanisms remain elusive. We sought to explore the clinical application of MSCs to experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) and its underlying antiallergic mechanisms. Culture medium from TNF-α-stimulated, bone marrow-derived MSCs (MSC-CMT) was administered topically to mice with EAC, and the related allergic symptoms and biological changes were evaluated. Murine spleen-derived B cells, bone marrow-derived mast cells (MCs), and lung vascular endothelial cells were cultured in vitro to investigate the antiallergic MSC-CMT mechanisms. Topical instillation of MSC-CMT significantly attenuated the clinical symptoms of short ragweed pollen-induced EAC, with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, nuclear factor κB p65 expression, and TNF-α and IL-4 production. In vitro MSC-CMT significantly inhibited the activation of MCs and B-cell IgE release and reduced histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability. During EAC, MSC-CMT treatment also decreased IgE production, histamine release, enrichment and activation of MCs, and conjunctival vascular hyperpermeability. The MSC-CMT-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs, and histamine and its antiallergic effects during EAC were abrogated when MSCs were pretreated with COX2 small interfering RNA. Our findings provide compelling evidence that MSC-CMT inhibits EAC through COX2-dependent multiple antiallergic mechanisms and support the use of MSC-CMT as a novel strategy for treating allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Roxatidine attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minho; Lee, Na Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; An, Hyo-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Roxatidine is an active metabolite of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride which is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that is used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers. In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of roxatidine in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cells-1 (HMC-1), compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic animal model and chemical allergen-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models. Roxatidine suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 and compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic mice. In addition, roxatidine attenuated PMACI-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MK2, which are both involved in the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that roxatidine suppressed the activation of caspase-1, an IL-1β converting enzyme, in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 and compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic mice. In CHS model, roxatidine significantly reduced ear swelling, increased number of mast cells, production levels of cytokines and migration of dendritic cells. Our findings provide evidence that the anti-allergic inflammatory properties of roxatidine are mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB and caspase-1 activation, p38 MAPK pathway and mast cell-derived cytokine production. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo anti-allergic inflammatory effects suggest a possible therapeutic application of roxatidine in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:28139747

  2. Single-tree nut immunotherapy attenuates allergic reactions in mice with hypersensitivity to multiple tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Mike; Li, Yifan; Lane, Hannah; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts are often severe and are outgrown in less than 10% of diagnosed patients. To determine whether treatment of underlying tree nut sensitization will prevent allergic reactions to cross-reacting tree nuts and to determine the effects of single-tree nut immunotherapy on true multi-tree nut sensitization. Cross-reactivity model: Cashew-sensitized mice underwent immunotherapy with cashew and were subsequently challenged with cashew and pistachio. Multisensitization model: Cashew plus walnut-sensitized mice were treated with cashew alone, walnut alone, or both cashew and walnut and then underwent challenges to cashew and walnut. Challenges were assessed on the basis of symptoms, changes in body temperature, and mouse mast cell protease-1 release. In the cross-reactivity model, cashew immunotherapy completely prevented allergic reactions on challenges with cashew or the cross-reactive pistachio. In the multisensitization model, mice with cashew plus walnut allergy were significantly protected from anaphylactic reactions on cashew challenge in both the cashew-alone and walnut-alone immunotherapy groups. Results from the walnut challenge demonstrated significantly decreased allergic responses in the walnut immunotherapy group, whereas mice in the cashew immunotherapy group experienced significantly lower symptoms. In the cross-reactivity model, immunotherapy effectively decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production and increased IL-12 relative to placebo while also inducing a 5-fold increase in specific IgG(1). Single-tree nut immunotherapy can effectively decrease allergic responses in both the cross-reactivity and multisensitization mouse models. Further studies are needed to determine which single-tree nut immunotherapies will be most effective for specific multi-tree nut allergy profiles. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The nitrated fatty acid 10-nitro-oleate attenuates allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Aravind T; Lakshmi, Sowmya P; Dornadula, Sireesh; Pinni, Sudheer; Rampa, Dileep R; Reddy, Raju C

    2013-09-01

    Asthma is a serious, growing problem worldwide. Inhaled steroids, the current standard therapy, are not always effective in this chronic inflammatory disease and can cause adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that nitrated fatty acids (NFAs) may provide an effective alternative treatment. NFAs are endogenously produced by nonenzymatic reaction of NO with unsaturated fatty acids and exert anti-inflammatory actions both by activating the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and via PPAR-independent mechanisms, but whether they might ameliorate allergic airway disease was previously untested. We found that pulmonary delivery of the NFA 10-nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) reduced the severity of murine allergic airway disease, as assessed by various pathological and molecular markers. Fluticasone, an inhaled steroid commonly used to treat asthma, produced similar effects on most end points, but only OA-NO2 induced robust apoptosis of neutrophils and their phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. This suggests that OA-NO2 may be particularly effective in neutrophil-rich, steroid-resistant severe asthma. In primary human bronchial epithelial cells, OA-NO2 blocked phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and enhanced inhibitory binding of PPARγ to NF-κB. Our results indicate that the NFA OA-NO2 is efficacious in preclinical models of allergic airway disease and may have potential for treating asthma patients.

  4. Acetaminophen Attenuates House Dust Mite-Induced Allergic Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory J; Thrall, Roger S; Cloutier, Michelle M; Manautou, Jose E; Morris, John B

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, likely through pro-oxidant mechanisms. However, no studies have investigated the direct effects of APAP on the development of allergic inflammation. To determine the likelihood of a causal relationship between APAP and asthma pathogenesis, we explored the effects of APAP on inflammatory responses in a murine house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease. We hypothesized that APAP would enhance the development of HDM-induced allergic inflammation. The HDM model consisted of once daily intranasal instillations for up to 2 weeks with APAP or vehicle administration 1 hour prior to HDM during either week 1 or 2. Primary assessment of inflammation included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytokine expression in lung tissue, and histopathology. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of HDM treatment were substantially diminished in APAP-treated groups compared with controls. APAP-treated groups had markedly reduced airway inflammation: including decreased inflammatory cells in the BAL fluid, lower cytokine expression in lung tissue, and less perivascular and peribronchiolar immune cell infiltration. The anti-inflammatory effect of APAP was not abrogated by an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism, suggesting that the effect was due to the parent compound or a non-P450 generated metabolite. Taken together, our studies do not support the biologic plausibility of the APAP hypothesis that APAP use may contribute to the causation of asthma. Importantly, we suggest the mechanism by which APAP modulates airway inflammation may provide novel therapeutic targets for asthma. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Catalase overexpression fails to attenuate allergic airways disease in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Reynaert, Niki L; Aesif, Scott W; McGovern, Toby; Brown, Amy; Wouters, Emiel F M; Irvin, Charles G; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W

    2007-03-15

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of asthma, and increased levels of oxidants are considered markers of the inflammatory process. Most studies to date addressing the role of oxidants in the etiology of asthma were based on the therapeutic administration of low m.w. antioxidants or antioxidant mimetic compounds. To directly address the function of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the pathophysiology of allergic airway disease, we comparatively evaluated mice systemically overexpressing catalase, a major antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, and C57BL/6 strain matched controls in the OVA model of allergic airways disease. Catalase transgenic mice had 8-fold increases in catalase activity in lung tissue, and had lowered DCF oxidation in tracheal epithelial cells, compared with C57BL/6 controls. Despite these differences, both strains showed similar increases in OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels, comparable airway and tissue inflammation, and identical increases in procollagen 1 mRNA expression, following sensitization and challenge with OVA. Unexpectedly, mRNA expression of MUC5AC and CLCA3 genes were enhanced in catalase transgenic mice, compared with C57BL/6 mice subjected to Ag. Furthermore, when compared with control mice, catalase overexpression increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine both in naive mice as well as in response to Ag. In contrast to the prevailing notion that hydrogen peroxide is positively associated with the etiology of allergic airways disease, the current findings suggest that endogenous hydrogen peroxide serves a role in suppressing both mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Catalase Overexpression Fails to Attenuate Allergic Airways Disease in the Mouse1

    PubMed Central

    Reynaert, Niki L.; Aesif, Scott W.; McGovern, Toby; Brown, Amy; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Irvin, Charles G.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of asthma, and increased levels of oxidants are considered markers of the inflammatory process. Most studies to date addressing the role of oxidants in the etiology of asthma were based on the therapeutic administration of low m.w. antioxidants or antioxidant mimetic compounds. To directly address the function of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the pathophysiology of allergic airway disease, we comparatively evaluated mice systemically overexpressing catalase, a major antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, and C57BL/6 strain matched controls in the OVA model of allergic airways disease. Catalase transgenic mice had 8-fold increases in catalase activity in lung tissue, and had lowered DCF oxidation in tracheal epithelial cells, compared with C57BL/6 controls. Despite these differences, both strains showed similar increases in OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a levels, comparable airway and tissue inflammation, and identical increases in procollagen 1 mRNA expression, following sensitization and challenge with OVA. Unexpectedly, mRNA expression of MUC5AC and CLCA3 genes were enhanced in catalase transgenic mice, compared with C57BL/6 mice subjected to Ag. Furthermore, when compared with control mice, catalase overexpression increased airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine both in naive mice as well as in response to Ag. In contrast to the prevailing notion that hydrogen peroxide is positively associated with the etiology of allergic airways disease, the current findings suggest that endogenous hydrogen peroxide serves a role in suppressing both mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:17339480

  7. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Protein Inhibition Attenuates Neutrophil-dominant Allergic Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Michelle L.; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; Salmeron, Andres; Lora, Jose M.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alcorn, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a prevalent respiratory disease that is characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The complexity of this heterogeneous disorder has commanded the need to better define asthma phenotypes based on underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Although classically viewed as a type 2-regulated disease, type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are known to be influential in asthma pathogenesis, predominantly in asthmatics with neutrophilia and severe refractory disease. Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) chromatin adaptors serve as immunomodulators by directly regulating Th17 responses and Th17-mediated pathology in murine models of autoimmunity and infection. Based on this, we hypothesized that BET proteins may also play an essential role in neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease. Using a murine model of neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease, we demonstrate that BET inhibition limits pulmonary inflammation and alters the Th17-related inflammatory milieu in the lungs. In addition, inhibition of BET proteins improved lung function (specifically quasi-static lung compliance and tissue elastance) and reduced mucus production in airways. Overall, these studies show that BET proteins may have a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by altering type 17 inflammation, and thus interfering with BET-dependent chromatin signaling may provide clinical benefits to patients suffering from asthma. PMID:28233801

  8. Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Protein Inhibition Attenuates Neutrophil-dominant Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Manni, Michelle L; Mandalapu, Sivanarayana; Salmeron, Andres; Lora, Jose M; Kolls, Jay K; Alcorn, John F

    2017-02-24

    Atopic asthma is a prevalent respiratory disease that is characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness. The complexity of this heterogeneous disorder has commanded the need to better define asthma phenotypes based on underlying molecular mechanisms of disease. Although classically viewed as a type 2-regulated disease, type 17 helper T (Th17) cells are known to be influential in asthma pathogenesis, predominantly in asthmatics with neutrophilia and severe refractory disease. Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) chromatin adaptors serve as immunomodulators by directly regulating Th17 responses and Th17-mediated pathology in murine models of autoimmunity and infection. Based on this, we hypothesized that BET proteins may also play an essential role in neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease. Using a murine model of neutrophil-dominant allergic airway disease, we demonstrate that BET inhibition limits pulmonary inflammation and alters the Th17-related inflammatory milieu in the lungs. In addition, inhibition of BET proteins improved lung function (specifically quasi-static lung compliance and tissue elastance) and reduced mucus production in airways. Overall, these studies show that BET proteins may have a critical role in asthma pathogenesis by altering type 17 inflammation, and thus interfering with BET-dependent chromatin signaling may provide clinical benefits to patients suffering from asthma.

  9. Oral administration of Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 suppresses Th17 cell development and attenuates allergic airway responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; An, Jun; Shimada, Takashi; Liu, Shuang; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2012-08-01

    Evidence is increasing that oral administration of probiotics can attenuate asthmatic responses both in murine models and clinical trials. T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells have been implicated as having an important role in the development of several allergic disorders, but the relationship between oral administration of probiotics and Th17 development has not been well studied. BALB/c mice were given lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK) orally for 28 days. After sensitization by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on Days 14 and 21 and 1% OVA inhalation on Days 25, 26 and 27, they were challenged with a 5% OVA aerosol on Day 28. Twenty-four hours later, airway resistance and accumulation of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were determined. Ιnterleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from lung, spleen and lamina propria of the intestine were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, and numbers of total leukocytes and mast cells in BALF induced by OVA challenge were significantly suppressed by oral administration of LFK. The increased percentage of IL-17-expressing CD4+ cells from lung, spleen and intestine in OVA-challenged mice was reduced following LFK treatment. We conclude that the oral administration of LFK suppresses the asthmatic response and that this is associated with attenuation of Th17 cell development.

  10. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Wong, Angela M; Lee, Tsz Ying Amy; Thames, Gail; Krak, Michael; Zhang, Yanjun; Nel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The generation of oxidative stress by ambient air pollution particles contributes to the development of allergic sensitization and asthma, as demonstrated by intranasal challenge with well-characterized diesel exhaust particle (DEP) suspensions in humans. This effect is due to the presence of redox active organic chemicals in DEP, and can be suppressed by antioxidants and inducers of phase II enzymes in animals. In this communication, we determined whether the administration of a standardized broccoli sprout extract (BSE), which contains a reproducible amount of the sulforaphane (SFN) precursor, glucoraphanin, could be used to suppress the nasal inflammatory response in human subjects challenged with 300 μg of an aqueous DEP suspension (equivalent to daily PM exposure levels on a Los Angeles freeway). SFN is capable of inducing an antioxidant and phase II response via activation of the nuclear transcription factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Previous studies have shown that 70-90% SFN delivered by BSE is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in humans. An initial intranasal challenge with DEP in 29 human subjects was used to characterize the magnitude of the inflammatory response. Following a 4 week washout, a BSE that delivers a reproducible and standardized dose of 100 μmol SFN in mango juice was administered daily for four days. The nasal DEP challenge was repeated and lavage fluid collected to perform white blood cell (WBC) counts. The average nasal WBC increased by 66% over the initial screening levels and by 85% over the control levels 24 hours after DEP exposure. However, total cell counts decreased by 54% when DEP challenge was preceded by daily BSE administration for 4 days (p < 0.001). Since the SFN dose in these studies is equivalent to the consumption of 100-200 g broccoli, our study demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli or broccoli sprouts rich in glucoraphanin for reducing the impact of particulate

  11. Diazonium modification of porous graphitic carbon with catechol and amide groups for hydrophilic interaction and attenuated reversed phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Chad D; Zhang, Ya; Lucy, Charles A

    2015-11-27

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) is an increasingly popular and attractive phase for HPLC on account of its chemical and thermal stability, and its unique separation mechanism. However, native PGC is strongly hydrophobic and in some instances excessively retentive. As part of our effort to build a library of hydrophilic covalently modified PGC phases, we functionalized PGC with catechol and amide groups by means of aryl diazonium chemistry to produce two new phases. Successful grafting was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under HILIC conditions, the Catechol-PGC showed up to 5-fold increased retention relative to unmodified PGC and selectivity that differed from four other HILIC phases. Under reversed phase conditions, the Amide-PGC reduced the retentivity of PGC by almost 90%. The chromatographic performance of Catechol-PGC and Amide-PGC is demonstrated by separations of nucleobases, nucleosides, phenols, alkaline pharmaceuticals, and performance enhancing stimulants. These compounds had retention factors (k) ranging from 0.5 to 13. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  13. Astragalus extract attenuates allergic airway inflammation and inhibits nuclear factor κB expression in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao-Chuan; Qu, Zheng-Hai; Yi, Ming-Ji; Wang, Chong; Ran, Ni; Xie, Ning; Fu, Peng; Feng, Xue-Ying; Lv, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Astragalus membranaceus from traditional Chinese herbal medicines previously showed that it possesses a strong anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of astragalus on allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness and investigate its possible molecular mechanisms. Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts and cytokine and chemokine levels. In vivo airway responsiveness to increasing concentrations of methacholine was measured 24 hours after the last OVA challenge using whole-body plethysmography. The expression of inhibitory κB-α and p65 in lung tissues was measured by Western blotting. Astragalus extract attenuated lung inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia and airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-induced asthma and decreased eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, astragalus extract treatment reduced expression of the key initiators of allergic T(H)2-associated cytokines (interleukin 4, interleukin 5) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, astragalus extract could inhibit nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) expression and suppress NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in lung tissue samples. Taken together, our current study demonstrated a potential therapeutic value of astragalus extract in the treatment of asthma and it may act by inhibiting the expression of the NF-κB pathway.

  14. The different molar absorptivities of the secondary structure types in the amide I region: an attenuated total reflection infrared study on globular proteins.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, H H; Goormaghtigh, E; Ruysschaert, J M

    1996-11-01

    Differences in molar absorptivity of the various secondary structures in the amide I region of infrared protein spectra would have a great impact on the interpretation of the data published thus far on protein films studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. In this work, representative values for amide I absorptivities are obtained for 15 different films of globular proteins spread from H2O solutions. The observed intensities are corrected for variations in film thickness and for contributions of hydration water, atmospheric water, and side chains. These absorptivities, together with the reported secondary structure of the proteins investigated, are used to deduce the molar absorptivities of the individual secondary structure types. It is found that the molar absorptivity of beta-strands is 1.4-1.6 times larger than that of alpha-helices, which in turn is 1.3-2.1 times larger than those found for beta-turns or random coiled structures. The implications of our findings for spectral analysis currently used in literature are discussed.

  15. Cyclic nitroxide radicals attenuate inflammation and Hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Miri; Goldstein, Sara; Samuni, Amram; Berkman, Neville

    2015-10-01

    The effects of stable cyclic nitroxide radicals have been extensively investigated both in vivo and in vitro demonstrating anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, anti-mutagenic, age-retardant, hypotensive, anti-cancer and anti-teratogenic activities. Yet, these stable radicals have not been evaluated in asthma and other airway inflammatory disorders. The present study investigated the effect of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (TPL) and 3-carbamoyl-proxyl (3-CP) in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Both 3-CP and TPL were non-toxic when administered either orally (1% w/w nitroxide-containing chow) or via intraperitoneal (IP) injection (∼300 mg/kg). Feeding the mice orally demonstrated that 3-CP was more effective than TPL in reducing inflammatory cell recruitment into the airway and in suppressing airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in OVA-challenged mice. To characterize the optimal time-window of intervention and mode of drug administration, 3-CP was given orally during allergen sensitization, during allergen challenge or during both sensitization and challenge stages, and via IP injection or intranasal instillation for 3 days during the challenge period. 3-CP given via all modes of delivery markedly inhibited OVA-induced airway inflammation, expression of cytokines, AHR and protein nitration of the lung tissue. Oral administration during the entire experiment was the most efficient delivery of 3-CP and was more effective than dexamethasone a potent corticosteroid used for asthma treatment. Under a similar administration regimen (IP injection before the OVA challenge), the effect of 3-CP was similar to that of dexamethasone and even greater on AHR and protein nitration. The protective effect of the nitroxides, which preferentially react with free radicals, in suppressing the increase of main asthmatic inflammatory markers substantiate the key role played by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the molecular mechanism of

  16. Sesamin attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic responses by suppressing the activation of p38 and nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang Chang; Piao, Hong Mei; Zheng, Ming Yu; Lin, Zhen Hua; Li, Guangzhao; Yan, Guang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Establishing therapeutic agents for the treatment of allergic diseases is an important focus of human health research. Sesamin, a lignan in sesame oil, exhibits a diverse range of pharmacological properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of sesamin on mast cell‑mediated allergic responses has not yet been investigated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sesamin on mast cell‑mediated allergic responses and the underlying mechanisms by which it produces this effect. In rats, oral administration of sesamin inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Sesamin exposure attenuated immunoglobulin E‑induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, which was indicated to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In human mast cells, sesamin reduced the stimulatory effects of phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 on the production and secretion of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6. The inhibitory effect of sesamin on pro‑inflammatory cytokine production was dependent on nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK). The present study demonstrates that sesamin inhibits mast cell‑derived inflammatory allergic reactions by blocking histamine release, and pro‑inflammatory cytokine production and secretion. In addition, the findings indicate that the effect of sesamin is mediated by its effect on p38 MAPK/NF‑κB signaling. Furthermore, the in vivo and in vitro anti‑allergic effects of sesamin reported in the present study suggest that it is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory allergic diseases.

  17. Curcumin attenuates allergic airway inflammation by regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs)/Th17 balance in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Ma, Zhanqiang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protective effects and the underlying mechanisms of curcumin on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Asthma mice model was established by ovalbumin. A total of 60 mice were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) was measured by the forced oscillation technique, differential cell count in BAL fluid (BALF) was measured by Wright-Giemsa staining, histological assessment was measured by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, BALF levels of Treg/Th17 cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Treg cells and Th17 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Our study demonstrated that curcumin inhibited OVA-induced increases in eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-17A level were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid increased IL-10 level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that curcumin substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Flow cytometry (FCM) studies demonstrated that curcumin remarkably inhibited Th17 cells and significantly increased Treg cells. The results in vivo show ovalbumin-induced significantly broke Treg/Th17 balance; curcumin treatments markedly attenuated the inflammatory in asthma model by regulating Treg/Th17 balance. Our findings support the possible use of curcumin as a therapeutic drug for patients with allergic asthma.

  18. 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid attenuates mast cell-mediated allergic reaction in mice via modulation of the FcεRI signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Min Jong; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Moon-Chang; Lee, Byungheon; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Hae Ran; Shin, Tae-Yong; Lee, Soyoung; Yoon, Seung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Rae; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reactions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. Vanillic acid, a natural product, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects of ortho-vanillic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, o-VA) that was a derivative of vanillic acid isolated from Amomum xanthioides. In mouse anaphylaxis models, oral administration of o-VA (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and IgE-mediated cutaneous allergic reactions such as hypothermia, histamine release, IgE production and vasodilation; administration of o-VA also suppressed the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis. In cultured mast cell line RBL-2H3 and isolated rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro, pretreatment with o-VA (1–100 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited DNP-HSA-induced degranulation of mast cells by decreasing the intracellular free calcium level, and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-4. Pretreatment of RBL-2H3 cells with o-VA suppressed DNP-HSA-induced phosphorylation of Lyn, Syk, Akt, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB. In conclusion, o-VA suppresses the mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory response by blocking the signaling pathways downstream of high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells. PMID:27890918

  19. Specific allergen immunotherapy attenuates allergic airway inflammation in a rat model of Alstonia scholaris pollen induced airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ankur; Moitra, Saibal; Hazra, Iman; Mondal, Somnath; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Bhattacharya, Debanjan; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Swapna

    2016-01-01

    Pollen grains are well established to be an important cause of respiratory allergy. Current pharmacologic therapies for allergic asthma do not cure the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only treatment method which re-directs the immune system away from allergic response leading to a long lasting effect. The mechanism by which immunotherapy achieves this goal is an area of active research world-wide. The present experimental study was designed to develop an experimental model of allergic lung inflammation based on a relevant human allergen, Alstonia scholaris pollen, and to establish the immunological and cellular features of specific allergen immunotherapy using this same pollen extract. Our results revealed that Alstonia scholaris pollen sensitization and challenge causes eosinophilic airway inflammation with mucin hypersecretion. This is associated with increased total IgE, increased expression of FcɛRI on lung mast cells and increased levels of IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 as confirmed by ELISA, in-situ immunofluorescence and FACS assay. Allergen specific immunotherapy reduced airway inflammation and also decreased total IgE level, FcɛRI expression, IL-4, IL-5 & IL-13 levels. It was further noted that the reduction of these levels was more by intra-nasal route than by intra-peritoneal route. Thus we present a novel animal model of Alstonia scholaris pollen allergic disease and specific allergen immunotherapy which will pave the way towards the development of better treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methylene Blue Attenuates iNOS Induction Through Suppression of Transcriptional Factor Binding Amid iNOS mRNA Transcription.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Tong, Lijuan; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Yao, Wenjuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to the development of endotoxin-mediated inflammation. It can be induced by cytokines or endotoxins via distinct signaling pathways. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers iNOS expression through activation of the inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α)-nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) cascade, whereas interferon-γ (IFN-γ) acts primarily through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Methylene blue (MB), an agent used clinically to treat numerous ailments, has been shown to reduce NO accumulation through suppression of iNOS activity. But it remains unclear whether MB affects iNOS induction. This knowledge gap is addressed in the present study using cultured cells and endotoxemic mice. With mouse macrophages, MB treatment prevented the LPS- and/or IFN-γ-stimulated iNOS protein expression. Real-time PCR experiments showed that iNOS mRNA transcription was robustly blocked by MB treatment. The inhibitory effect of MB on iNOS expression was confirmed in vivo in endotoxemic mice. Further analysis showed that MB had no significant effect on IκB-α degradation and NF-κB or STAT1 phosphorylation in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated cells. The nuclear transport of active NF-κB or STAT1 was also not affected by MB treatment. But MB treatment markedly reduced the binding of NF-κB and STAT1 to their DNA elements. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that MB reduced NF-κB and STAT1 bindings to iNOS promoter inside the cell. These studies show that MB attenuates transcriptional factor binding amid iNOS mRNA transcription, providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of MB in disease therapy.

  1. Attenuation of persistent pain-related behavior by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors in a rat model of HIV sensory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Jergova, Stanislava; Pearson, James P.; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Distal sensory neuropathies are a hallmark of HIV infections and can result in persistent and disabling pain despite advances in antiretroviral therapies. HIV-sensory neuropathic (HIV-SN) pain may be amenable to cannabinoid treatment, but currently available agonist treatments are limited by untoward side effects and potential for abuse in this patient population. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors may offer an alternative approach by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids with purportedly fewer untoward CNS side effects. In order to evaluate this potential approach in the management of HIV-SN pain, the recombinant HIV envelope protein gp120 was applied epineurally to the rat sciatic nerve to induce an HIV-SN-like pain syndrome. Two distinct FAAH inhibitory compounds, URB597 and PF-3845 were tested, and contrasted with standard antinociceptive gabapentin or vehicle treatment, for attenuation of tactile allodynia, cold allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia. Both FAAH inhibitors markedly reduced cold and tactile allodynia with limited anti-hyperalgesic effects. Peak antinociceptive effects produced by both agents were more modest than gabapentin in reducing tactile allodynia with similar potency ranges. URB597 produced comparable cold anti-allodynic effects to gabapentin, and the effects of both FAAH inhibitors were longer lasting than gabapentin. To assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors in these antinociceptive effects, CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB2 antagonist SR144528 were tested in conjunction with FAAH inhibitors. Results suggested a contribution of both CB1- and CB2-mediated effects, particularly in reducing tactile allodynia. In summary, these findings support inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation as a promising target for management of disabling persistent HIV-SN pain syndromes. PMID:25486617

  2. Attenuation of persistent pain-related behavior by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors in a rat model of HIV sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Jergova, Stanislava; Pearson, James P; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Distal sensory neuropathies are a hallmark of HIV infections and can result in persistent and disabling pain despite advances in antiretroviral therapies. HIV-sensory neuropathic (HIV-SN) pain may be amenable to cannabinoid treatment, but currently available agonist treatments are limited by untoward side effects and potential for abuse in this patient population. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors may offer an alternative approach by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids with purportedly fewer untoward CNS side effects. In order to evaluate this potential approach in the management of HIV-SN pain, the recombinant HIV envelope protein gp120 was applied epineurally to the rat sciatic nerve to induce an HIV-SN-like pain syndrome. Two distinct FAAH inhibitory compounds, URB597 and PF-3845 were tested, and contrasted with standard antinociceptive gabapentin or vehicle treatment, for attenuation of tactile allodynia, cold allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia. Both FAAH inhibitors markedly reduced cold and tactile allodynia with limited anti-hyperalgesic effects. Peak antinociceptive effects produced by both agents were more modest than gabapentin in reducing tactile allodynia with similar potency ranges. URB597 produced comparable cold anti-allodynic effects to gabapentin, and the effects of both FAAH inhibitors were longer lasting than gabapentin. To assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors in these antinociceptive effects, CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB2 antagonist SR144528 were tested in conjunction with FAAH inhibitors. Results suggested a contribution of both CB1- and CB2-mediated effects, particularly in reducing tactile allodynia. In summary, these findings support inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation as a promising target for management of disabling persistent HIV-SN pain syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Salidroside attenuates allergic airway inflammation through negative regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guang Hai; Choi, Yun Ho

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside is a biologically active ingredient of Rhodiola rosea, which has several interesting biological properties, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory; however, its anti-allergic effects are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to determine whether salidroside attenuates the inflammatory response in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. OVA-sensitized/challenged mice show airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine and have an increased amount of T-helper2 type cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13] and eosinophils in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and lung tissues. However, three successive intraperitoneal administrations of salidroside before the last OVA challenge result in significant inhibition of these asthmatic reactions. Moreover, OVA significantly increases the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in lung tissues, whereas salidroside markedly suppresses NF-κB translocation and reduces phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, salidroside attenuates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and IL-6 through modulating the activities of p38 MAPK and NF-κB in the BEAS-2B cells stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines. These findings indicate that salidroside protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR, at least in part via downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK activities. Our data support the utility of salidroside as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  4. Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Susanta; Rangasamy, Suresh B; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-05-01

    Developing a new and effective therapeutic approach against multiple sclerosis (MS) is always an important area of research. RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60, administered through intraperitoneal injection, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Since the intravenous route is not preferred for treating a chronic condition, we tested if nebulization of RNS60 could attenuate the disease process of adoptively-transferred EAE in mice. Although we could not directly image RNS60 after nebulization, nebulized Alexa680 reached spleen, spinal cord and different parts of the brain. Nebulization of RNS60 starting from the acute phase attenuated clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female SJL/J mice. RNS60 nebulization also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. On the immunomodulatory front, nebulization of RNS60 to EAE mice led to the enrichment of anti-autoimmune regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of autoimmune Th17 cells. Together, these results suggest that nebulization of RNS60 may be used to control aberrant immune responses in MS and other autoimmune disorders.

  5. BLOCKADE OF TRKA OR P75 NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway resistance. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates allergic airways responses. We tested t...

  6. Broncho-Vaxom Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation by Restoring GSK3β-Related T Regulatory Cell Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Yu, Dehong; Zeng, Xianping; Deng, Mengxia; Sun, Yueqi; Wen, Weiping; Li, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of bacterial extracts (eg, Broncho-Vaxom (BV)) has been proposed to attenuate asthma through modulating Treg cells. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study sought to assess the effects of oral administration of BV on GSK-3β expression and Treg cells in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice models. Method Asthmatic mice models were established with OVA challenge and treated with oral administration of BV. Next, infiltration of inflammatory cells including eosinophil and neutrophils, mucous metaplasia, levels of Th1/Th2/Treg-typed cytokines and expression of GSK3β and Foxp3 were examined in asthmatic mice models by histological analysis, Bio-Plex and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the frequencies of Treg cells were evaluated in cultured splenocytes by flow cytometry in the presence of BV or GSK3β siRNA interference. Results We found significant decrease of infiltrated inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in asthmatic mice models after oral administration of BV. Oral administration of BV was shown to significantly suppress mucus metaplasia, Th2-typed cytokine levels and GSK3β expression while increasing Foxp3 production in asthmatic mice models. Moreover, BV significantly enhanced GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells in cultured spleen cells in vitro. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that oral administration of BV is capable of attenuating airway inflammation in asthmatic mice models, which may be associated with GSK3β-related expansion of Treg cells. PMID:24667347

  7. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... AAAAI website. Allergic rhinitis may be seasonal or year-round. Seasonal allergic rhinitis, often called "hay fever," typically ... roof of the mouth. When the symptoms are year-round, they may be caused by exposure to indoor ...

  8. Oral administration of paeoniflorin attenuates allergic contact dermatitis by inhibiting dendritic cell migration and Th1 and Th17 differentiation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmei; Li, Xuefeng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Quanjing; Shen, Yongnian; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Zheng, Hailin; Lu, Guixia; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Weida

    2015-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a hapten-specific CD4(+) T-cells mediated inflammatory response of the skin. Its pathomechanism involves 2 phases, an induction phase and an elicitation phase. Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin play key roles in presenting low molecular weight chemicals (haptens) to the lymph nodes. Therefore, inhibition of the migration of LCs or DCs and T-cell proliferation is each expected to control ACD disease. To explore the effectiveness of paeoniflorin (PF) on the migration of LCs and T-cell proliferation in vivo, we establish a murine model of ACD, promoted by repeated exposure to an allergen (specifically 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)). Administration of PF inhibits DC migration in this DNCB-induced model in the induction phase. As a result, epidermal LC density in the elicitation phase increased in PF-treated mice when compared to PF-untreated mice. At the same time, PF reduced IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) and IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation (but not IL-4(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation), leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Consistent with this T-cell proliferation profile, secretions of IFN-γ and IL-17 were reduced and IL-10 secretion increased in PF-treated mice, but production of IL-4 and IL-5 remained unchanged in the skin and blood samples. These results suggest that oral administration of PF can treat and prevent ACD effectively through inhibition of DC migration, and thus decrease the capacity of DCs to stimulate Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  9. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W

    2012-02-01

    Familiarity with the diagnosis and management of allergic rhinitis is important for physicians concerned with the nasal airway. Allergic rhinitis is a common and manageable condition that may cause persistent or intermittent symptoms that vary as to duration and severity. Allergic rhinitis impairs quality of life, sleep, school performance, and productivity on a scale that compares with other chronic diseases. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, but supported by allergy testing. Therapeutic options for allergic rhinitis include pharmacotherapy, environmental control, and immunotherapy. More recently, a role for sublingual immunotherapy and turbinate reduction has been reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor PF-3845 promotes neuronal survival, attenuates inflammation and improves functional recovery in mice with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tchantchou, Flaubert; Tucker, Laura B; Fu, Amanda H; Bluett, Rebecca J; McCabe, Joseph T; Patel, Sachin; Zhang, Yumin

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in young adults in the United States, but there is still no effective agent for treatment. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) is a major endocannabinoid in the brain. Its increase after brain injury is believed to be protective. However, the compensatory role of AEA is transient due to its rapid hydrolysis by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Thus, inhibition of FAAH can boost the endogenous levels of AEA and prolong its protective effect. Using a TBI mouse model, we found that post-injury chronic treatment with PF3845, a selective and potent FAAH inhibitor, reversed TBI-induced impairments in fine motor movement, hippocampus dependent working memory and anxiety-like behavior. Treatment with PF3845 inactivated FAAH activity and enhanced the AEA levels in the brain. It reduced neurodegeneration in the dentate gyrus, and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Hsp70/72 in both cortex and hippocampus. PF3845 also suppressed the increased production of amyloid precursor protein, prevented dendritic loss and restored the levels of synaptophysin in the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. Furthermore, PF3845 suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and enhanced the expression of arginase-1 post-TBI, suggesting a shift of microglia/macrophages from M1 to M2 phenotype. The effects of PF3845 on TBI-induced behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration were mediated by activation of cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors and might be attributable to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. These results suggest that selective inhibition of FAAH is likely to be beneficial for TBI treatment.

  11. Schisandra chinensis and Its Main Constituent Schizandrin Attenuate Allergic Reactions by Down-Regulating Caspase-1 in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hee-Yun; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis (SC) and its main constituent, schizandrin (SCH) exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. Allergic and inflammatory reactions are aggravated via caspase-1 signaling pathway. However, the regulatory effects of SC and SCH on caspase-1 activation have not been clarified yet. In this study, we aimed to clarify the anti-allergic effects of SC and SCH using an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice and anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies-stimulated splenocytes. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, or interleukin (IL)-4 in serum of OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], and IL-1[Formula: see text] in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. SC or SCH significantly suppressed the expression of caspase-1 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-2 in spleen of the OVA-sensitized mice. In activated splenocytes, SC or SCH significantly decreased the expression of caspase-1 and RIP-2 as well as the production of IL-6 and TNF-[Formula: see text]. We suggest that SC and SCH exert an anti-allergic effect by down-regulating caspase-1 signaling.

  12. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... conjunctivitis is not contagious.Some common allergens include:Pollen fromtrees, grass and ragweedAnimal skin andsecretions such as ... symptoms. For example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold ...

