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Sample records for ammodytes marinus recruitment

  1. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using

  2. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Ralf; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of Hyperoplus lanceolatus from Hyperoplus immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that Ammodytes tobianus differs from Ammodytes marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes) failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common

  3. Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes.

  4. Identification of proteins interacting with ammodytoxins in Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom by immuno-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Kurtović, Tihana; Kovačič, Lidija; Križaj, Igor; Barut, Miloš; Lang Balija, Maja; Allmaier, Günter; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Halassy, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform their function, proteins frequently interact with other proteins. Various methods are used to reveal protein interacting partners, and affinity chromatography is one of them. Snake venom is composed mostly of proteins, and various protein complexes in the venom have been found to exhibit higher toxicity levels than respective components separately. Complexes can modulate envenomation activity of a venom and/or potentiate its effect. Our previous data indicate that the most toxic components of the Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa) venom isolated so far-ammodytoxins (Atxs)-are contributing to the venom's toxicity only moderately; therefore, we aimed to explore whether they have some interacting partner(s) potentiating toxicity. For screening of possible interactions, immuno-affinity chromatography combined with identification by mass spectrometry was used. Various chemistries (epoxy, carbonyldiimidazole, ethylenediamine) as well as protein G functionality were used to immobilize antibodies on monolith support, a Convective Interaction Media disk. Monoliths have been demonstrated to better suit the separation of large biomolecules. Using such approach, several proteins were indicated as potential Atx-binding proteins. Among these, the interaction of Atxs with a Kunitz-type inhibitor was confirmed by far-Western dot-blot and surface plasmon resonance measurement. It can be concluded that affinity chromatography on monolithic columns combined with mass spectrometry identification is a successful approach for screening of protein interactions and it resulted with detection of the interaction of Atx with Kunitz-type inhibitor in Vaa venom for the first time.

  5. Hemorrhagin VaH4, a covalent heterodimeric P-III metalloproteinase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes with a potential antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Sajevic, Tamara; Kovačič, Lidija; Pungerčar, Jože; Lang Balija, Maja; Halassy, Beata; Trampuš Bakija, Alenka; Križaj, Igor

    2014-01-01

    In the envenomation caused by a bite of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, the most venomous snake in Europe, hemorrhage is usually the most severe consequence in man. Identifying and understanding the hemorrhagic components of its venom is therefore particularly important in optimizing medical treatment of patients. We describe a novel high molecular mass hemorrhagin, VaH4. The isolated molecule is a covalent dimer of two homologous subunits, VaH4-A and VaH4-B. Complete structural characterization of A and partial characterization of B revealed that both belong to the P-III class of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), comprising a metalloproteinase, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich domain. However, neither VaH4-A nor VaH4-B possess the Cys174 involved in the inter-subunit disulphide bond of P-III SVMPs. A three-dimensional model of the VaH4 dimer suggests that Cys132 serves this function. This implies that dimers in the P-III class of SVMPs can be formed either between their Cys132 or Cys174 residues. The proteolytic activity and stability of VaH4 depend on Zn²⁺ and Ca²⁺ ions and the presence of glycosaminoglycans, which indicates physiological interaction of VaH4 with the latter element of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The molecular mass of VaH4, determined by MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry, is 110.2 kDa. N-deglycosylation reduced the mass of each monomer by 8.7 kDa. The two possible N-glycosylation sites in VaH4-A are located at completely different positions from those in homodimeric P-IIIc VaH3 from the same venom, however, without any evident functional implications. The hemorrhagic activity of this slightly acidic SVMP is ascribed to its hydrolysis of components of the ECM, particularly fibronectin and nidogen, and of some blood coagulation proteins, in particular the α-chain of fibrinogen. VaH4 is also significant medically as we found it cytotoxic against cancer cells and due to its substantial sequence similarity to ADAM/ADAMTS family of

  6. A Single Dose of ViperfavTM May Be Inadequate for Vipera ammodytes Snake Bite: A Case Report and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtović, Tihana; Brvar, Miran; Grenc, Damjan; Lang Balija, Maja; Križaj, Igor; Halassy, Beata

    2016-01-01

    ViperfavTM is a commercial F(ab’)2 antivenom prepared against European vipers venom. It is safe and effective for treating envenomation caused by Vipera aspis and Vipera berus. Therapeutic efficacy for treating Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) envenoming has not been yet described, although protective efficacy has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. We report on a 32-year-old man bitten by V. a. ammodytes who was treated with Viperfav™. Viperfav™ promptly reduced local extension and improved systemic pathological signs, but 24 h after the incident a recurrence of thrombocytopenia occurred despite a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with systemic clearance (1.64 (mL·h−1)·kg−1) and elimination half-life (97 h) among the highest ever reported. The recommended dose of Viperfav™ for V. aspis and V. berus bites may be inadequate for serious V. a. ammodytes envenomations. Following V. a. ammodytes bite, serial blood counts and coagulation profiles should be performed to help guide Viperfav™ treatment, along with supplemental administration as indicated. PMID:27548220

  7. Morphology and Round Body Formation in Vibrio marinus

    PubMed Central

    Felter, R. A.; Colwell, R. R.; Chapman, G. B.

    1969-01-01

    The morphology of Vibrio marinus MP-1 was studied by phase and electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the vibrio form of V. marinus was found to be typically gram-negative with a trilaminar plasma membrane and cell wall. The coccoid or round bodies noted in otherwise pure cultures of V. marinus were frequently found in early and late stationary phase of growth. The round bodies in ultrathin section were found to contain at least one, and often three or four, cell units. Three types of round bodies were observed in ultrathin section, each differing in size and behavior: “spherules,” “spheres” or the “round body,” and “giant cells” or “macrospheres.” The round bodies appeared to be associated with, or to result from, the constrictive cell division of V. marinus. Images PMID:4895849

  8. Development of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.

    1980-01-01

    Larvicides are used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to sea lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of sea lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.

  9. Geographic distribution and environmental control of vertebral count in Ammodytes spp. along the northern Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, J; Yoshinaga, T; Tanaka, C; Ishii, K

    2017-03-01

    To examine species composition and population structures in sand lance (Ammodytidae) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, genetic analysis were carried out for specimens collected in 2014 from Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Ishinomaki Bay, Miyagi, off Soma, Fukushima and Ise-Mikawa Bays, Aichi. The samples consisted of Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian, of which the latter is a recently described species. Neither species exhibited significant genetic differences among localities. Only A. japonicus was found in the most southern locality at Aichi, but it decreased northward to <90% in Miyagi and Fukushima and the two species occurred almost evenly in Iwate suggesting a latitudinal cline in their species composition along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, off Tohoku. The vertebral counts differed between A. japonicus and A. heian with modes of 65 and 63, respectively, but this characteristic did not differ significantly within a locality (Iwate). This suggests that the vertebral counts of Ammodytes spp. in Japanese waters are probably strongly determined by the environment than by a species-specific genetic trait.

  10. Predicting the variation in Echinogammarus marinus at its southernmost limits under global warming scenarios: can the sex-ratio make a difference?

    PubMed

    Guerra, Alexandra; Leite, Nuno; Marques, João Carlos; Ford, Alex T; Martins, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental parameters that constrain the distribution of a species at its latitudinal extremes is critical for predicting how ecosystems react to climate change. Our first aim was to predict the variation in the amphipod populations of Echinogammarus marinus from the southernmost limit of its distribution under global warming scenarios. Our second aim was to test whether sex-ratio fluctuations - a mechanism frequently displayed by amphipods - respond to the variations in populations under altered climate conditions. To achieve these aims, scenarios were run with a validated model of E. marinus populations. Simulations were divided into: phase I - simulation of the effect of climate change on amphipod populations, and phase II - simulation of the effect of climate change on populations with male and female proportions. In both phases, temperature (T), salinity (S) and temperature and salinity (T-S) were tested. Results showed that E. marinus populations are highly sensitive to increases in temperature (>2 °C), which has adverse effects on amphipod recruitment and growth. Results from the climate change scenarios coupled with the sex-ratio fluctuations depended largely on the degree of female bias within population. Temperature increase of 2 °C had less impact on female-biased populations, particularly when conjugated with increases in salinity. Male-biased populations were highly sensitive to any variation in temperature and/or salinity; these populations exhibited a long-term decline in density. Simulations in which temperature increased more than 4 °C led to a continuous decline in the E. marinus population. According to this work, E. marinus populations at their southernmost limit are vulnerable to global warming. We anticipate that in Europe, temperature increases of 2 °C will incite a withdrawal of the population of 5°N from the amphipod species located at southernmost geographical borders. This effect is discussed in relation to the

  11. Phylogeography Study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene Isolation, Temperature and Current Conducted Secondary Contact

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus. PMID:22685527

  12. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, Martin D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus Stetter and Fiala 1986 type strain F1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sun, Hui; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Dalin, Eileen; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Huber, Harald; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Staphylothermus marinus Fiala and Stetter 1986 belongs to the order Desulfurococcales within the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. S. marinus is a hyperthermophilic, sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph. Strain F1 was isolated from geothermally heated sediments at Vulcano, Italy, but S. marinus has also been isolated from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise. We report the complete genome of S. marinus strain F1, the type strain of the species. This is the fifth reported complete genome sequence from the order Desulfurococcales.

  14. Chemosterilization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical, P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), was found in laboratory studies to be an effective sterilant for both sexes of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) when given intraperitoneally at a dosage of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight. A total of 300 normal spawning-run sea lampreys and 300 injected with bisazir were released into the Big Garlic River, Marquette County, Michigan, (a small stream divided into five sections by natural barriers), to determine the effect of bisazir on the nesting and spawning behavior of the adults and on the production of larvae. The lampreys constructed and spawned in 95 nests. Sterile adults showed no abnormal nest building or spawning behavior. Sterile males competed effectively with normal males for females. Egg samples taken from nests indicated that eggs in nests where sterile males spawned with sterile or normal females did not hatch, although some embryonic development occurred. Extensive surveys with electric shockers produced no larvae in stream sections where sterile males spawned, but yielded numerous larvae in sections where normal males spawned with normal females. These findings suggest that the release of sterile males may be an effective tool in an integrated approach to control of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes.

  15. A spatial age-structured model for describing sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.

  16. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  17. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues.

    PubMed

    Imre, I; Di Rocco, R T; Belanger, C F; Brown, G E; Johnson, N S

    2014-05-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  18. Structure-function relationships in the neurotoxin Vipoxin from the venom of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Genov, Nicolay; Nikolov, Peter; Aleksiev, Boris; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Voelter, Wolfgang; Betzel, Christian

    2003-02-01

    The neurotoxic complex Vipoxin is the lethal component of the venom of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis, the most toxic snake in Europe. It is a complex between a toxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2) and a non-toxic and catalytically inactive protein, stabilizing the enzyme and reducing the activity and toxicity. Structure-function relationships in this complex were studied by spectroscopic methods. A good correlation between the ionization behaviour and accessible surface area (ASA) of the tyrosyl residues was observed. In the toxic PLA 2 subunit phenolic groups participate in H-bonding network that stabilizes the catalytically and pharmacologically active conformation. The tryptophan fluorescence decay of Vipoxin is well fitted by two exponentials with lifetimes of 0.1 (54%) and 2.5 (46%) ns. W20P, W31P and W31I are located in the interface between the two subunits and participate in hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the complex. Dissociation of the complex leads to a transition of the tryptophans from hydrophobic to hydrophilic environment, which influences mainly τ2. The longer lifetime is more sensitive to the polarity of the environment. Circular dichroism measurements demonstrate that the two components of the neurotoxin preserve their secondary structure after dissociation of the complex. The results of the spectroscopic studies are in accordance with a mechanism of blockade of transmission across the neuromuscular junctions of the breathing muscles by interaction of a dissociated toxic PLA 2 with a membrane. The loss of toxicity is connected with slight changes in the secondary structure of PLA 2. CD studies also show a substantial contribution of disulfide bonds to the stability of the neurotoxic complex and its components.