  13. Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Margaret M.; Day, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the result of an immediate hypersensitivity immune response of the nasal mucosa to one or more allergens. Clinical features may be indistinguishable from non-allergic rhinitis. Accurate diagnosis demands specialized laboratory investigations, meticulous history and careful physical examination. Management includes control of allergen and irritant exposures, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Recent development of intranasal corticosteroid aerosols has significantly reduced morbidity. Modified allergens for immunotherapy show promise but require further study. PMID:21286562

  14. Short-term roxithromycin treatment attenuates airway inflammation via MAPK/NF-κB activation in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Ci, Xinxin; Chu, Xiao; Xu, Xue; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Xuming

    2012-07-01

    We investigated whether roxithromycin reduces ovalbumin-specific allergic asthma symptoms in mice, and we further investigated the inhibitory mechanism of roxithromycin in ovalbumin-specific allergic asthma. Mice were divided into five groups (n = 10 for each): control group, roxithromycin-treated groups (5, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and ovalbumin-challenged group. We measured the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or the lung tissues by Kwik-Diff and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, goblet cell hyperplasia by alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) by whole-body plethysmograph chamber, cytokine and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels by ELISA, and the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the lung tissues by Western blotting. Treatment with roxithromycin resulted in fewer inflammatory cells in the BALF and peribronchial areas, and decreased AHR, goblet cell hyperplasia, IgE levels and inflammatory cytokines, as well as MAP kinases and NF-κB activation, which are increased in lung tissues of mice with ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Our data suggest that oral administration of roxithromycin suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and AHR by regulating the inflammatory cytokines via MAP kinases/NF-κB pathway in inflammatory cells. Based on these results, we suggest that roxithromycin may be used as a therapeutic agent for allergy-induced asthma.

  15. Foxp3(+)-Treg cells enhanced by repeated low-dose gamma-irradiation attenuate ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum Soo; Hong, Gwan Ui; Ro, Jai Youl

    2013-05-01

    Gamma radiation is used for several therapeutic indications such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Low-dose whole-body γ irradiation has been shown to activate immune responses in several ways, however, the effect and mechanism of irradiation on allergic asthma remains poorly understood. This study investigated whether or not irradiation exacerbates allergic asthma responses and its potential mechanism. C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce asthma. The mice received whole-body irradiation once daily for 3 consecutive days with a dose of 0.667 Gy using (137)Cs γ rays 24 h before every OVA challenge. Repeated low-dose irradiation reduced OVA-specific IgE levels, the number of inflammatory cells including mast cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, airway hyperresponsiveness, expression of inflammatory cytokines, CCL2/CCR2, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 activities. All of these factors were increased in BAL cells and lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. Irradiation increased the number of Treg cells, expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-2 and IL-35 in BAL cells and lung tissue. Irradiation also increased Treg cell-expressed Foxp3 and IL-10 by NF-κB and RUNX1 in OVA-challenged mice. Furthermore, while Treg cell-expressing OX40 and IL-10 were enhanced in lung tissue or act-bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with Treg cells, but BMMCs-expressing OX40L and TGF-β were decreased. The data suggest that irradiation enhances Foxp3(+)- and IL-10-producing Treg cells, which reduce OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation and tissue remodeling through the down-regulation of migration by the CCL2/CCR2 axis and activation of mast cells via OX40/OX40L in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice.

  16. Allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that is strongly linked to asthma and conjunctivitis. It is usually a long-standing condition that often goes undetected in the primary-care setting. The classic symptoms of the disorder are nasal congestion, nasal itch, rhinorrhea and sneezing. A thorough history, physical examination and allergen skin testing are important for establishing the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment. Allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modulating treatment that should be recommended if pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis is not effective or is not tolerated. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and appropriate management of this disorder. PMID:22166009

  17. [Allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Del Río-Navarro, B E; Sienra-Monge, J J; Castellanos, A; Williams-Gotti, M J

    1992-04-01

    The eye reacts to foreign substances through a variety of specific and non-specific defense mechanisms. Constantly exposed to a great variety of microorganisms, the eye is capable of protecting itself without altering its own structure and function. Its resistance relies upon anatomic and physiological properties of its external components (eyelids, tears, conjunctiva and cornea). Most of the times, the conjunctiva becomes affected, resulting in a clinical picture of conjunctivitis where allergy predominates, expressed as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis and flictenular conjunctivitis. The physiopathology is considered to be of type I reaction (IgE mediated). Frequent complains often associated with other allergic diseases are: pruritus, tearing, photofobia and ocular redness. The diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis in done by means of a throughout clinical history, conjunctival citology and evaluation of specific IgE with immediate skin tests. Treatment is symptomatic (antihistamines, antibiotics and/or topic steroids), but prevention (environmental control and sodium cromoglycate) and specific immunotherapy must be considered.

  18. Allergic vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin. Causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis is caused by an allergic reaction to ... affects people older than age 15. Often, the cause of the problem cannot be found even with ... vasculitis may look like necrotizing vasculitis , which can ...

  19. Intranasal administration of a combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium attenuates the allergic effect in a mouse model of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Preeti; Saw, Sanjay; Govindaraj, Dhanapal; Arora, Naveen

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory allergic disease is an inflammatory condition accompanied by oxidative stress. Supplementation of an anti-inflammatory agent with antioxidants may have a therapeutic effect. In this study, the effects of choline chloride in combination with antioxidants were evaluated via the intranasal route in a mouse model of allergic airway disease. Balb/c mice were sensitized on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged on days 25-30 with cockroach extract (CE) and with a booster challenge on day 38. They were treated with choline chloride (ChCl; 1mg/kg), vitamin C (Vit C; 308.33 mg/kg), and selenium (Se; 1mg/kg) alone or in combination via the intranasal route on days 31, 33, 35, 37, and 39. The mice were sacrificed on day 40 to collect blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, and spleen. Mice immunized with CE showed a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation, Th2 cytokines, and the oxidative stress markers intracellular reactive oxygen species and 8-isoprostanes compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control group. A significant decrease was observed in these parameters with all the treatments (p<0.01). The highest decrease was noticed in the ChCl+Vit C+Se-treated group, with AHR decreased to the normal level. This group also showed the highest decrease in airway inflammation (p<0.001), IL-4 and IL-5 (p<0.001), IgE and IgG1 (p<0.001), NF-κB (p<0.001), and 8-isoprostane levels (p<0.001). Glutathione peroxidase activity, which was decreased significantly in CE-immunized mice, was restored to normal levels in this group (p<0.001). IL-10 level was decreased in CE-immunized mice and was restored to normal by combination treatment. The combination treatment induced FOXP3(+) cells in splenocyte culture, responsible for the upregulation of IL-10. In conclusion, the combination of choline chloride, vitamin C, and selenium via the intranasal route reduces AHR, inflammation, and oxidative stress, probably by causing IL-10 production by FOXP

  20. TLR-7 agonist attenuates airway reactivity and inflammation through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant protection in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nahid; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2016-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through innate immune system recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and play an important role in host defense against bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR-7 is responsible for sensing single stranded nucleic acids of viruses but its activation has been shown to be protective in mouse models of asthma. The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes family mainly produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lung and is involved in regulation of airway inflammation in response to TLRs activation. However, NOX-4 mediated signaling in response to TLR-7 activation in a mouse model of allergic asthma has not been explored previously. Therefore, this study investigated the role TLR-7 activation and downstream oxidant-antioxidant signaling in a murine model of asthma. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) intraperitoneally and treated with TLR-7 agonist, resiquimod (RSQ) intranasally before each OVA challenge from days 14 to 16. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, and NOX-4 and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related signaling [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxides and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD)]. Treatment with RSQ reduced allergen induced airway reactivity and inflammation. This was paralleled by a decrease in ROS which was due to induction of Nrf2 and Cu/Zn SOD in RSQ treated group. Inhibition of MyD88 reversed RSQ-mediated protective effects on airway reactivity/inflammation due to reduction in Nrf2 signaling. SOD inhibition produced effects similar to MyD88 inhibition. The current study suggests that TLR-7 agonist is beneficial and may be developed into a therapeutic option in allergic asthma.

  1. Reliable determination of amidicity in acyclic amides and lactams.

    PubMed

    Glover, Stephen A; Rosser, Adam A

    2012-07-06

    Two independent computational methods have been used for determination of amide resonance stabilization and amidicities relative to N,N-dimethylacetamide for a wide range of acyclic and cyclic amides. The first method utilizes carbonyl substitution nitrogen atom replacement (COSNAR). The second, new approach involves determination of the difference in amide resonance between N,N-dimethylacetamide and the target amide using an isodesmic trans-amidation process and is calibrated relative to 1-aza-2-adamantanone with zero amidicity and N,N-dimethylacetamide with 100% amidicity. Results indicate excellent coherence between the methods, which must be regarded as more reliable than a recently reported approach to amidicities based upon enthalpies of hydrogenation. Data for acyclic planar and twisted amides are predictable on the basis of the degrees of pyramidalization at nitrogen and twisting about the C-N bonds. Monocyclic lactams are predicted to have amidicities at least as high as N,N-dimethylacetamide, and the β-lactam system is planar with greater amide resonance than that of N,N-dimethylacetamide. Bicyclic penam/em and cepham/em scaffolds lose some amidicity in line with the degree of strain-induced pyramidalization at the bridgehead nitrogen and twist about the amide bond, but the most puckered penem system still retains substantial amidicity equivalent to 73% that of N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  2. Picroside II Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Downregulating the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Th2-Related Cytokines in a Mouse Model of HDM-Induced Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin seok; Lee, Jae-Won; Park, Hyun Ah; Ryu, Hyung Won; Lee, Su Ui; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Yun, Won-Kee; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum has been used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we assessed whether picroside II has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. In the HDM-induced asthmatic model, picroside II significantly reduced inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig) E and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, airway inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion in the lung tissues. ELISA analysis showed that picroside II down-regulated the levels of Th2-related cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and asthma-related mediators, but it up-regulated Th1-related cytokine, IFNγ in BALF. Picroside II also inhibited the expression of Th2 type cytokine genes and the transcription factor GATA3 in the lung tissues of HDM-induced mice. Finally, we demonstrated that picroside II significantly decreased the expression of GATA3 and Th2 cytokines in developing Th2 cells, consistent with in vivo results. Taken together, these results indicate that picroside II has protective effects on allergic asthma by reducing GATA3 expression and Th2 cytokine bias. PMID:27870920

  3. Oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 attenuates PM2.5-induced enhancement of airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic airway response in murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xifan; Hui, Yan; Zhao, Liang; Hao, Yanling; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated allergy immunotherapy potential of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 to prevent or mitigate the particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) enhanced pre-existing asthma in mice. Firstly, we used a mouse model of asthma (a 21-day ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge model) followed by PM2.5 exposure twice on the same day of the last challenge. PM2.5 was collected from the urban area of Beijing and underwent analysis for metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure enhanced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and lead to a mixed Th2/ IL-17 response in asthmatic mice. Secondly, the PM2.5 exposed asthmatic mice were orally administered with L9 (4×107, 4×109 CFU/mouse, day) from the day of first sensitization to the endpoint, for 20 days, to investigate the potential mitigative effect of L9 on asthma. The results showed that L9 ameliorated PM2.5 exposure enhanced AHR with an approximate 50% decrease in total airway resistance response to methacholine (48 mg/ml). L9 also prevented the exacerbated eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and decreased the serum level of total IgE and OVA-specific IgG1 by 0.44-fold and 0.3-fold, respectively. Additionally, cytokine production showed that L9 significantly decreased T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-related cytokines (IL-4, -5, -13) and elevated levels of Th1 related IFN-γ in BALF. L9 also reduced the level of IL-17A and increased the level of TGF-β. Taken together, these results indicate that L9 may exert the anti-allergic benefit, possibly through rebalancing Th1/Th2 immune response and modulating IL-17 pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, L9 is a promising candidate for preventing PM exposure enhanced pre-existing asthma.

  4. Oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 attenuates PM2.5-induced enhancement of airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic airway response in murine model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Hao, Yanling; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated allergy immunotherapy potential of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 to prevent or mitigate the particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) enhanced pre-existing asthma in mice. Firstly, we used a mouse model of asthma (a 21-day ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge model) followed by PM2.5 exposure twice on the same day of the last challenge. PM2.5 was collected from the urban area of Beijing and underwent analysis for metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure enhanced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and lead to a mixed Th2/ IL-17 response in asthmatic mice. Secondly, the PM2.5 exposed asthmatic mice were orally administered with L9 (4×107, 4×109 CFU/mouse, day) from the day of first sensitization to the endpoint, for 20 days, to investigate the potential mitigative effect of L9 on asthma. The results showed that L9 ameliorated PM2.5 exposure enhanced AHR with an approximate 50% decrease in total airway resistance response to methacholine (48 mg/ml). L9 also prevented the exacerbated eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and decreased the serum level of total IgE and OVA-specific IgG1 by 0.44-fold and 0.3-fold, respectively. Additionally, cytokine production showed that L9 significantly decreased T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)–related cytokines (IL-4, -5, -13) and elevated levels of Th1 related IFN-γ in BALF. L9 also reduced the level of IL-17A and increased the level of TGF-β. Taken together, these results indicate that L9 may exert the anti-allergic benefit, possibly through rebalancing Th1/Th2 immune response and modulating IL-17 pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, L9 is a promising candidate for preventing PM exposure enhanced pre-existing asthma. PMID:28199353

  5. ALLERGIC IRRITABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Paul A.; Loomis, Dorothy

    1928-01-01

    The allergic irritability of closely inbred guinea pigs as represented by their capacity to produce hemolytic antibodies for beef and sheep corpuscles, and agglutinins for Bacillus typhosus and Bacillus abortus (Bang) differs by families and therefore is at least partly dependent on inherited characteristics. These differences show an imperfect but suggestive correlation with the differences in resistance of the same families to inoculation tuberculosis as previously determined by Wright and Lewis. The differences in antibody production also show an imperfect correlation with the differences in response in the anaphylactic reaction complex as previously determined by Lewis and Loomis. These studies suggest very strongly that the allergic irritability is one of the several inheritable characters which form a partial basis for the natural resistance to tuberculosis. The antibody-producing capacity is only satisfactorily defined when minimal or moderate amounts of antigen are used and this in single treatments. The irregularities in experimental result when repeated treatments or very large single treatments are used suggest that antibody production in the second or "acquired capacity" phase may rest on a somewhat different fundamental basis than the latent or potential natural capacity. There is some very slight evidence that production in the second phase may also be influenced by inherited qualities. PMID:19869422

  6. Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Ogrady, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhinitis, or the “stuffy nose”, can be allergic or non-allergic in nature. Accurate diagnosis depends on a well-taken history and physical examination. Non-allergic rhinitis is characterized by absent elevation in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment is based, if possible, on the etiology. Surgical procedures on the turbinates are often needed to allow improvement. Allergic rhinitis is characterized by an increase in allergen-specific IgE. Treatment may involve environmental control, pharmocologic agents, or, finally, immunotherapy. Successful treatment requires accurate assessment of the offending agent and proper use of the above-mentioned modalities. PMID:21263880

  7. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  8. Amides in Nature and Biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Julia; Steiner, Kerstin

    2016-10-10

    Amides are widespread in biologically active compounds with a broad range of applications in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine. Therefore, as alternative to chemical synthesis the biocatalytic amide synthesis is a very interesting field of research. As usual, Nature can serve as guide in the quest for novel biocatalysts. Several mechanisms for carboxylate activation involving mainly acyl-adenylate, acyl-phosphate or acyl-enzyme intermediates have been discovered, but also completely different pathways to amides are found. In addition to ribosomes, selected enzymes of almost all main enzyme classes are able to synthesize amides. In this review we give an overview about amide synthesis in Nature, as well as biotechnological applications of these enzymes. Moreover, several examples of biocatalytic amide synthesis are given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel and orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, KR-33889 [2-[methoxycarbonyl(4-methoxyphenyl) methylsulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylic acid amide], attenuates injury in in vitro model of cell death and in vivo model of cardiac ischemia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Sunkyung; Yi, Kyu Yang; Seo, Ho Won; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Byung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Blocking of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 has been expected to protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have recently identified a novel and orally active PARP-1 inhibitor, KR-33889 [2-[methoxycarbonyl(4-methoxyphenyl)-methylsulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylic acid amide], and its major metabolite, KR-34285 [2-[carboxy(4-methoxyphenyl)methylsulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxylic acid amide]. KR-33889 potently inhibited PARP-1 activity with an IC(50) value of 0.52 +/- 0.10 microM. In H9c2 myocardial cells, KR-33889 (0.03-30 microM) showed a resistance to hydrogen peroxide (2 mM)-mediated oxidative insult and significantly attenuated activation of intracellular PARP-1. In anesthetized rats subjected to 30 min of coronary occlusion and 3 h of reperfusion, KR-33889 (0.3-3 mg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced myocardial infarct size. KR-34285, a major metabolite of KR-33889, exerted similar patterns to the parent compound with equi- or weaker potency in the same studies described above. In separate experiments for the therapeutic time window study, KR-33889 (3 mg/kg i.v.) given at preischemia, at reperfusion or in both, in rat models also significantly reduced the myocardial infarction compared with their respective vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, the oral administration of KR-33889 (1-10 mg/kg p.o.) at 1 h before occlusion significantly reduced myocardial injury. The ability of KR-33889 to inhibit PARP in the rat model of ischemic heart was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of poly(ADP-ribose) activation. These results indicate that the novel PARP inhibitor KR-33889 exerts its cardioprotective effect in in vitro and in vivo studies of myocardial ischemia via potent PARP inhibition and also suggest that KR-33889 could be an attractive therapeutic candidate with oral activity for several cardiovascular disorders, including myocardial infarction.

  10. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L.; Klauser, Paul C.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases. PMID:26854515

  11. Epigenomics and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24283882

  12. Epigenomics and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Patil, Veeresh K; Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H; Holloway, John W; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Allergic disease development is affected by both genes and the environment, and epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to mediate these environmental effects. In this article, we discuss the link between the environment, DNA methylation and allergic disease, as well as questions of causality inherent to analyses of DNA methylation. From the practical side, we describe characteristics of allergic phenotypes and contrast different epidemiologic study designs used in epigenetic research. We examine methodological considerations, how best to conduct preprocessing and analysis of DNA methylation data sets, and the latest methods, technologies and discoveries in this rapidly advancing field. DNA methylation and other epigenetic marks are firmly entwined with allergic disease, a link that may hold the basis for future allergic disease diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Allergic Host Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments. PMID:22538607

  14. Respiratory Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Woloski, Jason Raymond; Heston, Skye; Escobedo Calderon, Sheyla Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Allergic asthma refers to a chronic reversible bronchoconstriction influenced by an allergic trigger, leading to symptoms of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a complex hypersensitivity reaction, often in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, occurring when bronchi become colonized by Aspergillus species. The clinical picture is dominated by asthma complicated by recurrent episodes of bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, mucus production, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a syndrome associated with lung inflammation from the inhalation of airborne antigens, such as molds and dust. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Allergic enteritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Gawryjołek, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal form of food allergy is very common in children. The most frequently observed types are allergic proctitis and proctocolitis. In most cases the symptoms subside within the first 2 months of life. The babies seem healthy, and the only abnormality is a small amount of blood in stool. Symptoms can also include small intestine inflammation and colitis. Patients may present with irritability, abdominal pain, flatulence, colic, postprandial vomiting, chronic diarrhoea, and hindered physical development. The diagnosis of allergic enteritis is based on the clinical examination and the results of additional tests including an endoscopy of the lower digestive tract with histopathological assessment. Cow’s milk proteins are the most common nutrition proteins responsible for the development of the symptoms of allergic enteritis. The most essential method of treating allergic enteritis is the elimination diet. The symptoms should subside within 1–2 weeks from the beginning of the diet. PMID:28337229

  16. Management of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sausen, Verra O.; Marks, Katherine E.; Sausen, Kenneth P.; Self, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic childhood disease. Reduced quality of life is frequently caused by this IgE-mediated disease, including sleep disturbance with subsequent decreased school performance. Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm are commonly seen concurrently with allergic rhinitis, and poorly controlled allergic rhinitis negatively affects asthma outcomes. Nonsedating antihistamines or intranasal azelastine are effective agents to manage allergic rhinitis, often in combination with oral decongestants. For moderate to severe persistent disease, intranasal corticosteroids are the most effiective agents. Some patients require concomitant intranasal corticosteroids and nonsedating antihistamines for optimal management. Other available agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal ipratropium, specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. PMID:23118635

  17. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  18. [Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, Juan Carlos; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aída; Cariño-Cartagena, Diego Antonio; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic fibrosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  19. Epigenetics in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood, affecting more than 7 million children in the United States. Epidemiological evidence supports the idea that the inception of allergic diseases is typically before the pre-school years, even when chronic symptoms do not emerge until adulthood. The role of epigenetic mechanisms (particularly DNA methylation) in allergic disease is under active investigation because these mechanisms are known to be at the interface among gene regulation, environmental stimuli and developmental processes, all of which are essential for the pathogenesis for asthma and allergy. This article specifically reviews genome-wide DNA methylation studies in allergic disease. Recent findings Differential DNA methylation at specific regions appears to be associated with concurrent allergic disease. A few studies have identified methylation signatures predictive of disease. Summary DNA methylation signatures have been shown be associated with several allergic disease phenotypes, typically concurrently with disease. The few that have been found to precede diagnosis are especially interesting because they highlight an early trajectory to disease. PMID:26418323

  20. Genetics of Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Romina A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The allergic diseases are complex phenotypes for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been widely employed in the field of allergic disease, and to date significant associations have been published for nearly 100 asthma genes/loci, in addition to multiple genes/loci for AD, AR and IgE levels, for which the overwhelming number of candidates are novel and have given a new appreciation for the role of innate as well as adaptive immune-response genes in allergic disease. A major outcome of GWAS in allergic disease has been the formation of national and international collaborations leading to consortia meta-analyses, and an appreciation for the specificity of genetic associations to sub-phenotypes of allergic disease. Molecular genetics has undergone a technological revolution, leading to next generation sequencing (NGS) strategies that are increasingly employed to hone in on the causal variants associated with allergic diseases. Unmet needs in the field include the inclusion of ethnically and racially diverse cohorts, and strategies for managing ‘big data’ that is an outcome of technological advances such as sequencing. PMID:25459575

  1. Diaminopimelic Acid Amidation in Corynebacteriales

    PubMed Central

    Levefaudes, Marjorie; Patin, Delphine; de Sousa-d'Auria, Célia; Chami, Mohamed; Blanot, Didier; Hervé, Mireille; Arthur, Michel; Houssin, Christine; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A gene named ltsA was earlier identified in Rhodococcus and Corynebacterium species while screening for mutations leading to increased cell susceptibility to lysozyme. The encoded protein belonged to a huge family of glutamine amidotransferases whose members catalyze amide nitrogen transfer from glutamine to various specific acceptor substrates. We here describe detailed physiological and biochemical investigations demonstrating the specific role of LtsA protein from Corynebacterium glutamicum (LtsACg) in the modification by amidation of cell wall peptidoglycan diaminopimelic acid (DAP) residues. A morphologically altered but viable ΔltsA mutant was generated, which displays a high susceptibility to lysozyme and β-lactam antibiotics. Analysis of its peptidoglycan structure revealed a total loss of DAP amidation, a modification that was found in 80% of DAP residues in the wild-type polymer. The cell peptidoglycan content and cross-linking were otherwise not modified in the mutant. Heterologous expression of LtsACg in Escherichia coli yielded a massive and toxic incorporation of amidated DAP into the peptidoglycan that ultimately led to cell lysis. In vitro assays confirmed the amidotransferase activity of LtsACg and showed that this enzyme used the peptidoglycan lipid intermediates I and II but not, or only marginally, the UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide nucleotide precursor as acceptor substrates. As is generally the case for glutamine amidotransferases, either glutamine or NH4+ could serve as the donor substrate for LtsACg. The enzyme did not amidate tripeptide- and tetrapeptide-truncated versions of lipid I, indicating a strict specificity for a pentapeptide chain length. PMID:25847251

  2. Tregs and allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas S.; Larché, Mark; Durham, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing in prevalence and affect up to 15% of populations in Westernized countries. The description of Tregs as T cells that prevent development of autoimmune disease led to considerable interest in whether these Tregs were also normally involved in prevention of sensitization to allergens and whether it might be possible to manipulate Tregs for the therapy of allergic disease. Current data suggest that Th2 responses to allergens are normally suppressed by both CD4+CD25+ Tregs and IL-10 Tregs. Furthermore, suppression by these subsets is decreased in allergic individuals. In animal models, Tregs could be induced by high- or low-dose inhaled antigen, and prior induction of such Tregs prevented subsequent development of allergen sensitization and airway inflammation in inhaled challenge models. For many years, allergen-injection immunotherapy has been used for the therapy of allergic disease, and this treatment may induce IL-10 Tregs, leading to both suppression of Th2 responses and a switch from IgE to IgG4 antibody production. Improvements in allergen immunotherapy, such as peptide therapy, and greater understanding of the biology of Tregs hold great promise for the treatment and prevention of allergic disease. PMID:15545986

  3. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions allergic asthma allergic asthma Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Asthma is a breathing disorder characterized by inflammation of ...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  5. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis.

  6. [Apoptosis in allergic disease].

    PubMed

    Rojas Ramos, E; Martínez Jiménez, N E; Martínez Aguilar, N E; Garfias Becerra, J

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis (cell programmed death) it is a mechanism that implicate a physiological suicide, to keep the cellular homeostasis in big amount of tissues. Fas (APO-1; CD95) system is one of the most important cellular responsible via to induce apoptosis on different tissues. Eosinophillia on peripheral blood and tissues are the main characteristics on allergic like asthma. Eosinophil apoptosis is upper regulated in those diseases by IL-5 y GM-CSF. Corticoids, teophyllin and some macrolids have been used like apoptosis inductors on eosinophills, these could be a novel mechanism to promote a better solution on inflammatory allergic diseases.

  7. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Matthew W

    2011-06-01

    Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, characterized by type 1 hypersensitivity to fungi, eosinophilic mucin with fungal hyphae in sinus secretions, and propensity for mucocele formation and bone erosion. Although its differentiation from other forms of chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis with eosinophilic mucin is sometimes problematic, type 1 hypersensitivity is a component of the disease process. Medical and surgical management can be augmented by immunotherapy directed toward the patient's specific allergen sensitivities. The primary rationale for immunotherapy is to control the allergic diathesis that may be contributing to the patient's chronic sinus inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vibrational relaxation pathways of amide I and amide II modes in N-methylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, L; Bakker, H J

    2012-04-28

    We studied the vibrational energy relaxation mechanisms of the amide I and amide II modes of N-methylacetamide (NMA) monomers dissolved in bromoform using polarization-resolved femtosecond two-color vibrational spectroscopy. The results show that the excited amide I vibration transfers its excitation energy to the amide II vibration with a time constant of 8.3 ± 1 ps. In addition to this energy exchange process, we observe that the excited amide I and amide II vibrations both relax to a final thermal state. For the amide I mode this latter process dominates the vibrational relaxation of this mode. We find that the vibrational relaxation of the amide I mode depends on frequency which can be well explained from the presence of two subbands with different vibrational lifetimes (~1.1 ps on the low frequency side and ~2.7 ps on the high frequency side) in the amide I absorption spectrum.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  10. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  11. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  12. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%–70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC. PMID:28487836

  13. TONSILLECTOMY IN THE ALLERGIC CHILD

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Ben F.

    1949-01-01

    Edema is the chief factor in enlargement of tonsils of children with allergic disease. In the absence of infection tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are contraindicated in the allergic child except when obstruction is present. Infection produces one of two distinct patterns when it influences allergic states, the pattern depending upon the nature of the infectious disease. Chronic infection of the upper respiratory tract in the allergic child produces a pattern simulating that of acute respiratory infection. If, in the presence of infected tonsils and adenoids, management of the allergic state does not produce results, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are indicated. Management of the allergic disease must be continued postoperatively. Whether infection is present or absent, allergic disease can be controlled only through competent management of it. PMID:15392819

  14. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  15. DIESEL PARTICLE INSTILLATION ENHANCES INFLAMMATORY AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES IN THE LUNGS OF ALLERGIC BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airways resistance and inflammation. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airways resistance associated with the allergen-specific airways responses in mice. ...

  16. Direct amidation of esters with nitroarenes

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ploeger, Marten Leendert; Hu, Xile

    2017-01-01

    Esters are one of the most common functional groups in natural and synthetic products, and the one-step conversion of the ester group into other functional groups is an attractive strategy in organic synthesis. Direct amidation of esters is particularly appealing due to the omnipresence of the amide moiety in biomolecules, fine chemicals, and drug candidates. However, efficient methods for direct amidation of unactivated esters are still lacking. Here we report nickel-catalysed reductive coupling of unactivated esters with nitroarenes to furnish in one step a wide range of amides bearing functional groups relevant to the development of drugs and agrochemicals. The method has been used to expedite the syntheses of bio-active molecules and natural products, as well as their post-synthetic modifications. Preliminary mechanistic study indicates a reaction pathway distinct from conventional amidation methods using anilines as nitrogen sources. The work provides a novel and efficient method for amide synthesis. PMID:28345585

  17. Direct amidation of esters with nitroarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ploeger, Marten Leendert; Hu, Xile

    2017-03-01

    Esters are one of the most common functional groups in natural and synthetic products, and the one-step conversion of the ester group into other functional groups is an attractive strategy in organic synthesis. Direct amidation of esters is particularly appealing due to the omnipresence of the amide moiety in biomolecules, fine chemicals, and drug candidates. However, efficient methods for direct amidation of unactivated esters are still lacking. Here we report nickel-catalysed reductive coupling of unactivated esters with nitroarenes to furnish in one step a wide range of amides bearing functional groups relevant to the development of drugs and agrochemicals. The method has been used to expedite the syntheses of bio-active molecules and natural products, as well as their post-synthetic modifications. Preliminary mechanistic study indicates a reaction pathway distinct from conventional amidation methods using anilines as nitrogen sources. The work provides a novel and efficient method for amide synthesis.

  18. Borate esters as convenient reagents for direct amidation of carboxylic acids and transamidation of primary amides.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Pavel; Sheppard, Tom D

    2011-03-07

    Simple borates serve as effective promoters for amide bond formation with a variety of carboxylic acids and amines. With trimethyl or tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) borate, amides are obtained in good to excellent yield and high purity after a simple work-up procedure. Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) borate can also be used for the straightforward conversion of primary amides to secondary amides via transamidation.

  19. [Allergic vasculitis in brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Boudghène-Stambouli, O; Mérad-Boudia, A; Ghernaout-Benchouk, S

    1994-01-01

    Brucellosis is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram negative bacillus of the Brucella gender. Skin manifestations have been reported in 1.5 to 11 p. 100 of the cases. Allergic vasculitis is rare. Recently a 24-year-old man was hospitalized for signs of infection. He had been treated with tetracycline. The clinical picture was suggestive of brucellosis and the Wright test was positive at 1/1,280. There were violet and purpuric papulae on the limbs, arthritis of the knee and ankle joints and renal involvement (haematuria, proteinuria). Histology revealed fibrinoid and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small veinules of the subpapillary plexus. Outcome was favourable with rifampicin, doxycycline and adjuvant dapsone, together with bed rest. Several types of skin manifestations have been reported in brucellosis although cases of allergic vasculitis are rare.

  20. Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the archetypal allergic disease otolaryngologists encounter. Epidemiologic studies inform providers of the association of rhinitis symptoms and allergy test results in the broader population. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of AR is important for interpreting both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Articles were selected based on literature review through PubMed and personal knowledge of the author. The largest and highest-quality studies were included. The search selection was not standardized. Epidemiological studies demonstrate marked variability globally in the prevalence of both rhinitis symptoms and allergy tests. Self-reported seasonal or perennial rhinitis symptoms significantly overestimate the prevalence of AR defined by a positive history and positive allergy tests. Positive allergy tests are also common in those without self-reported rhinitis symptoms. Interpreting rhinitis symptoms and allergy testing is enhanced by an understanding of the epidemiology of AR. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  2. Nucleoside phosphorylation in amide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoffstall, A. M.; Kokko, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with phosphorylation in possible prebiotic nonaqueous solvents. To this end, phosphorylation of nucleosides using inorganic phosphates in amide solutions is studied at room and elevated temperatures. Reaction proceeds most readily in formamide and N-methylformamide. Products obtained at elevated temperature are nucleotides, nucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates, and when the phosphate concentration is high, nucleoside diphosphates. At room temperature, adenosine afforded a mixture of nucleotides, but none of the cyclic nucleotide. Conditions leading to the highest relative percentage of cyclic nucleotide involve the use of low concentrations of phosphate and an excess of nucleoside.

  3. [Pseudotumoral allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Otero González, I; Montero Martínez, C; Blanco Aparicio, M; Valiño López, P; Verea Hernando, H

    2000-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) develops as the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Clinical and radiological presentation can be atypical, requiring a high degree of suspicion on the part of the physician who treats such patients. We report the cases of two patients with APBA in whom the form of presentation--with few asthma symptoms, images showing lobar atelectasia and hilar adenopathy--led to an initial suspicion of lung cancer.

  4. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tengku; McSharry, Charles; Boyd, Gavin

    2006-05-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis) is caused by repeated inhalation of mainly organic antigens by sensitized subjects. This induces a hypersensitivity response in the distal bronchioles and alveoli and subjects may present clinically with a variety of symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe the current concepts of the immunological response, the diverse clinical presentation of this disease, the relevant investigations and management, and areas for future studies.

  5. Management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Solelhac, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke. PMID:25374672

  6. Management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Solelhac, Geoffroy; Charpin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review the current management of allergic rhinitis and new directions for future treatment. Currently, management includes pharmacotherapy, allergen avoidance and possibly immunotherapy. The simple washing of nasal cavities using isotonic saline provides a significant improvement and is useful, particularly in children. The most effective medication in persistent rhinitis used singly is topical corticosteroid, which decreases all symptoms, including ocular ones. Antihistamines reduce nasal itch, sneeze and rhinorrhea and can be used orally or topically. When intranasal antihistamine is used together with topical corticosteroid, the combination is more effective and acts more rapidly than either drug used alone. Alternative therapies, such as homeopathy, acupuncture and intranasal carbon dioxide, or devices such nasal air filters or intranasal cellulose, have produced some positive results in small trials but are not recommended by Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA). In the field of allergic immunotherapy, subcutaneous and sublingual routes are currently used, the former being perhaps more efficient and the latter safer. Sublingual tablets are now available. Their efficacy compared to standard routes needs to be evaluated. Efforts have been made to develop more effective and simpler immunotherapy by modifying allergens and developing alternative routes. Standard allergen avoidance procedures used alone do not provide positive results. A comprehensive, multi-trigger, multi-component approach is needed, including avoidance of pollutants such as cigarette smoke.

  7. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Allergic Inflammation—Innately Homeostatic

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Laurence E.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated closely with parasite infection but also asthma and other common allergic diseases. Despite the engagement of similar immunologic pathways, parasitized individuals often show no outward manifestations of allergic disease. In this perspective, we present the thesis that allergic inflammatory responses play a primary role in regulating circadian and environmental inputs involved with tissue homeostasis and metabolic needs. Parasites feed into these pathways and thus engage allergic inflammation to sustain aspects of the parasitic life cycle. In response to parasite infection, an adaptive and regulated immune response is layered on the host effector response, but in the setting of allergy, the effector response remains unregulated, thus leading to the cardinal features of disease. Further understanding of the homeostatic pressures driving allergic inflammation holds promise to further our understanding of human health and the treatment of these common afflictions. PMID:25414367

  9. Yttrium (amidate) complexes for catalytic C-N bond formation. Rapid, room temperature amidation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jaclyn A; Schafer, Laurel L

    2012-07-14

    Yttrium (amidate) precatalysts are highly active for the mild amidation of aldehydes with amines. Reactions occur at room temperature within 5 min in up to 98% isolated yield. These rare-earth systems are effective for this transformation in the absence of supplementary heat, light, base, or oxidants. The reaction proceeds with functionalized amines and/or aldehydes. A comparison of various amidate precatalysts in combination with reaction monitoring suggests that the targeted amide products formed during the reaction promote the formation of alternative catalytically active amidate species in situ.

  10. Multicomponent Synthesis of α-Branched Amides

    PubMed Central

    DeBenedetto, Mikkel V.; Green, Michael E.; Wan, Shuangyi; Park, Jung-Hyun; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    α-Branched amides are prepared by multicomponent reactions in which nitriles undergo hydrozirconation to form metalloimines that react with acyl chlorides. The resulting acylimines react with a variety of π-nucleophiles in the presence of Lewis acids to form the desired amides. PMID:19152262

  11. Catalytic synthesis of amides via aldoximes rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Crochet, Pascale; Cadierno, Victorio

    2015-02-14

    Amide bond formation reactions are among the most important transformations in organic chemistry because of the widespread occurrence of amides in pharmaceuticals, natural products and biologically active compounds. The Beckmann rearrangement is a well-known method to generate secondary amides from ketoximes. However, under the acidic conditions commonly employed, aldoximes RHC=NOH rarely rearrange into the corresponding primary amides RC(=O)NH2. In recent years, it was demonstrated that this atom-economical transformation can be carried out efficiently and selectively with the help of metal catalysts. Several homogeneous and heterogenous systems have been described. In addition, protocols offering the option to generate the aldoximes in situ from the corresponding aldehydes and hydroxylamine, or even from alcohols, have also been developed, as well as a series of tandem processes allowing the access to N-substituted amide products. In this Feature article a comprehensive overview of the advances achieved in this particular research area is presented.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  13. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Bains, Sonia N; Judson, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by an exaggerated T(H)2 response to the ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA develops in a small fraction of patients with cystic fibrosis and asthma, suggesting that intrinsic host defects play a major role in disease susceptibility. This article reviews current understanding of the immunopathology, clinical and laboratory findings, and diagnosis and management of ABPA. It highlights clinical and laboratory clues to differentiate ABPA from cystic fibrosis and asthma, which are challenging given clinical and serologic similarities. A practical diagnostic algorithm and management scheme to aid in the treatment of these patients is outlined.

  14. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  15. Gene therapy for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Wu, Si-Jie; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2009-06-01

    Allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, food allergy, and/or anaphylaxis, are associated with the skewing of immune responses towards a T helper 2 (TH2) phenotype, resulting in eosinophilic inflammation. TH2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, promote IgE production, mast cell differentiation, and eosinophil growth, migration and activation which then lead to the pathologic abnormalities in allergic diseases. Moreover, the impaired function of regulatory T cells has been noted in allergic diseases. To date, treatments for allergic diseases, such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, bronchodilators and some allergen-specific immunotherapy, are effective but costly and require long-term and recurrent drug administration. Gene therapy has been shown to be an easy, effective, and convenient treatment by delivering the allergen or the therapeutic protein in the form of plasmid DNA in vivo to modulate allergic immune responses. We summarize here the recent advances of gene therapy in allergic diseases and discuss the challenges in clinical application.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  17. Microorganisms hydrolyse amide bonds; knowledge enabling read-across of biodegradability of fatty acid amides.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Roy; Kuijer, Patrick; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

    2014-07-01

    To get insight in the biodegradation and potential read-across of fatty acid amides, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide were used as model compounds. Two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PK1 and Pseudomonas putida PK2 were isolated with N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and its hydrolysis product N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, respectively. In mixed culture, both strains accomplished complete mineralization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide. Aeromonas hydrophila PK3 was enriched with N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide and subsequently isolated using agar plates containing dodecanoate. N-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazine, the hydrolysis product of N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide, was not degraded. The aerobic biodegradation pathway for primary and secondary fatty acid amides of P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila involved initial hydrolysis of the amide bond producing ammonium, or amines, where the fatty acids formed were immediately metabolized. Complete mineralization of secondary fatty acid amides depended on the biodegradability of the released amine. Tertiary fatty acid amides were not transformed by P. aeruginosa or A. hydrophila. These strains were able to utilize all tested primary and secondary fatty acid amides independent of the amine structure and fatty acid. Read-across of previous reported ready biodegradability results of primary and secondary fatty acid amides is justified based on the broad substrate specificity and the initial hydrolytic attack of the two isolates PK1 and PK3.

  18. [Advice for allergic travellers].

    PubMed

    Sonneville, A

    1999-09-01

    Business and tourist journeys by air contribute to exposure of the body to multiple environments. The allergic patient, considered rightly to be a sentry of the environment, has many reasons to care about his journeys and to take precautions that are adapted to his case under the impetus of advice and information from his physician and his specialist. Some advice falls within a simple logic that is enough to remember when planning the journey while the others measures must follow a correct preventative strategy for allergy risks as much as those that concern the modalities before leaving as a drive taken on the ground. It is important therefore to know how to give advice and information on the different risks linked to the allergic condition and to the field of allergy and help the patient to orientate his choice of place of the journey, the methods of lodging, of transport and the programme of the journey. The advice should also include the preventative measures as a function of the known pathology under the form of medical equipment before, during the stay and on return. Finally some advice relative to medical equipment for prevention and cure would appear to be judicious.

  19. Allergic reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to vaccines are rare but do occur, and have been reported for nearly every vaccine. And while the reaction rate per each dose of vaccine is low, this is a common clinical question due in large part to the enormous numbers of vaccines administered. Reactions are most often due to vaccine constituents rather than the microbial components of the vaccine, but in many instances, the specific ingredient triggering the reaction cannot be definitively identified. Evaluation of patients with suspected vaccine reactions should begin by determining whether the symptoms and timing of the reaction were consistent with a true allergic reaction, followed by an assessment to determine whether the patient needs further doses of the vaccine in question, or similar vaccines, in the future. Skin and serologic testing to vaccines and vaccine constituents can then be performed to further assess the potential cause of the reaction and to develop a plan for future immunizations. Specific guidelines for the administration of influenza vaccines to egg allergic patients have been revised to allow virtually all patients to receive this vaccine in a straightforward manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K; Finis, D; Meller, S; Buhren, B A; Wagenmann, M; Geerling, G

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) as well as intermittent and persistent allergic rhinitis are widespread diseases. Because a combined occurrence of ocular and nasal symptoms is very common the summarising term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is frequently used. SAC and PAC representing the two acute forms of allergic conjunctivitis account for more than 90 % of all cases of allergic conjunctivitis. Compared to the chronic forms of allergic conjunctivitis their course of disease is milder. Nevertheless because of their high prevalence and the proven influence on patients' quality of life they possess clinical and socioeconomic relevance. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is caused by a type 1 IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that is provoked by aeroallergens in the majority of cases. The pathognomonic sign is itching. Besides, typical ocular findings are chemosis, conjunctival injection, watery secretion and lid swelling. Otorhinolaryngologists' findings include rhinorrhea, postnasal drip and sneezing. Problems in breathing through the nose resulting from nasal obstruction can cause impaired nighttime sleep and daytime somnolence. In addition to a reduction of allergen exposure by modification of environment and life style factors, in mild forms of SAC and PAC artificial tears are recommended. Topical antihistamines can generate rapid relief from acute symptoms and itching. Topical mast cell stabilisers however provide long-term effects. Dual action drugs that combine antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers show increased patient compliance due to reduced application frequency. Use of topical steroids should be cautious and only temporary. For prolonged treatment periods unpreserved anti-allergic eye-drops should be preferred. Combined topical antihistamines and new-generation topical nasal steroids often used by otorhinolaryngologists demonstrate a good safety profile without systemic side effects. In summary

  1. A near infrared colorimetric and fluorometric probe for organophosphorus nerve agent mimics by intramolecular amidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Xiao; Su, Yue-Ting; Ma, Yun-Wei; Zhan, Xin-Qi; Zheng, Hong; Jiang, Yun-Bao

    2015-10-21

    A near infrared probe for sensitive colorimetric and fluorimetric detection of nerve agent mimics, DCP and DCNP, was reported based on the activation of a carboxylic acid group by the mimics to conduct an intramolecular amidation reaction in the heptamethine chromophore, where its absorption or excitation maximum wavelength could be greatly red-shifted by attenuating the electron-donating ability of the amine group in the bridgehead site of heptamethine cyanine.

  2. Effects of Isoprene- and Toluene-Generated Smog on Allergic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reactions of organic compounds with nitric oxide (NO) and sunlight produce complex mixtures of pollutants including secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and reactive aldehydes. The health effects of these photochemical smog mixtures in susceptible populations including asthmatics are unclear. We assessed effects of smog generated from mixtures of NO with isoprene (IS) or toluene (TL) on allergic inflammatory responses in Balb/cJ mice. House dust mite (HDM)-sensitized or control mice were all challenged with HDM intranasally 1 d prior to whole-body inhalation exposure to IS (chamber average 509 ppb NO2, 246 ppb O3, and 160 g/m3 SOA), TL (217 ppb NO2, 129 ppb O3, and 376 g/m3 SOA), or HEPA-filtered air (4 h/d for 2 days). Mice were necropsied within 3 h after the second exposure (2 d post-HDM challenge). Assessment of breathing parameters during exposure with double-chamber plethysmography showed a trend for increased specific airway resistance and decreased minute volume during the second day of TL exposure in both non-allergic and HDM-allergic mice. HDM-allergic air-exposed mice had significant increases in numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) alveolar macrophages (AM) and eosinophils (EO), and trends for increases in BAL indices of lung injury in comparison with non-allergic air-exposed mice. Exposure to either IS or TL attenuated the increases in AM, EO, and lung injury markers in HDM-allergic mice. The results of this

  3. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S.; Sowinski, R.; Gruenewald, R.; Kies, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of myelin basic proteins do not cause allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). They were rendered encephalitogenic for rats by admixture with kaolin, talc, glass, uncharged and cation exchange polystyrene resins, carbon and microspheres. Binding of basic protein to some of these aqueous particulate adjuvants was demonstrated spectrophotometrically. Absorption into the lymphatic system was demonstrated histologically. Binding of basic protein to adjuvant can occur in vivo. Basic protein was also bound by a carbon of relatively large particle size. Nevertheless, this carbon and certain other particulates failed to act as adjuvants, probably because they were not absorbed into the lymphatic system. An anion exchange resin, carbonyl iron, and some other particulates were abundantly absorbed into the lymphatic system but exhibited no adjuvant effect with basic protein, even though they do have an adjuvant effect for whole neural tissue. Their lack of effect with the purified antigen was explained by failure to bind basic protein. PMID:5084103

  4. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  5. In-flight allergic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona, Victoria; Worm, Margitta; Lockey, Richard F; Sheikh, Aziz; Greenberger, Paul A; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Ebisawa, Motohiro; El-Gamal, Yehia; Fineman, Stanley; Geller, Mario; Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Tanno, Luciana; Thong, Bernard Y

    2017-01-01

    Allergic and hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis and asthma exacerbations may occur during air travel. Although the exact incidence of in-flight asthma and allergic emergencies is not known, we have concerns that this subject has not received the attention it warrants. There is a need to provide passengers at risk and airlines with the necessary measures to prevent and manage these emergencies. A review of the epidemiology, management and approaches to prevention of allergic and asthma emergencies during air travel is presented with the goal of increasing awareness about these important, potentially preventable medical events.

  6. The Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Samuel O.

    1964-01-01

    Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes, like other atopic disorders, occurs primarily as the result of an antigenantibody reaction between external allergens and circulating skin-sensitizing antibodies. In addition, the disease process is frequently complicated by bacterial or viral infection. Effective treatment of allergic rhinitis, therefore, consists of: (1) changing the patient's environment in order to remove the offending allergens, (2) removing the patient from his environment, (3) altering the patient's response to environmental allergens by means of hyposensitization injections, (4) suppressing the allergic reaction with drugs, and (5) eliminating bacterial infection. Usually more than one of these therapeutic measures is required for the individual patient. PMID:14175878

  7. [Allergic alveolitis after influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, D; Sennekamp, J; Kirsten, A; Kirsten, D

    2009-09-01

    Allergic alveolitis as a side effect of vaccination is very rare. We report a life-threatening complication in a female patient after influenza vaccination. The causative antigen was the influenza virus itself. Our Patient has suffered from exogen-allergic alveolitis for 12 years. Because of the guidelines of regular administration of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic pulmonary disease further research in patients with known exogen-allergic alveolitis is vitally important for the pharmaceutical drug safety. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  8. How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Filip; Halle, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein BPTI, we propose that the open (O) states for amides that exchange by subglobal fluctuations are locally distorted conformations with two water molecules directly coordinated to the N–H group. The HX protection factors computed from the relative O-state populations agree well with experiment. The O states of different amides show little or no temporal correlation, even if adjacent residues unfold cooperatively. The mean residence time of the O state is ∼100 ps for all examined amides, so the large variation in measured HX rate must be attributed to the opening frequency. A few amides gain solvent access via tunnels or pores penetrated by water chains including native internal water molecules, but most amides access solvent by more local structural distortions. In either case, we argue that an overcoordinated N–H group is necessary for efficient proton transfer by Grotthuss-type structural diffusion. PMID:26195754

  9. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Hay fever - self-care; Seasonal rhinitis - self-care; Allergies - allergic rhinitis - self-care ... in a row. Talk to your child's health care provider before giving your child decongestants. Nasal corticosteroid ...

  10. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  11. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  12. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junmi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nomura, Eiichi; Ito, Norihiko; Nomura, Naoko; Yamane, Masayuki; Hida, Tomonobu; Goshima, Yoshio; Hatano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A) in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW) in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U) eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α) release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future. PMID:25709899

  13. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A; Bush, Robert K; Demain, Jeffrey G; Luong, Amber; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    There remains a lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria and approaches to treatment of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The results of a survey of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members regarding these 2 issues are presented and compared for concordance with published recommendations. The literature was reviewed for pertinent reports, and an electronic survey was conducted of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology members and fellows regarding diagnostic criteria, numbers of patients evaluated for ABPA, and treatment approaches. From 508 respondents to the survey sent to 5155 US physicians in the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology database of members and fellows, 245 health professionals (48%) had treated at least 1 patient with ABPA in the previous year. For the diagnosis of ABPA, there was a difference in the threshold concentration of total serum IgE because 44.9% used ≥417 kU/L, whereas 42.0% used ≥1000 kU/L. Analysis of these findings suggests that ABPA might be underdiagnosed. With regard to pharmacotherapy, oral steroids were recommended for 97.1% of patients and oral steroids plus inhaled corticosteroids plus antifungal agent were used with 41.2% of patients. The armamentarium for treatment of ABPA includes oral corticosteroids as the initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroids used for management of persistent asthma. Azoles remain adjunctive. Published experience with omalizumab has been limited.

  14. Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kelestimur, Haluk; Kacar, Emine; Uzun, Aysegul; Ozcan, Mete; Kutlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and orthologous mammalian peptides of Arg-Phe-amide, may be important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis. These peptides may modulate the effects of kisspeptins because they are presently recognized as the most potent activators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, their effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons have not been investigated. In the current study, the GT1–7 cell line-expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone was used as a model to explore the effects of Arg-Pheamide-related peptides on kisspeptin activation. Intracellular calcium concentration was quantified using the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone released into the medium was detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that 100 nmol/L kisspeptin-10 significantly increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone levels (at 120 minutes of exposure) and intracellular calcium concentrations. Co-treatment of kisspeptin with 1 μmol/L gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone or 1 μmol/L Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 significantly attenuated levels of kisspeptin-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone but did not affect kisspeptin-induced elevations of intracellular calcium concentration. Overall, the results suggest that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 may have inhibitory effects on kisspeptin-activated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons independent of the calcium signaling pathway. PMID:25206468

  15. Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelestimur, Haluk; Kacar, Emine; Uzun, Aysegul; Ozcan, Mete; Kutlu, Selim

    2013-06-25

    The hypothalamic Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and orthologous mammalian peptides of Arg-Phe-amide, may be important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis. These peptides may modulate the effects of kisspeptins because they are presently recognized as the most potent activators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, their effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons have not been investigated. In the current study, the GT1-7 cell line-expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone was used as a model to explore the effects of Arg-Pheamide-related peptides on kisspeptin activation. Intracellular calcium concentration was quantified using the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone released into the medium was detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that 100 nmol/L kisspeptin-10 significantly increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone levels (at 120 minutes of exposure) and intracellular calcium concentrations. Co-treatment of kisspeptin with 1 μmol/L gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone or 1 μmol/L Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 significantly attenuated levels of kisspeptin-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone but did not affect kisspeptin-induced elevations of intracellular calcium concentration. Overall, the results suggest that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 may have inhibitory effects on kisspeptin-activated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons independent of the calcium signaling pathway.

  16. Usefulness of a new therapy using rebamipide eyedrops in patients with VKC/AKC refractory to conventional anti-allergic treatments.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sotozono, Chie; Koga, Ayaka; Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-03-01

    Rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, has been reported to suppress gastric mucosal inflammation. In Japan, rebamipide eyedrops have recently been approved for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) manifest dry eye with decreased tear break-up time only. We report patients with VKC/AKC refractory to anti-allergic treatments who responded to the combination of rebamipide eyedrops and conventional anti-allergic treatments with anti-allergic- and/or immunosuppressive/steroid eyedrops. Four patients with allergic conjunctival diseases with giant papillae (VKC or AKC) instilled rebamipide eyedrops three or four times a day for varying periods. All had dry eye with decreased tear break-up time. We evaluated changes in the size of their giant papillae using Image J software. We observed attenuation of the giant papillae in all 4 patients. In 2 patients with severe disease, whose giant papillae had become larger despite the administration of tacrolimus and steroids, the addition of rebamipide contributed to their attenuation. In 2 patients with mild disease, the giant papillae had become larger or remained the same size despite the administration of anti-allergy drugs; the addition of rebamipide eyedrops also resulted in the attenuation of their giant papillae. Our findings suggest that rebamipide eyedrops might attenuate giant papillae in patients with allergic conjunctival diseases and that these eyedrops may be useful for the treatment of not only dry eye but also of allergic conjunctival diseases.

  17. New GABA amides activating GABAA-receptors.

    PubMed

    Raster, Peter; Späth, Andreas; Bultakova, Svetlana; Gorostiza, Pau; König, Burkhard; Bregestovski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared a series of new and some literature-reported GABA-amides and determined their effect on the activation of GABAA-receptors expressed in CHO cells. Special attention was paid to the purification of the target compounds to remove even traces of GABA contaminations, which may arise from deprotection steps in the synthesis. GABA-amides were previously reported to be partial, full or superagonists. In our hands these compounds were not able to activate GABAA-receptor channels in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. New GABA-amides, however, gave moderate activation responses with a clear structure-activity relationship suggesting some of these compounds as promising molecular tools for the functional analysis of GABAA-receptors.

  18. New GABA amides activating GABAA-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Raster, Peter; Späth, Andreas; Bultakova, Svetlana; Gorostiza, Pau

    2013-01-01

    Summary We have prepared a series of new and some literature-reported GABA-amides and determined their effect on the activation of GABAA-receptors expressed in CHO cells. Special attention was paid to the purification of the target compounds to remove even traces of GABA contaminations, which may arise from deprotection steps in the synthesis. GABA-amides were previously reported to be partial, full or superagonists. In our hands these compounds were not able to activate GABAA-receptor channels in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. New GABA-amides, however, gave moderate activation responses with a clear structure–activity relationship suggesting some of these compounds as promising molecular tools for the functional analysis of GABAA-receptors. PMID:23503884

  19. New therapies for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Braido, Fulvio; Sclifò, Francesca; Ferrando, Matteo; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2014-04-01

    Because of its burden on patient's lives and its impact on asthma, allergic rhinitis must be treated properly with more effective and safer treatments. According to guidelines by Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), the classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of allergic rhinitis are well defined. Currently, second-generation antihistamines and inhaled steroids are considered the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, new formulations of available drugs (e.g., loratadine and rupatadine oral solution, ebastine fast-dissolving tablets, and the combination of intranasal fluticasone propionate and azelastine hydrochloride), recently discovered molecules (e.g., ciclesonide, bilastine, and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors), immunologic targets (e.g., omalizumab), and unconventional treatments (e.g., homeopathic treatments) are currently under investigation and represent a new frontier in modern medicine and in allergic rhinitis management. The aim of this review is to provide an update on allergic rhinitis treatment, paying particular attention to clinical trials published within the past 20 months that assessed the efficacy and safety of new formulations of available drugs or new molecules.

  20. Polyimides Containing Amide And Perfluoroisopropyl Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezem, James F.

    1993-01-01

    New polyimides synthesized from reactions of aromatic hexafluoroisopropyl dianhydrides with asymmetric amide diamines. Soluble to extent of at least 10 percent by weight at temperature of about 25 degrees C in common amide solvents such as N-methylpyrrolidone, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Polyimides form tough, flexible films, coatings, and moldings. Glass-transition temperatures ranged from 300 to 365 degrees C, and crystalline melting temperatures observed between 543 and 603 degrees C. Display excellent physical, chemical, and electrical properties. Useful as adhesives, laminating resins, fibers, coatings for electrical and decorative purposes, films, wire enamels, and molding compounds.

  1. Synthesis of Amide Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    amide-linked SWNTs. Through FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and TGA analysis it was proven that the intermediate compounds were successfully...analysis (TGA). Figure 4 shows the TGA data for SWNT-COOH, SWNT-NH2 and SWNT 4 at a heating rate of 10 oC/min in the presence of argon. The TGA ... analysis shows a major decline in mass for the amide- interconnected nanotubes between the 200 oC to 400 oC region. Weight loss due to functionalization

  2. Environmental contributions to allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Levetin, E; Van de Water, P

    2001-11-01

    The environment is a major contributor to allergic disease, and great effort is being expended to identify the chemical pollutants and allergens that make a significant impact. Exposure to high levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and diesel exhaust particles is known to reduce lung function. Studies continue to delineate the role of these particles as adjuvants and carriers of allergens into the respiratory system. Current studies also show the exacerbation of allergic disease through fungal spore inhalation and continue to document the role of pollen in allergic rhinitis. Pollen also was recently associated with asthma epidemics, especially after thunderstorms. Forecasting models currently are being developed that predict the trajectories of pollen dispersal and may allow increased avoidance of dangerous outdoor conditions.

  3. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complementary Therapies in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Baykal, Bahadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed. PMID:24324897

  5. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future.

  6. Complementary therapies in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ibrahim; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Baykal, Bahadir; Ulusoy, Seckin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods. In this prospective study, patients who were diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were questioned about their use of natural products/herbal therapies for their symptoms. Results. In total, 230 patients were enrolled. Overall, 37.3% of the patients stated that they had used natural products/herbal therapies at least once. Women were more likely than men to use herbal supplements (38.3% versus 32.4%). Ten different types of herbal supplements were identified, with stinging nettle (Urtica dioicath), black elderberry (Sambucus nigra), and Spirulina being the most common (12.6%, 6.1%, and 5.7%, resp.). Conclusion. This study found a high prevalence of herbal treatment usage for the relief of allergic rhinitis symptoms in Turkey. The herbal products identified in this study and in the literature are discussed.

  7. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon

    2017-01-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota. PMID:28261020

  8. Beyond Hygiene: Commensal Microbiota and Allergic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, Kwang Soon; Surh, Charles D

    2017-02-01

    Complex communities of microorganisms, termed commensal microbiota, inhabit mucosal surfaces and profoundly influence host physiology as well as occurrence of allergic diseases. Perturbing factors such as the mode of delivery, dietary fibers and antibiotics can influence allergic diseases by altering commensal microbiota in affected tissues as well as in intestine. Here, we review current findings on the relationship between commensal microbiota and allergic diseases, and discuss the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of allergic responses by commensal microbiota.

  9. Therapeutic strategies for allergic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.

    1999-11-01

    Many drugs are now in development for the treatment of atopic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. These treatments are based on improvements in existing therapies or on a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in atopic diseases. Although most attention has been focused on asthma, treatments that inhibit the atopic disease process would have application to all atopic diseases, as they often coincide. Most of the many new therapies in development are aimed at inhibiting components of the allergic inflammatory response, but in the future there are real possibilities for the development of preventative and even curative treatments.

  10. Allergic diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Demographic distribution of the population is progressively changing with the proportion of elderly persons increasing in most societies. This entails that there is a need to evaluate the impact of common diseases, such as asthma and other allergic conditions, in this age segment. Frailty, comorbidities and polymedication are some of the factors that condition management in geriatric patients. The objective of this review is to highlight the characteristics of allergic diseases in older age groups, from the influence of immunosenescence, to particular clinical implications and management issues, such as drug interactions or age-related side effects. PMID:22409889

  11. The role of fungi in allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, asthma, airborne dermatitis, or allergic conjunctivitis, can be caused or aggravated by components of bioaerosol from natural environment or from indoor environment in enclosed spaces, workplaces and homes. The main components of bioaerosol are fungi and their metabolites, which are common in the environment. PMID:24278044

  12. Management of Rhinitis: Allergic and Non-Allergic

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen P; Vickery, John

    2011-01-01

    Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). Allergic rhinitis occurs when an allergen is the trigger for the nasal symptoms. NAR is when obstruction and rhinorrhea occurs in relation to nonallergic, noninfectious triggers such as change in the weather, exposure to caustic odors or cigarette smoke, barometric pressure differences, etc. There is a lack of concomitant allergic disease, determined by negative skin prick test for relevant allergens and/or negative allergen-specific antibody tests. Both are highly prevalent diseases that have a significant economic burden on society and negative impact on patient quality of life. Treatment of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, antihistamines (oral and intranasal), intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal cromones, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and immunotherapy. Occasional systemic corticosteroids and decongestants (oral and topical) are also used. NAR has 8 major subtypes which includes nonallergic rhinopathy (previously known as vasomotor rhinitis), nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, atrophic rhinitis, senile rhinitis, gustatory rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal-induced rhinitis, and cerebral spinal fluid leak. The mainstay of treatment for NAR are intranasal corticosteroids. Topical antihistamines have also been found to be efficacious. Topical anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (0.03%) nasal spray are effective in treating rhinorrhea symptoms. Adjunct therapy includes decongestants and nasal saline. Investigational therapies in the treatment of NAR discussed include capsaicin, silver nitrate, and acupuncture. PMID:21738880

  13. Recognition of allergic conjunctivitis in patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims To identify the incidence of allergic conjunctivitis in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods One hundred and eighty seven consecutive patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) were directly questioned if they have allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and this was clarified using standard screening questions relating to red, itchy and watery eyes recorded through a total ocular symptom score (TOSS). Patients were also asked about further symptoms that may be attributable to AC: eyelid dermatitis, frequent blinking; eye sensitivity and frontal headache from squinting or. blinking. All patients were given a drop of olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in each eye to help identify “silent” disease. 20 healthy non-atopic controls were also treated with olopatadine drops and questioned on ocular symptoms. Results Fifty five percent of patients with AR were identified as having AC by direct questioning and the use of the TOSS questionaire. A further 41% were identifiable by asking additional questions and performing therapeutic challenge with olopadatine. Conclusions AC is a frequent comorbid condition occurring in 95% of our patients with AR. Only 55% of patients were able to identify that they had AC based on standard screening questions. Additional specific questioning and a therapeutic challenge in suspected patients can help identify patients who may benefit from treatment of AC. PMID:23663473

  14. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN P-03-388...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10691 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10691... Substances § 721.10691 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-13-267) is...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10463 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10463... Substances § 721.10463 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10680 - Fatty acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amides (generic). 721.10680... Substances § 721.10680 Fatty acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as fatty acid amides (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10320 - Fatty acid amide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide (generic). 721.10320... Substances § 721.10320 Fatty acid amide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amide (PMN P-03-186) is...

  2. 76 FR 69636 - Amides, C5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... repeat dose studies were conducted on amides, C 5 -C 9 , N- (OPPTS 870.3050 and 870.3700). A 28-day range... weights of the liver, spleen, and thymus. A second range finding study administered the test substance to... size, number of pups born, implantation sites, and mean pup body weights were noted in the 600 mg/kg...

  3. Particulate allergens potentiate allergic asthma in mice through sustained IgE-mediated mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Shelburne, Christopher P.; Li, Guojie; Potts, Erin N.; Riebe, Kristina J.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Foster, W. Michael; Abraham, Soman N.

    2011-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and a cellular infiltrate dominated by eosinophils. Numerous epidemiological studies have related the exacerbation of allergic asthma with an increase in ambient inhalable particulate matter from air pollutants. This is because inhalable particles efficiently deliver airborne allergens deep into the airways, where they can aggravate allergic asthma symptoms. However, the cellular mechanisms by which inhalable particulate allergens (pAgs) potentiate asthmatic symptoms remain unknown, in part because most in vivo and in vitro studies exploring the pathogenesis of allergic asthma use soluble allergens (sAgs). Using a mouse model of allergic asthma, we found that, compared with their sAg counterparts, pAgs triggered markedly heightened airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia in allergen-sensitized mice. Mast cells (MCs) were implicated in this divergent response, as the differences in airway inflammatory responses provoked by the physical nature of the allergens were attenuated in MC-deficient mice. The pAgs were found to mediate MC-dependent responses by enhancing retention of pAg/IgE/FcεRI complexes within lipid raft–enriched, CD63+ endocytic compartments, which prolonged IgE/FcεRI-initiated signaling and resulted in heightened cytokine responses. These results reveal how the physical attributes of allergens can co-opt MC endocytic circuitry and signaling responses to aggravate pathological responses of allergic asthma in mice. PMID:21285515

  4. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  5. Oral bepotastine: in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2010-08-20

    Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.

  6. Climate change and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M; Truckner, Robert T; Weber, Richard W; Peden, David B

    2008-09-01

    Climate change is potentially the largest global threat to human health ever encountered. The earth is warming, the warming is accelerating, and human actions are largely responsible. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, the next generations will face more injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, and wide-spread malnutrition, as well as more allergic and air pollution-related morbidity and mortality. This review highlights links between global climate change and anticipated increases in prevalence and severity of asthma and related allergic disease mediated through worsening ambient air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production. The pattern of change will vary regionally depending on latitude, altitude, rainfall and storms, land-use patterns, urbanization, transportation, and energy production. The magnitude of climate change and related increases in allergic disease will be affected by how aggressively greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are pursued, but at best an average warming of 1 to 2 degrees C is certain this century. Thus, anticipation of a higher allergic disease burden will affect clinical practice as well as public health planning. A number of practical primary and secondary prevention strategies are suggested at the end of the review to assist in meeting this unprecedented public health challenge.

  7. ALLERGIC POTENTIAL OF INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi have been associated with allergic lung disease, but few are well studied and even fewer allergens of fungal origin are well characterized. Exposure to damp moldy environments has been associated with the exacerbation of asthma, but the role of molds in the induction o...

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  9. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  10. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  11. Severe allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arthur W; Sosin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) for wound closure is increasingly popular. Problems with Dermabond are generally related to application techniques and rarely relate to the chemical nature of the adhesive. This article describes a severe allergic reaction to Dermabond following breast augmentation/mastopexy.

  12. INDOOR MOLDS AND ALLERGIC POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Damp/moldy environments have been associated with asthma exacerbation, but mold¿s role in allergic asthma induction is less clear. Recently, 5 molds were statistically associated with water-damaged asthmatic homes in the Cleveland area. The asthma exacerbation...

  13. Lymphocytes in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Alan P

    2003-05-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity lung disease mediated by an allergic late-phase inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. ABPA is characterized by markedly elevated Aspergillus-specific and total IgE levels and eosinophilia, and manifested by wheezing, pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis and fibrosis, which affect asthmatic and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In the pathogenesis of ABPA, A. fumigatus proteases play a role in facilitation of antigen transport across the epithelial cell layer by damaging the epithelial integrity and by a direct interaction with epithelial cell surface receptors, resulting in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and corresponding inflammatory responses. In genetically susceptible asthmatic and CF patients, this leads to an allergic inflammatory response to Aspergillus allergens. A genetic susceptibility is HLA-DR restriction demonstrated by increased frequency of HLA-DR2 and/or DR5 and lack HLA-DQ2. IL-4 plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammatory responses. Our group has demonstrated that ABPA patients have increased sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation and skewing of Th2 responses to Aspergillus allergens in ABPA subjects and a Th1 response in non-ABPA subjects. Interestingly, Aspergillus allergens stimulate IL-10 synthesis is both ABPA and non-ABPA subjects.

  14. Rhinophototherapy in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bella, Zsolt; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Viharosné, Éva Dósa-Rácz; Dallos, Attila; Perényi, Ádám; Kiss, Mária; Koreck, Andrea; Kemény, Lajos; Jóri, József; Rovó, László; Kadocsa, Edit

    2017-03-01

    Previous published results have revealed that Rhinolight(®) intranasal phototherapy is safe and effective in intermittent allergic rhinitis. The present objective was to assess whether phototherapy is also safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty-four patients with persistent allergic rhinitis were randomized into two groups; twenty-five subjects completed the study. The Rhinolight(®) group was treated with a combination of UV-B, UV-A, and high-intensity visible light, while the placebo group received low-intensity visible white light intranasal phototherapy on a total of 13 occasions in 6 weeks. The assessment was based on the diary of symptoms, nasal inspiratory peak flow, quantitative smell threshold, mucociliary transport function, and ICAM-1 expression of the epithelial cells. All nasal symptom scores and nasal inspiratory peak flow measurements improved significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group relative to the placebo group and this finding persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. The smell and mucociliary functions did not change significantly in either group. The number of ICAM-1 positive cells decreased non-significantly in the Rhinolight(®) group. No severe side-effects were reported during the treatment period. These results suggest that Rhinolight(®) treatment is safe and effective in persistent allergic rhinitis.

  15. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  16. Update on vaccination guidelines for allergic children.

    PubMed

    Kelso, John M

    2009-11-01

    Children with allergic or atopic diseases require immunization just like non-atopic children. However, vaccination of such children requires some special considerations and precautions. Children may be allergic to specific vaccine constituents such as gelatin or egg. Children who have suffered an apparent allergic reaction to a vaccine should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the culprit allergen and to make recommendations regarding future vaccination. In rare circumstances, certain vaccines may cause acute exacerbations of allergic diseases, but the contention that vaccination causes allergic disease is not substantiated by any available evidence.

  17. Ligand-based molecular design of 4-benzylpiperidinealkylureas and amides as CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaibhav; Pandey, Ashish; Gupta, Shikhar; Mohan, C Gopi

    2010-04-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs. Clinical studies suggest that eotaxin and chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) play a primary role in the recruitment of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Development of novel and potent CCR3 antagonists could provide a novel mechanism for inhibition of this recruitment process, thereby preventing asthma. With the intention of designing new ligands with enhanced inhibitor potencies against CCR3, a 3D-QSAR CoMFA study was carried out on 41 4-benzylpiperidinealkylureas and amide derivatives. The best statistics of the developed CoMFA model were r (2) = 0.960, r(2)cv, n = 32 for the training set and r(2)pred, n = 9 for the test set. The generated 3D-QSAR contribution maps shed some light on the effects of the substitution pattern related to CCR3 antagonist activity.

  18. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. N-Methylamino Pyrimidyl Amides (MAPA): Highly Reactive, Electronically-Activated Amides in Catalytic N-C(O) Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guangrong; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2017-09-01

    Despite recent progress in catalytic cross-coupling technologies, the direct activation of N-alkyl-N-aryl amides has been a challenging transformation. Here, we report the first Suzuki cross-coupling of N-methylamino pyrimidyl amides (MAPA) enabled by the controlled nN → πAr conjugation and the resulting remodeling of the partial double bond character of the amide bond. The new mode of amide activation is suitable for generating acyl-metal intermediates from unactivated primary and secondary amides.

  20. The HRCT features of extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Thomas E

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to organic dusts can produce an immune-mediated inflammatory response in sensitized individuals. The pulmonary disease caused by this response has been called extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The clinical phases associated with this process have been termed acute, subacute, and chronic. There are corresponding imaging findings that are characteristic of each of these phases, although there is some overlap between the phases. The acute phase is characterized by confluent opacities that may mimic infection or edema. The subacute phase is characterized by centrilobular nodules, areas of ground-glass attenuation, a mosaic perfusion pattern, and air trapping on expiratory imaging. The chronic phase is characterized by subpleural irregular linear opacities with associated architectural distortion. Honeycombing may sometimes also be present. In the acute and subacute phases, the disease is predominantly in the lower lungs, whereas in chronic EAA the findings are predominant in the mid to upper lungs. Although the high-resolution computed tomography findings individually are nonspecific, the combination of the findings coupled with the distribution of the findings can often narrow the differential or allow a presumptive diagnosis of EAA to be made.

  1. Autotaxin Production of Lysophosphatidic Acid Mediates Allergic Asthmatic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gye Young; Lee, Yong Gyu; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Du, Jian; Fu, Panfeng; Gorshkova, Irina A.; Li, Yongchao; Chung, Sangwoon; Karpurapu, Manjula; Deng, Jing; Ranjan, Ravi; Xiao, Lei; Jaffe, H. Ari; Corbridge, Susan J.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Chun, Jerold; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Ninou, Ioanna; Aidinis, Vassilis; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Bioactive lipid mediators, derived from membrane lipid precursors, are released into the airway and airspace where they bind high-affinity cognate receptors and may mediate asthma pathogenesis. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid mediator generated by the enzymatic activity of extracellular autotaxin (ATX), binds LPA receptors, resulting in an array of biological actions on cell proliferation, migration, survival, differentiation, and motility, and therefore could mediate asthma pathogenesis. Objectives: To define a role for the ATX-LPA pathway in human asthma pathogenesis and a murine model of allergic lung inflammation. Methods: We investigated the profiles of LPA molecular species and the level of ATX exoenzyme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of human patients with asthma subjected to subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. We interrogated the role of the ATX-LPA pathway in allergic lung inflammation using a murine allergic asthma model in ATX-LPA pathway–specific genetically modified mice. Measurements and Main Results: Subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen in patients with mild asthma resulted in a remarkable increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of LPA enriched in polyunsaturated 22:5 and 22:6 fatty acids in association with increased concentrations of ATX protein. Using a triple-allergen mouse asthma model, we showed that ATX-overexpressing transgenic mice had a more severe asthmatic phenotype, whereas blocking ATX activity and knockdown of the LPA2 receptor in mice produced a marked attenuation of Th2 cytokines and allergic lung inflammation. Conclusions: The ATX-LPA pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma. These preclinical data indicate that targeting the ATX-LPA pathway could be an effective antiasthma treatment strategy. PMID:24050723

  2. SPPS of protected peptidyl aminoalkyl amides.

    PubMed

    Karavoltsos, Manolis; Mourtas, Spyros; Gatos, Dimitrios; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2002-11-01

    Monophthaloyl diamines derived from naturally occurring amino acids were attached through their free amino functions to resins of the trityl type. The phthaloyl groups were removed by hydrazinolysis, and peptide chains were assembled using Fmoc/tBu-amino acids on the liberated amino functions. The peptidyl aminoalkyl amides obtained were cleaved from the resins by mild acidolysis, with the tBu-side chain protection remaining intact.