  19. Classification of lentic habitat for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvae using a remote seabed classification device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodale, Michael F.; Bronte, Charles R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Adams, Jean V.

    2003-01-01

    Lentic populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are suspected of being a major source of recruitment to parasitic stocks in some areas of the Great Lakes, and methods are needed to estimate habitat and population sizes. A deepwater electroshocker has been used to quantitatively assess larval sea lamprey populations in deepwater areas, however a method has not been developed to efficiently identify the most promising locations to sample in this environment. A remote seabed classification device (RoxAnn™) was used to identify soft substrates in a lentic area where sea lamprey larvae have been found in Batchawana Bay (Ontario) in eastern Lake Superior, and related those substrate types to larval distribution and occurrence. Presence of larvae was significantly related to substrate type, distance from the stream mouth, and slope of the lake bottom. Remote seabed classification would be a useful tool in the Sea Lamprey Control Program to identify the most promising locations to conduct larval surveys in lentic areas.

  20. Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

  1. The Alveolate Perkinsus marinus: Biological Insights from EST Gene Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, has devastated natural and farmed oyster populations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is classified as a member of the Perkinsozoa, a recently established phylum considered close to the ancestor of ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans, and a key taxon for understanding unique adaptations (e.g. parasitism) within the Alveolata. Despite intense parasite pressure, no disease-resistant oysters have been identified and no effective therapies have been developed to date. Results To gain insight into the biological basis of the parasite's virulence and pathogenesis mechanisms, and to identify genes encoding potential targets for intervention, we generated >31,000 5' expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from four trophozoite libraries generated from two P. marinus strains. Trimming and clustering of the sequence tags yielded 7,863 unique sequences, some of which carry a spliced leader. Similarity searches revealed that 55% of these had hits in protein sequence databases, of which 1,729 had their best hit with proteins from the chromalveolates (E-value ≤ 1e-5). Some sequences are similar to those proven to be targets for effective intervention in other protozoan parasites, and include not only proteases, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock proteins, but also those associated with relict plastids, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and methyl erythrithol phosphate pathway components, and those involved in glycan assembly, protein folding/secretion, and parasite-host interactions. Conclusions Our transcriptome analysis of P. marinus, the first for any member of the Perkinsozoa, contributes new insight into its biology and taxonomic position. It provides a very informative, albeit preliminary, glimpse into the expression of genes encoding functionally relevant proteins as potential targets for chemotherapy, and evidence for the presence of a relict

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  3. Identifying subtidal burying habitat of Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Clifford L. K.; Hrynyk, Doug; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Schweigert, Jake

    2013-08-01

    Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), an important prey species for many vertebrate predators in the northeast Pacific, lacks a swim bladder and relies on coarse sand substrates to bury in overnight and during the winter. Surprisingly little information is available describing the spatial distribution and extent of its burying habitat along the British Columbia coast. Thus, a habitat suitability model was developed for Pacific sand lance in the Strait of Georgia that considered information on shallow depths (<80 m), high bottom current speeds (25-63 cm s-1) and coarse sand (0.25-2.0 mm grain diameter). Overall, the model identified 6% of the study domain as suitable burying habitat, with the southern Strait containing the largest burying areas. By-catch data from mid-water trawl and purse seine sets was also used to map the location of pelagic schools of foraging sand lance. The persistent location of large Pacific sand lance by-catches over many years identified key foraging areas adjacent to several burying habitats. The median distance of 88 sand lance schools to coarse sand patches was 2 km; 75% of the schools were found within 4.9 km of coarse sand. The mapping of suitable burying and foraging areas in the Strait of Georgia will assist managers in guarding against anthropogenic activities that might impact the relatively uncommon and patchy habitats of a key coastal food-web species.

  4. IN VITRO KILLING OF PERKINSUS MARINUS BY HEMOCYTES OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...

  5. Determining the Habitat Preference of Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the San Juan Islands, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E.; Greene, H.; Harmsen, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ammodytes hexapterus (Pacific Sand Lance or PSL) is an important forage fish supporting many marine populations, ranging from salmon, harbor seals, and whales. Previous studies have shown PSL to be highly substrate specific (Robards et al., 1999). Sand lance spend time buried in the substrate and come out into the water column to feed. This is due to the lack of swim bladders. If the sand particles are too fine their gills can be clogged (Wright et al., 2000). Little is known about the species sub-tidal habitat and new information regarding habitat preferences in deep water would be beneficial in determining their distribution and abundance. Preliminary examination undertaken in this investigation was limited to three sand wave fields: one, the central San Juan Channel (a known PSL sub-tidal habitat), and two previously un-sampled fields west of Sucia Island and southwest of Lopez Island in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, Washington. Multibeam bathymetric data, subsea video, and sediment analysis show that PSL have occupied the San Juan Channel, which is composed of well-sorted medium grained (~500 μm size) siliciclastic sand. Several sediment samples from in and around the fields were collected and analyzed to determine a grain size distribution of the sediments. The two un-sampled fields examined have an average grain size higher and lower respectively than the San Juan Channel field. The expected results of this study are to determine whether or not the two newly sampled sediment wave fields are potential sub-tidal habitats of PSL.

  6. Acute toxicity, uptake and accumulation kinetics of nickel in an invasive copepod species: Pseudodiaptomus marinus.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiène; Ovaert, Julien; Souissi, Anissa; Ouddane, Baghdad; Souissi, Sami

    2016-02-01

    Pseudodiaptomus marinus is a marine calanoid copepod originating of the Indo-Pacific region, who has successfully colonized new areas and it was recently observed in the European side of the Mediterranean Sea as well as in the North Sea. Actually, many questions were posed about the invasive capacity of this copepod in several non-native ecosystems. In this context, the main aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance and the bioaccumulation of metallic stress in the invasive copepod P. marinus successfully maintained in mass culture at laboratory conditions since 2 years. In order to study the metallic tolerance levels of P. marinus, an emergent trace metal, the nickel, was chosen. First, lethal concentrations determination experiments were done for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to calculated LC50% but also to select a relevant ecological value for the suite of experiments. Then, three types of experiments, using a single concentration of nickel (correspond the 1/3 of 96 h-LC50%) was carried in order to study the toxico-kinetics of nickel in P. marinus. Concerning lethal concentrations, we observed that P. marinus was in the same range of sensitivity compared to other calanoid copepods exposed to nickel in the same standardized experimental conditions. Results showed that the uptake of nickel in P. marinus depends from the pathways of entrance (water of food), but also that Isochrysis galbana, used as a food source, has an important bioaccumulation capacity and a rapid uptake of nickel.

  7. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  8. Vestibular recruitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsemakhov, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibular recruitment is defined through the analysis of several references. It is concluded that vestibular recruitment is an objective phenomenon which manifests itself during the affection of the vestibular receptor and thus serves as a diagnostic tool during affection of the vestibular system.

  9. Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Amy R.

    A practical process for developing or improving student recruitment programs for Catholic schools is presented in this handbook. Planning for and preparing the recruitment program is discussed in the first half of the document. The booklet reviews the process of assessing the school, its program, and its image; identifying the financial, material,…

  10. Consumption and feeding preference of Echinogammarus marinus on two different algae: Fucus vesiculosus and Ulva intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Irene; Leite, Nuno; Constantino, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Echinogammarus marinus constitutes the most abundant amphipod species in Fucus spp. assemblages from many North Atlantic estuaries. However, there are some doubts about the real use of fucoids by the amphipod. Whilst some studies report the ingestion of Fucus vesiculosus by E. marinus, others suggest that the amphipod preference for fucoids is mostly related to sheltering rather than feeding, due to the high phlorotannin content of brown algae. The purpose of the present work was to disentangle this issue by checking the consumption rate and feeding preference of E. marinus on F. vesiculosus, its preferential habitat, and on Ulva intestinalis, a green algae abundant in the Mondego estuary (Western Coast of Portugal) and usually considered as highly palatable for herbivores. In a 2-stage laboratorial setup, fresh disks of the two types of algae were offered to E. marinus for three days. Consumption rates were estimated from differences between algal and animal initial and final fresh weights using a control correction factor, while preference was tested by differences in algal consumption rates when no choice was offered (stage 1) and when the two algae were offered simultaneously (stage 2). Results showed that E. marinus effectively consumed fresh F. vesiculosus in much higher amounts than U. intestinalis and significantly preferred to consume F. vesiculosus over U. intestinalis. Therefore, feeding habits must be one of the factors related to the close association of the amphipod with F. vesiculosus, although other factors may also be involved (e.g. sheltering).

  11. Distribution of ferric iron in larval lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L.

    PubMed

    Hall, S J; Youson, J H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of ferric iron in larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) were investigated using light microscopy and the Prussian blue stain. Animals from various watersheds contained different concentrations of iron, although the sites of deposition were the same for all animals. A major portion of iron is within adipose tissue, while the liver, and cartilage contain predominantly low to trace amounts of iron, respectively. Iron is associated with fibrous connective tissue in several places in the body, and this association may have particular significance in the inner ear. Iron is also located in cells of the meninges. The presence of iron in the epithelial cells of the posterior intestine may reflect elimination of the metal through the extrusion of iron-loaded cells into the intestinal lumen. Iron within mucous cells of the epidermis, suggest elimination of iron during mucous secretion. Iron-loaded cells of bipolar shape are also present in the epidermis, but are particularly prominent around the branchiopore. Low concentrations of iron are observed within in melanin-containing macrophages (melano-macrophages) in regions of iron absorption, erythrophagocytosis, and haemopoiesis. High levels of iron in the epithelia and lumina of pronephric tubules are concomitant with degeneration of this organ. These data are evidence of the wide spread distribution of iron in lamprey tissues and additional evidence for the potential value of lampreys for the study of iron metabolism in vertebrates.

  12. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  13. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Dettmers, John M.; Blum, Joel D.; Johnson, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean = 46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  14. Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Di; Lu, Jin-Xing; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated Y11T, was isolated from marine sediment at Weihai in China. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolate showed highest similarity to Saccharicrinis fermentans DSM 9555T (94.0 %) and Saccharicrinis carchari SS12T (92.7 %). Strain Y11T was a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium and was able to hydrolyse agar weakly. It was catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic and motile by gliding. Optimal growth occurred at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. The strain contained MK-7 as the prevalent menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 1ω6c. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown lipids. Data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study clearly place the strain as representing a novel species within the genus Saccharicrinis, for which the name Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y11T ( = CICC10837T = KCTC42400T).

  15. COMPARISON OF IN VITRO-CULTURED AND WILD-TYPE PERKINSUS MARINUS III. FECAL ELIMINATION AND ITS ROLE IN TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perkinsus marinus, a pathogen of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, is transmitted directly among oysters. Previous studies found viable P. marinus parasites in the feces and
    pseudofeces of oysters within hours of injection with parasites, suggesting that the parasite ...