  3. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid.

  4. Polyimides containing amide and perfluoroisopropylidene connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezern, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    New, thermooxidatively stable polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides containing isopropylidene bridging groups with aromatic diamines containing amide connecting groups between the rings. Several of these polyimides were shown to be semi-crystalline as evidenced by wide angle x ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. Most of the polyimides form tough, flexible films with high tensile properties. These polyimide films exhibit enhanced solubility in organic solvents.

  5. An unusual intramolecular trans-amidation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Heriberto; Dhar, Sachin; La Clair, James J; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-06-23

    Polyketide biosynthesis engages a series of well-timed biosynthetic operations to generate elaborate natural products from simple building blocks. Mimicry of these processes has offered practical means for total synthesis and provided a foundation for reaction discovery. We now report an unusual intramolecular trans-amidation reaction discovered while preparing stabilized probes for the study of actinorhodin biosynthesis. This rapid cyclization event offers insight into the natural cyclization process inherent to the biosynthesis of type II polyketide antibiotics.

  6. Allergic rhinitis and ear pain in flight.

    PubMed

    Ohrui, Nobuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tong, Andrew; Iwata, Masashi; Nakamura, Akio; Ohashi, Koichiro

    2005-10-01

    Ear pain is the most common physiologic incident in hypobaric chamber training in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, and the incidence of ear pain has been gradually increasing. There has been a concomitant increase in the incidence of allergic rhinitis in Japan. We hypothesized that the increased incidence of ear pain may be due to the increased incidence of eustachian tube dysfunction associated with allergic rhinitis. To explore whether there is an association between allergic rhinitis and ear pain experienced in hypobaric chamber training. We examined 9 years of training records and noted whether there was a seasonal influence on the occurrence of ear pain in 7047 trainees. In addition, we studied the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among trainees during a representative training year using a questionnaire method, noting association between allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of ear pain. Comprehensive review of training records showed 429 (6.1%) of 7047 trainees complained of ear pain. Ear pain occurred more often in spring than the other 3 seasons. The questionnaire data showed 202 (23.0%) of 878 trainees had allergic rhinitis. Trainees with allergic rhinitis complained of ear pain more often in the spring than trainees without allergic rhinitis. Active allergic rhinitis is closely associated with the occurrence of ear pain in hypobaric chamber training. A similar phenomenon might occur in an actual flight. Special attention should be paid to not only common cold but also allergic rhinitis in both hypobaric chamber training and actual flights.

  7. Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Etsuko; Uchio, Eiichi; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Okamoto, Shigeki; Kumagai, Naoki; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Shoji, Jun; Nakagawa, Yayoi; Namba, Kenichi; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Atsuki; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

  8. Tandem mass spectrometry of amidated peptides.

    PubMed

    Mouls, Laetitia; Subra, Gilles; Aubagnac, Jean-Louis; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2006-11-01

    The behavior of C-terminal amidated and carboxylated peptides upon low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) was investigated. Two sets of 76 sequences of variable amino acid compositions and lengths were synthesized as model compounds. In most cases, C-terminal amidated peptides were found to produce, upon CID, an abundant loss of ammonia from the protonated molecules. To validate such MS/MS signatures, the studied peptides contained amino acids that can potentially release ammonia from their side chains, such as asparagine, glutamine, tryptophan, lysine and arginine. Arginine, and to a lesser extent lysine, was shown to induce a competitive fragmentation leading to the loss of ammonia from their side chains, thus interfering with the targeted backbone neutral release. However, when arginine or lysine was located at the C-terminal position mimicking a tryptic digest, losses of ammonia from the arginine side chain and from the peptide backbone were completely suppressed. Such results were discussed in the frame of peptidomic or proteomic studies in an attempt to reveal the presence of C-terminal amidated peptides or proteins.

  9. Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: relationship with nasal polyposis, asthma and family history.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Tafuri, S; Passalacqua, G; Quaranta, N

    2014-02-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis (with/without polyposis), either allergic or non-allergic, represent a major medical problem. Their associated comorbidities and relationship with family history have so far been poorly investigated. We assessed these aspects in a large population of patients suffering from rhinosinusal diseases. Clinical history, nasal cytology, allergy testing and direct nasal examination were performed in all patients referred for rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. Fibre optic nasal endoscopy, CT scan and nasal challenge were used for diagnosis, when indicated. A total of 455 patients (60.7% male, age range 4-84 years) were studied; 108 (23.7%) had allergic rhinitis, 128 (28.1%) rhinosinusitis with polyposis, 107 (23.5%) non-allergic rhinitis (negative skin test); 112 patients had associated allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, the majority with eosinophilia. There was a significant association between non-allergic rhinitis and family history of nasal polyposis (OR = 4.45; 95%CI = 1.70-11.61; p = 0.0019), whereas this association was no longer present when allergic rhinitis was also included. Asthma was equally frequent in non-allergic and allergic rhinitis, but more frequent in patients with polyposis. Aspirin sensitivity was more frequent in nasal polyposis, independent of the allergic (p = 0.03) or non-allergic (p = 0.01) nature of rhinitis. Nasal polyposis is significantly associated with asthma and positive family history of asthma, partially independent of the allergic aetiology of rhinitis.

  10. Tryptophan Metabolism in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gostner, Johanna M; Becker, Katrin; Kofler, Heinz; Strasser, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis, as well the early phase of atopic dermatitis, are characterized by a Th2-skewed immune environment. Th2-type cytokines are upregulated in allergic inflammation, whereas there is downregulation of the Th1-type immune response and related cytokines, such as interferon-x03B3; (IFN-x03B3;). The latter is a strong inducer of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1), which degrades the essential amino acid tryptophan, as part of an antiproliferative strategy of immunocompetent cells to halt the growth of infected and malignant cells, and also of T cells - an immunoregulatory intervention to avoid overactivation of the immune system. Raised serum tryptophan concentrations have been reported in patients with pollen allergy compared to healthy blood donors. Moreover, higher baseline tryptophan concentrations have been associated with a poor response to specific immunotherapy. It has been shown that the increase in tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy only exists outside the pollen season, and not during the season. Interestingly, there is only a minor alteration of the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an index of tryptophan breakdown). The reason for the higher tryptophan concentrations in patients with pollen allergy outside the season remains a matter of discussion. To this regard, the specific interaction of nitric oxide (NO∙) with the tryptophan-degrading enzyme IDO-1 could be important, because an enhanced formation of NO∙ has been reported in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Importantly, NO∙ suppresses the activity of the heme enzyme IDO-1, which could explain the higher tryptophan levels. Thus, inhibitors of inducible NO∙ synthase should be reconsidered as candidates for antiallergic therapy out of season that may abrogate the arrest of IDO-1 by decreasing the production of NO∙. Considering its association with the pathophysiology of atopic disease, tryptophan metabolism may

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  12. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  13. Allergen Avoidance in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Francesca; Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Allergic asthma is the most frequent disease among the chronic respiratory disorders in pediatric age with an important social impact. In the last years, many efforts have been made to identify effective preventive approaches to get a better control of symptoms and to obtain the best future outcomes for the patients. In patients with allergic asthma triggered by the exposure to indoor allergens, the avoidance is the first intervention to prevent the appearance or the worsening of bronchial symptoms. This review article summarized the most recent evidence from literature about the efficacy of specific control interventions for the most important allergens. Even if a wide spectrum of interventions has been suggested and may help to reduce exposure to trigger allergy for sensitized patients suffering from respiratory allergy, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is still weak and subject of controversy. However, the exposure control to specific airborne allergens is still widely recommended and may be effective as part of a holistic approach to reduce the severity of allergic respiratory symptoms in sensitized individuals. PMID:28540285

  14. New treatments for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tkachyk, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:10349070

  15. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  16. Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex H C; Barg, Stefani S N; Leung, Alexander K C

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis are IgE-mediated, hypersensitivity conditions characterized by ocular pruritus, epiphora, and hyperemia. Proper diagnosis is usually made clinically based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic procedures are rarely necessary. Non-pharmacological measures, such as environmental modification and proper eye care, should be considered for all patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Pharmacological interventions may also be required. Milder cases can be treated with short-term topical ophthalmic therapy such as a decongestant/ antihistamine combination, a mast cell stabilizer, or a multi-action agent. Moderate to severe cases may require longer usage of the above agents and/or the addition of an oral antihistamine. Refractory cases may necessitate the use of topical ophthalmic corticosteroids and topical NSAIDs. Immunotherapy, whether via the subcutaneous route or the intranasal route, should be considered in the treatment of persistent severe cases refractory to conventional treatment. Despite all the available therapeutic agents, there continues to be a constant need to discover more effective ways to treat seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. This article also discusses recent patents related to the field.

  17. [Indoor air and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kunkel, G; Rudolph, R; Muckelmann, R

    1982-01-01

    Allergies may be the source of a variety of clinical symptoms. With regard to indoor air, however, the subject will be limited to inhalative allergies. These are diseases which are caused and supported by allergens entering the human organism via the respiratory pathway. The fundamentals of the origin of inhalative allergies are briefly discussed as well as the antigen-antibody reaction and the differentiation between different allergic reactions (Types I and II). In addition, the importance of repetitive infects of the upper respiratory tract for the occurrence of allergies of the respiratory system is pointed out. The most common allergies develop at the mucosae of the nose (allergic rhinitis) and of the bronchiale (allergic asthma bronchiale). Their symptomatology is discussed. Out of the allergologically interesting components of indoor air the following are to be considered primarily: house dust, components of house dust (house dust mite, trogoderma angustum, tenebrio molitor), epithelia of animals, animal feeds, mildew and occupational substances. Unspecific irritants (chimico-physical irritations) which are not acting as allergens, have to be clearly separated from these most frequent allergens. As a possibility of treatment for the therapeutist and the patient, there is the allergen prophylaxis, i.e. an extensive sanitation of the patient's environment including elimination of the allergens and, in addition, an amelioration of the quality of the air with regard to unspecific irritants. To conclude, some socio-medical aspects of respiratory diseases are discussed.

  18. Luciferin Amides Enable in Vivo Bioluminescence Detection of Endogenous Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Firefly luciferase is homologous to fatty acyl-CoA synthetases. We hypothesized that the firefly luciferase substrate d-luciferin and its analogs are fatty acid mimics that are ideally suited to probe the chemistry of enzymes that release fatty acid products. Here, we synthesized luciferin amides and found that these molecules are hydrolyzed to substrates for firefly luciferase by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In the presence of luciferase, these molecules enable highly sensitive and selective bioluminescent detection of FAAH activity in vitro, in live cells, and in vivo. The potency and tissue distribution of FAAH inhibitors can be imaged in live mice, and luciferin amides serve as exemplary reagents for greatly improved bioluminescence imaging in FAAH-expressing tissues such as the brain. PMID:26120870

  19. Conversion of amides to esters by the nickel-catalysed activation of amide C-N bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hie, Liana; Fine Nathel, Noah F.; Shah, Tejas K.; Baker, Emma L.; Hong, Xin; Yang, Yun-Fang; Liu, Peng; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-08-01

    Amides are common functional groups that have been studied for more than a century. They are the key building blocks of proteins and are present in a broad range of other natural and synthetic compounds. Amides are known to be poor electrophiles, which is typically attributed to the resonance stability of the amide bond. Although amides can readily be cleaved by enzymes such as proteases, it is difficult to selectively break the carbon-nitrogen bond of an amide using synthetic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that amide carbon-nitrogen bonds can be activated and cleaved using nickel catalysts. We use this methodology to convert amides to esters, which is a challenging and underdeveloped transformation. The reaction methodology proceeds under exceptionally mild reaction conditions, and avoids the use of a large excess of an alcohol nucleophile. Density functional theory calculations provide insight into the thermodynamics and catalytic cycle of the amide-to-ester transformation. Our results provide a way to harness amide functional groups as synthetic building blocks and are expected to lead to the further use of amides in the construction of carbon-heteroatom or carbon-carbon bonds using non-precious-metal catalysis.

  20. Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis.

  1. Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kimihiro; Kurono, Yuichi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Enomoto, Tadao; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Suzaki, Harumi; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

  2. The Effect of Nano-Silver on Allergic Rhinitis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mi-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Silver has long been known as a strong antimicrobial and disinfectant. Several types of nano-silver coated products have been developed. However, the antimicrobial and disinfectant characteristics of nano-silver have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-silver on allergic inflammation in a mouse model. Methods Female BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) and aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Mice were challenged with intranasal instillation of OVA. Nano-silver was also administered nasally prior to intranasal instillation of OVA. Severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed according to nasal symptoms, serum OVA-specific IgE level, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and interferon (INF)-γ levels in nasal lavage fluid. Hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain were performed for evaluation of histological change. Results Nano-silver attenuated manifestation of nasal symptoms in sensitized mice and inhibited production of OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, and IL-10, however, it had no effect on INF-γ level. In addition, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia was attenuated by nano-silver. Conclusion These results suggest that nano-silver may effectively reduce allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Through its properties as an anti-inflammatory agent, nano-silver may be a useful therapeutic strategy. PMID:23205228

  3. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  4. Oxidative activation of dihydropyridine amides to reactive acyl donors.

    PubMed

    Funder, Erik Daa; Trads, Julie B; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2015-01-07

    Amides of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) are activated by oxidation for acyl transfer to amines, alcohols and thiols. In the reduced form the DHP amide is stable towards reaction with amines at room temperature. However, upon oxidation with DDQ the acyl donor is activated via a proposed pyridinium intermediate. The activated intermediate reacts with various nucleophiles to give amides, esters, and thio-esters in moderate to high yields.

  5. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seok Cheol; Je, In-Gyu; Cui, Xun; Park, Hae Ran; Khang, Dongwoo; Park, Jeong-Suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Allergic disease is caused by exposure to normally innocuous substances that activate mast cells. Mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation is closely related to a number of allergic disorders, such as anaphylaxis, allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. The discovery of drugs for treating allergic disease is an interesting subject and important to human health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti‑allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth (AEPC) (a member of the Labiatae family) using mast cells, and also to determine its possible mechanisms of action. An intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 or a serial injection of immunoglobulin E and antigen was used to induce anaphylaxis in mice. We found that AEPC inhibited compound 48/80‑induced systemic and immunoglobulin E-mediated cutaneous anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner. The release of histamine from mast cells was reduced by AEPC, and this suppressive effect was associated with the regulation of calcium influx. In addition, AEPC attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. The inhibitory effects of AEPC on pro-inflammatory cytokines were dependent on the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). AEPC blocked the PMACI-induced translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus by hindering the degradation of IκBα and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Our results thus indicate that AEPC inhibits mast cell‑mediated allergic inflammation by suppressing mast cell degranulation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines caused by reduced intracellular calcium levels and the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK.

  6. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Leptin Enhances TH2 and ILC2 Responses in Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Handong; Zhang, Xing; Castillo, Eliseo F; Luo, Yan; Liu, Meilian; Yang, Xuexian O

    2016-10-14

    Allergic asthma and obesity are the leading health problems in the world. Many studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor of development of asthma. However, the underlying mechanism has not been well established. In this study, we demonstrate that leptin, an adipokine elevated in obese individuals, promoted proliferation and survival of pro-allergic type 2 helper T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells and production of type 2 cytokines, which together contribute to allergic responses. Leptin activates mTORC1, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways in TH2 cells. The effects of leptin on TH2 cell proliferation, survival, and cytokine production are dependent on the mTORC1 and MAPK pathways as revealed by specific inhibitors. In vivo, leptin-deficiency led to attenuated experimental allergic airway inflammation. Our results thus support that obesity-associated elevation of leptin contributes to the increased susceptibility of asthma via modulation of pro-allergic lymphocyte responses. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Effect of a chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, on HDM-induced allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddesha, Jalahalli M.; Nakada, Emily M.; Mihavics, Bethany R.; Hoffman, Sidra M.; Rattu, Gurkiranjit K.; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Cahoon, Jonathon M.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Daphtary, Nirav; Aliyeva, Minara; Chapman, David G.; Desai, Dhimant H.; Poynter, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response plays a critical role in inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway disease. However, the benefits of inhibiting ER stress in the treatment of allergic airway disease are not well known. Herein, we tested the therapeutic potential of a chemical chaperone, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), in combating allergic asthma, using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway disease. TUDCA was administered during the HDM-challenge phase (preventive regimen), after the HDM-challenge phase (therapeutic regimen), or therapeutically during a subsequent HDM rechallenge (rechallenge regimen). In the preventive regimen, TUDCA significantly decreased HDM-induced inflammation, markers of ER stress, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and fibrosis. Similarly, in the therapeutic regimen, TUDCA administration efficiently decreased HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucus metaplasia, ER stress markers, and AHR, but not airway remodeling. Interestingly, TUDCA administered therapeutically in the HDM rechallenge regimen markedly attenuated HDM-induced airway inflammation, mucus metaplasia, ER stress markers, methacholine-induced AHR, and airway fibrotic remodeling. These results indicate that the inhibition of ER stress in the lungs through the administration of chemical chaperones could be a valuable strategy in the treatment of allergic airway diseases. PMID:27154200

  9. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E.; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.; Irvin, Charles G.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Lundblad, Lennart K.; Dixon, Anne E.; Geiszt, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management. PMID:27812543

  10. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W; Irvin, Charles G; Poynter, Matthew E; Lundblad, Lennart K; Dixon, Anne E; Geiszt, Miklos; van der Vliet, Albert

    2016-11-03

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management.

  11. Synthesis of nitriles via palladium-catalyzed water shuffling from amides to acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-12-07

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  12. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield. PMID:25316145

  13. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  14. Immunostimulatory sequence oligdeoxynucleotide/cholera toxin B conjugate: a novel allergen-independent intranasal vaccine for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Won, Tae-Bin; Quan, Song-Hua; Kim, Dong-Young; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that by acting as strong TH1 response-inducing adjuvants, DNA immunostimulatory sequence oligdeoxynucleotides (ISS-ODNs) can be used in the treatment of allergic diseases, and efforts are being made to enhance these TH1 adjuvant actions. To determine whether intranasally delivered ISS-ODN/cholera toxin B (CTB) conjugate has enhanced antiallergic effects in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. BALB-c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin. Chemical conjugation of ISS-ODN and CTB was performed. After a single local intranasal administration of 50 microg of ISS-ODN or high- and low-dose (50- and 5-microg) ISS-ODN/CTB conjugate, we measured the allergic response in terms of sneezing events, eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa, serum ovalbumin specific IgE and IgG2a levels, and TH1 and TH2 cytokine levels in nasal lavage fluid and spleen cell cultures. A single local administration of 50 microg of ISS-ODN did not suppress the allergic phenotype. However, 50 and 5 microg of ISS-ODN/CTB conjugate significantly attenuated allergic symptoms, eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa, and interleukin 4 production from nasal lavage fluid and cultured splenocyte supernatant compared with the allergic control. Serum specific IgG2a and interleukin 12 production in nasal lavage fluid and spleen cell cultures was significantly increased. In a mouse model of allergic rhinitis, a single intranasal delivery of low-dose ISS-ODN/CTB conjugate effectively protects previously sensitized mice from allergic hypersensitivity responses. With further research, ISS-ODN/CTB conjugate may serve as a new allergen-independent intranasal vaccine for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  16. Allergic Rhinitis: Mechanisms and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Schwartz, Gene; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) has been estimated at 10% to 40%, and its economic burden is substantial. AR patients develop specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody responses to indoor and outdoor environmental allergens with exposure over time. These specific IgE antibodies bind to high-affinity IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Key outcome measures of therapeutic interventions include rhinitis symptom control, rescue medication requirements, and quality-of-life measures. A comprehensive multiple modality treatment plan customized to the individual patient can optimize outcomes.

  17. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS.

  18. Polymer Amide as an Early Topology

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, Julie E. M.; McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophobic polymer amide (HPA) could have been one of the first normal density materials to accrete in space. We present ab initio calculations of the energetics of amino acid polymerization via gas phase collisions. The initial hydrogen-bonded di-peptide is sufficiently stable to proceed in many cases via a transition state into a di-peptide with an associated bound water molecule of condensation. The energetics of polymerization are only favorable when the water remains bound. Further polymerization leads to a hydrophobic surface that is phase-separated from, but hydrogen bonded to, a small bulk water complex. The kinetics of the collision and subsequent polymerization are discussed for the low-density conditions of a molecular cloud. This polymer in the gas phase has the properties to make a topology, viz. hydrophobicity allowing phase separation from bulk water, capability to withstand large temperature ranges, versatility of form and charge separation. Its flexible tetrahedral carbon atoms that alternate with more rigid amide groups allow it to deform and reform in hazardous conditions and its density of hydrogen bonds provides adhesion that would support accretion to it of silicon and metal elements to form a stellar dust material. PMID:25048204

  19. Regulatory T cells in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Magali Noval; Chatila, Talal A.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response towards allergens. Regulatory T cells (TReg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which TReg cells fail to maintain tolerance in allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how TReg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the “dual” functionality of TReg cells in allergic diseases: how TReg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a pro-allergic inflammatory environment can skew TReg cells towards a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in chronic allergic diseases by promoting TReg cell and stability function. PMID:27596705

  20. Allergic fungal sinusitis causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Charles; Kacker, Ashutosh; Chee, Ru-Ik; Lelli, Gary J

    2013-04-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to represent a chronic autoimmune reaction directed against fungal elements within the sinuses, and is commonly seen in individuals with a history of chronic sinusitis that is refractory to medical therapy. The authors present a case of allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal drainage system. A 54-year-old woman initially presented with recurrent erythema and induration of the left nasolacrimal sac due to dacryocystitis, which was unresponsive to treatment with topical and systemic antibiotics. Radiological evaluation demonstrated the presence of multiple soft tissue masses along the medial canthi. During subsequent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, significant amounts of allergic mucin were found within the sinuses and marked eosinophilia was present within tissue obtained from the lacrimal sac, findings highly suggestive of allergic fungal sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis should be considered in patients presenting with epiphora in the appropriate clinical context. However, involvement of the lacrimal drainage system is an exceedingly unusual presentation.

  1. Innate immunity in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Minnicozzi, Michael; Sawyer, Richard T; Fenton, Matthew J

    2011-07-01

    The innate immune system consists of multiple cell types that express germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Allergens are frequently found in forms and mixtures that contain PAMPs and DAMPs. The innate immune system is interposed between the external environment and the internal acquired immune system. It is also an integral part of the airways, gut, and skin. These tissues face continuous exposure to allergens, PAMPs, and DAMPs. Interaction of allergens with the innate immune system normally results in immune tolerance but, in the case of allergic disease, this interaction induces recurring and/or chronic inflammation as well as the loss of immunologic tolerance. Upon activation by allergens, the innate immune response commits the acquired immune response to a variety of outcomes mediated by distinct T-cell subsets, such as T-helper 2, regulatory T, or T-helper 17 cells. New studies highlighted in this review underscore the close relationship between allergens, the innate immune system, and the acquired immune system that promotes homeostasis versus allergic disease.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  3. Leukotrienes orchestrating allergic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Sezin, Tanya; Kim, Nancy D

    2013-11-01

    Leukotrienes constitute a group of lipid mediators, which may be subdivided into two groups, with leukotriene B4 on the one hand and cysteinyl leukotrienes on the other. Although leukotrienes are abundantly expressed in skin affected by diverse chronic inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, their pathological roles in these diseases have remained elusive. Recent data now reveal that both leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are indispensable in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with leukotriene B4 initiating the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils and TH 2 cells into the skin, and cysteinyl leukotrienes later inducing characteristic structural alterations of chronically affected skin, specifically skin fibrosis and keratinocyte proliferation. Thus, these results reveal a sequential cooperation of LTB4 and cysteinyl leukotrienes to initiate and perpetuate allergic skin inflammation. These new insights highlight leukotrienes as promising therapeutic targets in allergic skin inflammation and should encourage more research into the role of leukotrienes in other inflammatory skin diseases.

  4. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  5. Current management of allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Georgalas, Christos; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Fokkens, Wytske

    2010-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis, including the discovery of new inflammatory mediators, the link between asthma and allergic rhinitis ('one airway-one disease' concept) and the introduction of novel therapeutic modalities. These new insights have been documented in the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines and have led to the creation of evidence-based management algorithms. We now understand the importance of a common strategy for treating allergic inflammation of the upper and lower airway as a way of improving outcome, reducing hospital admissions, providing better quality of life and perhaps, altering the natural course of the 'allergic march'. A therapeutic ladder is suggested: Whereas for mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, allergen avoidance should be the first line of treatment with subsequent addition of a second generation topical or oral antihistamine, nasal saline or cromoglycate, in cases of moderate to severe allergic rhinitis, a nasal steroid is the treatment of choice. If a patient with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis fails to improve after 4 wk of adequate treatment, patient compliance or the diagnosis must be re-assessed. In such cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, a careful clinical examination including nasal endoscopy is mandatory to assess for other potential causes of nasal obstruction. In children who suffer from concomitant allergic rhinitis and asthma, a management algorithm that addresses concurrently asthma and allergic rhinitis is vital, both from a theoretical and from a practical point of view: Parents overwhelmingly prefer a single strategy for the treatment of their child's upper and lower airway symptoms; however, the overall quality of life in children with severe asthma can be significantly improved if rhinitis is adequately addressed.

  6. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  7. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  8. Hydrogen storage and ionic mobility in amide-halide systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul A; Chater, Philip A; Hewett, David R; Slater, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of the effect of halides on hydrogen release and uptake in lithium amide and lithium imide, respectively. The reaction of lithium amide and lithium imide with lithium or magnesium chloride, bromide and iodide resulted in a series of amide-halide and imide-halide phases, only two of which have been reported previously. On heating with LiH or MgH2, the amide-halides synthesised all released hydrogen more rapidly than lithium amide itself, accompanied by much reduced, or in some cases undetectable, release of ammonia by-product. The imide-halides produced were found to hydrogenate more rapidly than lithium imide, reforming related amide-halide phases. The work was initiated to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of halide anions might improve the lithium ion conductivity of lithium amide and help maintain high lithium ion mobility at all stages of the de/rehydrogenation process, enhancing the bulk hydrogen storage properties of the system. Preliminary ionic conductivity measurements indicated that the most conducting amide- and imide-halide phases were also the quickest to release hydrogen on heating and to hydrogenate. We conclude that ionic conductivity may be an important parameter in optimising the materials properties of this and other hydrogen storage systems.

  9. Partition of compounds from water and from air into amides

    PubMed Central

    Acree, William E.; Cometto-Muñiz, J. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Literature data on partitioning of compounds from the gas phase to a number of amides and from water to the amides has been collected and analyzed through the Abraham solvation equations. The resulting equations are statistically good enough to be used for the prediction of further partition coefficients, and allow deductions to be made about the chemical properties of the amides, as solvents. For example, tertiary amides have no hydrogen bond property at all, secondary amides are rather weak hydrogen bond acids, and primary amides are stronger hydrogen bond acids than are alcohols as solvents. Equations for partitioning from the gas phase to amide solvents can also be used to test if the amides are possible models for a number of biological phases and biological processes. It is shown that no organic solvent is a suitable model for phases such as blood, brain, muscle, liver, heart or kidney, but that a number of rather non-polar solvents are models for fat. N-methylformamide is shown to be the best (and excellent) model for eye irritation and nasal pungency in humans, suggesting that the receptor site in these processes is protein-like. PMID:20209022

  10. Cytotoxic Amides from Fruits of Kawakawa, Macropiper excelsum.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jeremy; Burgess, Elaine J; Richardson, Alistair T B; Hawkins, Bill C; Baird, Sarah K; Smallfield, Bruce M; van Klink, John W; Perry, Nigel B

    2015-08-01

    Cytotoxic amides have been isolated from the fruits of the endemic New Zealand medicinal plant kawakawa, Macropiper excelsum (Piperaceae). The main amide was piperchabamide A and this is the first report of this rare compound outside the genus Piper. Eleven other amides were purified including two new compounds with the unusual 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl group. The new compounds were fully characterized by 2D NMR spectroscopy, which showed a slow exchange between two rotamers about the amide bond, and they were chemically synthesized. In view of the antitumor activity of the related piperlongumine, all of these amides plus four synthetic analogs were tested for cytotoxicity. The most active was the piperine homolog piperdardine, with an IC50 of 14 µM against HT 29 colon cancer cells.

  11. Biosynthesis and function of simple amides in Xenorhabdus doucetiae.

    PubMed

    Bode, Edna; He, Yue; Vo, Tien Duy; Schultz, Roland; Kaiser, Marcel; Bode, Helge B

    2017-09-11

    Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides. Additionally, new, long-chain and cytotoxic acyl amides were identified in X. doucetiae infected insects and when X. doucetiae was grown in Galleria Instant Broth (GIB). When the bioactivity of selected amides were tested, a quorum sensing modulating activity was observed for the short chain acyl amides against the two different quorum sensing systems from Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oxidized graphene-aggravated allergic asthma is antagonized by antioxidant vitamin E in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shuai; Li, Jinquan; Zhao, Yun; Xi, Zhuge; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely used in a number of applications; however, these nanomaterials may potentially be risky for human health, particularly for the respiratory system. In this study, we used a mouse asthma model to study whether graphene oxide (GO), a promising carbonaceous nanomaterial with unique physicochemical properties, aggravates allergic asthma via the oxidative stress pathway. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to trigger immune reactions, while vitamin E (Ve) was administered as an antioxidant. Our results showed that GO aggravated OVA-induced allergic asthma in mice, as suggested by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE), upregulated Th2 response, and the aggravation of allergic asthma symptoms, such as airway remolding, collagen deposition with mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The administration of Ve dramatically attenuated all of the above effects. In conclusion, Ve showed anti-allergic properties in antagonizing the exacerbation of allergic asthma induced by GO, providing a new possibility for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  13. Iridoschisis and keratoconus in a patient with severe allergic eye disease and compulsive eye rubbing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Imran H; Salmon, John F

    2016-05-25

    Iridoschisis is a rare disorder characterized by splitting of the anterior and posterior iris stroma, resulting in disintegrated iris fibrils which float freely in the anterior chamber. We report an exceptional case of bilateral iridoschisis occurring in conjunction with keratoconus and severe allergic eye disease. A 24-year-old white man had had periocular contact dermatitis and allergic eye disease from the age of 3 years. He was allergic to grass, animal hair, and pollen and worked grooming horses. He compulsively rubbed his eyes. There was no history of previous blunt trauma to either eye. There were signs of bilateral iridoschisis and keratoconus with allergic conjunctivitis, all of which were more severe in his right eye. An open drainage angle was identified bilaterally on gonioscopy, excluding primary angle closure. There was no evidence of glaucoma in either eye. There are two previous cases reporting the combination of iridoschisis and keratoconus, but no clear common etiology has been identified. In this case there was no evidence of angle closure but there were signs of allergic conjunctivitis. This amalgamation of signs might be explained on the basis of habitual eye rubbing. Treating the allergic eye disease has attenuated this behavior.

  14. The role of lectins in allergic sensitization and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Fabián; Sewell, Herb F; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M

    2013-07-01

    Allergic diseases are a global public health issue affecting millions of persons around the world. However, full understanding of the molecular basis of this group of chronic inflammatory disorders remains rather elusive. Recently, the role of carbohydrates on allergens and their counterstructures on antigen-presenting cells (lectins) have been highlighted as crucial factors in allergen sensitization, which culminates in TH2 cell differentiation and the production of deleterious specific IgE antibodies. Here we review recent progress on the role of different lectins in patients with type I hypersensitivity or allergy, their interplay with other determinants of allergenicity, and ways of developing therapeutic modalities against newly identified targets. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-1 overexpression decreases Basal airway responsiveness but not allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Card, Jeffrey W; Carey, Michelle A; Bradbury, J Alyce; Graves, Joan P; Lih, Fred B; Moorman, Michael P; Morgan, Daniel L; DeGraff, Laura M; Zhao, Yun; Foley, Julie F; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2006-10-01

    Pharmacological inhibition or genetic disruption of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2 exacerbates the inflammatory and functional responses of the lung to environmentally relevant stimuli. To further examine the contribution of COX-derived eicosanoids to basal lung function and to allergic lung inflammation, transgenic (Tr) mice were generated in which overexpression of human COX-1 was targeted to airway epithelium. Although no differences in basal respiratory or lung mechanical parameters were observed, COX-1 Tr mice had increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid PGE(2) content compared with wild-type littermates (23.0 +/- 3.6 vs 8.4 +/- 1.4 pg/ml; p < 0.05) and exhibited decreased airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In an OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation model, comparable up-regulation of COX-2 protein was observed in the lungs of allergic wild-type and COX-1 Tr mice. Furthermore, no genotype differences were observed in allergic mice in total cell number, eosinophil content (70 vs 76% of total cells, respectively), and inflammatory cytokine content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or in airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (p > 0.05). To eliminate the presumed confounding effects of COX-2 up-regulation, COX-1 Tr mice were bred into a COX-2 null background. In these mice, the presence of the COX-1 transgene did not alter allergen-induced inflammation but significantly attenuated allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, coincident with reduced airway leukotriene levels. Collectively, these data indicate that COX-1 overexpression attenuates airway responsiveness under basal conditions but does not influence allergic airway inflammation.

  16. Allergic diseases in farmers' children.

    PubMed

    Braun-Fahrländer, C

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have reported lower rates of allergic sensitization and allergies in children living in rural as compared to urban communities. This has been attributed to the lower levels of air pollution in rural areas. The question arises whether other factors in the rural environment could explain the lower prevalence rates of allergic sensitization and hay fever. A first report from rural South Bavaria in Germany demonstrated that children living in a home where coal and wood were used for heating had a significantly lower risk of suffering from hay fever (odds ratio 0.57 (0.34-0.98)), of being sensitized to common allergens (OR 0.67 (0.49-0.93)) and of having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (OR 0.55 (0.34-0.90)) than their peers living in homes with other heating systems. Subsequently, the Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution (SCARPOL) tested the hypothesis that farming as parental occupation was associated with a lower risk of hay fever and atopy. A total of 1620 (86.0%) 6-15-year-old schoolchildren living in three rural communities of Switzerland were examined using a standardized questionnaire completed by the parents and IgE antibodies against six common aeroallergens in serum samples of 404 (69.3.0%) of the 13-15-year-olds. Farming as parental occupation was significantly associated with lower rates of reported hay fever symptoms and allergic sensitization. Comparing children from farming with those from non-farming environments, the adjusted OR was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.89) for sneezing attacks during the pollen season, and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13-0.73) for a sensitization to allergens. These results have recently been confirmed in a new and much larger survey in rural South Bavaria. Several alternative explanations have to be considered when interpreting these findings, namely, selection bias, the development of tolerance, increased microbial stimulation and a more traditional lifestyle (diet and housing

  17. [Asthma and allergic diseases in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, B; Lindström, M; Forsberg, B

    1992-01-01

    Until recently the prevalence of asthma in Sweden was assessed to be 2-3 per cent. An increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis was noted among new conscripts undergoing health work-ups prior to military service with the most marked increase in northern Sweden, were 5 per cent of conscripts were reported to have asthma. In southern Sweden the prevalence remained about 2 per cent. More recent questionnaire studies in mid- and southern Sweden have reported similar rates of respiratory symptoms and use of anti-asthmatic drugs as in northern Sweden, suggesting that there may be no difference in asthma prevalence between the north and the south of the country. The exact prevalence of allergic diseases among Swedish adults is still not clear, but 40 per cent of adults in northern Sweden report that they often have wheezing in the chest, attacks of breathlessness, longstanding cough or sputum production. In questionnaire studies among children about 40 per cent of respondents have reported that they had asthma, allergic rhinitis or other type of hypersensitivity. The absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria for asthma and allergic disorders in epidemiological studies makes comparison of prevalence difficult. It is thus not possible to be sure that the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders in Sweden has recently increased. Risk factors for the development of asthma and allergic disorders are under study in Sweden. Several studies report an association in children between urban living and allergic disorders.

  18. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  19. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  20. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  1. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  2. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  3. 38 CFR 3.380 - Diseases of allergic etiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diseases of allergic... Specific Diseases § 3.380 Diseases of allergic etiology. Diseases of allergic etiology, including bronchial... progress nor as due to the inherent nature of the disease. Seasonal and other acute allergic...

  4. Copoly(imide-amides) containing hexafluoroisopropylidene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, David J.; Cassidy, Patrick E.; Cameron, Mitch L.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP or 6F) group into polymer backbones brings about important and useful changes in properties. These differences include increased thermal and environmental resistance and solubility and decreased dielectric constant and color. Several types of backbones have been substrates for the inclusion of HFIP and all results have reflected impressive property benefits. This project involved the incorporation of 6F groups into a poly(imide-amide) backbone by the condensation of a 6F-containing dianhydride with 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield a diimide terminated with two carboxylic acid groups. This diacid trimer was then polymerized with various diamines. The polymers were obtained in yields of 86-94 percent and with viscosities of 0.90-2.26 dL/g. They were stable to above 500 C and clear, colorless films could be cast from DMAc.

  5. Hydrogen production from ammonia using sodium amide.

    PubMed

    David, William I F; Makepeace, Joshua W; Callear, Samantha K; Hunter, Hazel M A; Taylor, James D; Wood, Thomas J; Jones, Martin O

    2014-09-24

    This paper presents a new type of process for the cracking of ammonia (NH3) that is an alternative to the use of rare or transition metal catalysts. Effecting the decomposition of NH3 using the concurrent stoichiometric decomposition and regeneration of sodium amide (NaNH2) via sodium metal (Na), this represents a significant departure in reaction mechanism compared with traditional surface catalysts. In variable-temperature NH3 decomposition experiments, using a simple flow reactor, the Na/NaNH2 system shows superior performance to supported nickel and ruthenium catalysts, reaching 99.2% decomposition efficiency with 0.5 g of NaNH2 in a 60 sccm NH3 flow at 530 °C. As an abundant and inexpensive material, the development of NaNH2-based NH3 cracking systems may promote the utilization of NH3 for sustainable energy storage purposes.

  6. Copoly(imide-amides) containing hexafluoroisopropylidene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, David J.; Cassidy, Patrick E.; Cameron, Mitch L.

    1990-01-01

    The incorporation of the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP or 6F) group into polymer backbones brings about important and useful changes in properties. These differences include increased thermal and environmental resistance and solubility and decreased dielectric constant and color. Several types of backbones have been substrates for the inclusion of HFIP and all results have reflected impressive property benefits. This project involved the incorporation of 6F groups into a poly(imide-amide) backbone by the condensation of a 6F-containing dianhydride with 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield a diimide terminated with two carboxylic acid groups. This diacid trimer was then polymerized with various diamines. The polymers were obtained in yields of 86-94 percent and with viscosities of 0.90-2.26 dL/g. They were stable to above 500 C and clear, colorless films could be cast from DMAc.

  7. Anti-allergic effects of Lycopus lucidus on mast cell-mediated allergy model

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Kim, InKyeom; Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lim, Jong-Pil; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-12-15

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the aqueous extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. (Labiatae) (LAE) decreases mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. LAE has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unknown. LAE was anally administered to mice for high and fast absorption. LAE inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. LAE decreased the local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. LAE dose-dependently reduced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Furthermore, LAE decreased the secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of LAE on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. LAE attenuated PMA plus A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and specifically blocked activation of p38 MAPK, but not that of c-jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our findings provide evidence that LAE inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, p38 MAPK, and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  8. [Prevalence of allergic diseases in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    López Pérez, Gerardo; Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Huerta López, José; Mejía Covarrubias, Francisco; López López, Jorge; Aguilar, Gustavo; Rivera Pérez, José Luis; López Medina, Leobardo; Vargas, Florencia

    2009-01-01

    There is a considerable variation in the prevalence of allergic disorders in developing countries. These differences may be attributable to different methodological problems and to the lack of operational definitions. Several studies suggest that the prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing worldwide in recent years. However, in Mexico, there is no data in open population. To know in open population the prevalence of allergic diseases in the counties of Mexico City, the frequence of symptoms in each allergic disease, the therapeutic modalities that patients seek, the school and work annual absences and the amount of money that each patient spends in antiallergic drugs. It was an open-population, cross-sectional trial, in two phases with a random sample size of 8,000 individuals from 214 public health centers. Statistical analysis was made with Excel 97-2004: Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and chi-square-test for discrete variables, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of allergic diseases in Mexico City was 42.6%, allergic rhinitis was the most frequent. Children are the largest age group affected. The highest prevalence was found in Tlahuac county. Coexistence of allergic diseases was found in 19.9%. The 44.2% of allergic patients attended to their general practitioner. 20.4% of all patients spent 10-20% of their income in medicines and 26% do not have money to buy antiallergic drugs. School and work annual absences are 3.37 +/- 3.86 and 6.2 +/- 12.84 days, respectively. Allergic diseases must be considered a public-health problem in Mexico City.

  9. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females only.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Isabel R V; Bruenahl, Christian A; Ramisch, Katherina; Keil, Thomas; Inman, Mark; Arck, Petra C; Pincus, Maike

    2014-10-01

    Observational as well as experimental studies support that prenatal challenges seemed to be associated with an increased risk for allergic airway diseases in the offspring. However, insights into biomarkers involved in mediating this risk are largely elusive. We here aimed to test the association between endogenous and exogenous factors documented in pregnant women, including psychosocial, endocrine, and life style parameters, and the risk for allergic airway diseases in the children later in life. We further pursued to functionally test identified factors in a mouse model of an allergic airway response. In a prospectively designed pregnancy cohort (n = 409 families), women were recruited between the 4th and 12th week of pregnancy. To investigate an association between exposures during pregnancy and the incidence of allergic airway disease in children between 3 and 5 years of age, multiple logistic regression analyses were applied. Further, in prenatally stressed adult offspring of BALB/c-mated BALB/c female mice, asthma was experimentally induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization. In addition to the prenatal stress challenge, some pregnant females were treated with the progesterone derivative dihydrodydrogesterone (DHD). In humans, we observed that high levels of maternal progesterone in early human pregnancies were associated with a decreased risk for an allergic airway disease (asthma or allergic rhinitis) in daughters (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.00) but not sons (aOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94-1.10). In mice, prenatal DHD supplementation of stress-challenged dams attenuated prenatal stress-induced airway hyperresponsiveness exclusively in female offspring. Reduced levels of maternal progesterone during pregnancy-which can result from high stress perception-increase the risk for allergic airway diseases in females but not in males. Key messages: Lower maternal progesterone during pregnancy increases the risk for allergic airway disease

  10. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  11. Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-inflammatories but may cause nasal bleeding; sodium cromoglycate improves allergic and general inflammation but is less potent than steroids. Topical decongestants are beneficial for short-term use when there is nasal obstruction or copious discharge, but can cause damage to nasal epithelium or atrophy and dryness of the nasal mucous membrane after years of use. Anticholinergic spray is effective when watery discharge predominates, and saline is helpful when there is nasal dryness. Treatment of associated conjunctivitis is also discussed. PMID:21286563

  12. Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment options for allergic rhinitis (AR) include allergen avoidance and environmental control, pharmacotherapy, nasal surgery and immunotherapy. Among these, immunotherapy is the only therapeutic option that modifies fundamental immunologic mechanism by inducing desensitization. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been used for 1 century since 1911 and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been demonstrated to be effective in asthma and AR. However, SCIT has several disadvantages such as inconvenience, invasiveness and potentially severe systemic reactions. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has recently received much attention around the world as a treatment for AR and is now widely used to replace the subcutaneous route. SLIT has recently been introduced in Korea and is now available for AR treatment in the Asia-Pacific region. This review offers better understanding of SLIT for AR by summarizing published articles and our previous works regarding proposed mechanisms, indication and efficacy, safety and adverse events, and compliance. PMID:22053308

  13. Allergic Rash: Does It Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    IgE-mediated urticaria and angioedema, serum sickness and idiosyncratic mechanisms all cause rashes. However, only mechanisms involving IgE should be labelled allergic, and they are the only ones with potentially fatal results. The most common type of rash seen by an allergy specialist is urticaria, acute and chronic. Acute urticaria lasts less than six to eight weeks and is most often caused by infection, medication and some foods. Chronic urticaria is caused by animal dander, ASA, certain food additives and some systemic diseases. Treatment is removal of the allergen, plus H1 and H2 antagonists and beta agonists. Both forms of urticaria eventually resolve spontaneously. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286200

  14. Lentiviral shRNA against KCa3.1 inhibits allergic response in allergic rhinitis and suppresses mast cell activity via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hai; Zheng, Chunquan; Li, Jing; Yang, Chen; Hu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium ion channel-3.1 (KCa3.1) plays a pivotal role in the potassium-calcium exchange involved in atopy. This study aimed to explore the impact of lentiviral-mediated shRNA silencing KCa3.1 on allergic response in a murine allergic rhinitis (AR) model. The BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: untreated AR group, negative control AR group, lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA treated AR group and normal control group. Concentrations of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE, histamine and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) in serum, and IL-4, IL-9 and IL-17 in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were analyzed. Goblet cells and mast cells were counted. KCa3.1 positive cells were counted after immunolabelling by immunofluorescence method. KCa3.1, Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), and tryptase mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, P815 cell line was used to explore the role and mechanism of lentiviral KCa3.1-shRNA on mast cells. The results showed that LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated allergic responses in LV-KCa3.1-shRNA treated mice. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively suppressed KCa3.1 levels and phosphorylation of AKT in P815 cells, leading to the downregulation of tryptase, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. LV-KCa3.1-shRNA intervention effectively attenuated the allergic responses in AR and suppressed mast cell activity by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26272420

  15. Amidation of bioactive peptides: the structure of the lyase domain of the amidating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Chufán, Eduardo E; De, Mithu; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E; Amzel, L Mario

    2009-07-15

    Many neuropeptides and peptide hormones require amidation of their carboxy terminal for full biological activity. The enzyme peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.2.5) catalyzes the second and last step of this reaction, N-dealkylation of the peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine to generate the alpha-amidated peptide and glyoxylate. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PAL catalytic core (PALcc) alone and in complex with the nonpeptidic substrate alpha-hydroxyhippuric acid. The structures show that PAL folds as a six-bladed beta-propeller. The active site is formed by a Zn(II) ion coordinated by three histidine residues; the substrate binds to this site with its alpha-hydroxyl group coordinated to the Zn(II) ion. The structures also reveal a tyrosine residue (Tyr(654)) at the active site as the catalytic base for hydroxyl deprotonation, an unusual role for tyrosine. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on this structural data and validated by biochemical analysis of site-directed PALcc mutants.

  16. Amidation of Bioactive Peptides: The Structure of the Lyase Domain of the Amidating Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Chufan, E.; De, M; Eipper, B; Mains, R; Amzel, L

    2009-01-01

    Many neuropeptides and peptide hormones require amidation of their carboxy terminal for full biological activity. The enzyme peptidyl-{alpha}-hydroxyglycine {alpha}-amidating lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.2.5) catalyzes the second and last step of this reaction, N-dealkylation of the peptidyl-{alpha}-hydroxyglycine to generate the {alpha}-amidated peptide and glyoxylate. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PAL catalytic core (PALcc) alone and in complex with the nonpeptidic substrate {alpha}-hydroxyhippuric acid. The structures show that PAL folds as a six-bladed {Beta}-propeller. The active site is formed by a Zn(II) ion coordinated by three histidine residues; the substrate binds to this site with its {alpha}-hydroxyl group coordinated to the Zn(II) ion. The structures also reveal a tyrosine residue (Tyr{sup 654}) at the active site as the catalytic base for hydroxyl deprotonation, an unusual role for tyrosine. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on this structural data and validated by biochemical analysis of site-directed PALcc mutants.

  17. Amidation of Bioactive Peptides: The Structure of the Lyase Domain of the Amidating Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chufán, Eduardo E.; De, Mithu; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Many neuropeptides and peptide hormones require amidation of their carboxy terminal for full biological activity. The enzyme Peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine α-amidating lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.2.5) catalyzes the second and last step of this reaction – N-dealkylation of the peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine to generate the α-amidated peptide and glyoxylate. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of the PAL catalytic core (PALcc) alone and in complex with the non-peptidic substrate α-hydroxyhippuric acid. The structures show that PAL folds as a six-bladed β-propeller. The active site is formed by a Zn(II) ion coordinated by three histidine residues; the substrate binds to this site with its α-hydroxyl group coordinated to the Zn(II) ion. The structures also reveal a tyrosine residue (Tyr654) at the active site as the catalytic base for hydroxyl deprotonation, an unusual role for tyrosine. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on this structural data and validated by biochemical analysis of site-directed PALcc mutants. PMID:19604476

  18. Rotary antenna attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Hardy, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Radio frequency attenuator, having negligible insertion loss at minimum attenuation, can be used for making precise antenna gain measurements. It is small in size compared to a rotary-vane attenuator.

  19. Allergic rhinitis caused by food allergies.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Demirbas, Duygu; Songu, Murat

    2010-09-01

    Food allergies occur in 1-2% of adults and in 8% of children under 6 years of age. Food-induced allergies are immunological reactions that cause a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The reactions are mediated by both IgE- and non-IgE-dependent (cellular) mechanisms. Isolated food-induced allergic rhinitis is not common as it frequently occurs together with other food allergy symptoms such as asthma, eczema, oral allergic manifestations, urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The present paper provides an overview of food allergies and food-induced allergic rhinitis.

  20. [Allergic and toxic cutaneous reactions to plants].

    PubMed

    Gambillara, Eleonora; Spertini, Francois; Leimgruber, Annette

    2010-04-21

    Numerous professional or leisure activities expose individuals to plants susceptible to provoke contact allergies. The immunological mechanisms that are responsible for these ailments (delayed cellular reaction linked to allergic dermatitis or immediate IgE mediated reaction of the allergic urticaria) differ according to the plant families involved. A differential diagnosis must be made in the case of the even more frequent non-allergic reactions implying either a simple mechanical irritation, or a contact with toxic substances. The role of UV (phytophotodermatosis), as well as the contact allergy to wood is also evoked in this paper.

  1. Maternal Influences over Offspring Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma occurs as a result of complex interactions of environmental and genetic factors. Clinical studies and animal models of asthma indicate offspring of allergic mothers have increased risk of development of allergies. Environmental factors including stress-induced corticosterone and vitamin E isoforms during pregnancy regulate the risk for offspring development of allergy. In this review, we discuss mechanisms for the development of allergic disease early in life, environmental factors that may impact the development of risk for allergic disease early in life, and how the variation in global prevalence of asthma may be explained, at least in part, by some environmental components. PMID:25612797

  2. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  3. [Definition and clinic of the allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Spielhaupter, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The allergic rhinitis is the most common immune disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 24% and one of the most common chronic diseases at all--with tendency to rise. It occurs in childhood and influences the patients' social life, school performance and labour productivity. Furthermore the allergic rhinitis is accompanied by a lot of comorbidities, including conjunctivitis, asthma bronchiale, food allergy, neurodermatitis and sinusitis. For example the risk for asthma is 3.2-fold higher for adults with allergic rhinitis than for healthy people.

  4. Allergic alveolitis in a maltworker

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, H. F. V.; Channell, Sonia; Blyth, W.; Weir, D. M.; Lloyd, Melody; Amos, W. M. G.; Grant, I. W. B.

    1968-01-01

    A further example of diffuse pulmonary hypersensitivity to an inhaled organic antigen is reported. A 42-year-old maltworker, who developed an illness resembling farmer's lung, was found to have been heavily exposed to the spores of Aspergillus clavatus. Precipitating and complement-fixing antibodies against an extract of A. clavatus were detected in his serum, a late (Arthus-type) reaction was produced by intradermal injection of the same extract, and a pyrexial reaction, accompanied by a reduction in forced vital capacity and carbon monoxide transfer factor, occurred 6 hours after the inhalation of spores of A. clavatus. Two of the patient's four workmates complained of similar but less severe symptoms, and their sera also contained specific antibodies. Although the spores of A. clavatus and of Cryptostroma corticale, the fungus responsible for maple-bark disease, are much larger than the 1 μ spores of Micropolyspora sp., they may give rise to a diffuse pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction indistinguishable from that observed in farmer's lung. This suggests that the occurrence of such a reaction is not necessarily related to the size of the inhaled particles, and there is reason to believe that the concentration of spores or other antigenic particles in the inspired air may in this respect be more important than their size. The pulmonary hypersensitivity in this group of disorders appears to be a precipitin-mediated (type III) response to a variety of inhaled antigens, but some of these antigens may in certain patients, presumably atopic individuals, also provoke a reagin-mediated (type I) bronchial hypersensitivity reaction. It is suggested that a term such as `allergic alveolitis' or `extrinsic allergic alveolitis' may suitably be used to describe the group of diseases caused by pulmonary hypersensitivity to inhaled organic antigens. Images PMID:4968543

  5. Psychosomatic treatment for allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Many reports have been published concerning how psychosocial stress influences the occurrence and progression of allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, a typical allergic disease often accompanied by psychosomatic related problems, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), international medical guidelines for asthma, describes psychosocial problems as causative factors of poor asthma control and as risk factors for asthma exacerbation, even if symptoms are well controlled. However, because there is little high quality evidence for effective treatments for asthma patients with psychosocial problems, concrete assessments and treatments for such problems is scarcely described in GINA. Therefore, psychosomatic intervention for asthma patients is not effectively conducted on a worldwide scale. In contrast, the "Japanese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychosomatic Diseases" describe the assessment and treatment of psychosomatic disorders in detail. In the guidelines, psychosocial factors are classified into five categories; 1) Relation between stress and asthma occurrence or progression, 2) Relation between emotion and asthma symptoms, 3) Problems related to a patient's character and behaviors, 4) Problems of daily life and Quality of Life (QOL), and 5) Problems related to family relationships and life history. The employment of a self-administered questionnaire, the "Psychosomatic Questionnaire related to Asthmatic Occurrence and Progression", is useful for clarifying psychosocial factors and for setting up treatment strategies according to the problems identified. The Japanese guidelines have been proven to be useful, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is still relatively limited. It will be necessary in the future to accumulate high-quality evidence and to revise the psychosomatic approaches in the guidelines that are universally valid.

  6. Chemical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a montane forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the chemical characteristics of the cloud droplets amid the trees. The ionic composition and pH of the analyzed amid-canopy cloud water samples are generally consistent with those of previous above-canopy cloud water samples obtained at this site. Magnesium, sodium, and calcium are highly correlated to each other amid the canopy as compared to above the canopy. Above-canopy and amid-canopy cloud-only episodes, with concurrent event-averaged cloud water pH values at or below 3.1, generally contain more magnesium, sodium, and calcium in the amid-canopy cloud water samples compared to concurrent above-canopy cloud water samples. The observed chemical differences between the amid-canopy cloud and the above- canopy cloud suggest an unhealthier environment for the tree canopy when the cloud water traversing this site has a pH value at or below 3.1. The predominant ion deposition fluxes were calculated to provide preliminary data for studies designed to explicitly quantify how the chemical composition of cloud water affects tree health. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Allergic inflamation of the lower airways in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Lj; Balaban, J; Stosović, R; Mitrović, N; Djurasinović, M; Tanurdzić, S

    1994-01-01

    Reporting two of our cases we wanted to point to a great dilemma related to the final diagnosis. Recently, such cases have been more frewuently seen, since in all patients with allergic rhinitis conditions of the lower airways is examined before the administration of the specific immunotherapy. Therefore, we may see patients who are still free of pulmonary sings, despite of positive specific and/or non specific bronchoprovocative tests. The presented cases with evidenced allergic rhinitis are probably in the phase of development of allergic bronchial asthma, the phase of "allergic inflammation" of the lower airways, not clinically manifested yet.

  8. New organic semiconductors with imide/amide-containing molecular systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Cai, Zhengxu; Chen, Xin; Luo, Hewei; Li, Yonghai; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Deqing

    2014-10-29

    Due to their high electron affinities, chemical and thermal stabilities, π-conjugated molecules with imide/amide frameworks have received considerable attentions as promising candidates for high-performance optoelectronic materials, particularly for organic semiconductors with high carrier mobilities. The purpose of this Research News is to give an overview of recent advances in development of high performance imide/amide based organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors. It covers naphthalene diimide-, perylene diimide- and amide-based conjugated molecules and polymers for organic semiconductors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Acute allergic angioedema of upper lip

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Kavitha; Padmini, Govindasway; Murugesan, Ramesh; Srikumar, Arthiseethalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures. PMID:27217646

  10. Basophils, cytokines, and the allergic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    DuBuske, L M

    1996-01-01

    Immediate allergic response has long been recognized to be related to the activation of mast cells by antigen. The role of the mast cells as producers of cytokines, however, has only more recently been extensively studied. The effect of TH2 lymphocytes in the inflammatory process is now well recognized in animal models. The central role of cytokines in the allergic inflammatory response is currently an area of intense clinical investigation. Cytokines influence production, migration, and activation of basophils. A wide array of cytokines is produced by mast cells upon initiation of the immediate allergic response. These cytokines influence a number of other different cells including basophils and eosinophils, and also activate lymphocytes, thus perpetuating allergic inflammation.

  11. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  12. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  13. Early detection of allergic diseases in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Ludger; Schendzielorz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Asthmatic diseases have been reported since the ancient world. Hay fever for instance, was described for the first time in the late 18th century, and the term “allergy” was introduced about 100 years ago. Today the incidence of allergies is rising; almost one third of the Western population suffers from its side effects. Allergies are some of the most chronic medical complaints, which results in high health expenditures. Therefore, they have a large health and political relevance. Caused by genetic and environmental factors, the group of IgE mediated allergies is large. It consists of e.g. atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or allergic rhinitis. This paper aims to emphasize the ways of early diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) as AR represents the most important representative of allergic diseases in ENT. PMID:22073091

  14. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Choi, Jun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2004-05-01

    White petrolatum is known for its nonsensitizing and nonirritating properties. Only a few cases of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum have been reported. Although it is a rare event, the finding of contact sensitization to white petrolatum raises the potential problem of its usage of common topical agents or vehicles for patch testing. We herein report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

  17. Nasal hyperreactivity and inflammation in allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Veld, C. de Graaf-in't; Wijk, R. Gerth van; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of allergic disease goes back to 1819, when Bostock described his own ‘periodical affection of the eyes and chest’, which he called ‘summer catarrh’. Since they thought it was produced by the effluvium of new hay, this condition was also called hay fever. Later, in 1873, Blackley established that pollen played an important role in the causation of hay fever. Nowadays, the definition of allergy is ‘An untoward physiologic event mediated by a variety of different immunologic reactions’. In this review, the term allergy will be restricted to the IgE-dependent reactions. The most important clinical manifestations of IgE-dependent reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, this review will be restricted to allergic rhinitis. The histopathological features of allergic inflammation involve an increase in blood flow and vascular permeability, leading to plasma exudation and the formation of oedema. In addition, a cascade of events occurs which involves a variety of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells migrate under the influence of chemotactic agents to the site of injury and induce the process of repair. Several types of inflammatory cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. After specific or nonspecific stimuli, inflammatory mediators are generated from cells normally found in the nose, such as mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and epithelial cells (primary effector cells) and from cells recruited into the nose, such as basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, platelets and neutrophils (secondary effector cells). This review describes the identification of each of the inflammatory cells and their mediators which play a role in the perennial allergic processes in the nose of rhinitis patients. PMID:18475703

  18. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in Scottish maltworkers.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, I W; Blackadder, E S; Greenberg, M; Blyth, W

    1976-01-01

    In a survey of respiratory disease in the Scottish malting industry 5.2% of employees were found to have symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In most cases the disease was mild and not associated with any serious respiratory disability. It was significantly less common where modern mechanical methods of malting were used. Mycological and serological studies suggested that it was usually caused by a type 3 allergic reaction to Aspergillus clavatus. PMID:1252813

  19. Current and future biomarkers in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zissler, U M; Esser-von Bieren, J; Jakwerth, C A; Chaker, A M; Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis early in life, sensitization, asthma endotypes, monitoring of disease and treatment progression are key motivations for the exploration of biomarkers for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The number of genes related to allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma increases steadily; however, prognostic genes have not yet entered clinical application. We hypothesize that the combination of multiple genes may generate biomarkers with prognostic potential. The current review attempts to group more than 161 different potential biomarkers involved in respiratory inflammation to pave the way for future classifiers. The potential biomarkers are categorized into either epithelial or infiltrate-derived or mixed origin, epithelial biomarkers. Furthermore, surface markers were grouped into cell-type-specific categories. The current literature provides multiple biomarkers for potential asthma endotypes that are related to T-cell phenotypes such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22 and Tregs and their lead cytokines. Eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma endotypes are also classified by epithelium-derived CCL-26 and osteopontin, respectively. There are currently about 20 epithelium-derived biomarkers exclusively derived from epithelium, which are likely to innovate biomarker panels as they are easy to sample. This article systematically reviews and categorizes genes and collects current evidence that may promote these biomarkers to become part of allergic rhinitis or allergic asthma classifiers with high prognostic value.

  20. [Expression of allergic reactions to oxaliplatin].

    PubMed

    Arii, Daisuke; Ikeno, Yohei; Murooka, Kunihiko; Nojima, Michio; Kidokoro, Akio

    2012-04-01

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP), a platinum-containing antineoplastic agent, is a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, it is often difficult to continue with its treatment because of the expression of allergic reactions. This study was an investigation of the expression of allergic reactions resulting from administration of L-OHP. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing therapeutic regimens including L-OHP, from April 2009 to November 2010 in Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital. The results showed that allergic reactions were expressed in 15 out of 81 patients (18. 5%). A high correlation was found between the time from administration until expression of the allergic reaction, and the number of treatment courses (r=-0. 521, p=0. 047). When patient characteristics were compared between the allergic reaction group and the no-reaction group, it was suggested that differences due to the regimen or the presence or absence of liver metastasis, which is considered to be related to drug metabolism, had no effect. Items showing significant differences were sexual difference(p=0. 022)and the effect of changes depending on the dose form of L-OHP(p=0. 003). It was possible to continue treatment with L-OHP in six patients even after expression of allergic reactions. Anti-allergy measures such as additional administration of steroids or antihistamines were suggested to be useful for continuing treatment.

  1. Overview on the pathomechanisms of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, Ruby; Mori, Sachiko; Ozu, Chika; Kimura, Satoko

    2011-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airways that has a major impact on the quality of life of patients and is a socio-economic burden. Understanding the underlying immune mechanisms is central to developing better and more targeted therapies. The inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa includes an immediate IgE-mediated mast cell response as well as a latephase response characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, basophils, and T cells expressing Th2 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, a switch factor for IgE synthesis, and IL-5, an eosinophil growth factor and on-going allergic inflammation. Recent advances have suggested new pathways like local synthesis of IgE, the IgE-IgE receptor mast cell cascade in on-going allergic inflammation and the epithelial expression of cytokines that regulate Th2 cytokine responses (i.e., thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and IL-33). In this review, we briefly review the conventional pathways in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and then elaborate on the recent advances in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. An improved understanding of the immune mechanisms of allergic rhinitis can provide a better insight on novel therapeutic targets.

  2. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SEVEN AMIDES BY SUSPENDED BACTERIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial transformation rate constants were determined for seven amides in natural pond water. A second-order mathematical rate expression served as the model for describing the microbial transformation. Also investigated was the relationship between the infrared spectra and the...

  3. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOEpatents

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  4. Synthesis, HPLC measurement and bioavailability of the phenolic amide amkamide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amkamide, oretamide, becatamide, enferamide and veskamide are phenolic amides whose analogues are found in plants. Recently, becatamide was reported to have very potent mitochondria protective activity. In this study, becatamide and analogues (amkamide, oretamide, enferamide and veskamide) were chem...

  5. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SEVEN AMIDES BY SUSPENDED BACTERIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial transformation rate constants were determined for seven amides in natural pond water. A second-order mathematical rate expression served as the model for describing the microbial transformation. Also investigated was the relationship between the infrared spectra and the...

  6. Alkyl amides and nitriles as novel tracers for biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Rushdi, A I; bin Abas, M R; Didyk, B M

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of n-alkanoic acids, amides, and nitriles in samples of aerosol particulate matter from Kuala Lumpur and Santiago suggests that emissions from cooking and biomass burning are the primary sources of these organic markers in the atmosphere. It is proposed that fatty acids react with ammonia during biomass burning or combustion to produce amides and nitriles, which can be applied as useful biomarker tracers. To test this hypothesis, nonadecanoic acid and hexadecanamide were used as reactants in hydrous pyrolysis experiments. These experiments produced amides and nitriles and indicated that ammonia is an essential agent in their formation. Thus amides and nitriles are of utility as indicators for input from combustion and biomass burning in the ambient atmosphere.

  7. Development of CXCR4 modulators by virtual HTS of a novel amide-sulfamide compound library.

    PubMed

    Bai, Renren; Shi, Qi; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Han, Yiran; Feng, Amber; Liu, Shuangping; Oum, Yoonhyeun; Yun, C Chris; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2017-01-27

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign. Based on the designed parent framework, 30 prioritized amide-sulfamide structures were obtained after systemic filtering and docking screening. Twelve compounds were prepared from the top-30 list. Most synthesized compounds exhibited good to excellent binding affinity to CXCR4. Compounds Ig and Im demonstrated notable in vivo suppressive activity against xylene-induced mouse ear inflammation (with 56% and 54% inhibition). Western blot analyses revealed that Ig significantly blocked CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, Ig attenuated the amount of TNF-α secreted by pathogenic E. coli-infected macrophages. More importantly, Ig had no observable cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that FRESH virtual high throughput screening program of targeted chemical class could successfully find potent lead compounds, and the amide-sulfamide pharmacophore was a novel and effective framework blocking CXCR4 function.

  8. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  9. Recent Developments in Amide Synthesis Using Nonactivated Starting Materials.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Porras, Andrea; Gamba-Sánchez, Diego

    2016-12-02

    Amides are unquestionably one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry because of their presence in numerous interesting molecules such as peptides, pharmaceutical agents, naturally occurring molecules, proteins and alkaloids, among others. This synopsis surveys the diverse recent approaches to amide synthesis from nonactivated carboxylic acids and derivatives as well as noncarboxylic compounds, highlighting the most innovative methodologies and those that are more eco-friendly compared to traditional methods while focusing on recent developments during the past two years.

  10. Highly Stereoselective Intermolecular Haloetherification and Haloesterification of Allyl Amides

    PubMed Central

    Soltanzadeh, Bardia; Jaganathan, Arvind; Staples, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    An organocatalytic and highly regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective intermolecular haloetherification and haloesterification reaction of allyl amides is reported. A variety of alkene substituents and substitution patterns are compatible with this chemistry. Notably, electronically unbiased alkene substrates exhibit exquisite regio- and diastereoselectivity for the title transformation. We also demonstrate that the same catalytic system can be used in both chlorination and bromination reactions of allyl amides with a variety of nucleophiles with little or no modification. PMID:26110812

  11. A novel method for heterocyclic amide-thioamide transformations.

    PubMed

    Fathalla, Walid; Ali, Ibrahim A I; Pazdera, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel and convenient method for the transformation of heterocyclic amides into heteocyclic thioamides. A two-step approach was applied for this transformation: Firstly, we applied a chlorination of the heterocyclic amides to afford the corresponding chloroheterocycles. Secondly, the chloroherocycles and N-cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate cyclohexylammonium salt were heated in chloroform for 12 h at 61 °C to afford heteocyclic thioamides in excellent yields.

  12. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Je, In-Gyu; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  13. Climate change and its impact on allergic rhinitis and other allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Giant C; Zacharek, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    To discuss current evidence of global climate change and its implications for allergic rhinitis and other allergic respiratory diseases. Global climate change is evidenced by increasing average earth temperature, increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas levels, and elevated pollen levels. Pollutants of interest include carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and nitrous oxide (NO2) because they can enhance the allergic response and lead to increased symptoms of allergic respiratory diseases. Heightened CO2 levels stimulate pollen production via photosynthesis and increased growth in multiple plant species investigated. Although worsened air quality appears to increase prevalence of allergic rhinitis, the effects of increased temperature are less certain. The findings of increased aeroallergen levels likely contribute to increases in presentation of allergic diseases, although more healthcare impact studies are necessary. Although recent literature indicates and strongly supports changes in temperature, pollution levels, and aeroallergen levels, more longitudinal epidemiologic surveillance of allergic diseases in relation to climate change as well as pathophysiologic studies on changing aeroallergen effects on allergic diseases are needed.

  14. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  15. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management. PMID:25838332

  16. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  17. Optimal management of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis K

    2015-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR), the most common chronic disease in childhood is often ignored, misdiagnosed and/or mistreated. Undertreated AR impairs quality of life, exacerbates asthma and is a major factor in asthma development. It can involve the nose itself, as well as the organs connected with the nose manifesting a variety of symptoms. Evidence-based guidelines for AR therapy improve disease control. Recently, paediatric AR guidelines have been published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and are available online, as are a patient care pathway for children with AR and asthma from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Management involves diagnosis, followed by avoidance of relevant allergens, with additional pharmacotherapy needed for most sufferers. This ranges, according to severity, from saline sprays, through non-sedating antihistamines, oral or topical, with minimally bioavailable intranasal corticosteroids for moderate/severe disease, possibly plus additional antihistamine or antileukotriene. The concept of rhinitis control is emerging, but there is no universally accepted definition. Where pharmacotherapy fails, allergen-specific immunotherapy, which is uniquely able to alter long-term disease outcomes, should be considered. The subcutaneous form (subcutaneous immunotherapy) in children has been underused because of concerns regarding safety and acceptability of injections. Sublingual immunotherapy is both efficacious and safe for grass pollen allergy. Further studies on other allergens in children are needed. Patient, carer and practitioner education into AR and its treatment are a vital part of management.

  18. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway.

  19. Helical peptoid mimics of magainin-2 amide.

    PubMed

    Patch, James A; Barron, Annelise E

    2003-10-08

    A series of peptoid oligomers were designed as helical, cationic, and facially amphipathic mimics of the magainin-2 amide antibacterial peptide. We used circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the conformation of these peptoids in aqueous buffer and in the presence of bacterial membrane-mimetic lipid vesicles, composed of a 7:3 mol ratio of POPE:POPG. We found that certain peptoids, which displayed characteristically helical CD in buffer and lipid vesicles, exhibit selective (nonhemolytic) and potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, peptoids that exhibit weak CD, reminiscent of that of a peptide random coil, were ineffective antibiotics. In a manner similar to the natural magainin peptides, we find a correlation between peptoid lipophilicity and hemolytic propensity. We observe that a minimum length of approximately 12 peptoid residues may be required for antibacterial activity. We also see evidence that a helix length between 24 and 34 A may provide optimal antibacterial efficacy. These results provide the first example of a water-soluble, structured, bioactive peptoid.

  20. Predicting protein amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuqiu; Yu, Hua; Gong, Xiujun

    2017-08-01

    Amidation is the fourth major category of post-translational modifications, which plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Identifying amidation sites can help us understanding the amidation and recognizing the original reason of many kinds of diseases. But the traditional experimental methods for predicting amidation sites are often time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we propose a computational method for predicting amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features. Three kinds of feature extraction methods are used to build a feature vector enabling to capture not only the physicochemical properties but also position related information of the amino acids. An extremely randomized trees algorithm is applied to choose the optimal features to remove redundancy and dependence among components of the feature vector by a supervised fashion. Finally the support vector machine classifier is used to label the amidation sites. When tested on an independent data set, it shows that the proposed method performs better than all the previous ones with the prediction accuracy of 0.962 at the Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.89 and area under curve of 0.964.

  1. Hydrogen Bonding Interaction between Atmospheric Gaseous Amides and Methanol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailiang; Tang, Shanshan; Xu, Xiang; Du, Lin

    2016-12-30

    Amides are important atmospheric organic-nitrogen compounds. Hydrogen bonded complexes of methanol (MeOH) with amides (formamide, N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, acetamide, N-methylacetamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide) have been investigated. The carbonyl oxygen of the amides behaves as a hydrogen bond acceptor and the NH group of the amides acts as a hydrogen bond donor. The dominant hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the carbonyl oxygen and the OH group of methanol as well as the interaction between the NH group of amides and the oxygen of methanol. However, the hydrogen bonds between the CH group and the carbonyl oxygen or the oxygen of methanol are also important for the overall stability of the complexes. Comparable red shifts of the C=O, NH- and OH-stretching transitions were found in these MeOH-amide complexes with considerable intensity enhancement. Topological analysis shows that the electron density at the bond critical points of the complexes fall in the range of hydrogen bonding criteria, and the Laplacian of charge density of the O-H∙∙∙O hydrogen bond slightly exceeds the upper value of the Laplacian criteria. The energy decomposition analysis further suggests that the hydrogen bonding interaction energies can be mainly attributed to the electrostatic, exchange and dispersion components.