  16. Natural and cultured populations of the mangrove oyster Saccostrea palmula from Sinaloa, Mexico, infected by Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Ortega, Mauricio García; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca; García, Teresa de Jesús Pineda; Stokes, Nancy A; Carnegie, Ryan B

    2012-07-01

    The mangrove oyster Saccostrea palmula coexists with the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in coastal lagoons of northwest Mexico. Recent discovery of Perkinsus marinus infecting the pleasure oyster in the region prompted evaluation of S. palmula as an alternative P. marinus host. An analysis to determine the possible presence of P. marinus in natural and cultured populations of S. palmula at four coastal lagoons in Sinaloa, Mexico was carried out during October-November 2010. Tissues from apparently healthy S. palmula were evaluated using Ray's fluid thioglycollate method (RFTM), which revealed a Perkinsus sp. to be present in all four locations at 6.7-20.0% prevalence. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasite forms consistent with moderate P. marinus infection, which was confirmed by ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (NTS)-based PCR assays on DNA samples from oysters positive by RFTM and histology. DNA sequencing of amplified NTS fragments (307 bp) produced a sequence 98-100% similar to GenBank-deposited sequences of the NTS from P. marinus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for Perkinsus spp. and P. marinus corroborated the PCR results, showing clear hybridization of P. marinus in host tissues. This is the first record of P. marinus infecting a species from genus Saccostrea and the first record of the parasite from coastal lagoons in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  17. Microsatellite genotypes reveal some long distance gene flow in Perkinsus marinus, a major pathogen of eastern oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the agent of Dermo disease, Perkinsus marinus causes significant mortality and reduced fecundity in host populations. Passive dispersal of P. marinus between hosts subjects parasite movements to control by water currents in estuarine systems, potentially limiting connectivity among parasite popul...

  18. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Lakshmi, Lakshmi Dharmarajan; Rodriquez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, I.; Ulrich, Luke; Mavromatis, K; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B; Whitman, W. B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Background Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. Results The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. Conclusion The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  19. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  20. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  1. Perkinsus marinus superoxide dismutase 2 (PmSOD2) localizes to single-membrane subcellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Robledo, Jose A.; Schott, Eric J.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2008-10-17

    Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa), a protozoan parasite of oysters, is considered one of the earliest diverging groups of the lineage leading to dinoflagellates. Perkinsus trophozoites are phagocytosed by oyster hemocytes, where they are likely exposed to reactive oxygen species. As part of its reactive oxygen detoxifying pathway, P. marinus possesses two iron-cofactored SOD (PmSOD1 and PmSOD2). Immunoflourescence analysis of P. marinus trophozoites and gene complementation in yeast revealed that PmSOD1 is targeted to the mitochondria. Surprisingly, although PmSOD2 is characterized by a bipartite N-terminus extension typical of plastid targeting, in preliminary immunofluorescence studies it was visualized as punctuate regions in the cytoplasm that could not be assigned to any organelle. Here, we used immunogold electron microscopy to examine the subcellular localization PmSOD2 in P. marinus trophozoites. Gold grains were mostly associated with single-membrane vesicle-like structures, and eventually, localized to electron-dense, apparently amorphous material present in the lumen of a larger, unique compartment. The images suggested that PmSOD2 is targeted to small vesicles that fuse and/or discharge their content into a larger compartment, possibly the large vacuole typical of the mature trophozoites. In light of the in silico targeting prediction, the association of PmSOD2 with single-membrane compartments raises interesting questions regarding its organellar targeting, and the nature of a putative relic plastid in Perkinsus species.

  2. Clonal population structures are derived from various population processes in the protistan oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic analysis of genotypes comprised of seven microsatellite loci revealed clonal genetic patterns in each of four populations of the protistan estuarine parasite Perkinsus marinus. Each locus was amplified directly from DNA extracted from infected oysters collected from four geographi...

  3. High efficiency of meiotic gynogenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinchard, J.; Dabrowski, K.; Garcia-Abiado, M. -A.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m-2. HS of 35 ?? 1??C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m-2 for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35 ?? 1??C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation in this species

  4. Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...

  5. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...

  6. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus.

  7. Quinone reduction by Rhodothermus marinus succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase is not stimulated by the membrane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Andreia S.; Konstantinov, Alexander A.; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M. . E-mail: mpereira@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-05-06

    Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), a di-haem enzyme purified from Rhodothermus marinus, reveals an HQNO-sensitive succinate:quinone oxidoreductase activity with several menaquinone analogues as electron acceptors that decreases with lowering the redox midpoint potential of the quinones. A turnover with the low-potential 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that is the closest analogue of menaquinone, although low, can be detected in liposome-reconstituted SQR. Reduction of the quinone is not stimulated by an imposed K{sup +}-diffusion membrane potential of a physiological sign (positive inside the vesicles). Nor does the imposed membrane potential increase the reduction level of the haems in R. marinus SQR poised with the succinate/fumarate redox couple. The data do not support a widely discussed hypothesis on the electrogenic transmembrane electron transfer from succinate to menaquinone catalysed by di-haem SQRs. The role of the membrane potential in regulation of the SQR activity is discussed.

  8. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  9. Changes in proximate composition and somatic energy content for Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) from Kachemak Bay, Alaska relative to maturity and season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Anthony, Jill A.; Rose, George A.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Mean dry-weight energy values of adult Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) peaked in spring and early summer (20.91 kJg−1 for males, 21.08 kJg−1 for females), then declined by about 25% during late summer and fall (15.91 kJg−1 for males, 15.74 kJg−1 for females). Late summer declines in energy density paralleled gonadal development. Gender differences in energy density (males

  10. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  11. Copper exposure affects hemocyte apoptosis and Perkinsus marinus infection in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin).

    PubMed

    Foster, Brent; Grewal, Snimar; Graves, Ondrea; Hughes, Francis M; Sokolova, Inna M

    2011-08-01

    Dermo disease in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is caused by an intracellular protistan parasite Perkinsus marinus. The progression and outcome of this disease is determined by a complex interplay between the host's immunity and parasite's escape mechanisms, both of which can be influenced by environmental pollutants including heavy metals such as copper (Cu). The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of Cu on the levels of apoptosis (which can serve as an important host defense mechanism) in oyster immune cells (hemocytes) in vitro and in vivo as well as on the establishment of P. marinus infections in vivo. Surprisingly, Cu exerted opposing effects on apoptosis levels of hemocytes in vitro and in vivo, stimulating apoptosis in isolated hemocytes but suppressing it during Cu exposure of whole oysters. The mechanisms of this effect are presently unknown and may be related to the different bioavailability of the metal in vitro and in vivo. As expected, Cu accumulated in oyster soft tissues during in vitro exposure. Unexpectedly, this metal also strongly accumulated in hemolymph plasma which is classically considered isoionic with the surrounding seawater, likely reflecting the presence of soluble Cu-binding proteins in oyster plasma. Cu reduced growth of P. marinus in vitro and greatly reduced infection levels of hemocytes in vivo, presumably by direct toxic effects on the parasite. As a possible parasitic counterbalance, Cu accumulation in the hemocytes was reduced by P. marinus infection, although this reduction was not sufficient to prevent the parasiticidal effects of the heavy metal in vivo. This effect of Cu may be useful as a potential therapeutic against Dermo disease in aquaculture conditions. Overall, this study provides important new insights into the potential role of environmental metals in host-parasite relationships and disease dynamics in C. virginica.

  12. Diversity of Aplochiton fishes (Galaxiidea) and the taxonomic resurrection of A. marinus.

    PubMed

    Alò, Dominique; Correa, Cristián; Arias, Carlos; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aplochiton is a small genus of galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and the Falkland Islands whose taxonomy is insufficiently resolved. Recent genetic analyses confirmed the existence of only two closely related species, Aplochiton taeniatus and Aplochiton zebra, while a third controversial species, Aplochiton marinus, remained lost to synonymy with A. taeniatus. Using an integrative taxonomy framework, we studied original samples and published sequences from a broad range in western Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and generated robust species hypotheses based on single-locus (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I; COI) species-delineation methods and known diagnostic morphological characters analyzed in a multivariate context. Results revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages that morphologically resemble, in important respects, existing nominal species descriptions. Interestingly, the lineage associated with A. marinus was unambiguously identifiable (100% accuracy) both from the genetic and morphological viewpoints. In contrast, the morphology of A. taeniatus and A. zebra overlapped substantially, mainly due to the high variability of A. taeniatus. Discriminant function analysis aided the identification of these species with 83.9% accuracy. Hence, for their unambiguous identification, genetic screening is needed. A. marinus has seldom been documented, and when recorded, it has always been found in sites with clear marine influence. It is possible that only A. marinus preserves a life cycle related to the sea akin to the hypothesized ancestral galaxiid. We did not find evidence of claimed diadromy in A. taeniatus or A. zebra, and, therefore, these should be regarded as freshwater species. Finally, a lack of phylogeographic patterns and overrepresentation of uncommon haplotypes suggested demographic expansions in recent evolutionary time, especially of A. zebra, in line with the hypothesis of large-scale range expansion and lineage spread in western Patagonia.

  13. Diversity of Aplochiton Fishes (Galaxiidea) and the Taxonomic Resurrection of A. marinus

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Carlos; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aplochiton is a small genus of galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and the Falkland Islands whose taxonomy is insufficiently resolved. Recent genetic analyses confirmed the existence of only two closely related species, Aplochiton taeniatus and Aplochiton zebra, while a third controversial species, Aplochiton marinus, remained lost to synonymy with A. taeniatus. Using an integrative taxonomy framework, we studied original samples and published sequences from a broad range in western Patagonia and the Falkland Islands, and generated robust species hypotheses based on single-locus (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I; COI) species-delineation methods and known diagnostic morphological characters analyzed in a multivariate context. Results revealed three distinct evolutionary lineages that morphologically resemble, in important respects, existing nominal species descriptions. Interestingly, the lineage associated with A. marinus was unambiguously identifiable (100% accuracy) both from the genetic and morphological viewpoints. In contrast, the morphology of A. taeniatus and A. zebra overlapped substantially, mainly due to the high variability of A. taeniatus. Discriminant function analysis aided the identification of these species with 83.9% accuracy. Hence, for their unambiguous identification, genetic screening is needed. A. marinus has seldom been documented, and when recorded, it has always been found in sites with clear marine influence. It is possible that only A. marinus preserves a life cycle related to the sea akin to the hypothesized ancestral galaxiid. We did not find evidence of claimed diadromy in A. taeniatus or A. zebra, and, therefore, these should be regarded as freshwater species. Finally, a lack of phylogeographic patterns and overrepresentation of uncommon haplotypes suggested demographic expansions in recent evolutionary time, especially of A. zebra, in line with the hypothesis of large-scale range expansion and lineage spread in western Patagonia. PMID

  14. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  15. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  16. Whole genome phylogeny of Prochlorococcus marinus group of cyanobacteria: genome alignment and overlapping gene approach.

    PubMed

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Rai, Anil

    2014-06-01

    Prochlorococcus is the smallest known oxygenic phototrophic marine cyanobacterium dominating the mid-latitude oceans. Physiologically and genetically distinct P. marinus isolates from many oceans in the world were assigned two different groups, a tightly clustered high-light (HL)-adapted and a divergent low-light (LL-) adapted clade. Phylogenetic analysis of this cyanobacterium on the basis of 16S rRNA and other conserved genes did not show consistency with its phenotypic behavior. We analyzed phylogeny of this genus on the basis of complete genome sequences through genome alignment, overlapping-gene content and gene-order approach. Phylogenetic tree of P. marinus obtained by comparing whole genome sequences in contrast to that based on 16S rRNA gene, corresponded well with the HL/LL ecotypic distinction of twelve strains and showed consistency with phenotypic classification of P. marinus. Evidence for the horizontal descent and acquisition of genes within and across the genus was observed. Many genes involved in metabolic functions were found to be conserved across these genomes and many were continuously gained by different strains as per their needs during the course of their evolution. Consistency in the physiological and genetic phylogeny based on whole genome sequence is established. These observations improve our understanding about the adaptation and diversification of these organisms under evolutionary pressure.