  2. Hydrogen Bonding Interaction between Atmospheric Gaseous Amides and Methanol

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hailiang; Tang, Shanshan; Xu, Xiang; Du, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Amides are important atmospheric organic–nitrogen compounds. Hydrogen bonded complexes of methanol (MeOH) with amides (formamide, N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, acetamide, N-methylacetamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide) have been investigated. The carbonyl oxygen of the amides behaves as a hydrogen bond acceptor and the NH group of the amides acts as a hydrogen bond donor. The dominant hydrogen bonding interaction occurs between the carbonyl oxygen and the OH group of methanol as well as the interaction between the NH group of amides and the oxygen of methanol. However, the hydrogen bonds between the CH group and the carbonyl oxygen or the oxygen of methanol are also important for the overall stability of the complexes. Comparable red shifts of the C=O, NH- and OH-stretching transitions were found in these MeOH–amide complexes with considerable intensity enhancement. Topological analysis shows that the electron density at the bond critical points of the complexes fall in the range of hydrogen bonding criteria, and the Laplacian of charge density of the O–H∙∙∙O hydrogen bond slightly exceeds the upper value of the Laplacian criteria. The energy decomposition analysis further suggests that the hydrogen bonding interaction energies can be mainly attributed to the electrostatic, exchange and dispersion components. PMID:28042825

  3. Allergic reactions to Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Plesner, Anne-Marie

    2003-11-01

    The JEV widely is used in Asian countries each year and is an important vaccine for travelers to the East from other parts of the world. JE virus is a zoonotic disease with natural reservoirs and cannot be eliminated. Although a declining incidence of JE has been observed in Asia because of reduced transmission by agricultural approaches and vaccination, the most important control measure now, and in the future, is vaccination of humans against JE. The inactivated vaccine, produced from infected mouse-brain-derived tissue, is the only commercially available vaccine. There are several concerns with the use of this vaccine. It is expensive, requires two or three doses to achieve protective efficacy, and, in practice, requires further booster doses to maintain immunity. The apparent increase in allergic reactions in the first part of the 1990s has set focus on the safety of the JEV. A cheap, live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine is used almost exclusively in China and parts of Korea, but there have been no trials of SA 14-14-2 vaccine outside JE endemic countries. The vaccine seems to be highly efficient, and few adverse events have been observed; however, PHK cells are used for the production of this vaccine, and these cells are not approved by the WHO. A satisfactory cell substrate is needed. A committee under the WHO has proposed that for the live JEV, there should be validity of the assays for retrovirus when applied to PHK cell substrate and validity of the mouse assays for neurovirulence. Further information should be reviewed on the long-term follow-up of recipients of the vaccine. Several new types of vaccines have reached the phase of clinical trials; however, studies remain to be completed. Until a new vaccine is available, the priority of surveillance of adverse events and the continuous reporting of such events to the users of the vaccines must be of importance. This fact is highlighted by the possibility of the varying frequency of adverse events with

  4. Natural antibody repertoires: development and functional role in inhibiting allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kearney, John F; Patel, Preeyam; Stefanov, Emily K; King, R Glenn

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the effects of microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire. Neonatal exposure to conserved bacterial carbohydrates and phospholipids permanently reprograms the natural antibody repertoire directed toward these antigens by clonal expansion, alterations in clonal dominance, and increased serum antibody levels. These epitopes are present not only in bacterial cell walls, but also in common environmental allergens. Neonatal immunization with bacterial polysaccharide vaccines results in attenuated allergic airway responses to fungi-, house dust mite-, and cockroach-associated allergens in mouse models. The similarities between mouse and human natural antibody repertoires suggest that reduced microbial exposure in children may have the opposite effect, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. We propose that understanding the effects of childhood infections on the natural antibody repertoire and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated immunoregulation observed in allergy models will lead to the development of prevention/interventional strategies for treatment of allergic asthma.

  5. The allergic march: can we prevent allergies and asthma?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    The allergic march is a progression of atopic disease from eczema to asthma, and then to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. It appears to be caused by a regional allergic response with breakdown of the local epithelial barrier that initiates systemic allergic inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors predispose to developing the allergic march. There are data to support 4 possible interventions to prevent the allergic march from progressing to asthma: (1) supplements of dietary probiotics, (2) exclusive breast feeding during the first few months of life, or, alternatively (3) use of extensively hydrolyzed infant formulas, (4) treatment with inhalant allergen immunotherapy by either subcutaneous or sublingual methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mosla dianthera inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic reactions through the inhibition of histamine release and inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun . E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr; Eun, Jae-Soon; Shin, Tae-Yong . E-mail: tyshin@woosuk.ac.kr

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the aqueous extract of Mosla dianthera (Maxim.) (AEMD) on the mast cell-mediated allergy model and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as asthma, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The discovery of drugs for the treatment of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. AEMD inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic reactions in mice. AEMD decreased immunoglobulin E-mediated local allergic reactions, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. AEMD attenuated intracellular calcium level and release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells activated by compound 48/80. Furthermore, AEMD attenuated the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated TNF-{alpha}, IL-8 and IL-6 secretion in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of AEMD on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) dependent. AEMD decreased PMA and A23187-induced degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. Our findings provide evidence that AEMD inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-{kappa}B in these effects.

  7. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    PubMed

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin sensitization is associated with allergic poly-sensitization and allergic multimorbidity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, M; Klingenberg, C; Wickman, M; Sollid, J U E; Furberg, A-S; Bachert, C; Bousquet, J

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) carriage and sensitization to S. aureus enterotoxins (SEs) have been associated with allergic diseases. From the Tromsø Study Fit Futures 2, we have previously shown an association between S. aureus carriage and severe allergic disease and allergic multimorbidity. However, the role of S. aureus carriage and SE sensitization on allergic multimorbidity and allergic sensitization is unclear. To study associations of both nasal S. aureus carriage and SE sensitization to allergic disease and allergic sensitization. A cross-sectional study of a school-based cohort in late adolescence (aged 18-19 years: The Tromsø Study Fit Futures 2). Self-reported allergic diseases were assessed using the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy questionnaire (MeDALL). Participants were tested for nasal S. aureus carriage, serum total IgE and specific IgE to SEs, and food and inhalant allergens. A total of 868 participants were studied. Sensitization to at least one food or inhalant allergen was found in 319 of 765 (41.7%), and to at least one SE in 173 of 656 (26.2%) participants. SE sensitization, but not S. aureus carriage, was associated with poly-sensitization to food and inhalant allergens. SE-sensitized participants had higher median specific IgE to inhalant allergens (41.4 kUA /L, IQR 10.1-118.4) compared to non-SE-sensitized participants (18.0 kUA /L, IQR 5.5-48.6, P=.004), but not to food allergens. SE sensitization was associated with allergic multimorbidity. Sensitization to SEs may play a role in the development of allergen poly-sensitization and allergic multimorbidity. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  9. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. Results In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. Conclusions We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:20487574

  10. Beta-escin has potent anti-allergic efficacy and reduces allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Ines; Meier, Christiane; Url, Angelika; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Doerfler, Petra

    2010-05-21

    Type I hypersensitivity is characterized by the overreaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances. It manifests as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic asthma or atopic dermatitis if mast cells are activated in the respective organs. In case of systemic mast cell activation, life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Currently, type I hypersensitivities are treated either with glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers. Although these drugs exert a strong anti-allergic effect, their long-term use may be problematic due to their side-effects. In the course of a routine in vitro screening process, we identified beta-escin as a potentially anti-allergic compound. Here we tested beta-escin in two mouse models to confirm this anti-allergic effect in vivo. In a model of the early phase of allergic reactions, the murine passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, beta-escin inhibited the effects of mast cell activation and degranulation in the skin and dose-dependently prevented the extravasation of fluids into the tissue. Beta-escin also significantly inhibited the late response after antigen challenge in a lung allergy model with ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Allergic airway inflammation was suppressed, which was exemplified by the reduction of leucocytes, eosinophils, IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histopathological examinations further confirmed the reduced inflammation of the lung tissue. In both models, the inhibitory effect of beta-escin was comparable to the benchmark dexamethasone. We demonstrated in two independent murine models of type I hypersensitivity that beta-escin has potent anti-allergic properties. These results and the excellent safety profile of beta-escin suggest a therapeutic potential of this compound for a novel treatment of allergic diseases.

  11. DHA-rich tuna oil effectively suppresses allergic symptoms in mice allergic to whey or peanut.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Esch, Betty C A M; Hofman, Gerard A; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Pieters, Raymond H; Smit, Joost J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2014-12-01

    Supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) has been found to reduce the development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in suppressing food allergic symptoms. Mice were fed a control diet (10% soybean oil) or fish oil diet rich in EPA (4% soybean oil + 6% EPA oil containing 28.8% EPA and 13.7% DHA) or DHA (4% soybean oil + 6% DHA oil containing 7% EPA and 27.8% DHA), starting 14 d before and for 5 wk during oral sensitization with peanut extract (PE) or whey. Acute allergic skin responses, serum immunoglobulins (Igs), and mucosal mast cell protease-1 (mmcp-1) were assessed. Hyperimmune serum was transferred to naive recipient mice fed the different diets. The DHA diet effectively reduced the acute allergic skin response compared with the control or EPA diet in PE-allergic mice (control, 159 ± 15, or EPA, 129 ± 8, vs. DHA, 78 ± 7 μm; P < 0.0001 or P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, both the DHA and EPA diets reduced the allergic skin response in whey allergic mice (control, 169 ± 9, vs. DHA, 91 ± 13, or EPA, 106 ± 14 μm; P < 0.001 or P < 0.01, respectively); however, only the DHA diet reduced mmcp-1 and whey-specific IgE and IgG1. The DHA and EPA diets also reduced the acute skin response in passively immunized mice. The DHA-rich fish oil diet reduced allergic sensitization to whey and allergic symptoms in both PE- and whey-allergic mice. These data suggest that DHA-rich fish oil is useful as an intervention to prevent or treat food allergy symptoms. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; London, Stephanie J; Henneberger, Paul K; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. We evaluated the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. Using the 2005-2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed. We used polytomous regression models adjusted for age, BMI, state, smoking, and current asthma, as well as for days applying pesticides and days driving diesel tractors. We defined allergic wheeze as reporting both wheeze and doctor-diagnosed hay fever (n = 1,310, 6%) and non-allergic wheeze as reporting wheeze but not hay fever (n = 3,939, 18%); men without wheeze were the referent. In models evaluating current use of specific pesticides, 19 pesticides were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with allergic wheeze (18 positive, 1 negative) and 21 pesticides with non-allergic wheeze (19 positive, 2 negative); 11 pesticides were associated with both. Seven pesticides (herbicides: 2,4-D and simazine; insecticides: carbaryl, dimethoate, disulfoton, and zeta-cypermethrin; and fungicide pyraclostrobin) had significantly different associations for allergic and non-allergic wheeze. In exposure-response models with up to five exposure categories, we saw evidence of an exposure-response relationship for several pesticides including the commonly used herbicides 2,4-D and glyphosate, the insecticides permethrin and carbaryl, and the rodenticide warfarin. These results for farmers implicate several pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural and residential settings with adverse respiratory effects.

  13. Selective Formation of Secondary Amides via the Copper-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Alkylboronic Acids with Primary Amides

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Steven A.; Shimkin, Kirk W.; Xu, Qun; Mori-Quiroz, Luis M.; Watson, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a general catalytic procedure for the cross coupling of primary amides and alkylboronic acids is demonstrated. The key to the success of this reaction was the identification of a mild base (NaOSiMe3) and oxidant (di-tert-butyl peroxide) to promote the copper-catalyzed reaction in high yield. This transformation provides a facile, high-yielding method for the mono-alkylation of amides. PMID:23611591

  14. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-κB and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases.

  15. Ca2+ -activated K+ channel-3.1 blocker TRAM-34 alleviates murine allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Zheng, Chunquan; Li, Jing; Yang, Chen; Hu, Li

    2014-12-01

    The precise pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear and AR is less easily cured. Recent evidence has suggested that calcium-activated K+ channel-3.1(KCa3.1) is implicated in the immune response of allergic and inflammatory diseases and TRAM-34 is a selective KCa3.1 blocker. However, little is known about its role in AR. We aimed to investigate the effect of TRAM-34 in a mouse model of AR induced by ovalbumin (OVA). The BALB/c mice were divided into six groups: untreated AR group, 200 μg TRAM-34 treated AR group, 400 μg TRAM-34 treated AR group, 200 μg TRAM-34 treated normal group, 400 μg TRAM-34 treated normal group and untreated normal control group. Histopathological characteristics were assessed by HE staining. KCa3.1 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting method, and mRNA expression of KCa3.1, stromal interaction molecule1 (STIM1) and Orai1 in nasal tissues were assessed by real-time PCR. Furthermore, concentrations of OVA-specific IgE, ECP, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17 and IL-1β in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that TRAM-34 administration into the nostril attenuated sneezing, nasal rubbing, epithelial cell proliferation, eosinophil infiltration and inhibited nasal mucosa KCa3.1, STIM1 and Orai1 expression in TRAM-34 treated mice compared with untreated AR mice and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in the NLF of TRAM-34 treated groups compared with untreated AR mice. In conclusion, TRAM-34 could effectively alleviate murine allergic rhinitis by suppressing KCa3.1 and leads to reduction of K+ efflux and Ca2 + influx, leading to inflammation reduction and allergic responses attenuation.

  16. HIF-1α Inhibition Reduces Nasal Inflammation in a Murine Allergic Rhinitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Lu-Ping; Cheng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that nasal allergic inflammation is attenuated by HIF-1α inhibition and strengthened by HIF-1α stabilization. Objective To elucidate the role of HIF-1α in a murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods Mice were pretreated with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or the HIF-1α inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in an established AR murine model using ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice. HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in nasal mucosa was measured and multiple parameters of allergic responses were evaluated. Results HIF-1α and VEGF levels were locally up-regulated in nasal mucosa during AR. Inflammatory responses to OVA challenge, including nasal symptoms, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophil recruitment, up-regulation of T-helper type 2 cytokines in nasal lavage fluid, and serum OVA-specific IgE levels were present in the OVA-challenged mice. 2ME2 effectively inhibited HIF-1α and VEGF expression and attenuated the inflammatory responses. Stabilization of HIF-1α by CoCl2 facilitated nasal allergic inflammation. HIF-1α protein levels in nasal airways correlated with the severity of AR in mice. Conclusions HIF-1α is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of nasal allergies, and the inhibition of HIF-1α may be useful as a novel therapeutic approach for AR. PMID:23133644

  17. Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of the human population to chlorination products has considerably increased during the 20(th) century especially after the 1960s with the development of public and leisure pools. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the human exposure to chlorination products and reviews studies suggesting that these chemicals might be involved in the development or exacerbation of allergic diseases. Populations regularly in contact with chlorination products such as swimmers, lifeguards or workers using chlorine as cleaning or bleaching agent show increased risks of allergic diseases or of respiratory disorders frequently associated with allergy. Experimental evidence suggests that chlorination products promote allergic sensitization by compromising the permeability or the immunoregulatory function of epithelial barriers. These findings led to the chlorine hypothesis proposing that the rise of allergic diseases could result less from the declining exposure to microbial agents (the hygiene hypothesis) than from the increasing and largely uncontrolled exposure to products of chlorination, the most widely used method to achieve hygiene in the developed world. Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases.

  18. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  19. Clinical verification in homeopathy and allergic conditions.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The literature on clinical research in allergic conditions treated with homeopathy includes a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for hay fever with positive conclusions and two positive RCTs in asthma. Cohort surveys using validated Quality of Life questionnaires have shown improvement in asthma in children, general allergic conditions and skin diseases. Economic surveys have shown positive results in eczema, allergy, seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and chronic allergic rhinitis. This paper reports clinical verification of homeopathic symptoms in all patients and especially in various allergic conditions in my own primary care practice. For preventive treatments in hay fever patients, Arsenicum album was the most effective homeopathic medicine followed by Nux vomica, Pulsatilla pratensis, Gelsemium, Sarsaparilla, Silicea and Natrum muriaticum. For asthma patients, Arsenicum iodatum appeared most effective, followed by Lachesis, Calcarea arsenicosa, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. For eczema and urticaria, Mezereum was most effective, followed by Lycopodium, Sepia, Arsenicum iodatum, Calcarea carbonica and Psorinum. The choice of homeopathic medicine depends on the presence of other associated symptoms and 'constitutional' features. Repertories should be updated by including results of such clinical verifications of homeopathic prescribing symptoms. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzaldehyde suppresses murine allergic asthma and rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Young; Park, Chang-Shin; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Heo, Min-Jeong; Kim, Young Hyo

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the antiallergic effects of oral benzaldehyde in a murine model of allergic asthma and rhinitis, we divided 20 female BALB/c mice aged 8-10 weeks into nonallergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to normal saline), allergic (intraperitoneally sensitized and intranasally challenged to ovalbumin), and 200- and 400-mg/kg benzaldehyde (allergic but treated) groups. The number of nose-scratching events in 10 min, levels of total and ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum, differential counts of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, titers of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in BAL fluid, histopathologic findings of lung and nasal tissues, and expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3), inflammation (COX-2), antioxidation (extracellular SOD, HO-1), and hypoxia (HIF-1α, VEGF) in lung tissue were evaluated. The treated mice had significantly fewer nose-scratching events, less inflammatory cell infiltration in lung and nasal tissues, and lower HIF-1α and VEGF expressions in lung tissue than the allergic group. The number of eosinophils and neutrophils and Th2 cytokine titers in BAL fluid significantly decreased after the treatment (P<0.05). These results imply that oral benzaldehyde exerts antiallergic effects in murine allergic asthma and rhinitis, possibly through inhibition of HIF-1α and VEGF. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Conk-Dalay, Meltem; Cakli, Hamdi; Bal, Cengiz

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing globally due to various causes. It affects the quality life of a large group of people in all around the world. Allergic rhinitis still remains inadequately controlled with present medical means. The need of continuous medical therapy makes individuals anxious about the side effects of the drugs. So there is a need for an alternative strategy. Effects of spirulina, tinospora cordifolia and butterbur were investigated recently on allergic rhinitis in just very few investigations. Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. This double blind, placebo controlled study, evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of spirulina for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. Spirulina consumption significantly improved the symptoms and physical findings compared with placebo (P < 0.001***) including nasal discharge, sneezing, nasal congestion and itching. Spirulina is clinically effective on allergic rhinitis when compared with placebo. Further studies should be performed in order to clarify the mechanism of this effect.

  2. Allergic rhinitis and chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Rajati, Mohsen; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Khadivi, Ehsan; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Allergic inflammation in upper airways can act as a predisposing factor for infectious ear diseases. There are some evidences about the role of allergic rhinitis in chronic otitis media with effusion, but its role in establishing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been clearly shown. 68 adult patients with established CSOM, who were candidates for ear surgery, and 184 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for the presence of allergic rhinitis. Standard questionnaire was filled out for all participants. All patients and controls underwent skin prick test for 28 common regional aeroallergens, and serum total IgE was measured by means of ELISA method. Allergic rhinitis were defined as a positive responses to the questionnaire, positive skin prick test to at least one allergen, and/or high level of serum total IgE. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 20 (29.41%) and 41 (22.28%) of patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.241) (OR = 1.28, CI = 0.69-2.36). Outdoor allergens, especially grass pollen, were the most prevalent allergens among both groups, but indoor allergens like mites and molds have a low prevalence. The study did not show a significant difference in the prevalence of AR in the CSOM patients compared to the controls. The intermittent nature of allergy and other less known intervening factors in the etiopathogenesis of CSOM make such a conclusion difficult.

  3. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study.

  4. Clinical practice guideline: Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases affecting adults. It is the most common chronic disease in children in the United States today and the fifth most common chronic disease in the United States overall. AR is estimated to affect nearly 1 in every 6 Americans and generates $2 to $5 billion in direct health expenditures annually. It can impair quality of life and, through loss of work and school attendance, is responsible for as much as $2 to $4 billion in lost productivity annually. Not surprisingly, myriad diagnostic tests and treatments are used in managing this disorder, yet there is considerable variation in their use. This clinical practice guideline was undertaken to optimize the care of patients with AR by addressing quality improvement opportunities through an evaluation of the available evidence and an assessment of the harm-benefit balance of various diagnostic and management options. The primary purpose of this guideline is to address quality improvement opportunities for all clinicians, in any setting, who are likely to manage patients with AR as well as to optimize patient care, promote effective diagnosis and therapy, and reduce harmful or unnecessary variations in care. The guideline is intended to be applicable for both pediatric and adult patients with AR. Children under the age of 2 years were excluded from the clinical practice guideline because rhinitis in this population may be different than in older patients and is not informed by the same evidence base. The guideline is intended to focus on a limited number of quality improvement opportunities deemed most important by the working group and is not intended to be a comprehensive reference for diagnosing and managing AR. The recommendations outlined in the guideline are not intended to represent the standard of care for patient management, nor are the recommendations intended to limit treatment or care provided to individual patients. The development group made a strong

  5. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2015, Pisithkul et al.

  6. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  7. Phenolic amides are potent inhibitors of De Novo nucleotide biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; ...

    2015-06-12

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposuremore » leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. Furthermore, the results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.« less

  8. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oleanolic acid controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivitis, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases.

  10. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  11. Occupational Respiratory Allergic Diseases in Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Jacek M; Weissman, David N

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a range of high and low molecular weight agents that are allergic sensitizers or irritants including cleaners and disinfectants, natural rubber latex, and various medications. Studies have shown that exposed HCWs are at risk for work-related rhinitis and asthma (WRA). Work-related rhinitis may precede development of WRA and should be considered as an early marker of WRA. Avoidance of causative exposures through control strategies such as elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and process modification is the preferred primary prevention strategy for preventing development of work-related allergic diseases. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of respirators in preventing occupational asthma. If sensitizer-induced WRA is diagnosed, it is important to avoid further exposure to the causative agent, preferably by more rigorous application of exposure control strategies to the workplace. This review focuses on allergic occupational respiratory diseases in HCWs.

  12. Allergic reactions to Anisakis found in fish.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    The food-borne parasite Anisakis is an important hidden food allergen. Anisakis is a parasitic nematode which has a third-stage larval form that infects mainly fish, and ingestion of contaminated seafood can result in severe allergic reactions. Symptoms experienced due to exposure to this parasite include gastrointestinal disorders, urticaria, dermatitis, asthma and even anaphylaxis. Accurate prevalence data of allergic sensitisation to Anisakis are difficult to estimate due to the lack of well-designed population-based studies. Current diagnostic approaches rely on the detection of serum IgE antibodies to allergenic proteins, which however demonstrate considerable immunological cross-reactivity to other invertebrate allergens. While exposure to this parasite seems to increase due to the increasing consumption of seafood worldwide, the immunology of infection and allergic sensitization is not fully understood.

  13. Allergic reaction after rubber dam placement.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, E D; Ranali, J; Volpato, M C; de Oliveira, M M

    2000-03-01

    In the last few years allergic reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) have increased in dental practice affecting both the dental team and patients. Some case reports discuss the potential risks of hypersensitivity to NRL products. An adverse patient reaction after dental rubber dam placement is reported. About 1 min after the isolation of the tooth with a rubber dam the patient presented signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity. Oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone were administered and the patient kept under observation. After 2 h she had stable vital signs and no more allergics symptoms. It is unclear whether components of the NRL dam or the cornstarch powder incorporated with the rubber dam was responsible for the allergic reaction. Dentists must be aware of the health problem and be prepared for an adequate management in dental practice.

  14. Role of cockroach proteases in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen

    2012-10-01

    Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna.

    PubMed

    Polat, Muhterem; Dikilitaş, Meltem; Oztaş, Pinar; Alli, Nuran

    2009-01-15

    Henna is a naturally occurring brown dye made from the leaves of the tree Lawsonia inermis. The active ingredient of henna is lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone). It is traditionally used in Islamic and Hindu cultures as a hair coloring and as a dye for decorating the nails or making temporary skin tattoos. Actually, henna has a very low allergic potential. In most cases, allergic reactions not caused by henna, but by the chemical coloring additives that are added to henna mixtures. These additives include agents such as daiminotoluenes and diaminobenzenes. In this article, we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis from pure henna that is also used for the relief of rheumatic pain.

  16. Eustachian tube dysfunction in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Sáenz, Juan Gerardo; Galván-Aguilera, Armando Alejando; Martínez-Ordaz, Verónica Araceli; Velasco-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Nieves-Rentería, Armando; Rincón-Castañeda, Cuauhtémoc

    2005-04-01

    To assess eustachian tube function in patients with allergic rhinitis and compare them with a control group. Tympanometry was performed in 130 patients (260 ears), divided into 2 groups: 80 cases with allergic rhinitis and 50 healthy controls. Cases underwent skin hypersensitivity tests. Cases, age 21.1 +/- 14.9; Controls, age 23.9 +/- 15.6. Most frequent skin hypersensitivity: Dermatophagoides pt (62%), Zea Maiz (44%), and Cockroach (37%). Tympanometry of cases showed negative values of peak tympanometric pressure in both children and adults (P < or = 0.05). Among children under 11 years of age, 15.5% tympanograms showed abnormal curves (13% C curves and 3% B curves); among the control group only normal curves were found (type A). Allergic rhinitis patients have a higher risk of eustachian tube dysfunction, particularly during childhood. Tympanometry is a noninvasive, readily available procedure that may be useful in these patients to prevent chronic middle-ear disease.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  18. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  19. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization.

  20. The burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Ozdoganoglu, Tunis; Songu, Murat

    2012-02-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common health problems that cause major illness and disability worldwide. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is estimated to range from 10% to 20% in the USA and Europe. Multiple factors contribute to the wide range of reported prevalence rates. These include type of prevalence rate reported (current or cumulative), study selection criteria, age of participants, differences in survey methods, varied geographic locations and socioeconomic status, any of which are significant enough to confound direct comparison between studies. There is no standard set of diagnostic criteria for allergic rhinitis. In most studies, the criteria for diagnosis are based on the subject's reporting, solely by questionnaire and rarely confirmed by skin testing. In addition, most studies focus on hay fever, leaving perennial allergic rhinitis underestimated. Sinus imaging is generally not performed and, therefore, rhinosinusitis not differentiated. Some investigators report 'current' prevalence while others report 'cumulative' or 'lifetime' prevalence. Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that asthma and rhinitis often coexist in the same patients. The prevalence of asthma is <2% in subjects without rhinitis while it varies from 10% to 40% in patients with rhinitis. Furthermore, the majority of patients with asthma experience rhinitis, which is a factor in the risk for asthma. Despite recognition that allergic rhinitis and asthma are global health problems, there are insufficient epidemiologic data and more data are needed with regard to their etiologic risk factors and natural history. This aim of this review is to enable the reader to discuss prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  1. Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, R J; Carlsen, K C L; Granum, B; Carlsen, K-H; Håland, G; Devulapalli, C S; Munthe-Kaas, M C; Mowinckel, P; Løvik, M

    2010-06-01

    Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping.

  2. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  3. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: Gene Food Allerg PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Broide MB ChB CONTRACTING...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Sep 2011 to 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...versus Non- Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB ChB

  4. [Airway hyperreactivity in patients with allergic and non-allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    González Hernández, Jessica; Gómez Vera, Javier; Orea Solano, Modesto; Flores Sandoval, Graciela; Ríos Nava, Roberto; de la Torre, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologically there is an association between allergic rhinitis and asthma due to a common inflammatory process. Asthma can affect 40% of the patients with rhinitis and 80% of asthmatics present rhinitis. The relationship between the two diseases is explained by the term of "a united airway". Some patients with allergic rhinitis have nonspecific bronchial hyper-responsiveness, specially during the exacerbation stage. These patients have a unique physiologic characteristic that differs from the asthmatic and healthy subjects developing bronchoconstriction not related to clinical bronchospasm, therefore, allergic rhinitis is considered a risk factor for the asthma development. To determine if there is bronchial hyper-responsiveness in patients with allergic and not allergic rhinitis, by correlating with the eosinophilia in nasal mucosa. We studied a total of 32 patients with an age range from 18 to 38 years, of both sexes (11 men and 17 women) of the Hospital Regional Lic. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, ISSSTE. They were submitted to clinical history, laboratory studies (blood count cell, serum IgE levels, eosinophils of nasal mucosa), roentgenograms (paranasal sinus and esophagus-gastroduodenal series) and allergy skin tests with 32 allergens. It was taken biopsy of nasal mucosa for the search of eosinophils and it was carried out bronchial challenge with distilled water. Twenty-eight patients concluded the study, they were divided in two groups: a group of 15 patients with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and another group of 13 patients with diagnosis of non allergic rhinitis. Fifty-six spirometry studies were performed and only 4 patients (26.6%) with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis presented fall of the FEV1 in the bronchial challenge in comparison with the group of non allergic rhinitis in which there were no changes in the FEV1 later to the bronchial challenge. This difference was statistically significant (-4.3 and 0.15, respectively with a p < 0.0370, CI 95

  5. Pressure surge attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  6. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  7. [Epigenetics in allergic diseases and asthma].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Krause, Bernardo J; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases and asthma are the result of complex interactions between genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disease among children. In this article we review some environmental factors like: allergen exposition, tobacco, bacteria, microbial components, diet, obesity and stress, which influences during intrauterine and infancy life in the epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic diseases. The review has been done in three models: in-vitro, animal and human. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  9. Allergen immunotherapy and allergic rhinitis: false beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 100 years, several persistent misconceptions or ‘false beliefs’ have built up around allergen immunotherapy and its use in allergic rhinitis. This is perhaps because enthusiastic physicians administered complex allergen extracts to a diverse population of patients suffering from heterogeneous atopic conditions. Here, we review evidence that counters seven of these ‘false beliefs.’ Discussion 1. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be more heterogeneous, more severe and more troublesome in everyday life than many physicians believe. Large-scale epidemiological surveys show that the majority of allergic rhinitis patients have at least one symptom severe enough to interfere with sleep quality, productivity and/or well-being. 2. Allergen immunotherapy is not necessarily suitable for all allergic rhinitis patients (notably those with mild symptoms). Recent evidence from double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials suggests that the more severe the disease, the greater the treatment effect. 3. Allergen immunotherapy is often accused of lack of efficacy (relative to pharmacotherapy, for example). However, there are now many meta-analyses, systematic reviews and high-quality clinical trials that find overwhelmingly in favor of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (including sublingual formulations) in allergic rhinitis induced by pollen and, increasingly, other allergens. 4. Natural-exposure and challenge-chamber trials have shown that symptom relief may become apparent within months or even weeks of the initiation of allergen immunotherapy. 5. In pollen-induced allergic rhinitis, several years of subcutaneous or sublingual allergen immunotherapy are associated with sustained clinical efficacy after subsequent treatment cessation – confirming the disease-modifying nature of this therapy. 6. Most patients seeking treatment for allergic rhinitis are polysensitized, and allergen immunotherapy has proven efficacy in large

  10. Diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Joseph A; Parekh, Nirav N; Desai, Naman S

    2014-10-01

    Wound closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey USA) has recently increased in popularity across a wide spectrum of physicians ranging from surgeons to emergency medicine practitioners. Generally, very few complications are associated with Dermabond and are usually related to application techniques. Uncommonly, patients present with allergic reactions to the adhesive compounds; these allergies are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis or another infectious process, and are incorrectly treated. This report describes a rare case of a diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond following its use to close a surgical incision, its prompt identification, and treatment after presentation to an emergency department.

  11. Silibinin attenuates mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yan, Guang Hai

    2009-05-01

    Silibinin is known to have hepatoprotective, anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, roles of silibinin in the immediate-type allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) have not fully been investigated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that silibinin attenuated mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions involved in allergic diseases. Oral administration of silibinin inhibited compound 48/80-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reaction in mice. Silibinin also attenuated anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis. Silibinin had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Silibinin dose-dependently reduced histamine release from RPMC activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. Moreover, silibinin inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in RPMC. Pretreatment of silibinin suppressed the antigen-stimulated calcium uptake and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in RPMC. Furthermore, silibinin increased the intracellular cAMP level. Increased cAMP, decreased calcium uptake and suppressed NF-kappaB activity might be involved in the inhibitory effect of silibinin on the secretory response. Our findings provide possibility that silibinin may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for allergic diseases.

  12. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  13. Recognising and managing allergic disease in the community.

    PubMed

    Bostock-Cox, Beverley

    2012-07-01

    Allergic disease and its symptoms, whether seasonal or perennial, can have a significant impact on individuals' quality of life. Asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and food allergy are among the common allergies that nurses may encounter in the community. This article discusses the causes of allergic disease, the importance of considering allergen avoidance, and the alternative treatment options available.

  14. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  15. Prevention of allergic disease development and symptoms by food factors.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Shigeru; Kanda, Tomomasa; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Totsuka, Mamoru; Takahashi, Shingo; Shoji, Toshihiko; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental means of allergic disease prevention, via the use of functional food factors, is desirable. A number of studies on the role of functional food factors in preventing allergic diseases have been reported. In this review, the preventive effects of polyphenols, carotenoids, polysaccharides, and non-digestible oligosaccharides on allergic diseases are discussed.

  16. Immobilized coupling reagents: synthesis of amides/peptides.

    PubMed

    Cherkupally, Prabhakar; Ramesh, Suhas; de la Torre, Beatriz G; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Albericio, Fernando

    2014-11-10

    The primary idea of using immobilized reagents in organic synthetic chemistry is to simplify the downstream process, product workup and isolation, and therefore avoiding time-consuming and expensive chromatographic separations, which are intrinsic to every synthetic process. Numerous polymer-bounded reagents are commercially available and applicable to almost all kinds of synthetic chemistry conversions. Herein, we have covered all known supported-coupling reagents and bases which have had a great impact in amide/peptide bond formation. These coupling reagents have been used for the activation of a carboxyl moiety; thus generating an active acylating species that is ready to couple with an amine nucleophile liberating the amide/peptide and polymeric support which can be regenerated for reuse. This also addresses a large variety of anchored coupling reagents, additives, and bases that have only been employed in amide/peptide syntheses during the last six decades.

  17. On the unconventional amide I band in acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Campa, Alessandro; Giansanti, Andrea

    1987-04-01

    We developed a new model to study the molecular dynamics of the acetanilide (ACN) crystal by computer simulation. Low-frequency oscillations of the molecules as a whole were considered with high-frequency vibrations of the amidic degrees of freedom involved in hydrogen bonding. The low-temperature power spectrum has two peaks, shifted by 15 cm -1, in the region of the amide I band: one of them corresponds to the so-called anomalous amide I band in the IR and Raman spectra of ACN. We found that this peak is due to the coupling of the low-frequency motion in the chain of molecules with the motion of the hydrogen-bonded protons, at variance with current suggestions.

  18. Nickel-catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Baker, Emma L.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling has become one of the most important and prevalent methods for the construction of C-C bonds. Although palladium catalysis has historically dominated the field, the use of nickel catalysis has become increasingly widespread because of its unique ability to cleave carbon-heteroatom bonds that are unreactive towards other transition metals. We report the first nickel-catalysed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of amides, which proceeds by an uncommon cleavage of the amide C-N bond after N-tert-butoxycarbonyl activation. The methodology is mild, functional-group tolerant and can be strategically employed in sequential transition-metal-catalysed cross-coupling sequences to unite heterocyclic fragments. These studies demonstrate that amides, despite classically considered inert substrates, can be harnessed as synthons for use in reactions that form C-C bonds through cleavage of the C-N bond using non-precious metal catalysis.

  19. Intramolecular amide bonds stabilize pili on the surface of bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Budzik, Jonathan M.; Poor, Catherine B.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-12

    Gram-positive bacteria elaborate pili and do so without the participation of folding chaperones or disulfide bond catalysts. Sortases, enzymes that cut pilin precursors, form covalent bonds that link pilin subunits and assemble pili on the bacterial surface. We determined the x-ray structure of BcpA, the major pilin subunit of Bacillus cereus. The BcpA precursor encompasses 2 Ig folds (CNA{sub 2} and CNA{sub 3}) and one jelly-roll domain (XNA) each of which synthesizes a single intramolecular amide bond. A fourth amide bond, derived from the Ig fold of CNA{sub 1}, is formed only after pilin subunits have been incorporated into pili. We report that the domains of pilin precursors have evolved to synthesize a discrete sequence of intramolecular amide bonds, thereby conferring structural stability and protease resistance to pili.

  20. VCD Robustness of the Amide-I and Amide-II Vibrational Modes of Small Peptide Models.

    PubMed

    Góbi, Sándor; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2015-09-01

    The rotational strengths and the robustness values of amide-I and amide-II vibrational modes of For(AA)n NHMe (where AA is Val, Asn, Asp, or Cys, n = 1-5 for Val and Asn; n = 1 for Asp and Cys) model peptides with α-helix and β-sheet backbone conformations were computed by density functional methods. The robustness results verify empirical rules drawn from experiments and from computed rotational strengths linking amide-I and amide-II patterns in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of peptides with their backbone structures. For peptides with at least three residues (n ≥ 3) these characteristic patterns from coupled amide vibrational modes have robust signatures. For shorter peptide models many vibrational modes are nonrobust, and the robust modes can be dependent on the residues or on their side chain conformations in addition to backbone conformations. These robust VCD bands, however, provide information for the detailed structural analysis of these smaller systems.

  1. One-Pot Reductive 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Secondary Amides: A Two-Step Transformation of Primary Amides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Qiang; Lang, Qi-Wei; Hu, Xiu-Ning

    2016-11-04

    The one-pot reductive 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of secondary aromatic N-(trimethylsilylmethyl)amides with reactive dipolarophiles is reported. The method relies on the in situ generation of nonstabilized NH azomethine ylide dipoles via amide activation with triflic anhydride, partial reduction with 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), and desilylation with cesium fluoride (CsF). Running under mild conditions, the reaction tolerated several sensitive functional groups and provided cycloadducts in 71-93% yields. The use of less reactive dipolarophile methyl acrylate led to the cycloadduct in only 40% yield. A (Z) geometric intermediate of NH-azomethine 1,3-dipole was postulated to account for the observed higher yields and higher cis diastereoselectivity for the substrates bearing an electron-withdrawing group. This model features an unconventional cyclic transition state via carbanion-aryl ring interaction. Because the starting secondary amides can be prepared from common primary amides, the current method also constitutes a two-step transformation of primary amides.

  2. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E. )

    1987-09-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP.