  17. Pallial mucus of the oyster Crassostrea virginica regulates the expression of putative virulence genes of its pathogen Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Corre, Erwan; Allam, Bassem

    2014-04-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a pathogen responsible for severe mortalities of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States. When cultivated, the pathogenicity of this microorganism decreases significantly, hampering the study of its virulence factors. Recent investigations have shown a significant increase of the in vivo virulence of P. marinus exposed to oyster pallial mucus. In the current study, we investigated the effect of pallial mucus on P. marinus gene expression compared with cultures supplemented with oyster digestive extracts or with un-supplemented cultures. In parallel, parasite cells cultured under these three conditions were used to challenge oysters and to assess virulence in vivo. Perkinsus marinus mRNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina GAIIX sequencer and data were analysed using the Tuxedo RNAseq suite for mapping against the draft P. marinus genome and for differential expression analysis. Results showed that exposure of P. marinus to mucus induces significant regulation of nearly 3,600 transcripts, many of which are considered as putative virulence factors. Pallial mucus is suspected to mimic internal host conditions, thereby preparing the pathogen to overcome defense factors before invasion. This hypothesis is supported by significant regulation in several antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins, protease inhibitors and proteasome subunits. In addition, mucus exposure induced the modulation of several genes known to affect immunity and apoptosis in vertebrates and invertebrates. Several proteases (proteolysis) and merozoite surface proteins (cell recognition) were also modulated. Overall, these results provide a baseline for targeted, in depth analysis of candidate virulence factors in P. marinus.

  18. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  19. USAR Recruiting Success Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    recruiters. Conventional multi. * variate statistical techniques have not prov ed-adequate in identifying successful recruiters, largely because of the...statistical techniques to the problem of identifying the relative importance of factors affecting recruiter success. Me t hod This study applies a...recruiters; background characteristics, suggestions about recruiter training, the value of various prospecting and selling techniques , workload, attitudes

  20. DESCRIPTION OF VIRIDILOBUS MARINUS (GEN. ET SP. NOV.), A NEW RAPHIDOPHYTE FROM DELAWARE'S INLAND BAYS.

    PubMed

    Demir-Hilton, Elif; Hutchins, David A; Czymmek, Kirk J; Coyne, Kathryn J

    2012-10-01

    Delaware's Inland Bays (DIB), USA, are subject to blooms of potentially harmful raphidophytes, including Heterosigma akashiwo. In 2004, a dense bloom was observed in a low salinity tributary of the DIB. Light microscopy initially suggested that the species was H. akashiwo; however, the cells were smaller than anticipated. 18S rDNA sequences of isolated cultures differed substantially from all raphidophyte sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis placed it approximately equidistant from Chattonella and Heterosigma with only ~96% sequence homology with either group. Here, we describe this marine raphidophyte as a novel genus and species, Viridilobus marinus (gen. et sp. nov.). We also compared this species with H. akashiwo, because both species are superficially similar with respect to morphology and their ecological niches overlap. V. marinus cells are ovoid to spherical (11.4 × 9.4 μm), and the average number of chloroplasts (4 per cell) is lower than in H. akashiwo (15 per cell). Pigment analysis of V. marinus revealed the presence of fucoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are characteristic of marine raphidophytes within the family Chattonellaceae of the Raphidophyceae. TEM and confocal microscopy, however, revealed diagnostic microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics that distinguish it from other raphidophytes. Chloroplasts were in close association with the nucleus and thylakoids were arranged either parallel or perpendicular to the cell surface. Putative mucocysts were identified, but trichocysts were not observed. These features, along with DNA sequence data, distinguish this species from all other raphidophyte genera within the family Chattonellaceae of the Raphidophyceae.

  1. Fast detection of a protozoan pathogen, Perkinsus marinus, using AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Chu, B. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chang, C. Y.; Lele, T. P.; Papadi, G.; Coleman, J. K.; Sheppard, B. J.; Dungen, C. F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.; Ren, F.

    2009-06-01

    Antibody-functionalized, Au-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect Perkinsus marinus. The antibody was anchored to the gate area through immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5 s when the infected solution was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The sensor can be recycled with a phosphate buffered saline wash. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of field-deployable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for Perkinsus marinus detection.

  2. Role of physical barriers in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Youngs, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanical and electromechanical barriers played a significant role in the initial attempts to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the upper Great Lakes. More recently electromechanical weirs have been used to assess the relative abundance of spawning-run sea lampreys in Lake Superior. Development of an integrated control approach to sea lamprey control has stimulated an ongoing research program to define structural and/or velocity criteria that can be used to design barrier dams that block spawning runs of sea lamprey

  3. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of laminarinase from Rhodothermus marinus: a case of pseudomerohedral twinning.

    PubMed

    Golubev, Alexander M; Rojas, Adriana L; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Bleicher, Lucas; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Polikarpov, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Thermophilic endo-1,3(4)-beta glucanase (laminarinase) from Rhodothermus marinus was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The needle-like crystals belong to space group P2(1) and contain two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 51.75 %. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.95A and resulted in a dataset with an overall R(merge) of 10.4% and a completeness of 97.8%. Analysis of the structure factors revealed pseudomerohedral twinning of the crystals with a twin fraction of approximately 42%.

  5. Endocrine events associated with spawning behavior in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linville, Jane E.; Hanson, Lee H.; Sower, Stacia A.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were determined in plasma of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) undergoing certain behaviors associated with spawning in natural and artifical stream environments. Significantly higher levels of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were found in males than in females. In the artifical spawning channel, levels of estradiol were significantly higher in females exhibiting resting and swimming behaviors than in fanning, nest building, and spawning behaviors. No significant correlation was found with either progesterone or testosterone levels and the various reproductive behaviors. The data presented are the first experimental evidence that suggest gonadal steroids may be correlated with certain reproductive behaviors in the sea lamprey.

  6. Does DNA methylation regulate metamorphosis? The case of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an example.

    PubMed

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Saura, María; Morán, Paloma

    2015-07-01

    Lampreys represent one of the most ancient vertebrate lineages enclosing a special interest for genetic and epigenetic studies. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an anadromous species that experiences metamorphosis all the way up to the adult stage. Although representing a gradual process, metamorphosis in this species involves dramatic conversions with regard to physiological together with structural body changes preparing individuals for a marine and parasitic life; in consequence, multiple gene expression modifications are expected. The implications of thyroid hormones and HOX gene expression changes have previously been reported in this species and also in other vertebrate species. Nonetheless, information lacks on how these genes are regulated in lampreys. We here report about the existence of methylation pattern differences between the adult and the larvae sea lamprey life cycle stages making use of the Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Differentially methylated fragment sequencing allowed to establish homologous identities with HOX genes involved in morphogenesis, along with genes related to the water balance and to the osmotic homoeostasis, all associated to a marine environment adaptation. These results provide evidences revealing that DNA methylation plays a role in the epigenetic regulation of the P. marinus post-natal development representing a starting point for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which detects DNA methylation changes associated with metamorphosis in lampreys.

  7. Heterokont Predator Develorapax marinus gen. et sp. nov. – A Model of the Ochrophyte Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Aleoshin, Vladimir V.; Mylnikov, Alexander P.; Mirzaeva, Gulnara S.; Mikhailov, Kirill V.; Karpov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrophic lineages of Heterokonta (or stramenopiles), in contrast to a single monophyletic group of autotrophs, Ochrophyta, form several clades that independently branch off the heterokont stem lineage. The nearest neighbors of Ochrophyta in the phylogenetic tree appear to be almost exclusively bacterivorous, whereas the hypothesis of plastid acquisition by the ancestors of the ochrophyte lineage suggests an ability to engulf eukaryotic alga. In line with this hypothesis, the heterotrophic predator at the base of the ochrophyte lineage may be regarded as a model for the ochrophyte ancestor. Here, we present a new genus and species of marine free-living heterotrophic heterokont Develorapax marinus, which falls into an isolated heterokont cluster, along with the marine flagellate Developayella elegans, and is able to engulf eukaryotic cells. Together with environmental sequences D. marinus and D. elegans form a class-level clade Developea nom. nov. represented by species adapted to different environmental conditions and with a wide geographical distribution. The position of Developea among Heterokonta in large-scale phylogenetic tree is discussed. We propose that members of the Developea clade represent a model for transition from bacterivory to a predatory feeding mode by selection for larger prey. Presumably, such transition in the grazing strategy is possible in the presence of bacterial biofilms or aggregates expected in eutrophic environment, and has likely occurred in the ochrophyte ancestor. PMID:27536283

  8. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  9. Effects of salinity and temperature on in vitro cell cycle and proliferation of Perkinsus marinus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; De Medeiros, Isac Almeida; Da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

    2016-04-01

    Field and in vitro studies have shown that high salinities and temperatures promote the proliferation and dissemination of Perkinsus marinus in several environments. In Brazil, the parasite infects native oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea rhizophorae in the Northeast (NE), where the temperature is high throughout the year. Despite the high prevalence of Perkinsus spp. infection in oysters from the NE of Brazil, no mortality events were reported by oyster farmers to date. The present study evaluated the effects of salinity (5, 20 and 35 psu) and temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C) on in vitro proliferation of P. marinus isolated from a host (C. rhizophorae) in Brazil, for a period of up to 15 days and after the return to the control conditions (22 days; recovery). Different cellular parameters (changes of cell phase's composition, cell density, viability and production of reactive oxygen species) were analysed using flow cytometry. The results indicate that the P. marinus isolate was sensitive to the extreme salinities and temperatures analysed. Only the highest temperature caused lasting cell damage under prolonged exposure, impairing P. marinus recovery, which is likely to be associated with oxidative stress. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of perkinsiosis in tropical regions.

  10. Viability, infectivity and fatty acid synthetic activity of Perkinsus marinus meront cells incubated in estuarine and artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric D

    2006-07-25

    We investigated the viability and fatty acid synthetic activity of in vitro cultured Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in lipid-free medium and estuarine water, and the infectivity of P. marinus maintained in artificial seawater (ASW). Viability and fatty acid synthetic activity in 7 d old P. marinus meronts maintained in lipid-free medium and estuarine water were tested. The infectivity of meronts incubated in ASW was examined by first incubating P. marinus meronts in ASW for 2, 3 or 7 d, and then inoculating viable ASW-incubated meronts into the shell cavity of individual oysters Crassostrea virginica. P. marinus infection prevalence and intensity in oysters were determined 9 wk post-inoculation. Heavy mortality occurred in meronts maintained in estuarine water, a drop from an initial value of 100% viable to 7.8 and 6.1% after 3 and 14 d incubation, respectively. Viability was 85 and 67% in meronts maintained in lipid-free medium for 3 and 24 d, respectively. Meronts kept in lipid-free medium for 14 d retained their ability to synthesize fatty acids. Viable meronts incubated in ASW remained infective for up to 7 d. The infection prevalences were 85, 48 and 100%, in the treatments inoculated with viable meronts that were incubated in ASW for 2, 3 and 7 d, respectively. Infection prevalence in the group inoculated with viable meronts immediately after they were transferred to ASW ranged from 61 to 85%. Our results suggest that in nature meronts can survive for at least 14 d outside the host. Viable meronts are not only infective, but are also able to replicate and retain their fatty acid synthetic ability for 7 d.

  11. Blood cell lineage in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Pisces: Petromyzontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.

    1971-01-01

    Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.