  3. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  4. Chrysin suppresses mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation: Involvement of calcium, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Yunju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. Several studies reported that chrysin has beneficial effects including anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether chrysin modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. Chrysin inhibited immediate-type systemic hypersensitivity and serum histamine release. Chrysin attenuated immunoglobulin E-mediated local anaphylaxis. These inhibitory effects of chrysin on the systemic and local allergic reaction were more potent than cromolyn, a known anti-allergic drug. Chrysin reduced histamine release from mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the histamine release was mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium. In addition, chrysin decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, IL (interleukin)-1{beta}, IL-4, and IL-6 in mast cells. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on the pro-inflammatory cytokine was nuclear factor-{kappa}B and caspase-1 dependent. Our findings provide evidence that chrysin inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions by blocking histamine release and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and suggest the mechanisms of action. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effect of chrysin suggests a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. - Research Highlights: > Discovery of drugs for the allergic inflammation is important in human health. > Chrysin is a natural flavonoid contained in propolis, blue passion flower, and fruits. > Chrysin

  5. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  6. Bilastine: in allergic rhinitis and urticaria.

    PubMed

    Carter, Natalie J

    2012-06-18

    Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.

  7. Future treatments of allergic diseases and asthma.

    PubMed

    Stirling, R G; Chung, K F

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the inflammatory and immunological mechanisms of allergic diseases have illuminated many potential therapeutic strategies that may prevent or even reverse the abnormalities of allergic inflammation. As the roles of effector cells, and of signalling and adhesion molecules are better understood, the opportunities to inhibit or prevent the inflammatory cascade have increased. In addition, there have been advances in the synthesis of proteins, monoclonal antibodies and new small molecule chemical entities, which provide further valuable flexibility in the therapeutic approach to asthma. Such new approaches are aimed at prevention of T-cell activation; redressing the imbalance of T helper cell populations thus inhibiting or preventing Th-2-derived cytokine expression; and the inhibition or blockade of the downstream actions of these cytokines such as effects on IgE and eosinophils. Approaches such as these allow both broad and highly specific targeting, and may pave the way towards the prevention and reversal of the immunological and inflammatory processes driving asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The development of effective agents with effects beyond those provided by current therapies coupled with lesser side-effects will further address the unmet needs of allergic disease.

  8. [Allergic dermatitis: new concepts for old diseases].

    PubMed

    Becerril Angeles, Martín; Ayala Balboa, Julio César; Mendoza Vázquez, Victor Cristóbal

    2003-01-01

    The skin is the largest body's organ, with a well defined functional lymphoid tissue. This organ can be the target of several hypersensitivity-mediated diseases, that are both, genetically determined and influenced by environmental factors. In this paper the main clinical features and the current treatment modalities for the most frequent allergic cutaneous diseases are reviewed.

  9. Environmental aeroallergens and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Isabelle; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-10-01

    The rising prevalence of allergy and of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis is associated with changes in modern lifestyle. The current period of rapid development and consequent urbanization and migration, coupled with changes in climate, is facilitating a growth in rates of allergy. Alterations to indoor and outdoor environments resulting from urbanization, industrialization, and climate change have significant implications for the prevalence and management of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. Rising temperatures, precipitation and more extreme weather enable longer pollen seasons and greater viability of indoor and outdoor moulds and result in increased exposure to (and allergenic potential of) these aeroallergens. Outdoor air pollution is a major risk factor for rhino-conjunctivitis; key contributors are fuel combustion and dust storms because of changes in land-use and development. Further studies are needed to recognize and understand sources of indoor pollution including phthalates. A better understanding of the role of environmental aeroallergens in allergic rhino-conjunctivitis is important to aid future management of allergic conjunctivitis. Strategies such as region-specific modelling of aeroallergens (pollens, air pollution) are required to predict and thus prevent exposure and to better inform appropriate childhood exposure and minimize lifelong effects.

  10. Allergen Immunotherapy in Allergic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) involves the repeated administration of allergenic extracts to atopic individuals over a period of 3 to 5 years either subcutaneously (SCIT) or sublingually (SLIT) for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR). In studies, SCIT and SLIT have been shown to improve existing symptoms of asthma and AR and to also have the capability to cause disease-modifying changes of the underlying atopic condition so as to prevent new allergic sensitization as well as arrest progression of AR to asthma. Recent evidence suggests that immunotherapy brings about these effects through actions that use T-regulatory cells and blocking antibodies such as IgG4 and IgA2, which can then result in an “immune deviation” from a T-helper (Th) 2 cell pattern to a Th1 cell pattern. Numerous meta-analyses and studies have been performed to evaluate the existing data among these studies, with the consensus recommendation favoring the use of immunotherapy because of its potential to modify existing diseases. Significant adverse reactions can occur with immunotherapy, including anaphylaxis and, very rarely, death. A primary factor in considering SIT is its potential to provide long-lasting effects that are able to be sustained well after its discontinuation. Given the significant burden these allergic diseases impose on the health-care system, SIT appears to be a cost-effective adjunctive treatment in modifying the existing disease state. PMID:22553263

  11. [Recent advances in extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M

    2008-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis), especially humidifier lung, has been more frequently diagnosed over the last decades, whereas farmer's lung has decreased over the same time period. Today two types of the chronic course of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can be distinguished. The recurrent chronic course with a good prognosis may be differentiated from the insidious course with a poor prognosis by means of different histological patterns (UIP, NSIP, BOOP pattern). The characteristic neutrophilic infiltration of the lung in the insidious course cannot be detected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) methods. Furthermore, lymphocytosis in the BAL can be absent or present at a low level. The CD4/CD8 ratio is not always decreased and may be normal or even increased in these insidious cases with a poor prognosis. Granulomas in the lung tissue, however, point to a good prognosis. In the diagnostic work-up of machine operator's and humidifier lung, it is advisable not only to look for serum antibodies against bacteria and molds but also for rapid growing mycobacteria in a sample of machine or humidifier water. IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors occur frequently in allergic alveolitis, especially in humidifier lung. The patients, however, do not suffer from arthritis. The IgM rheumatoid factor may simulate IgM antibodies against numerous infectious agents (e. g., Bordetella pertussis or Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Taking this phenomenon into account may improve the current differential diagnosis of allergic alveolitis.

  12. Association of Allergic Rhinitis and Sinusitis with Childhood Asthma.

    PubMed

    Chinnakkannan, Selva Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Mathew, Joseph L; Saxena, Akshay Kumar

    2017-01-15

    To study the point prevalence of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis in childhood asthma and to examine the relationship among them. In 250 children (age <13 y) with mild-to-moderte asthma, allergic rhinitis was diagnosed by clinical plus nasal eosinophilia criteria, and sinusitis was diagnosed clinically plus confirmation by computerized tomography scan. The point prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 13.6%, and of sinusitis was 2%. On multivariate analysis, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and family history were significantly associated with asthma severity. Allergic rhinitis is common in childhood asthama, but sinusitis is rare.

  13. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor; Freedman, Holly

    2013-10-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump-probe experiments.

  14. Model for Studying Anti- Allergic Drugs for Allergic Conjunctivitis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yosuke; Oka, Mikako; Takehana, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which is characterized by ocular itching, hyperemia, and edema, deteriorates quality of life. In this study, effects of anti-allergic drugs were evaluated by assessing eye-scratching behavior, the number of eosinophils in conjunctiva epithelial tissues, and concentrations of chemical mediators in the tears of the guinea pig model of ovalbumin (OA)-induced AC. Methodology On day 0, 3-week-old guinea pigs were sensitized by OA subconjunctival injections. On days 15, 17, and 19, OA solution was administered. Anti-allergic eye drops were administered 5 and 15 min before the final OA challenge on day 19. Scratching behavior within 1 h after OA exposure was studied. Eosinophils in the conjunctiva were stained with Giemsa reagent. Histamine and substance P (SP) concentrations in tears were measured using ELISA. Results Subconjunctivally injected guinea pigs were observed for clinical symptoms. Scratching responses significantly reduced with ketotifen or olopatadine treatment. Eosinophil numbers reduced in animals treated with ketotifen, levocabastine, or tranilast. Histamine and/or SP concentrations in tears were inhibited by some of these anti-allergic drugs. Conclusions It is important to assess the anti-allergic AC drugs objectively because there are several of these drugs currently available. This model allows for an objective evaluation of anti-allergic drugs for AC. PMID:28848937

  15. miR-122-SOCS1-JAK2 axis regulates allergic inflammation and allergic inflammation-promoted cellular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanearl; Kim, Hyuna; Byun, Jaehwan; Park, Yeongseo; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in inflammation has been reported. However, its role in allergic inflammation has not been previously reported. SOCS1 mediated in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation. Histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a mediator of allergic inflammation, interacted with SOCS1, and miR-384 inhibitor, a positive regulator of HDAC3, induced features of allergic inflammation in an SOCS1-dependent manner. miRNA array analysis showed that the expression of miR-122 was decreased by antigen-stimulation. TargetScan analysis predicted the binding of miR-122 to the 3′-UTR of SOCS1. miR-122 inhibitor induced in vitro and in vivo allergic features in SOCS1-dependent manner. SOCS1 was necessary for allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells. SOCS1 and miR-122 regulated cellular interactions involving cancer cells, mast cells and macrophages during allergic inflammation. SOCS1 mimetic peptide, D-T-H-F-R-T-F-R-S-H-S-D-Y-R-R-I, inhibited in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation, allergic inflammation-promoted enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells, and cellular interactions during allergic inflammation. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) exhibited binding to SOCS1 mimetic peptide and mediated allergic inflammation. Transforming growth factor- Δ1 (TGF-Δ1) was decreased during allergic inflammation and showed an anti-allergic effect. SOCS1 and JAK2 regulated the production of anti-allergic TGF-Δ1. Taken together, our results show that miR-122-SOCS1 feedback loop can be employed as a target for the development of anti-allergic and anti-cancer drugs. PMID:28968979

  16. Amides Do Not Always Work: Observation of Guest Binding in an Amide-Functionalized Porous Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Benson, Oguarabau; da Silva, Ivan; Argent, Stephen P; Cabot, Rafel; Savage, Mathew; Godfrey, Harry G W; Yan, Yong; Parker, Stewart F; Manuel, Pascal; Lennox, Matthew J; Mitra, Tamoghna; Easun, Timothy L; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Besley, Elena; Yang, Sihai; Schröder, Martin

    2016-11-16

    An amide-functionalized metal organic framework (MOF) material, MFM-136, shows a high CO2 uptake of 12.6 mmol g(-1) at 20 bar and 298 K. MFM-136 is the first example of an acylamide pyrimidyl isophthalate MOF without open metal sites and, thus, provides a unique platform to study guest binding, particularly the role of free amides. Neutron diffraction reveals that, surprisingly, there is no direct binding between the adsorbed CO2/CH4 molecules and the pendant amide group in the pore. This observation has been confirmed unambiguously by inelastic neutron spectroscopy. This suggests that introduction of functional groups solely may not necessarily induce specific guest-host binding in porous materials, but it is a combination of pore size, geometry, and functional group that leads to enhanced gas adsorption properties.

  17. Amides Do Not Always Work: Observation of Guest Binding in an Amide-Functionalized Porous Metal–Organic Framework

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An amide-functionalized metal organic framework (MOF) material, MFM-136, shows a high CO2 uptake of 12.6 mmol g–1 at 20 bar and 298 K. MFM-136 is the first example of an acylamide pyrimidyl isophthalate MOF without open metal sites and, thus, provides a unique platform to study guest binding, particularly the role of free amides. Neutron diffraction reveals that, surprisingly, there is no direct binding between the adsorbed CO2/CH4 molecules and the pendant amide group in the pore. This observation has been confirmed unambiguously by inelastic neutron spectroscopy. This suggests that introduction of functional groups solely may not necessarily induce specific guest–host binding in porous materials, but it is a combination of pore size, geometry, and functional group that leads to enhanced gas adsorption properties. PMID:27665845

  18. Effects of Swimming on the Inflammatory and Redox Response in a Model of Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, T R; Ávila, L C M; Fortkamp, B; Greiffo, F R; Bobinski, F; Mazzardo-Martins, L; Martins, D F; Duarte, M M M F; Dafre, A; Santos, A R S; Silva, M D; Souza, L F; Vieira, R P; Hizume-Kunzler, D C

    2015-06-01

    In this study we hypothesized that swimming during sensitization phase could result in a preventive effect in mice with allergic asthma. Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups: Control and Swimming (non-sensitized), OVA and OVA+Swimming (sensitized). The allergic inflammation was induced by 2 intraperitoneal injections and 4 aerosol challenges using ovalbumin. Swimming sessions were performed at high intensity over 3 weeks. 48 h after the last challenge mice were euthanized. Swimming decreased OVA-increased total IgE, IL-1, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 levels, as well as the number of total cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, (p<0.05). Simultaneously, swimming also increased IL-10 and glutathione levels in the Swimming and OVA+Swimming groups (p<0.05). The levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were increased only in the Swimming group when compared to all groups (p<0.05). 21 days of swimming resulted in an attenuation of pulmonary allergic inflammation followed by an increase of glutathione levels in the OVA group. Swimming only increased the levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in non-sensitized mice (p<0.05). These data suggest that the pulmonary anti-inflammatory effects produced by 3 weeks of high-intensity swimming in this model of OVA-induced asthma may be, at least partly, modulated by reduced oxidative stress and increased IL-10 production. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Activated protein C inhibits neutrophil migration in allergic asthma: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J Daan; Berger, Marieke; Majoor, Christof J; Kager, Liesbeth M; Meijers, Joost C M; Terpstra, Sanne; Nieuwland, Rienk; Boing, Anita N; Lutter, René; Wouters, Diana; van Mierlo, Gerard J; Zeerleder, Sacha S; Bel, Elisabeth H; van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Zee, Jaring S; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Asthma patients show evidence of a procoagulant state in their airways, accompanied by an impaired function of the anticoagulant protein C system. We aimed to study the effect of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in allergic asthma patients.We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study in house dust mite (HDM) allergic asthma patients. Patients were randomised to receive intravenous rhAPC (24 µg·kg(-1)·h(-1); n=12) or placebo (n=12) for 11 h. 4 h after the start of infusion, a first bronchoscopy was performed to challenge one lung segment with saline (control) and a contralateral segment with a combination of HDM extract and lipopolysaccharide (HDM+LPS), thereby mimicking environmental house dust exposure. A second bronchoscopy was conducted 8 h after intrabronchial challenge to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).rhAPC did not influence HDM+LPS induced procoagulant changes in the lung. In contrast, rhAPC reduced BALF leukocyte counts by 43% relative to placebo, caused by an inhibitory effect on neutrophil influx (64% reduction), while leaving eosinophil influx unaltered. rhAPC also reduced neutrophil degranulation products in the airways.Intravenous rhAPC attenuates HDM+LPS-induced neutrophil migration and protein release in allergic asthma patients by an effect that does not rely on coagulation inhibition.

  20. CXCR3 chemokine receptor signaling mediates itch in experimental allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lintao; Fu, Kai; Yang, Jennifer; Shimada, Steven G; LaMotte, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    Persistent itch is a common symptom of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and represents a significant health burden. The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this disorder. Here, we showed that CXCL10 and CXCR3 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. CXCL10 directly activated a subset of cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the area of CHS through neuronal CXCR3. In behavioral tests, a CXCR3 antagonist attenuated spontaneous itch- but not pain-like behaviors directed to the site of CHS. Injection of CXCL10 into the site of CHS elicited site-directed itch- but not pain-like behaviors, but neither type of CXCL10-evoked behaviors was observed in control mice. These results suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates allergic itch but not inflammatory pain in the context of skin inflammation. Thus, upregulation of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in sensory neurons may contribute to itch associated with ACD. Targeting the CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic itch.

  1. Screening active components from Yu-ping-feng-san for regulating initiative key factors in allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dandan; Xie, Xuejian; Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation.

  2. Screening Active Components from Yu-Ping-Feng-San for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation. PMID:25198676

  3. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  4. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols catalyzed by graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Ganjbakhsh, Nahid; Molaee Tavana, Mahdieh; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was successfully applied for the direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols with amines into the corresponding amides using graphite oxide (GO) as an oxidative and reusable solid acid catalyst in acetonitrile as solvent at 50°C under air atmosphere. The direct oxidative amidation of benzyl alcohols takes place under mild conditions yielding the corresponding amides in good to high yields (69-95%) and short reaction times under metal-free conditions.

  6. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- . 721.10191 Section... Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- (PMN P-06-262; CAS No. 851544-20-2)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- . 721.10191 Section... Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- (PMN P-06-262; CAS No. 851544-20-2)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- . 721.10191 Section... Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- (PMN P-06-262; CAS No. 851544-20-2)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10191 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- . 721.10191 Section... Substances § 721.10191 Amides, coco, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- (PMN P-06-262; CAS No. 851544-20-2)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No. 691400-76...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No. 691400-76...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No. 691400-76...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No. 691400-76...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No. 691400-76...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10589 - Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10589 Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine... identified generically as unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine (PMN P-11-106)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10590 - Fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, amides with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10590 Fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (PMN P-11-107) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10589 - Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10589 Unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine... identified generically as unsaturated fatty acids, amides with polyethylenepolyamine (PMN P-11-106)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10590 - Fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, amides with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10590 Fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, amides with triethylentetramine (PMN P-11-107) is subject to reporting under...

  6. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  7. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  8. Stereoselective Synthesis of Spirooxindole Amides through Nitrile Hydrozirconation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunliang; Xiao, Qing; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Spirooxindole amides can be prepared by the intramolecular addition of functionalized indoles into acyliminium ions that are accessed from nitriles by hydrozirconation and acylation. The stereochemical outcome at the quaternary center was controlled by the steric bulk of the substituent at the 2-position of the indole unit. The products are well-suited for diversification to prepare libraries. PMID:20961073

  9. KNH2-KH: a metal amide-hydride solid solution.

    PubMed

    Santoru, Antonio; Pistidda, Claudio; Sørby, Magnus H; Chierotti, Michele R; Garroni, Sebastiano; Pinatel, Eugenio; Karimi, Fahim; Cao, Hujun; Bergemann, Nils; Le, Thi T; Puszkiel, Julián; Gobetto, Roberto; Baricco, Marcello; Hauback, Bjørn C; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2016-09-27

    We report for the first time the formation of a metal amide-hydride solid solution. The dissolution of KH into KNH2 leads to an anionic substitution, which decreases the interaction among NH2(-) ions. The rotational properties of the high temperature polymorphs of KNH2 are thereby retained down to room temperature.

  10. Preparation and characterization of amidated derivatives of alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Taubner, Tomáš; Marounek, Milan; Synytsya, Andriy

    2017-10-01

    Alginic acid is a suitable material for modification to prepare new derivatives because of presence of its carboxyl groups. The high content of carboxyl groups over the entire length of its chain renders it an easily modifiable material with a possibility of achieving a high degree of substitution in the prepared derivatives. The salt of alginic acid (sodium alginate) is readily commercially available and is widely used in many branches of chemistry. Alginic acid was thus selected as the substrate for amidation. The amidation used two-steps: methyl esterification followed by amino-de-alkoxylation. The aim of this study was to prepare highly substituted derivatives with different polysaccharide chain characteristics. As such, the alginic acid was modified by the two-step amidation based on the esterification of the alginic acid carboxyl groups by reaction with methanol and further amino-de-alkoxylation (aminolysis) of the obtained methyl ester with amidation reagents (n-alkylamines, hydrazine and hydroxylamine). The purity and substitution degree of the prepared derivatives were monitored by vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR and FT Raman) and organic elemental analysis. These analytical methods confirmed the preparation of highly or moderately substituted N-alkylamides, hydrazide and hydroxamic acid of alginic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-...

  12. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  13. Universal mechanism for breaking amide bonds by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phillip S; Cook, Peter L; Liu, Xiaosong; Yang, Wanli; Bai, Yiqun; Abbott, Nicholas L; Himpsel, F J

    2011-07-28

    The photodissociation of the amide bond by UV light and soft x-rays is investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C, N, and O 1s edges. Irradiation leaves a clear and universal signature for a wide variety of amides, ranging from oligopeptides to large proteins and synthetic polyamides, such as nylon. As the π∗ peak of the amide bond shrinks, two new π∗ peaks appear at the N 1s edge with a characteristic splitting of 1.1 eV. An additional characteristic is the overall intensity reduction of both the π∗ and σ∗ features at the O 1s edge, which indicates loss of oxygen. The spectroscopic results are consistent with the release of the O atom from the amide bond, followed by the migration of the H atom from the N to one of its two C neighbors. Migration to the carbonyl C leads to an imine, and migration to the C(α) of the amino acid residue leads to a nitrile. Imine and nitrile produce the two characteristic π∗ transitions at the N 1s edge. A variety of other models is considered and tested against the N 1s spectra of reference compounds.

  14. Differential induction of redox sensitive extracellular phenolic amides in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focuses on the differential induction of extracellular phenolic amides that accumulate in potato cell suspensions during the first few hours of the interaction between these plant cells and bacterial pathogens or pathogen-related elicitors. Using suspension cells of Solanum tuberosum we ...

  15. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper fiber supplementation promotes effectively the

  16. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). Objective We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Results Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Conclusion Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper

  17. TRPV1 Antagonist Suppresses Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Soo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-10-11

    To determine the immunologic functions of TRPA1 or TRPV1 in allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), after which TRPA1 antagonist or TRPV1 antagonist was administered before topical OVA challenge. Expression of TRPV1 or TRPA1 in AC was examined by western blotting and multicolor immunofluorescence. Clinical signs, OVA-specific IgE, infiltration of inflammatory cells into conjunctivae (CJs), and Th2 cytokine in draining lymph nodes (LNs) were evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. TRPV1 expression was increased in CJs and LNs from AC mice, but TRPA1 expression was only increased in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist attenuated the clinical signs of AC and OVA-specific IgE in sera. TRPV1 antagonist furthermore inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into CJ and the production of Th2 cytokines in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist may ameliorate AC by suppressing the Th2 response in LNs.

  18. Anti-allergic inflammatory activities of compounds of amomi fructus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Gyu; Je, In-Gyu; Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Kim Seung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Activity-guided isolation of compounds from the fruits of Amomum xanthioides resulted in the purification of fourteen phenolic compounds, 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylbenzaldehyde (3), syringic aldehyde (4), benzoic acid (5), 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (6), vanillic acid (7), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid (8), o-vanillic acid (9), phenylacetic acid (10), tyrosol (11), pyrocatechol (12), 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (13), and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-4,4'-diol (14). To evaluate the anti-allergic inflammatory activities of these compounds, we examined the inhibitory effects of the isolates (1-14) on histamine release and on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-ca and interleukin (IL)-6 genes by using human mast cells. Of the tested compounds, 9, 11, and 13 suppressed histamine release from mast cells, and all isolates attenuated the expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 genes in human mast cells.

  19. [Pathologic diagnosis and clinical analysis of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Diao, Xiao-li; Jin, Mu-lan; Dai, Hua-ping; Li, Xue; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yun-gang

    2011-11-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic approach of chronic extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA). Seven cases of chronic EAA diagnosed by open lung biopsy or lung transplant were enrolled into the study. The clinical and pathologic features were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. There were altogether 4 men and 3 women. The age of the patients ranged from 30 to 65 years (mean = 48 years). All cases represented chronic form and five cases diagnosed by open lung biopsy also showed features of recent aggravation, leading to hospitalization. Four cases had known history of exposure to inciting gases, pollens and pets, and only 2 cases were positive for allergens. High-resolution CT scan showed ground-glass attenuation and reticular pattern that often had a patchy distribution and central predominance. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis showed marked lymphocytosis, with CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio less than 1. Lung function test demonstrated a restrictive ventilatory defect, with decreased compliance, reduced diffusion capacity and high airway obstruction. Five cases had open lung biopsy performed and two cases had undergone lung transplantation. Pathologic examination showed bronchiolocentric cellular interstitial pneumonia, interstitial fibrosis, non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, epithelioid histiocytic infiltrate in the respiratory bronchioles and intraluminal budding fibrosis. The five cases with open lung biopsy performed also showed neutrophilic infiltrate in the alveoli. The two lung transplant cases were complicated by severe fibrotic changes. Chronic EAA demonstrates characteristic pathologic features. Definitive diagnosis requires correlation with clinical and radiologic findings due to possible morphologic mimicry of other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  20. Oleanolic Acid Controls Allergic and Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Carmen; Martín, Rubén; Gallego-Muñoz, Patricia; Hernández, Marita; Nieto, María L.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the most common aeroallergen to cause seasonal conjunctivitis. The result of allergen exposure is a strong Th2-mediated response along with conjunctival mast cell degranulation and eosinophilic infiltration. Oleanolic acid (OA) is natural a triterpene that displays strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties being an active anti-allergic molecule on hypersensitivity reaction models. However, its effect on inflammatory ocular disorders including conjunctivits, has not yet been addressed. Hence, using a Ragweed pollen (RWP)-specific allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) mouse model we study here whether OA could modify responses associated to allergic processes. We found that OA treatment restricted mast cell degranulation and infiltration of eosinophils in conjunctival tissue and decreased allergen-specific Igs levels in EAC mice. Th2-type cytokines, secreted phospholipase A2 type-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and chemokines levels were also significantly diminished in the conjunctiva and serum of OA-treated EAC mice. Moreover, OA treatment also suppressed RWP-specific T-cell proliferation. In vitro studies, on relevant cells of the allergic process, revealed that OA reduced the proliferative and migratory response, as well as the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators on EoL-1 eosinophils and RBL-2H3 mast cells exposed to allergic and/or crucial inflammatory stimuli such as RWP, sPLA2-IIA or eotaxin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the beneficial activity of OA in ocular allergic processes and may provide a new intervention strategy and potential therapy for allergic diseases. PMID:24699261

  1. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  2. FoxO1 regulates allergic asthmatic inflammation through regulating polarization of the macrophage inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sangwoon; Lee, Tae Jin; Reader, Brenda F; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Gyu; Park, Gye Young; Karpurapu, Manjula; Ballinger, Megan N; Qian, Feng; Rusu, Luiza; Chung, Hae Young; Unterman, Terry G; Croce, Carlo M; Christman, John W

    2016-04-05

    Inflammatory monocyte and tissue macrophages influence the initiation, progression, and resolution of type 2 immune responses, and alveolar macrophages are the most prevalent immune-effector cells in the lung. While we were characterizing the M1- or M2-like macrophages in type 2 allergic inflammation, we discovered that FoxO1 is highly expressed in alternatively activated macrophages. Although several studies have been focused on the fundamental role of FoxOs in hematopoietic and immune cells, the exact role that FoxO1 plays in allergic asthmatic inflammation in activated macrophages has not been investigated. Growing evidences indicate that FoxO1 acts as an upstream regulator of IRF4 and could have a role in a specific inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that IRF4 expression regulated by FoxO1 in alveolar macrophages is required for established type 2 immune mediates allergic lung inflammation. Our data indicate that targeted deletion of FoxO1 using FoxO1-selective inhibitor AS1842856 and genetic ablation of FoxO1 in macrophages significantly decreases IRF4 and various M2 macrophage-associated genes, suggesting a mechanism that involves FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in alveolar macrophages that works to polarize macrophages toward established type 2 immune responses. In response to the challenge of DRA (dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus) allergens, macrophage specific FoxO1 overexpression is associated with an accentuation of asthmatic lung inflammation, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of FoxO1 by AS1842856 attenuates the development of asthmatic lung inflammation. Thus, our study identifies a role for FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in the development of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages that contribute to type 2 allergic airway inflammation.

  3. FoxO1 regulates allergic asthmatic inflammation through regulating polarization of the macrophage inflammatory phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sangwoon; Lee, Tae Jin; Reader, Brenda F.; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Yong Gyu; Park, Gye Young; Karpurapu, Manjula; Ballinger, Megan N.; Qian, Feng; Rusu, Luiza; Chung, Hae Young; Unterman, Terry G.; Croce, Carlo M.; Christman, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory monocyte and tissue macrophages influence the initiation, progression, and resolution of type 2 immune responses, and alveolar macrophages are the most prevalent immune-effector cells in the lung. While we were characterizing the M1- or M2-like macrophages in type 2 allergic inflammation, we discovered that FoxO1 is highly expressed in alternatively activated macrophages. Although several studies have been focused on the fundamental role of FoxOs in hematopoietic and immune cells, the exact role that FoxO1 plays in allergic asthmatic inflammation in activated macrophages has not been investigated. Growing evidences indicate that FoxO1 acts as an upstream regulator of IRF4 and could have a role in a specific inflammatory phenotype of macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that IRF4 expression regulated by FoxO1 in alveolar macrophages is required for established type 2 immune mediates allergic lung inflammation. Our data indicate that targeted deletion of FoxO1 using FoxO1-selective inhibitor AS1842856 and genetic ablation of FoxO1 in macrophages significantly decreases IRF4 and various M2 macrophage-associated genes, suggesting a mechanism that involves FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in alveolar macrophages that works to polarize macrophages toward established type 2 immune responses. In response to the challenge of DRA (dust mite, ragweed, and Aspergillus) allergens, macrophage specific FoxO1 overexpression is associated with an accentuation of asthmatic lung inflammation, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of FoxO1 by AS1842856 attenuates the development of asthmatic lung inflammation. Thus, our study identifies a role for FoxO1-IRF4 signaling in the development of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages that contribute to type 2 allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27007158

  4. Influence of subcutaneous specific immunotherapy on drug costs in children suffering from allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment attenuating the progression of allergic asthma. To date, there is a lack of studies investigating the economic consequences of SCIT on health care expenditures. Methods A health-economic piggy-back analysis of SCIT was conducted based on a RCT that enrolled 65 children and adolescents with allergic asthma. Patients were allocated into two groups: A group receiving SCIT with a high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite preparation plus asthma medication and a control group receiving only asthma medication. For both groups asthma control was achieved before the start of the SCIT treatment and was maintained during the study. Both, costs and cost-effectiveness of SCIT with the high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite preparation were investigated based on total medication costs, incremental medication costs and treatment effects (measured as lung function), respectively. A bootstrap analysis was performed to validate the results. Results A steady decline in medication costs could be observed in the SCIT group one year after treatment start compared to the control group. This cost trend became statistically significant 3 years after SCIT started. The calculated potential savings in the SCIT group correlated with an improved lung function. The distribution of the bootstrap results revealed that the probability of SCIT having a superior effectiveness compared to the control group is around 90%. Conclusion SCIT with a high-dose hypoallergenic preparation received by children and adolescents suffering from mite induced allergic asthma reduces the allergic medication intake and has cost-saving effects. Additional costs associated with SCIT may be completely compensated by drug cost savings 4 years after end of SCIT. Additionally, SCIT is superior compared to routine care as measured by the lung function that improved in SCIT-treated patients. Trial registration: (EudraCT no. 2004 – 003892 – 35

  5. Novel basophil- or eosinophil-depleted mouse models for functional analyses of allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kunie; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Kohno, Kenji; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Yonekawa, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Basophils and eosinophils play important roles in various host defense mechanisms but also act as harmful effectors in allergic disorders. We generated novel basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models by introducing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor gene under the control of the mouse CD203c and the eosinophil peroxidase promoter, respectively, to study the critical roles of these cells in the immunological response. These mice exhibited selective depletion of the target cells upon DT administration. In the basophil-depletion model, DT administration attenuated a drop in body temperature in IgG-mediated systemic anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner and almost completely abolished the development of ear swelling in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI), a typical skin swelling reaction with massive eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, in the eosinophil-depletion model, DT administration ameliorated the ear swelling in IgE-CAI whether DT was administered before, simultaneously, or after, antigen challenge, with significantly lower numbers of eosinophils infiltrating into the swelling site. These results confirm that basophils and eosinophils act as the initiator and the effector, respectively, in IgE-CAI. In addition, antibody array analysis suggested that eotaxin-2 is a principal chemokine that attracts proinflammatory cells, leading to chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, the two mouse models established in this study are potentially useful and powerful tools for studying the in vivo roles of basophils and eosinophils. The combination of basophil- and eosinophil-depletion mouse models provides a new approach to understanding the complicated mechanism of allergic inflammation in conditions such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.

  6. Temporal Changes in Glutaredoxin 1 and Protein S-Glutathionylation in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Kanako; Nagai, Katsura; Suzuki, Masaru; Inomata, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, involving oxidative stress. Upon oxidative stress, glutathione covalently binds to protein thiols to protect them against irreversible oxidation. This posttranslational modification, known as protein S-glutathionylation, can be reversed by glutaredoxin 1 (Glrx1) under physiological condition. Glrx1 is known to increase in the lung tissues of a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. However, the temporal relationship between levels of Glrx1, protein S-glutathionylation, and glutathione in the lungs with allergic airway inflammation is not clearly understood. Methods BALB/c mice received 3 aerosol challenges with ovalbumin (OVA) following sensitization to OVA. They were sacrificed at 6, 24, 48, or 72 h, or 8 days (5 mice per group), and the levels of Glrx1, protein S-glutathionylation, glutathione, and 25 cytokines/chemokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and/or lung tissue. Results Levels of Glrx1 in BALF were significantly elevated in the OVA 6 h (final challenge) group compared to those in the control, with concurrent increases in protein S-glutathionylation levels in the lungs, as well as total glutathione (reduced and oxidized) and oxidized glutathione in BALF. Protein S-glutathionylation levels were attenuated at 24 h, with significant increases in Glrx1 levels in lung tissues at 48 and 72 h. Glrx1 in alveolar macrophages was induced after 6 h. Glrx1 levels concomitantly increased with Th2/NF-κB-related cytokines and chemokines in BALF. Conclusions The temporal relationships of Glrx1 with protein S-glutathionylation, glutathione, and cytokines/chemokines were observed as dynamic changes in lungs with allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that Glrx1 and protein–SSG redox status may play important roles in the development of allergic airway inflammation. PMID:25874776

  7. C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion changes the cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; Wang, Chang-lin; Cui, Yun; Fan, Ying-zhe; Liu, Jing; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Hong-mei; Wang, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Endomorphin1-ol (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-ol, EM1-ol) and endomorphin2-ol (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-ol, EM2-ol), with C-terminal alcohol (-ol) containing, have been shown to exhibit higher affinity and lower intrinsic efficacy in vitro than endomorphins. In the present study, in order to investigate the alterations of systemic hemodynamic effects induced by C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion, responses to intravenous (i.v.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of EM1-ol, EM2-ol and their parents were compared in the system arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats. Both EM1-ol and EM2-ol induced dose-related decrease in SAP and HR when injected in doses of 3-100 nmol/kg, i.v. In terms of relative vasodepressor activity, it is interesting to note that EM2-ol was more potent than endomorphin2 [the dose of 25% decrease in SAP (DD25) = 6.01+/-3.19 and 13.99+/-1.56 nmol/kg, i.v., respectively] at a time when responses to EM1-ol were less potent than endomorphin1. Moreover, decreases in SAP in response to EM1-ol and EM2-ol were reduced by naloxone, atropine sulfate, L-NAME and bilateral vagotomy. It indicated that the vasodepressor responses were possibly mediated by a naloxone-sensitive, nitric oxide release, vagus-activated mechanism. It is noteworthy that i.c.v. injections of -ol derivatives produced dose-related decreases in SAP and HR, which were significantly less potent than endomorphins and were attenuated by naloxone and atropine sulfate. In summary, the results of the present study indicated that the C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion produced different effects on the vasodepressor activity of endomorphin1 and endomorphin2 and endowed EM2-ol distinctive hypotension characters in peripheral (i.v.) and central (i.c.v.) tissues. Moreover, these results provided indirect evidence that amidated C-terminus might play an important role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  9. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  10. Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pawan; Yi, Roslyn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Wang, Nadan; Tang, Francesca; Knight, Morgan J.; Pan, Shi; Oliver, Brian; Deshpande, Deepak A.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma. PMID:28397820

  11. Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Yi, Roslyn; Nayak, Ajay P; Wang, Nadan; Tang, Francesca; Knight, Morgan J; Pan, Shi; Oliver, Brian; Deshpande, Deepak A

    2017-04-11

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

  12. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy–cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m−3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  13. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, T. P.

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy-cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm 3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m -3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  14. IL-27 Is Essential for Suppression of Experimental Allergic Asthma by the TLR7/8 Agonist R848 (Resiquimod)

    PubMed Central

    Jirmo, Adan Chari; Daluege, Kathleen; Happle, Christine; Albrecht, Melanie; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Busse, Mandy; Habener, Anika; Skuljec, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Different models of experimental allergic asthma have shown that the TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848) is a potential inhibitor of type 2 helper cell–driven inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms mediating its therapeutic effects are not fully understood. Using a model of experimental allergic asthma, we show that induction of IL-27 by R848 is critical for the observed ameliorative effects. R848 significantly inhibited all hallmarks of experimental allergic asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and Ag-specific Ig production. Whereas R848 significantly reduced IL-5, IL-13, and IL-17, it induced IFN-γ and IL-27. Neutralization of IL-27 completely reversed the therapeutic effect of R848 in the experimental asthma model, demonstrating dependence of R848-mediated suppression on IL-27. In vitro, R848 induced production of IL-27 by murine alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells and enhanced expression of programmed death–ligand 1, whose expression on monocytes and dendritic cells has been shown to regulate peripheral tolerance in both murine and human studies. Moreover, in vitro IL-27 enhanced secretion of IFN-γ whereas it inhibited IL-5 and IL-13, demonstrating its direct effect on attenuating Th2 responses. Taken together, our study proves that R848-mediated suppression of experimental asthma is dependent on IL-27. These data provide evidence of a central role of IL-27 for the control of Th2-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:27799314

  15. Spiraeoside inhibits mast cells activation and IgE-mediated allergic responses by suppressing phospholipase C-γ-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Seo, Young-Kyo; Park, Sehoon; Park, Soo-Ah; Lim, Seyoung; Lee, Susie; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Choi, Ung-Kyu; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells are responsible for IgE-mediated allergic responses through the secretion of various inflammatory cytokines and mediators. Therefore, the pharmacological regulation of mast cell activation is an important goal in the development of novel anti-allergic drugs. In this study, we found that spiraeoside (SP) inhibits mast cell activation and allergic responses in vivo. SP dose-dependently inhibited the degranulation induced by IgE-antigen (Ag) stimulation in RBL-2H3 mast cells without cytotoxic effects. At the molecular level, SP reduced the Ag-induced phosphorylation and subsequent activation of phospholipase C-γ2 (PLC-γ2). Moreover, SP inhibited the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), linker for activation of T cells (LAT), and downstream MAPKs, such as ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, eventually attenuating expression of TNF-α and IL-4. Finally, we found that SP significantly inhibited IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that SP suppresses IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses by inhibiting Lyn-induced PLC-γ2/MAPK signaling in mast cells.

  16. Prophylactic Supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum 51A Protects Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Exacerbated Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Eduardo; Acetturi, Beatriz G.; Thomas, Andrew M.; Martins, Flaviano dos S.; Crisma, Amanda R.; Murata, Gilson; Braga, Tárcio T.; Camâra, Niels O. S.; Franco, Adriana L. dos S.; Setubal, João C.; Ribeiro, Willian R.; Valduga, Claudete J.; Curi, Rui; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Ferreira, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects more females than males after puberty, and its symptoms and severity in women change during menstruation and menopause. Recently, evidence has demonstrated that interactions among the microbiota, female sex hormones, and immunity are associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. However, no studies have investigated if therapeutic gut microbiota modulation strategies could affect asthma exacerbation during menstruation and menopause. Here we aimed to examine the preventive effects of a probiotic, Bifidobacterium longum 51A, on airway inflammation exacerbation in allergic ovariectomized mice. We first evaluated the gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice 10 days after ovariectomy. Next, we examined whether re-exposure of ovariectomized allergic mice to antigen (ovalbumin) would lead to exacerbation of lung inflammation. Finally, we evaluated the preventive and treatment effect of B. longum 51A on lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Our results showed that whereas ovariectomy caused no alterations in the gut microbiota composition and diversity in this animal model, 10 days after ovariectomy, preventive use administration of B. longum 51A, rather than its use after surgery was capable of attenuate the exacerbated lung inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in ovariectomized allergic mice. This prophylactic effect of B. longum 51A involves acetate production, which led to increased fecal acetate levels and, consequently, increased Treg cells in ovariectomized allergic mice. PMID:28959241

  17. Protease-activated receptor-2 deficient mice have reduced house dust mite-evoked allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J Daan; Van't Veer, Cornelis; Stroo, Ingrid; van der Meer, Anne J; de Vos, Alex F; van der Zee, Jaring S; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is abundantly expressed in the pulmonary compartment. House dust mite (HDM) is a common cause of allergic asthma and contains multiple PAR2 agonistic proteases. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PAR2 in HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. For this, the extent of allergic lung inflammation was studied in wild type (Wt) and PAR2 knockout (KO) mice after repeated airway exposure to HDM. HDM exposure of Wt mice resulted in a profound influx of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and accumulation of eosinophils in lung tissue, which both were strongly reduced in PAR2 KO mice. PAR2 KO mice demonstrated attenuated lung pathology and protein leak in the bronchoalveolar space, accompanied by lower BALF levels of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. This study reveals, for the first time, an important role for PAR2 in allergic lung inflammation induced by the clinically relevant allergens contained in HDM.

  18. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4⁺ cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders.

  19. Syk Regulates Neutrophilic Airway Hyper-Responsiveness in a Chronic Mouse Model of Allergic Airways Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen; Scott, Jeremy A.; Chow, Chung-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation and remodeling. We previously showed that Syk modulates methacholine-induced airways contractility in naïve mice and in mice with allergic airways inflammation. We hypothesize that Syk plays a role in the pathogenesis of AHR; this was evaluated in a chronic 8-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation. Methods We used the Sykflox/flox//rosa26CreERT2 conditional Syk knock-out mice to assess the role of Syk prior to HDM exposure, and treated HDM-sensitized mice with the Syk inhibitor, GSK143, to evaluate its role in established allergic airways inflammation. Respiratory mechanics and methacholine (MCh)-responsiveness were assessed using the flexiVent® system. Lungs underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to isolate inflammatory cells or were frozen for determination of gene expression in tissues. Results MCh-induced AHR was observed following HDM sensitization in the Syk-intact (Sykflox/flox) and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. MCh responsiveness was reduced to control levels in HDM-sensitized Sykdel/del mice and in BALB/c and Sykflox/flox mice treated with GSK143. Both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice mounted appropriate immune responses to HDM, with HDM-specific IgE levels that were comparable to Sykflox/flox and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. HDM-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice, due primarily to decreased neutrophil recruitment. Gene expression analysis of lung tissues revealed that HDM-induced expression of IL-17 and CXCL-1 was significantly attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice. Conclusion Syk inhibitors may play a role in the management of neutrophilic asthma. PMID:28107345

  20. Microwave variable waveguide attenuator.

    PubMed

    Fabeni, P; Mugnai, D; Pazzi, G P; Ranfagni, A

    2008-06-01

    A new type of cutoff attenuator is presented. The attenuator works in the X-band in conditions of almost perfect matching. This means that the phase of the wave, which propagates inside the guide, does not suffer sensible variation in the passage between X- and K(u)-bands. Moreover, the attenuator works directly in the X-band, avoiding the passage between waveguide and cable, thus eliminating spurious effects due to this (double) passage. Experimental results of attenuation and dephasing using a prototype are also presented.

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis in Patients with Respiratory Allergic Symptoms; a Retrospective Study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    MICHAILOPOULOS, Pavlos; ALMALIOTIS, Diamantis; GEORGIADOU, Irini; PAPAKOSTA, Despina; GOUGOULIAS, Kyriakos; GIOULEKA, Paschalina; GIOULEKAS, Dimitrios; SIEMPIS, Thomas; KARAMPATAKIS, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and positive skin prick test (SPT) results in relation to respiratory allergic conditions among patients with symptoms of allergies at a respiratory outpatient clinic. A questionnaire survey of symptoms (i.e., asthma-like, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis symptoms) involving 1522 patients was carried out. The responses of 1242 patients indicated that they had allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, rhinitis, or a combination of these conditions, and 869 of these patients underwent SPTs that assessed responses to 40 allergens. Allergic conjunctivitis was found to be very common (40%, 497 out of 1242 patients) among those with symptoms of allergies. Conjunctivitis was slightly more common among women, while rhinitis was more common among men. Patients with both conjunctivitis and rhinitis were more likely to undergo SPTs, and they had a higher rate of positive SPTs. The coexistence of two or more comorbidities increased the risk of having an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy (based on the SPT results) compared to having each of the conditions alone. In conclusion, allergic conjunctivitis can occur either alone or with asthma and/or rhinitis. It is not always accompanied by rhinitis, but the coexistence of these conditions was the strongest indicator of IgE-mediated allergies. PMID:28428968

  2. Diversity of gut Bifidobacterium species is not altered between allergic and non-allergic French infants.

    PubMed

    Waligora-Dupriet, A J; Campeotto, F; Romero, K; Mangin, I; Rouzaud, G; Ménard, O; Suau, A; Soulaines, P; Nicolis, I; Kapel, N; Dupont, C; Butel, M J

    2011-06-01

    Some clinical studies have suggested a relationship between allergic diseases and gut microbiota. We aimed to study bifidobacterial colonization at species and strain levels in ten allergic French infants included at their first clinical consultation and 20 controls matching for age at sampling, mode of delivery, per partum antibiotics, type of feeding and antibiotics in the first weeks of life. The faecal microbiota was analyzed by culture methods and TTGE. Bifidobacterial species and strains were identified using multiplex PCR and Box-PCR fingerprinting. No differences were observed between groups in the number of colonized infants or in the levels of colonization by the main aerobic and anaerobic genera. All infants were colonized with high levels of Bifidobacterium except for one in each group. One to 5 Bifidobacterium species and 1 to 7 strains were observed per subject independently of allergic status and age at sampling. Our study showed the infants to be colonized by several species and strains, including several strains from the same species. This diversity in Bifidobacterium colonization was not related with the allergic status and showed that the link between Bifidobacterium colonization and allergic diseases is complex and cannot be restricted to the role attributed to Bifidobacterium species.

  3. [New pets, allergens and allergic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Brajon, D; Waton, J; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A

    2014-10-01

    The number of household pets increased greatly during the twentieth century, with the numbers of new pets (NP, i.e. any pet other than cats and dogs) rising especially sharply over the last decade. Contact with such animals, whose owners do not always know how to look after them properly, expose the population to new risks such as trauma, infection and allergy. While the most common allergies are respiratory, allergic skin reactions, both immediate and delayed, may also result from contact with these new allergens. The animal itself or its environment may be the cause. Herein, we review NPs and reports of allergic dermatitis associated with them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Silencing nociceptor neurons reduces allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sébastien; Abdulnour, Raja-Elie E.; Burkett, Patrick R.; Lee, Seungkyu; Cronin, Shane J.F.; Pascal, Maud A.; Laedermann, Cedric; Foster, Simmie L.; Tran, Johnathan V.; Lai, Nicole; Chiu, Isaac M.; Ghasemlou, Nader; DiBiase, Matthew; Roberson, David; Von Hehn, Christian; Agac, Busranour; Haworth, Oliver; Seki, Hiroyuki; Penninger, Josef M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Bean, Bruce P.; Levy, Bruce D.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lung nociceptors initiate cough and bronchoconstriction. To elucidate if these fibers also contribute to allergic airway inflammation we stimulated lung nociceptors with capsaicin and observed increased neuropeptide release and immune cell infiltration. In contrast, ablating Nav1.8+ sensory neurons or silencing them with QX-314, a charged sodium channel inhibitor that enters via large pore ion channels to specifically block nociceptors, substantially reduced ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We also discovered that IL-5, a cytokine produced by activated immune cells, acts directly on nociceptors to induce release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). VIP then stimulates CD4+ and resident innate lymphoid type 2 cells, creating an inflammatory signaling loop that promotes allergic inflammation. Our results indicate that nociceptors amplify pathological adaptive immune responses and that silencing these neurons with QX-314 interrupts this neuro-immune interplay, revealing a potential new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:26119026

  5. Th22 cells in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Eyerich, Kilian; Eyerich, Stefanie

    During the last decade, the field of T cell immunology started to confuse the scientific community. More and more subtypes of T helper cells and their counterparts in the innate immune system are described. We are just at the beginning to understand which specific function the distinct subtypes fulfill. Th22 cells are terminally differentiated and very specialized T helper cells characterized by the secretion of their signature cytokine IL-22 and lack of IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ. The main function of Th22 cells is to protect epithelial barrier organs such as skin and lung, but also to modulate inflamed and injured tissue. This review summarizes our current knowledge on Th22 cells and their function in allergic disease. Cite this as Eyerich K, Eyerich S. Th22 cells in allergic disease. Allergo J Int 2015;24:1-7 DOI: 10.1007/s40629-015-0039-3.

  6. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry.

    PubMed Central

    Huuskonen, M S; Husman, K; Järvisalo, J; Korhonen, O; Kotimaa, M; Kuusela, T; Nordman, H; Zitting, A; Mäntyjärvi, R

    1984-01-01

    A total of 57 subjects who had been exposed to mould dust in the tobacco industry were studied. Their working environment showed exposure to spores of different moulds, and 29 subjects (51%) showed antibodies against one or more of the microbes. Fifteen (26%) had work related respiratory symptoms. Eight (14%) showed slight radiographic pulmonary fibrosis. Spirometry showed a tendency toward restriction and obstruction, especially in small airways. Diffusion capacity was decreased in 18% of the workers. Three clinical cases of typical allergic alveolitis were also found. All this suggests that exposure of spores of different moulds (especially Aspergillus fumigatus) in the manufacture of tobacco products may induce symptoms and signs relating to extrinsic allergic alveolitis. PMID:6318802

  7. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Martin D.; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Recent findings Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Summary Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy. PMID:27184001

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  9. Indoor Allergens and Allergic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Pomés, Anna; Chapman, Martin D; Wünschmann, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the most recent findings on indoor allergens and their impact on allergic diseases. Indoor allergens are present inside buildings (home, work environment, school), and given the chronic nature of the exposures, indoor allergies tend to be associated with the development of asthma. The most common indoor allergens are derived from dust mites, cockroaches, mammals (including wild rodents and pets), and fungi. The advent of molecular biology and proteomics has led to the identification, cloning, and expression of new indoor allergens, which have facilitated research to elucidate their role in allergic diseases. This review is an update on new allergens and their molecular features, together with the most recent reports on their avoidance for allergy prevention and their use for diagnosis and treatment. Research progress on indoor allergens will result in the development of new diagnostic tools and design of coherent strategies for immunotherapy.

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.

  11. [Allergic vascularities with clinical skin manifestations].

    PubMed

    Puissant, A

    1981-01-01

    After describing the cutaneous and histo-pathological symptoms of allergic vasculazities, the author describes: Gougerot's tri-symptomatic disease, its differential diagnoses, and its various aetiologies. The pathology of the latter leads us to consider immune complexes, but our study does not deal with it in detail. Purpura rheumatica produces gammaglobulins A. Urticarial vasculazities may or may not be accompanied by anomalies of the complementary system; they may be transposed auto-immune disorders such as lupus erythematosus; their development is fairly unpredictable., Acute hemorrhagic oedema of the skin of nurslings also has allergic vasculazities at its basis. The author also mentions the transitory state between these different pictures, notably polyarteritis nodosa, granulomatotic pulmonary angitis of Churg and Strauss, and Wegener's granulomatosis.

  12. Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases and Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Diana L.; Wasserman, Stephen I.

    1982-01-01

    Mast cells with their stores of vasoactive and chemotactic mediators are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The cross-linking of receptorbound IgE molecules on the surface of mast cells initiates a complex chain of events, including calcium ion influx, phospholipid methylation and turnover and cyclic nucleotide metabolism, ultimately resulting in the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. These mast cell mediators are important in smooth muscle reactivity, in the recruitment of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes and in the generation of secondary chemical mediators. Histologic evidence of mast cell degranulation, biochemical evidence of mast cell mediators in blood and tissues and clinical evidence of signs and symptoms reproducible by these mediators have strongly supported the crucial role of mast cells in asthma, urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis and mastocytosis. Because of their unique location at host environment interfaces, mast cells may both participate in allergic diseases and promote homeostasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6293204

  13. [Bird fancier's lung--an allergic alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Al-Azawy, Kahtan; Gulsvik, Amund; Ruud, Arild

    2005-05-19

    Bird fancier's lung is globally the second most frequent cause of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. For many years, the patient had influenza-like symptoms and developed progressing pulmonary fibrosis. Over a period of 10 years she had been exposed to up to 43 birds in the house at any one time and serum precipitates against avian proteins had been found. After sanitation of the house of birds and avian proteins, the pulmonary function has not deteriorated further in 5 years. A thorough environmental history is essential in the diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis; at an earlier stage it would have made us think about this possible etiological factor. This could have prevented the development of permanent pulmonary fibrosis if the patient had been advised to avoid further exposure to antigens. There should be greater awareness of this disease among general practitioners as well as among chest consultants in Norway.

  14. Treatment of cockroach allergen asthma model with imatinib attenuates airway responses.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2005-01-01

    In the present study it was determined whether a pharmacologic approach to blocking receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation during allergic airway responses could be beneficial. To examine these responses, allergic mice were given a single oral dose of imatinib at clinically relevant concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg, by oral gavages just before allergen challenge. The reduction in the allergen-induced responses was significant and centered on reducing overall inflammation as well as pulmonary cytokine levels. In particular, the treatment of the mice with imatinib significantly attenuated airway hyperreactivity and peribronchial eosinophil accumulation, and significantly reduced Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 and interleukin-13. In addition, chemokines previously associated with allergen-induced pulmonary disease, CCL2, CCL5, and CCL6, were significantly reduced in the lungs of the imatinib-treated animals. Together these data demonstrate that the pharmacologic inhibitor imatinib may provide a clinically attractive therapy for allergic, asthmatic responses.

  15. Structure based design of 4-(3-aminomethylphenyl)piperidinyl-1-amides: novel, potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitors of betaII tryptase.

    PubMed

    Levell, Julian; Astles, Peter; Eastwood, Paul; Cairns, Jennifer; Houille, Olivier; Aldous, Suzanne; Merriman, Gregory; Whiteley, Brian; Pribish, James; Czekaj, Mark; Liang, Guyan; Maignan, Sebastien; Guilloteau, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Alain; Davidson, Jane; Harrison, Trevor; Morley, Andrew; Watson, Simon; Fenton, Garry; McCarthy, Clive; Romano, Joseph; Mathew, Rose; Engers, Darren; Gardyan, Michael; Sides, Keith; Kwong, Jennifer; Tsay, Joseph; Rebello, Sam; Shen, Liduo; Wang, Jie; Luo, Yongyi; Giardino, Odessa; Lim, Heng-Keang; Smith, Keith; Pauls, Henry

    2005-04-15

    Tryptase is a serine protease found almost exclusively in mast cells. It has trypsin-like specificity, favoring cleavage of substrates with an arginine (or lysine) at the P1 position, and has optimal catalytic activity at neutral pH. Current evidence suggests tryptase beta is the most important form released during mast cell activation in allergic diseases. It is shown to have numerous pro-inflammatory cellular activities in vitro, and in animal models tryptase provokes broncho-constriction and induces a cellular inflammatory infiltrate characteristic of human asthma. Screening of in-house inhibitors of factor Xa (a closely related serine protease) identified beta-amidoester benzamidines as potent inhibitors of recombinant human betaII tryptase. X-ray structure driven template modification and exchange of the benzamidine to optimize potency and pharmacokinetic properties gave selective, potent and orally bioavailable 4-(3-aminomethyl phenyl)piperidinyl-1-amides.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Casey; Bidinger, Jeff; Hivnor, Chad; Hoover, Aaron; Henning, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Cyanoacrylates are widely used as topical skin adhesives in emergency departments, clinics, and operating rooms. We report 4 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) following postsurgical closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. These patients were challenged with a novel method of use testing to confirm sensitivity to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. The popularity of skin adhesives makes this emerging allergen worthy of examination. It is possible that cyanoacrylate allergy currently is underrecognized.

  17. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  18. [Azelastine in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Vakhabova, N T; Bakhritdinova, F A

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of azelastin (eye drops) in allergic conjunctivitis was evaluated. Ophthalmological, specific allergological, bacteriological, and cytological studies were carried out in 3 groups of patients. Group 1 was treated with claritin (orally), group 2 with azelastin (eye drops), and group 3 with both. The treatment was effective in all 3 groups. Regression of the clinical symptoms started earlier in groups 2 and 3 and was observed throughout the entire period of observation.

  19. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [The role of thrombocytes in allergic inflammation].

    PubMed

    Jovisić, Z; Bogić, M; Rasković, S; Perić-Popadić, A

    1998-01-01

    The platelet has traditionally been associated with haemostasis. Participation of platelets in defence mechanisms is presentiment by the knowledge that primary haemostasis may be phylogenetic vestige retained from the behaviour of primitive leukocytes. Platelets have the ability to undergo shape change with pseudopod formation, chemotaxis, diapedesis, and phagocytose. Platelets contain a wide range highly potent inflammatory factors that are capable of inducing or augmenting certain inflammatory responses. Different surface molecules have been detected on the plasma membrane, highlight the platelets ability to bind a variety of biologic surfaces, including those of other cells, resulting in close apposition of platelets and their targets. They can interact with parasites, viruses and bacteria. Studies from several groups suggest an important role of the platelet in allergic processes. Platelets possess receptor for immunoglobulin E. Numerous clinical reports are describing the modification of biologic activity of platelets from allergic patients as compared to healthy subjects. The incidence of abnormal platelet responsiveness is in higher among patients having high serum IgE titres. Platelet depletion decreased the anaphylactic response and protects against the lethal consequences of the antigen provocation. Evidence now exists in support of primary role of the platelet in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Platelets can participate in allergic asthma by acting as inflammatory cells, by releasing spasmogens and by interacting with other inflammatory cells. Thrombocytopenia and the increased plasma levels of platelet-derived markers occurred in parallel with bronchoconstriction induced by antigen provocation of allergic astmatics. Platelet depletion inhibits the ability of antigen to induce late onset airways obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Platelet apheresis in human resulted in a positive clinical effect. Platelets respond to aspirin or other

  1. Semi-catalytic reduction of secondary amides to imines and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2014-06-21

    Secondary amides can be reduced by silane HSiMe2Ph into imines and aldehydes by a two-stage process involving prior conversion of amides into iminoyl chlorides followed by catalytic reduction mediated by the ruthenium complex [Cp(i-Pr3P)Ru(NCCH3)2]PF6 (1). Alkyl and aryl amides bearing halogen, ketone, and ester groups were converted with moderate to good yields under mild reaction conditions to the corresponding imines and aldehydes. This procedure does not work for substrates bearing the nitro-group and fails for heteroaromatic amides. In the case of cyano substituted amides, the cyano group is reduced to imine.

  2. Montelukast in the management of allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Jaime A; Marshall, Gailen D

    2007-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is the most common atopic disorder seen in the outpatient clinic setting diagnosed by history, physical exam and objective testing. According to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document, it is classified by chronicity (intermittent or persistent), and severity which is based on symptoms and quality of life (mild, or moderate/severe). It has enormous socioeconomic costs and significant reduction in quality of life. Allergen avoidance should be implemented, particularly in children, to reduce level of exposure; unfortunately efforts are often inadequate. Montelukast, a novel medication, is an antagonist to the leukotriene receptor. It is nonsedating, dosed once daily, and has a safety profile similar in adults and children with approval down to 6 months of age. A review of the literature undoubtedly establishes montelukast as a viable alternative for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Its benefits are equivalent to antihistamines, when used as monotherapy, but less than intranasal corticosteroids. The addition of an antihistamine to montelukast does appear to have added benefits and at times is reported to be equivalent to intranasal corticosteroids. PMID:18360641

  3. The cost of treating allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Stempel, David A; Woolf, Roger

    2002-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a high-cost, high-prevalence disease. In the year 2000, over $6 billion was spent on prescription medications to treat this illness. Although it is not associated with severe morbidity and mortality, allergic rhinitis has a major effect on the quality of life of the more than 50 million Americans with this illness. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) and nonsedating antihistamines (NSAH) are the most common prescription medications for this disease. INCS are recognized as the most effective treatment regimen for chronic symptoms. NSAH are perceived as important in the treatment of patients with mild disease, or as add-on therapy to INCS. When the literature is reviewed, the INCS produce the greatest decrease in total nasal symptom scores, the largest effect size, when compared with NSAH. Both classes of medications produce similar effects on concurrent allergic conjunctivitis. Further recent studies indicate that the INCS are also superior when used on an as-needed basis, and that there is little clinical benefit from the addition of loratadine to intranasal fluticasone. INCS have lower average wholesale prices as a class than the NSAH. Since the INCS are the dominant medication in efficacy studies and cost less, cost-effectiveness studies always favor intranasal corticosteroids.

  4. Voice change in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Millqvist, Eva; Bende, Mats; Brynnel, Moa; Johansson, Inger; Kappel, Sofi; Ohlsson, Ann-Christine

    2008-07-01

    Voice problems are seldom reported in pollen allergy, although the allergic reaction involves the entire airways. The objective of this study was to investigate voice dysfunction during the pollen season in patients with allergic rhinitis. Thirty patients with verified birch pollen allergy and 30 controls were investigated twice, during the pollen season and outside the pollen season. Both times they scored respiratory and voice symptoms, the latter with the validated questionnaire Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and performed standardized voice recordings. These recordings were analyzed in a controlled manner by a professional voice therapist. During the allergy season, patients reported more respiratory and voice symptoms compared with controls. Those with blinded scored voice dysfunction scored their voice quality during springtime as 31 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 20-42 mm), compared with 13 mm (95% CI 6-21 mm for participants without voice dysfunction (P<0.01). Furthermore, the group with experienced voice dysfunction scored significantly higher on the VHI in the functional and physical domains and in the total VHI score. Although voice problems during the pollen season are rarely discussed, in allergic rhinitis the larynx may also be involved. These findings support that some patients experience voice change, an experience which can be objectively confirmed.

  5. Allergic respiratory diseases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bom, A Todo; Pinto, A Mota

    2009-11-01

    In industrialized countries there has been a significant increase in life expectancy, but chronic diseases are still important causes of death and disability in the elderly. Individuals over 65 years of age have a decrease in organic functions and lungs can lose more than 40% of their capacity. Although asthma and allergic rhinitis are more common in young people their prevalence in the elderly is increasing and the mortality reported in these patients is high. Asthmatic airways show an accumulation of activated eosinophils and lymphocytes determining structural changes of the bronchi. Local allergic inflammation, changes in T cell phenotypes and in apoptosis contribute to systemic inflammation. An increased risk of respiratory infections and neoplasic diseases has been recognized. These patients have increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic diseases are associated with an impairment of lung function and with systemic inflammation. Summing up older asthmatic patients have an increased risk to premature disability and death. A proper therapeutic approach to asthma can minimize this evolution. To identify the triggers is an important goal that allows reducing medication needs. Corticosteroids dampen allergic inflammation; therefore, they are the first choice in the treatment of patients with persistent asthma and rhinitis. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have reduced side effects and can be used if necessary. The elderly may have difficult access to health care. They should be educated about their disease and receive a written treatment plan. This information improves the quality of life, socialization and disease outcome in older people.

  6. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    PubMed

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  9. Curcumin suppresses ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang; Choi, Seong Hyun; Choi, Jin A.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) from an allergen-driven T helper 2 (Th2) response is characterized by conjunctival eosinophilic infiltration. Because curcumin has shown anti-allergic activity in an asthma and contact dermatitis laboratory models, we examined whether administration of curcumin could affect the severity of AC and modify the immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) allergen in an experimental AC model. Methods Mice were challenged with two doses of topical OVA via the conjunctival sac after systemic sensitization with OVA in aluminum hydroxide (ALUM). Curcumin was administered 1 h before OVA challenge. Several indicators for allergy such as serum immunoglubulin E (IgE) antibodies production, eosinophil infiltration into the conjunctiva and Th2 cytokine production were evaluated in mice with or without curcumin treatment. Results Mice challenged with OVA via the conjunctival sac following systemic sensitization with OVA in ALUM had severe AC. Curcumin administration markedly suppressed IgE-mediated and eosinophil-dependent conjunctival inflammation. In addition, mice administered curcumin had less interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) (Th2 type cytokine) production in conjunctiva, spleen, and cervical lymph nodes than mice in the non-curcumin-administered group. OVA challenge resulted in activation of the production of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and curcumin treatment inhibited iNOS production in the conjunctiva. Conclusions We believe our findings are the first to demonstrate that curcumin treatment suppresses allergic conjunctival inflammation in an experimental AC model. PMID:22876123

  10. Environmental control and immunotherapy for allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Evans, R

    1992-09-01

    Treatment for allergic disease can help prevent recurrent sinusitis. Removal of carpeting and feather bedding and use of acaricides can significantly improve symptoms caused by house dust mites or animal dander. To kill mites, wash-water temperature must be at least 58 degrees C. Patients with severe allergy should use an air-filtering vacuum cleaner and an air cleaner with a HEPA filter. Humidity should be kept at under 50%. If other measures fail, pets may have to be removed. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is effective for patients with anaphylactic reactions to insect stings, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma. It is ineffective for food allergy or nonallergic rhinitis or asthma. In children, immunotherapy is reserved for generalized life-threatening airway reactions. Relative indications for immunotherapy include inability to avoid the allergen and poor results or significant side effects from pharmacologic treatment. Efficacy depends on dosage, duration of treatment, and allergen selection. Low initial doses are increased at a set rate until the dose induces appropriate antibody response without significant reactions. Patients should be much improved or symptom-free for 1 to 2 years before immunotherapy is discontinued. Pollen, house dust mite, cat, and some mold spore extracts reduce symptoms and sensitivity to nasal or bronchial provocation. When used appropriately, immunotherapy is safe and effective.

  11. Pulmonary mycotic infections; allergic and immunologic factors.

    PubMed

    KEENEY, E L

    1954-12-01

    The mechanisms of immunity and allergy, at play in every infectious disease, must be comprehended before the pathogenesis of an infection can be appreciated.Immunity, allergy and serology are concerned with specific antigen-antibody reactions. In immunity the principal concern is with the final disposition of antigen (agglutination, lysis, and phagocytosis). In allergy attention is focused upon tissue damage resulting from antigen-antibody union. In serology interest is devoted to the presence of antibody as evaluated by certain visible in vitro reactions-precipitin, agglutination, opsonization and complement fixation tests. There are two types of allergic reaction-the immediate or anaphylactic type and the delayed type or the allergic disease of infection. Neither kind takes part in the mechanism of immunity. At this time the allergic antibody and the immune antibody must be considered as two different and distinct antibodies. Skin and serologic tests are important diagnostic aids in certain pulmonary mycotic infections-for example, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Clinical expressions of allergy may appear in coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and moniliasis. Pulmonary mycoses are divided into three groups, that is, the endogenous mycoses (actinomycosis, moniliasis, geotrichosis), the endogenous-exogenous mycoses (cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis) and the exogenous mycoses (nocardiosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, North American blastomycosis). The diagnosis and treatment of the important mycotic infections that invade lung tissue are discussed.

  12. Role of Galectins in Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezer, Umut C; Ozdemir, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy; with antihistamines, anti-leukotrienes, corticosteroids and bronchodilators.as well as monoclonal antibodies; and allergen specific immunotherapy stand as confirmed approaches for the management of allergic disorders as asthma, allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergies and anaphylaxis. Galectins are members of animal lectin protein family, with binding specificity for β-galactoside sugars. These highly conserved proteins are known to be expressed in various effector cells of the immune system, exert immuno-regulatory activities, and enroll in tissue inflammation and regulation of immune homeostasis. This review aims to explain the galectin family and influence of galectins in the immune mechanisms of allergic disorders. Galectins have multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Intense research in the field of immunology related with galectins have given rise to several patent applications. Those, increasing in vivo efficacy of galectins for therapeutic applications, utilizing galectins for immune stimulation and prolongation of immune responses, utilization of them as disease markers are pioneers. As immune cells can be targeted by galectins, cells containing these molecules can be used for immune intervention. Regulation of cytokine productions by immune cells as IL-1β and IL-10 as well as dendritic cell functions by galectins may be efficient in limitation of some immune-mediated disorders. Taken all together, better learning of galectin biology together with detailed revealing of galectin-immune system interactions have great potential for immune interventions targeting allergy-related disorders.

  13. Child with Allergies or Allergic Reactions.

    PubMed

    A, Reshma; Baranwal, Arun K

    2017-09-11

    Incidence of allergic disorders in children has increased significantly over time due to environmental and life-style changes. These include allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies, bronchial asthma, drug allergies, insect bites and anaphylaxis; most being IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to common environmental and food antigens. Although most of them are self-limiting, they may adversely affect the quality of life and sometimes become life-threatening as well. These conditions are more likely to get underestimated, or over-diagnosed as recurrent infections. Hence a careful history and physical examination by attending pediatrician are necessary to differentiate it from infections. Diagnostic tests have limited value in identifying the inciting allergen. Management includes avoidance of the inciting allergens (if known), combined with symptomatic relief provided by a combination of pharmacological agents, e.g., antihistamines, anticholinergics, chromones, leukotriene-modifying agents, topical and systemic steroids. Further, specialist consultation needs to be sought, for children with recurrent or persistent symptoms. The scope of this manuscript does not include bronchial asthma.

  14. Targeting Mast Cells and Basophils with Anti-FcεRIα Fab-Conjugated Celastrol-Loaded Micelles Suppresses Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Xianyang; Lin, Lihui; Xie, Guogang; Cui, Zelin; Li, Jia; Wang, Yuping; Li, Li

    2015-12-01

    Mast cells and basophils are effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Targeted elimination of these cells may be a promising strategy for the treatment of allergic disorders. Our present study aims at targeted delivery of anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles toward FcεRIα receptors expressed on mast cells and basophils to have enhanced anti-allergic effect. To achieve this aim, we prepared celastrol-loaded (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, Pluronic) polymeric nanomicelles using thin-film hydration method. The anti-FcεRIα Fab Fragment was then conjugated to carboxyl groups on drug-loaded micelles via EDC amidation reaction. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles revealed uniform particle size (93.43 ± 12.93 nm) with high loading percentage (21.2 ± 1.5% w/w). The image of micelles showed oval and rod like. The anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake and cytotoxity toward target KU812 cells than non-conjugated micelles in vitro. Furthermore, diffusion of the drug into the cells allowed an efficient induction of cell apoptosis. In mouse model of allergic asthma, treatment with anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated micelles increased lung accumulation of micelles, and significantly reduced OVA-sIgE, histamine and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α) levels, eosinophils infiltration and mucus production. In addition, in mouse model of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles treatment significantly decreased extravasated evan's in the ear. These results indicate that anti-FcεRIα Fab-conjugated celastrol-loaded micelles can target and selectively kill mast cells and basophils which express FcεRIα, and may be efficient reagents for the treatment of allergic disorders and mast cell related diseases.

  15. Amide I'-II' 2D IR spectroscopy provides enhanced protein secondary structural sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Deflores, Lauren P; Ganim, Ziad; Nicodemus, Rebecca A; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2009-03-11

    We demonstrate how multimode 2D IR spectroscopy of the protein amide I' and II' vibrations can be used to distinguish protein secondary structure. Polarization-dependent amide I'-II' 2D IR experiments on poly-l-lysine in the beta-sheet, alpha-helix, and random coil conformations show that a combination of amide I' and II' diagonal and cross peaks can effectively distinguish between secondary structural content, where amide I' infrared spectroscopy alone cannot. The enhanced sensitivity arises from frequency and amplitude correlations between amide II' and amide I' spectra that reflect the symmetry of secondary structures. 2D IR surfaces are used to parametrize an excitonic model for the amide I'-II' manifold suitable to predict protein amide I'-II' spectra. This model reveals that the dominant vibrational interaction contributing to this sensitivity is a combination of negative amide II'-II' through-bond coupling and amide I'-II' coupling within the peptide unit. The empirically determined amide II'-II' couplings do not significantly vary with secondary structure: -8.5 cm(-1) for the beta sheet, -8.7 cm(-1) for the alpha helix, and -5 cm(-1) for the coil.

  16. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Je, In-Gyu; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  17. [Allergic reactions caused by latex: warning to health workers].

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Lopes, M H

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a bibliographic survey is made of all articles, published during the last few years, dealing with allergic reactions to latex. The first article on allergic reactions associated with latex was published in Britain, in 1979. Since then, the number of cases reported have increased (Barton, 1993). Type I allergic reaction (immediate reaction) and Type IV (delayed reaction) are part of the latex allergic process (Steelman, 1995). Contact allergy is due to inadequate washing during manufacture, which results in the retention of water-soluble proteins that cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. A wide variety of allergic reactions that vary from contact dermatitis to anaphylatic shock are described in literature. These finding show that a health team must know the probable implications of latex allergy.

  18. Risk of allergic reactions to wine, in milk, egg and fish-allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European legislators and wine producers still debate on the requirement for labeling of wines fined with potentially allergenic food proteins (casein, egg white or fish-derived isinglass). We investigated whether wines fined with known concentrations of these proteins have the potential to provoke clinical allergic reactions in relevant patients. Methods In-house wines were produced for the study, fined with different concentrations of casein (n = 7), egg albumin (n = 1) and isinglass (n = 3). ELISA and PCR kits specific for the respective proteins were used to identify the fining agents. Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests were performed in patients with confirmed IgE-mediated relevant food allergies (n = 24). A wine consumption questionnaire and detailed history on possible reactions to wine was obtained in a multinational cohort of milk, egg or fish allergic patients (n = 53) and patients allergic to irrelevant foods as controls (n = 13). Results Fining agents were not detectable in wines with the available laboratory methods. Nevertheless, positive skin prick test reactions and basophil activation to the relevant wines were observed in the majority of patients with allergy to milk, egg or fish, correlating with the concentration of the fining agent. Among patients consuming wine, reported reactions were few and mild and similar with the ones reported from the control group. Conclusion Casein, isinglass or egg, remaining in traces in wine after fining, present a very low risk for the respective food allergic consumers. Physician and patient awareness campaigns may be more suitable than generalized labeling to address this issue, as the latter may have negative impact on both non-allergic and allergic consumers. PMID:22409883

  19. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.