  12. Neuropeptide Y family receptors Y1 and Y2 from sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Larhammar, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The vertebrate gene family for neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors expanded by duplication of the chromosome carrying the ancestral Y1-Y2-Y5 gene triplet. After loss of some duplicates, the ancestral jawed vertebrate had seven receptor subtypes forming the Y1 (including Y1, Y4, Y6, Y8), Y2 (including Y2, Y7) and Y5 (only Y5) subfamilies. Lampreys are considered to have experienced the same chromosome duplications as gnathostomes and should also be expected to have multiple receptor genes. However, previously only a Y4-like and a Y5 receptor have been cloned and characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two additional receptors from the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Sequence phylogeny alone could not with certainty assign their identity, but based on synteny comparisons of P. marinus and the Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum, with jawed vertebrates, the two receptors most likely are Y1 and Y2. Both receptors were expressed in human HEK293 cells and inositol phosphate assays were performed to determine the response to the three native lamprey peptides NPY, PYY and PMY. The three peptides have similar potencies in the nanomolar range for Y1. No obvious response to the three peptides was detected for Y2. Synteny analysis supports identification of the previously cloned receptor as Y4. No additional NPY receptor genes could be identified in the presently available lamprey genome assemblies. Thus, four NPY-family receptors have been identified in lampreys, orthologs of the same subtypes as in humans (Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5), whereas many other vertebrate lineages have retained additional ancestral subtypes.

  13. Flow cytometric analysis of lectin binding to in vitro-cultured Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, J.D.; Jenkins, J.A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2004-01-01

    Parasite surface glycoconjugates are frequently involved in cellular recognition and colonization of the host. This study reports on the identification of Perkinsus marinus surface carbohydrates by flow cytometric analyses of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated lectin binding. Lectin-binding specificity was confirmed by sugar inhibition and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. Clear, measurable fluorescence peaks were discriminated, and no parasite autofluorescence was observed. Parasites (GTLA-5 and Perkinsus-1 strains) harvested during log and stationary phases of growth in a protein-free medium reacted strongly with concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin, which bind to glucose-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, respectively. Both P. marinus strains bound with lower intensity to Maclura pomifera agglutinin, Bauhinia purpurea agglutinin, soybean agglutinin (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectins), peanut agglutinin (PNA) (terminal galactose specific), and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GlcNAc specific). Only background fluorescence levels were detected with Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (L-fucose specific) and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (sialic acid specific). The lectin-binding profiles were similar for the 2 strains except for a greater relative binding intensity of PNA for Perkinsus-1 and an overall greater lectin-binding capacity of Perkinsus-1 compared with GTLA-5. Growth stage comparisons revealed increased lectin-binding intensities during stationary phase compared with log phase of growth. This is the first report of the identification of surface glycoconjugates on a Perkinsus spp. by flow cytometry and the first to demonstrate that differential surface sugar expression is growth phase and strain dependent. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2004.

  14. Migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus stop responding to conspecific damage-released alarm cues after 4 h of continuous exposure in laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; McClure, Haley; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the length of avoidance response of migratory-stage sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus exposed continuously to conspecific damage-released alarm cues for varying lengths of time in laboratory stream channels. Ten replicate groups of P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to either deionized water control or to P. marinus extract for 0, 2 or 4 h continuously. Petromyzon marinus maintained their avoidance response to the conspecific damage-released alarm cue after continuous exposure to the alarm cue for 0 and 2 h but not 4 h. Beyond being one of the first studies in regards to sensory–olfactory adaptation–acclimation of fishes to alarm cues of any kind, these results have important implications for use of conspecific alarm cues in P. marinus control. For example, continuous application of conspecific alarm cue during the day, when P. marinus are inactive and hiding, may result in sensory adaptation to the odour by nightfall when they migrate upstream.

  15. Adult Recruitment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Juliet, Ed.; And Others

    Findings of an American College Testing Program 1981 survey on college recruitment of adult students are summarized, and 12 articles on adult recruitment are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: "Adult Recruitment Practices: A Report of a National Survey" (Patricia Spratt, Juliet Kaufmann, Lee Noel); "Three Programs for Adults in Shopping…

  16. Recruitment and Training. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on recruitment and training. "College Choice: The State of Marketing and Effective Student Recruitment Strategies" (Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Michael F. Burnett) reports on a study of the recruitment strategies used by Louisiana State University's admissions office and College of…

  17. Recruitment Guide for Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshihara, Shoko, Comp.

    This book is intended to provide U.S. university recruiters with information on higher education and student recruitment opportunities in Thailand. Section A describes recruitment strategies that are professionally and culturally appropriate to Thailand; contact information concerning related institutions is also included. A subsection called…

  18. A review of current state of knowledge concerning Perkinsus marinus effects on Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) (the eastern oyster).

    PubMed

    Smolowitz, R

    2013-05-01

    The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), is both an important component of our estuaries and an important farmed food animal along the east and south coasts of the United States. Its populations have been significantly diminished in the wild due to decades of overfishing beginning in the 1890 s. Unfortunately, in 1950, a new disease in eastern oysters caused by the protistan agent, Perkinsus marinus, was identified. The disease, resulting from infection with this protozoan, leads to high mortality of both wild and cultured eastern oysters. Current restoration efforts are hampered by the disease, as is the aquaculture of this economically important food. The parasite infects hemocytes and causes hemolytic anemia and general degeneration of the tissues, leading to death. Ongoing research efforts are attempting to develop oysters resistant to the disease. Transport regulations exist in may states. Infection with P. marinus is listed as a reportable disease by the World Health Organization.

  19. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed.

  20. Humanized HLA-DR4 Mice Fed with the Protozoan Pathogen of Oysters Perkinsus Marinus (Dermo) Do Not Develop Noticeable Pathology but Elicit Systemic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kleschenko, Yuliya; Pow-Sang, Luis; Brumeanu, Teodor D.; Villasante, Eileen Franke; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Casares, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for “Dermo” disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1–2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA0) in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG) reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ) immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents. PMID:24498105

  1. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

    PubMed

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Majji, Sai; Kleschenko, Yuliya; Pow-Sang, Luis; Brumeanu, Teodor D; Villasante, Eileen Franke; Vasta, Gerardo R; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Casares, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa) is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0)) in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0) mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0) mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG) reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ) immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0) mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  2. Myofibril Changes in the Copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus Exposed to Haline and Thermal Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ali; Souissi, Anissa; Leray, Aymeric; Héliot, Laurent; Vandenbunder, Bernard; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans capable to survive in various aquatic environments. Their responses to changes in different external factors such as salinity and temperature can be observed at different integration levels from copepod genes to copepod communities. Until now, no thorough observation of the temperature or salinity effect stresses on copepods has been done by optical microscopy. In this study, we used autofluorescence to visualize these effects on the morphology of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus maintained during several generations in the laboratory at favorable and stable conditions of salinity (30 psu) and temperature (18°C). Four different stress experiments were conducted: at a sharp decrease in temperature (18 to 4°C), a moderate decrease in salinity (from 30 to 15 psu), a major decrease in salinity (from 30 to 0 psu), and finally a combined stress with a decrease in both temperature and salinity (from 18°C and 30 psu to 4°C and 0 psu). After these stresses, images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed changes in copepod cuticle and muscle structure. Low salinity and/or temperature stresses affected both the detection of fluorescence emitted by muscle sarcomeres and the distance between them. In the remaining paper we will use the term sarcomeres to describe the elements located within sarcomeres and emitted autofluorescence signals. Quantitative study showed an increase in the average distance between two consecutive sarcomeres from 2.06 +/- 0.11 μm to 2.44 +/- 0.42 μm and 2.88 +/- 0.45μm after the exposure to major haline stress (18°C, 0 psu) and the combined stress (4°C, 0 psu), respectively. These stresses also caused cuticle cracks which often occurred at the same location, suggesting the cuticle as a sensitive area for osmoregulation. Our results suggest the use of cuticular and muscle autofluorescence as new biomarkers of stress detectable in formalin-preserved P. marinus individuals. Our

  3. Behavioural and transcriptional changes in the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus exposed to two antidepressants, fluoxetine and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Bossus, Maryline C; Guler, Yasmin Z; Short, Stephen J; Morrison, Edward R; Ford, Alex T

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, there have been increasing concerns over the effects of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment, however very little is known about the effects of antidepressants such as the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Many biological functions within invertebrates are under the control of serotonin, such as reproduction, metabolism, moulting and behaviour. The effects of serotonin and fluoxetine have recently been shown to alter the behaviour of the marine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach, 1815). The purpose of this study was to observe behavioural and transcriptional modifications in this crustacean exposed to the two most prescribed SSRIs (fluoxetine and sertraline) and to develop biomarkers of neurological endocrine disruption. The animals were exposed to both drugs at environmentally relevant concentrations from 0.001 to 1μg/L during short-term (1h and 1day) and medium-term (8 days) experiments. The movement of the amphipods was tracked using the behavioural analysis software during 12min alternating dark/light conditions. The behavioural analysis revealed a significant effect on velocity which was observed after 1h exposure to sertraline at 0.01μg/L and after 1 day exposure to fluoxetine as low as 0.001μg/L. The most predominant effect of drugs on velocity was recorded after 1 day exposure for the 0.1 and 0.01μg/L concentrations of fluoxetine and sertraline, respectively. Subsequently, the expression (in this article gene expression is taken to represent only transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated at translation, mRNA and protein stability levels) of several E. marinus neurological genes, potentially involved in the serotonin metabolic pathway or behaviour regulation, were analysed in animals exposed to various SSRIs concentrations using RT-qPCR. The expression of a tryptophan hydroxylase (Ph), a neurocan core protein (Neuc), a Rhodopsin (Rhod1) and an Arrestin

  4. Recruiting Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bobette P.; Dandridge, William L.

    To help improve private schools' recruitment of minority students, this handbook discusses where and how to begin, recruitment strategies, applicant assessment, and the need for in-school support systems for minority students. The authors stress that each school should begin by analyzing its own objectives, attitudes, and admission program.…

  5. Resources for Recruiters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Angelo, Diane; And Others

    Recruitment of participants is a long-standing practice for many programs serving children and families, although the way in which it is approached varies greatly. This volume is presented as a practical tool for practitioners to use in systematizing their recruitment efforts. Section 1, "Reaching Diverse Families," contains an interactive…

  6. Broadening the Recruiting Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central All-Volunteer Force Task Force, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the study is to broaden the enlisted recruiting market, especially for high school graduates and describe measures to complete or expedite actions initiated by ASD (M and RA) (Assistant Secretary of Defense Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the military services and to take additional actions to enhance recruiting. (Author)

  7. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  8. Electron transfer dynamics of Rhodothermus marinus caa3 cytochrome c domains on biomimetic films.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Maria F; De Candia, Ariel; Szajnman, Sergio H; Rodríguez, Juan B; Martí, Marcelo; Pereira, Manuela; Teixeira, Miguel; Todorovic, Smilja; Murgida, Daniel H

    2011-10-28

    The subunit II of the caa(3) oxygen reductase from Rhodothermus marinus contains, in addition to the Cu(A) center, a c-type heme group in the cytochrome c domain (Cyt-D) that is the putative primary electron acceptor of the enzyme. In this work we have combined surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroelectrochemistry, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron pathway calculations to assess the most likely interaction domains and electron entry/exit points of the truncated Cyt-D of subunit II in the reactions with its electron donor, HiPIP and electron acceptor, Cu(A). The results indicate that the transient interaction between Cyt-D and HiPIP relies upon a delicate balance of hydrophobic and polar contacts for establishing an optimized electron transfer pathway that involves the exposed edge of the heme group and guaranties efficient inter-protein electron transfer on the nanosecond time scale. The reorganization energy of ca. 0.7 eV was determined by time-resolved SERR spectroelectrochemistry. The intramolecular electron transfer pathway in integral subunit II from Cyt-D to the Cu(A) redox center most likely involves the iron ligand histidine 20 as an electron exit point in Cyt-D.

  9. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  10. Seasonal growth and duration of the parasitic life stage of the landlocked sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Swink, William D.

    1995-01-01

    We used lengths and weights of 2367 live parasitic-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from Lake Huron, 1984–1990, to calculate their mean size at half-month intervals. Growth in weight was linear during June through September; increments averaged 11.1 g per half month. Growth increased sharply in October to several times the summer rate. We speculate that the increase in growth in October is explained partly by water temperature and partly by an increase in appetite related to the onset of gonadal development. The greater compression of biomass accumulation in autumn than has been previously demonstrated better explains the autumn pulse of sea lamprey induced host mortality. Based on the seasonal pattern of growth and on recaptures of marked sea lampreys, we conclude that landlocked individuals grow to adult size and mature in one parasitic growth year. Regressions of weight (grams) on total length (millimetres) differed significantly among months, and the season of collection must be considered in predicting weight from length.

  11. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  12. Association of Novel Domain in Active Site of Archaic Hyperthermophilic Maltogenic Amylase from Staphylothermus marinus*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae-Yang; Li, Dan; Park, Jong-Tae; Yoon, Se-Mi; Tran, Phuong Lan; Oh, Byung-Ha; Janeček, Štefan; Park, Sung Goo; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylothermus marinus maltogenic amylase (SMMA) is a novel extreme thermophile maltogenic amylase with an optimal temperature of 100 °C, which hydrolyzes α-(1–4)-glycosyl linkages in cyclodextrins and in linear malto-oligosaccharides. This enzyme has a long N-terminal extension that is conserved among archaic hyperthermophilic amylases but is not found in other hydrolyzing enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The SMMA crystal structure revealed that the N-terminal extension forms an N′ domain that is similar to carbohydrate-binding module 48, with the strand-loop-strand region forming a part of the substrate binding pocket with several aromatic residues, including Phe-95, Phe-96, and Tyr-99. A structural comparison with conventional cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes revealed a striking resemblance between the SMMA N′ domain position and the dimeric N domain position in bacterial enzymes. This result suggests that extremophilic archaea that live at high temperatures may have adopted a novel domain arrangement that combines all of the substrate binding components within a monomeric subunit. The SMMA structure provides a molecular basis for the functional properties that are unique to hyperthermophile maltogenic amylases from archaea and that distinguish SMMA from moderate thermophilic or mesophilic bacterial enzymes. PMID:22223643

  13. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  14. Glutamine Synthetase Sensitivity to Oxidative Modification during Nutrient Starvation in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Domínguez-Martín, María Agustina; Donaldson, Robert P; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Diez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase plays a key role in nitrogen metabolism, thus the fine regulation of this enzyme in Prochlorococcus, which is especially important in the oligotrophic oceans where this marine cyanobacterium thrives. In this work, we studied the metal-catalyzed oxidation of glutamine synthetase in cultures of Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 subjected to nutrient limitation. Nitrogen deprivation caused glutamine synthetase to be more sensitive to metal-catalyzed oxidation (a 36% increase compared to control, non starved samples). Nutrient starvation induced also a clear increase (three-fold in the case of nitrogen) in the concentration of carbonyl derivatives in cell extracts, which was also higher (22%) upon addition of the inhibitor of electron transport, DCMU, to cultures. Our results indicate that nutrient limitations, representative of the natural conditions in the Prochlorococcus habitat, affect the response of glutamine synthetase to oxidative inactivating systems. Implications of these results on the regulation of glutamine synthetase by oxidative alteration prior to degradation of the enzyme in Prochlorococcus are discussed.

  15. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  16. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Sghaier, Haïtham; Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Pujic, Petar; Sen, Arnab; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including ‘molecular tinkering/opportunism' as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively. PMID:26125681

  17. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971–78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey predation, abundance, Lake Michigan

  18. Ontogenetic dynamics of mercury accumulation in Northwest Atlantic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drevnick, P.E.; Horgan, M.J.; Oris, J.T.; Kynard, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ontogenetic dynamics of mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Connecticut River, USA. Mercury concentrations in eggs (mean 84 ng??g-1 wet weight) were lowest of all life stages and correlated to concentrations in females. There was a higher rate of maternal transfer of mercury to eggs compared with teleosts. Ammocoetes had high mercury concentrations for their trophic level (e.g., mean of age-4 ammocoetes 492 ng??g-1 wet weight). A further investigation of four streams showed that ammocoetes reflected the level of contamination in their nursery streams. Concentrations of mercury decreased during metamorphosis from ammocoete to adult. Mercury concentrations in adults ranged from 83 to 942 ng??g-1 wet weight and, unlike teleosts, showed no relation to sex, length, or weight. We provide evidence from stable isotope analyses that this high variability is due to feeding ecology. There are fundamental differences in mercury accumulation between sea lamprey and teleosts. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  19. Stone-dwelling actinobacteria Blastococcus saxobsidens, Modestobacter marinus and Geodermatophilus obscurus proteogenomes.

    PubMed

    Sghaier, Haïtham; Hezbri, Karima; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Pujic, Petar; Sen, Arnab; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Armengaud, Jean; Normand, Philippe; Gtari, Maher

    2016-01-01

    The Geodermatophilaceae are unique model systems to study the ability to thrive on or within stones and their proteogenomes (referring to the whole protein arsenal encoded by the genome) could provide important insight into their adaptation mechanisms. Here we report the detailed comparative genome analysis of Blastococcus saxobsidens (Bs), Modestobacter marinus (Mm) and Geodermatophilus obscurus (Go) isolated respectively from the interior and the surface of calcarenite stones and from desert sandy soils. The genome-scale analysis of Bs, Mm and Go illustrates how adaptation to these niches can be achieved through various strategies including 'molecular tinkering/opportunism' as shown by the high proportion of lost, duplicated or horizontally transferred genes and ORFans. Using high-throughput discovery proteomics, the three proteomes under unstressed conditions were analyzed, highlighting the most abundant biomarkers and the main protein factors. Proteomic data corroborated previously demonstrated stone-related ecological distribution. For instance, these data showed starvation-inducible, biofilm-related and DNA-protection proteins as signatures of the microbes associated with the interior, surface and outside of stones, respectively.

  20. Response of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to pulsed DC electrical stimuli in laboratory experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Anjanette K.; Weisser, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Famoye, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Four electrical factors that are used in pulsed DC electrofishing for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were evaluated in two laboratory studies to determine the optimal values to induce larval emergence over a range of water temperatures and conductivities. Burrowed larvae were exposed to combinations of pulsed DC electrical factors including five pulse frequencies, three pulse patterns, and two levels of duty cycle over a range of seven voltage gradients in two separate studies conducted at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C and water conductivities of 25, 200, and 900 μS/cm. A four-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant (α = 0.05) influences of each electrical factor on larval emergence. Multiple comparison tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to determine which values of each factor resulted in significantly higher emergence at each temperature and conductivity. Voltage gradient and pulse frequency significantly affected emergence according to the ANOVA model at each temperature and conductivity tested. Duty cycle and pulse pattern generally did not significantly influence the model. Findings suggest that a setting of 2.0 V/cm, 3 pulses/sec, 10% duty, and 2:2 pulse pattern seems the most promising in waters of medium conductivity and across a variety of temperatures. This information provides a basis for understanding larval response to pulsed DC electrofishing gear factors and identifies electrofisher settings that show promise to increase the efficiency of the gear during assessments for burrowed sea lamprey larvae.

  1. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J; Scott, Anne M; Walaszczyk, Erin J; Brant, Cory O; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2014-06-06

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called "CLARITY" was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  2. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  3. Mark-recapture population estimates of parasitic sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Wright, Gregory M.; Swink, William D.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphosed sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were collected and marked at two points in their life cycle. Recently metamorphosed juveniles were collected from streams, marked with coded wire tags, and returned to migrate to the Great Lakes. Juveniles already in the lakes and feeding on teleost hosts were obtained from incidental catches by sport or commercial fisheries. Sea lampreys in the Great Lakes spend only 1 feeding year as parasites, and marked animals were recaptured during the spawning runs. For one marked group in each of four parasitic cohorts (feeding years 1991 to 1994) and two marked groups in each of three cohorts (feeding years 1998 to 2000) we recovered from 1.1 to 10.2 percent of marked animals. The number of metamorphosed animals present in autumn before migration to Lake Huron was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 639 to 803 thousand. The number of feeding, parasitic animals present in Lake Huron in mid summer was estimated for five cohorts, with estimates ranging from 515,000 to 2,342,000. The larger estimates later in the parasitic year suggested that animals collected and marked from sport or commercial fisheries did not survive at the same rate as unmarked animals. It is recommended that only estimates from recaptures of animals marked in the streams before migration be used until it can be established why survival of juveniles obtained from sport or commercial fisheries might be affected.

  4. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Everett Louis

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  5. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  6. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  7. Guiding out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) with pulsed direct current

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Miehls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-physical stimuli can deter or guide fish without affecting water flow or navigation and therefore have been investigated to improve fish passage at anthropogenic barriers and to control movement of invasive fish. Upstream fish migration can be blocked or guided without physical structure by electrifying the water, but directional downstream fish guidance with electricity has received little attention. We tested two non-uniform pulsed direct current electric systems, each having different electrode orientations (vertical versus horizontal), to determine their ability to guide out-migrating juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both systems guided significantly more juvenile sea lamprey to a specific location in our experimental raceway when activated than when deactivated, but guidance efficiency decreased at the highest water velocities tested. At the electric field setting that effectively guided sea lamprey, rainbow trout were guided by the vertical electrode system, but most were blocked by the horizontal electrode system. Additional research should characterize the response of other species to non-uniform fields of pulsed DC and develop electrode configurations that guide fish over a range of water velocity.

  8. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

  9. An electrophoretic study of myosin heavy chain expression in skeletal muscles of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-10-01

    In this study we developed an SDS-PAGE protocol which for the first time separates effectively all myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expected to be expressed in iliofibularis (IF), pyriformis (PYR), cruralis (CRU) and sartorius (SAR) muscles of the toad Bufo marinus on the basis of previously reported fibre type composition. The main feature of the method is the use of alanine instead of glycine both in the separating gel and in the running buffer. The correlation between the MHC isoform composition of IF, SAR and PYR muscles determined in this study and the previously reported fibre type composition of IF and SAR muscles in the toad and of PYR muscle in the frog was used to tentatively identify the MHC isoforms expressed by twitch fibre types 1, 2 and 3 and by tonic fibres. The alanine-SDS electrophoretic method was employed to examine changes in the MHC composition of IF, PYR, CRU and SAR muscles with the ontogenetic growth of the toad from post-natal life (body weight < 1 g) to late adulthood (body weight 200-450 g). The developmental changes in the MHC isoform composition of the toad IF muscle observed in this study are in very good agreement with those in the fibre type composition of the developing IF muscle reported in the literature.

  10. The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Gary B

    2007-01-01

    Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming.

  11. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  12. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  13. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD.

  14. Anadromous sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are ecosystem engineers in a spawning tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert S.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph; Simon, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) disturb the substratum during nest construction and alter the physical habitat, potentially affecting other stream organisms. We quantified differences in depth, velocity, fine-sediment coverage, embeddedness, intragravel permeability and benthic invertebrate assemblages (density and diversity) among nest mounds, nest pits and undisturbed reference locations over a 4-month period after June spawning. In 2010 and 2011, immediate and persistent effects of nest construction were assessed in summer (July) and in autumn (late September to early October), respectively. Randomly selected nests were sampled annually (25 each in summer and autumn). Nest construction increased stream-bed complexity by creating and juxtaposing shallow, swift, rocky habitat patches with deep, slow, sandy habitat patches. Mounds had a 50–143% less cover of fine sediment, and a 30–62% reduction in embeddedness, compared to pits and reference locations. These physical changes persisted into the autumn (almost 4 months). Five insect families contributed 74% of the benthic invertebrate abundance: Chironomidae (27%), Hydropsychidae (26%), Heptageniidae (8%), Philopotamidae (7%) and Ephemerellidae (6%). Densities of Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae and Heptageniidae were up to 10 times greater in mounds than in pits and adjacent reference habitat. In summer, mounds had twice the density of Chironomidae than did pits, and 1.5 times more than reference habitats, but densities were similar among the habitats in autumn. These results suggest that spawning sea lampreys are ecosystem engineers. The physical disturbance caused by nest-building activity was significant and persistent, increasing habitat heterogeneity and favouring pollution-sensitive benthic invertebrates and, possibly, drift-feeding fish.

  15. The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein from the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus mediates iron uptake.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuoer; Fernández-Robledo, José-Antonio; Cellier, Mathieu F M; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2011-07-26

    Microbial pathogens succeed in acquiring essential metals such as iron and manganese despite their limited availability because of the host's immune response. The eukaryotic natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins mediate uptake of divalent metals and, during infection, may compete directly for metal acquisition with the pathogens' transporters. In this study, we characterize the Nramp gene family of Perkinsus marinus, an intracellular parasite of the eastern oyster, and through yeast complementation, we demonstrate for the first time for a protozoan parasite that Nramp imports environmental Fe. Three PmNramp isogenes differ in their exon-intron structures and encode transcripts that display a trans splicing leader at the 5' end. The protein sequences share conserved properties predicted for the Nramp/Solute carrier 11 (Slc11) family, such as 12-transmembrane segment (TMS) topology (N- and C-termini cytoplasmic) and preferential conservation of four TMS predicted to form a pseudosymmetric proton/metal symport pathway. Yeast fet3fet4 mutant complementation assays showed iron transport activity for PmNramp1 and a fusion chimera of the PmNramp3 hydrophobic core and PmNramp1 N- and C-termini. PmNramp1 site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Slc11 invariant and predicted pseudosymmetric motifs (TMS1 Asp-Pro-Gly and TMS6 Met-Pro-His) are key for transport function. PmNramp1 TMS1 mutants D76E, G78A, and D76E/G78A prevented membrane protein expression, while TMS6 M250A, H252Y, and M250A/H252Y specifically abrogated Fe uptake; the TMS6 H252Y mutation also correlates with divergence from Nramp specificity for divalent metals.

  16. Moonlight receptor of the "1-h-midge" Clunio marinus studied by micro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Fleissner, Ge; Neumann, D.; Wellenreuther, G.; Alraun, P.; Fleissner, Gue

    2013-10-01

    Melanin is a pigment widely occurring in animals, plants, fungi and algae. It does not only colour skin, hair and eyes but serves mainly as photoprotectant and prevents overload with minerals induced by inflammations, infections and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying melanisation gained increasing interest in the field of biomedical research and clinic. So far, the processes of melanogenesis are only partly analysed, nearly nothing is known on a putative switch between melanins of different types. Here we offer a model organism to study these mechanisms as part of a naturally cycling change of transparency of the retinal shielding pigment. A marine midge, Clunio marinus, living in coastal regions, underlies a complex timing of its development by solar and lunar climatic periodicities, which synchronise biological clocks. The question was how the animals can discriminate changing sunlight from moonlight intensities. For the first time, we could show a "moonlight window" in the larval ocelli of this midge, and propose a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms. Driven by a lunar clock the image forming ocelli become transparent and convert during moonlit nights to a sensitive photometer, which can record the dynamics of environmental light. High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the distribution of trace minerals in single melanosomes combined with their fine structural details in various states of the lunar cycle provide a first insight into the enzymatic pathways for the generation of a dark melanin (like eumelanin) and a light coloured melanin (like phaeomelanin). Essential advantage of this approach is the spatial and temporal resolution of the metals associated with melanisation processes, which could never before be demonstrated in these details. The data may stimulate further research projects in biomedicine.

  17. Host selection and lethality of attacks by sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in laboratory studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are difficult to study in the wild. A series of laboratory studies (1984-1995) of single attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and burbot (Lota lota) examined host size selection; determined the effects of host size, host species, host strain, and temperature on host mortality; and estimated the weight of hosts killed per lamprey. Rainbow trout were more able and burbot less able to survive attacks than lake trout. Small sea lampreys actively selected the larger of two small hosts; larger sea lampreys attacked larger hosts in proportion to the hosts' body sizes, but actively avoided shorter hosts (a?? 600 mm) when larger were available. Host mortality was significantly less for larger (43-44%) than for smaller hosts (64%). However, the yearly loss of hosts per sea lamprey was less for small hosts (range, 6.8-14.2 kg per sea lamprey) than larger hosts (range, 11.4-19.3 kg per sea lamprey). Attacks at the lower of two temperature ranges (6.1-11.8A?C and 11.1-15.0A?C) did not significantly reduce the percentage of hosts killed (54% vs. 69%, p > 0.21), but longer attachment times at lower temperatures reduced the number of hosts attacked (33 vs. 45), and produced the lowest loss of hosts (6.6 kg per sea lamprey). Low temperature appeared to offset other factors that increase host mortality. Reanalysis of 789 attacks pooled from these studies, using forward stepwise logistic regression, also identified mean daily temperature as the dominant factor affecting host mortality. Observations in Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario support most laboratory results.

  18. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2002-07-01

    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport.

  19. Warmer temperatures reduce the costs of inducible defences in the marine toad, Rhinella marinus.

    PubMed

    van Uitregt, Vincent O; Alton, Lesley A; Heiniger, Jaime; Wilson, R S

    2016-01-01

    Many of the far-reaching impacts of climate change on ecosystem function will be due to alterations in species interactions. However, our understanding of the effects of temperature on the dynamics of interactions between species is largely inadequate. Inducible defences persist in prey populations because defensive traits increase survival in the presence of predators but are costly when they are absent. Large-scale changes in the thermal climate are likely to alter the costs or benefits of these defences for ectotherms, whose physiological processes are driven by environmental temperature. A shift in costs of defensive traits would affect not only predator-prey interactions, but also the strength of selection for inducible defences in natural populations. We investigate the effect of temperature on the costs of behavioural defences in larvae of the marine toad, Rhinella marinus. Larvae were reared in the presence or absence of predator cues at both 25 and 30 °C. When exposed to predation cues, larvae reduced activity and spent less time feeding. Exposure to predation cues also reduced metabolic rate, presumably as a by-product of reducing activity levels. Larvae exposed to predation cues also grew more slowly, were smaller at metamorphosis and were poorer jumpers after metamorphosis--three traits associated with fitness in post-metamorphic anurans. We found that the costs of behavioural defences, in terms of larval growth, post-metamorphic size and jumping performance, were exacerbated at cooler temperatures. The thermal sensitivity of costs associated with defensive traits may explain geographic variation in plasticity of defensive traits in other species and suggests that changes in environmental temperature associated with climate change may affect predator-prey interactions in subtle ways not previously considered.

  20. A lunar clock changes shielding pigment transparency in larval ocelli of Clunio marinus.

    PubMed

    Fleissner, Gerta; Schuchardt, Kirsten; Neumann, Dietrich; Bali, Geetha; Falkenberg, Gerald; Fleissner, Guenther

    2008-02-01

    Living in the tidal zones of the sea requires synchronization with the dominant environmental influences of tidal, solar, and lunar periodicity. Endogenous clocks anticipate those geoclimatic changes and control the respective rhythms of vital functions. But the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. While the circadian clocks in animals are investigated employing neurobiological, molecular, and genetic approaches, clocks with a lunar periodicity have been studied with reference to development and behavior only. Sites of their pacemakers, zeitgeber receptors, and coupled endocrine components are unknown. Here, a lunar-rhythmic change of shielding pigment transparency in the larval ocelli of the intertidal midge Clunio marinus is demonstrated for the first time as a possible access to the neurobiology of lunar timing mechanisms. We studied third instar larvae (Vigo strain) throughout the lunar cycle by light- and electron-microscopy as well as by x-ray fluorescence analysis for the identification of the pigment. Moonlight detection is a prerequisite for photic synchronization of the lunar clock. The larval ocelli of Clunio putatively may function as moonlight receptors and are also controlled by the circalunar clock itself, hence being primary candidates for tracing input and output pathways of the lunar pacemaker. Additionally, the demonstration of a reversible optical change of shielding pigment transparency in Clunio is a novel finding, not reported so far in any other animal species, and reveals a mechanism to enhance photosensitivity under the condition of very dim light. It represents a remarkable change of a sense organ from an imaging device to a radiometer. Its restriction to the developmental stage susceptible to lunar timing elucidates a unique sensory strategy evolved at the level of sensory input. It also raises basic questions about the biochemistry of optically active pigments, like melanin, and their intracellular control.

  1. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  2. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.

  3. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  4. Superoxide dismutases from the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus: purification, biochemical characterization, and development of a plate microassay for activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz; Schott, Eric J; Gauthier, Julie D; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated and biochemically characterized superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in cell extracts of clonally cultured Perkinsus marinus, a facultative intracellular parasite of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. In order to assess the SOD activity throughout the purification, we developed and optimized a 96-well-plate microassay based on the inhibition of pyrogallol oxidation. The assay was also adapted to identify SOD activity type (Cu/Zn-, Mn-, or FeSOD), even in mixtures of more than one type of SOD. All SOD activity detected in the cell extracts was of the FeSOD type. Most of the SOD activity in P. marinus trophozoites resides in a major component of subunit molecular weight 24 kDa. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography on an anti-SOD antibody-Sepharose column. Amino-terminal peptide sequence of the affinity-purified protein corresponds to the predicted product of the PmSOD1 gene and indicates that amino-terminal processing has taken place. The results are discussed in the context of processing of mitochondrially targeted SODs.

  5. The combined influence of sub-optimal temperature and salinity on the in vitro viability of Perkinsus marinus, a protistan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Peyre, M.K.; Casas, S.M.; Gayle, W.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2010-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a major cause of mortality in eastern oysters along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. It is also well documented that temperature and salinity are the primary environmental factors affecting P. marinus viability and proliferation. However, little is known about the effects of combined sub-optimal temperatures and salinities on P. marinus viability. This in vitro study examined those effects by acclimating P. marinus at three salinities (7, 15, 25. ppt) to 10 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures generally reached in the Gulf of Mexico, and to 2 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures reached along the mid-Atlantic coasts and by measuring changes in cell viability and density on days 1, 30, 60 and 90 following acclimation. Cell viability and density were also measured in 7. ppt cultures acclimated to each temperature and then transferred to 3.5. ppt. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with combined low temperature and salinity, indicating that there is clearly a synergistic effect. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with both low temperature and salinity after 30. days (3.5. ppt, 2 ??C: 0% viability), 60. days (3.5. ppt, 10 ??C: 0% viability) and 90. days (7. ppt, 2 ??C: 0.6 ?? 0.7%; 7. ppt, 10 ??C: 0.2 ?? 0.2%). ?? 2010 .

  6. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  7. Effects of salinity on upstream-migrating, spawning sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, D.; Coimbra, J.; Antunes, C.; Wilson, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is an anadromous, semelparous species that is vulnerable to endangered in parts of its native range due in part to loss of spawning habitat because of man-made barriers. The ability of lampreys to return to the ocean or estuary and search out alternative spawning river systems would be limited by their osmoregulatory ability in seawater. A reduction in tolerance to salinity has been documented in migrants, although the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. We examined the capacity for marine osmoregulation in upstream spawning migrants by characterizing the physiological effects of salinity challenge from a molecular perspective. Estuarine-captured migrants held in freshwater (FW) for ∼1 week (short-term acclimation) or 2 months (long-term acclimation) underwent an incremental salinity challenge until loss of equilibrium occurred and upper thresholds of 25 and 17.5, respectively, occurred. Regardless of salinity tolerance, all lamprey downregulated FW ion-uptake mechanisms [gill transcripts of Na+:Cl− cotransporter (NCC/slc12a3) and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC/scnn1) and kidney Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) protein and activity but not transcript]. At their respective salinity limits, lamprey displayed a clear osmoregulatory failure and were unable to regulate [Na+] and [Cl−] in plasma and intestinal fluid within physiological limits, becoming osmocompromised. A >90% drop in haematocrit indicated haemolysis, and higher plasma concentrations of the cytosolic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase indicated damage to other tissues, including liver. However, >80% of short-term FW-acclimated fish were able to osmoregulate efficiently, with less haemolysis and tissue damage. This osmoregulatory ability was correlated with significant upregulation of the secretory form of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC1/slc12a2) transcript levels and the re-emergence of seawater

  8. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  9. Recruiting Blacks into Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leonard; And Others

    Despite significant progress in the recruitment of black journalists, adequate representation of blacks in newsrooms remains an acute concern. The results of (1) statistical monitoring by organizations such as the Newspaper Fund, (2) searching of trade press and academic journal articles for insights into the problem, (3) an open-ended…

  10. Today's Recruitment Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: (1) using market research and marketing principles; (2) targeting specific groups; (3) honesty about campus personality and reputation; (4) cost-effectiveness; and (5) creativity in using effective copy and design. (MSE)

  11. Recruiting New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This special theme issue includes: "How Can We Solve the Teacher Shortage?" (Camp); "A Student's Perspective" (Swafford); "Recruitment" (Dyer, Andreasen); "Top 10 Reasons to Become an Agriculture Teacher and FFA Advisor" (Bembardt, McMaben); "Supply and Demand of Agriculture Teachers since 1965"…

  12. Recruitment. Hello, goodbye.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2008-07-10

    The UK is "moving to a policy of self-sufficiency" according to the Department of Health. The numbers of new overseas entrants into healthcare, including doctors, nurses and midwives has slumped. Several other countries, including Canada, the US and Australia, are aggressively recruiting from overseas, including from the UK. There is an increasing perception the UK does not want overseas staff.

  13. Predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment weaken with recruit density.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Molis, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) of predatory dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on intertidal barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment through field experiments on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast and the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We studied the recruitment seasons (May-June) of 2011 and 2013. In 2011, the Gulf coast had five times more nearshore phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae and recruits) during the recruitment season and yielded a 58% higher barnacle recruit density than the Atlantic coast at the end of the recruitment season. In 2013, phytoplankton levels and barnacle recruit density were similar on both coasts and also lower than for the Gulf coast in 2011. Using the comparative-experimental method, the manipulation of dogwhelk presence (without allowing physical contact with prey) revealed that dogwhelk cues limited barnacle recruitment under moderate recruit densities (Atlantic 2011/2013 and Gulf 2013) but had no effect under a high recruit density (Gulf 2011). Barnacle recruits attract settling larvae through chemical cues. Thus, the highest recruit density appears to have neutralized dogwhelk effects. This study suggests that the predation risk perceived by settling larvae may decrease with increasing recruit density and that prey food supply may indirectly influence predator NCEs on prey recruitment.

  14. MBA Recruitment Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-05

    talented, recent MBA graduates from top-tier U.S. business schools . These graduates bring new ideas, energy and private sector management...sets and school performance may be different, all Fellows are expected to be recent graduates of top-tier business schools who will be performing in...the “CEO/Ambassador” to one of the target business schools where DoD is establishing a physical recruiting presence. The person’s role would be to

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-07

    challenge is further exacerbated by a new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , now coming into the workplace. The Millennials have...these growing recruitment and retention challenges along with the many generational differences of the Millennials in an attempt to provide some...is further exacerbated by a new generation now coming into the workplace. This new generation , commonly referred to as Millennials , has different

  16. Navy Enlisted Recruiting: Alternatives for Improving Recruiter Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Instruction CR Chief Recruiter CRF Career Recruiting Force CS Culinary Specialist CT Command Trainer CTI Cryptologic Technician...8, Aviation Machinist Mates (AD), Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Culinary Specialists (CS), and Fire Controlman (FC) had the highest average

  17. Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, C.P.; Owens, R.W.; Bergstedt, R.A.; O'Gorman, R.

    1996-01-01

    Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-1 sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P P > 0.05) from those of live fish with A-1 marks in 5 of 6 years where comparisons could be made. Compared with Lake Superior strain lake trout, Seneca Lake strain fish were only 0.41 times as likely to be attacked by sea lamprey and were less likely to die from an attack (both differences P < 0.05). Conservative estimates of the numbers of lake trout killed by sea lamprey in southern Lake Ontario from October to mid-November ranged from 17 000 in 1988 to 121 000 in 1984.

  18. The effect of pinealectomy, continuous light, and continuous darkness on metamorphosis of anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, W.C.; Youson, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    The role of the pineal complex in lamprey metamorphosis was investigated by examining the influence of pinealectomy and continuous light and darkness on the initiation of this event in anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L. Larval lampreys, which on the basis of a condition factor were considered likely to enter metamorphosis in July, were separated in May of 1979 and 1980 into the following groups: (1) intact controls, (2) sham-operated controls, (3) pinealectomized individuals, (4) those exposed to continuous light, and (5) those exposed to continuous light or dark. The importance of the pineal complex to metamorphosis was supported by morphological evidence that, in all presumably pinealectomized individuals that entered metamorphosis, the complex had apparently not been removed during the surgical procedure. The ways in which the pineal complex may be involved in lamprey metamorphosis are discussed.

  19. The effects of bis(tributyltin) oxide on the development, reproduction and sex ratio of calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Liu, Guangxing

    2006-08-01

    In order to study the biological effects by bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) exposure, chronic toxicity tests were conducted on the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus marinus over two generations. The results indicated that nauplii were more sensitive than copepodites. F1 copepods were more vulnerable than F0 copepods and a drastic increase in mortality was observed as the TBTO concentration became higher. Exposure of copepods to 60 ng l -1 TBTO concentration reduced the fecundity and resulted in some females being infecund (in the F0 generation). The time to the first egg sac for females in the F1 generation exposed to 6 ng l -1 TBTO concentration was significantly reduced, and the fecundity of this generation was increased. The female-to-male ratio in the F1 generation exposed to 20 ng l -1 TBTO concentration was significantly reduced. These results show that the current ambient TBT concentration may influence populations of copepods in the coastal environment.

  20. Recombinant expression of the antimicrobial peptide polyphemusin and its activity against the protozoan oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Pierce, J C; Maloy, W L; Salvador, L; Dungan, C F

    1997-09-01

    Polyphemusin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide isolated from hemocytes of the North American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. To date the polyphemusin used for scientific analyses has been purified from the natural materials or obtained by chemical synthesis. We report here the recombinant expression in Escherichia coli, and subsequent purification, of a polyphemusin analogue (rLim1). To prevent toxicity of the antimicrobial peptide in the highly susceptible E. coli host, we used a carboxy-terminal fusion protein cloning strategy provided by a maltose-binding protein (MBP) gene fusion system (New England Biolabs). Antimicrobial activity of recombinant polyphemusin was similar to that seen with amidated native polyphemusin peptide. When rLim1 was tested for antibiotic activity against the apicomplexan protozoan oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus, complete inhibition was observed at 12 micrograms/ml, and partial inhibition at 8 micrograms/ml.

  1. Effects of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes on aquatic plants, invertebrates and amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, P.A.; Johnson, B.G.H.

    1980-01-01

    The chemicals 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) or a combination of TFM and 2a??,5-dichloro-4a??-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) have been used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes for about 20 yr. These chemicals cause some mortalities of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, immature forms of Ephemeroptera (Hexagenia sp.), and certain Trichoptera, Simuliidae, and Amphibia (Necturus sp.). The combination of TFM and Bayer 73 may affect some Pelecypoda and Gastropoda, but its overall effects on invertebrates are probably less than those of TFM alone. Granular Bayer 73 is likely to induce mortalities among oligochaetes, microcrustaceans, chironomids, and pelecypods. No evidence exists that the lampricides have caused the catastrophic decline or disappearance of any species. The overall impact of chemical control of sea lampreys on aquatic communities has been minor compared with the benefits derived.

  2. Generational Recruiting: Applying Generational Theory to Tactical Level Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-24

    theory at the tactical level of recruiting, recruiters must be mindful of the socio-economic environment and influences that shaped the peer personality......Command to apply generational theory at the ’tactical level’ of canvassing recruiters, just as MCRC applies generational theory in its expertly informed

  3. The Students-Recruiting-Students Undergraduate Engineering Recruiting Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattis, Carol; Nachtmann, Heather; Youngblood, Alisha D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Students-Recruiting-Students (SRS) program developed to recruit high school students into the Industrial Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas. Presents four phases of the program along with seven years of program results. Encourages successful development of similar recruiting programs. (KHR)

  4. Army Recruiting Resourcing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Sheridan, Illinois 60037-6090 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMO No. 070虨 I.& Mrw ung U btOfl tOf thti (CM .; 9 Of nOMToMt,0* Mt e,,tiSO w &rIK" 1 OUr...are those of the author and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army policy or position, unless so designated by other...changes in policies , regulations, or statutes that affect recruiting. Those interviewed within the DA staff (DCSPER, PA&E, and DAB personnel) believe there

  5. Preparing Alumni for Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Brian

    As recruitment budgets continue to tighten and with fewer colleges reporting application increases for their freshmen classes, enrollment managers must continue to explore all potential sources of recruitment talent. Alumni are often an underutilized or sometimes poorly utilized resource in recruitment efforts. Younger alumni, for example, may…

  6. Nichelle Nichols, NASA Recruiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Actress Nichelle Nichols was born in Robbins, Illinois on December 29, 1936. She played Lieutenant Uhura the Communications Officer on the U.S.S. Enterprise in the original series, Star Trek. Nichols stayed with the show and has appeared in six Star Trek movies. Her portrayal of Uhura on Star Trek marked one of the first non-stereotypical roles assigned to an African-American actress. She also provided the voice for Lt. Uhura on the Star Trek animated series in 1974-75. Before joining the crew on Star Trek, she sang and danced with Duke Ellington's band. Nichols was always interested in space travel. She flew aboard the C-141 Astronomy Observatory, which analyzed the atmospheres of Mars and Saturn on an eight hour, high altitude mission. From the late 1970's until the late 1980's, NASA employed Nichelle Nichols to recruit new astronaut candidates. Many of her new recruits were women or members of racial and ethnic minorities, including Guion Bluford (the first African-American astronaut), Sally Ride (the first female American astronaut), Judith Resnik (one of the original set of female astronauts, who perished during the launch of the Challenger on January 28, 1986), and Ronald McNair (the second African-American astronaut, and another victim of the Challenger accident). Currently Nichelle Nichols is actively involved in movies and special appearances. She is also a spokesperson for her favorite charity, 'The Kwanzaa Foundation.'

  7. The effect of CO2 acidified sea water and reduced salinity on aspects of the embryonic development of the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach).

    PubMed

    Egilsdottir, Hronn; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the effect of CO(2) acidified sea water (S=35, 22 and 10(PSU)) on embryonic development of the intertidal amphipod Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). Low pH, but not low salinity (22(PSU)), resulted in a more protracted embryonic development in situ although the effect was only evident at low salinity. However reduced salinity, not pH, exerted a strong significant effect, on numbers and calcium content of hatchlings. Females exposed to low salinity (10(PSU)) did not carry eggs through to hatching. There was no significant difference in the number of viable hatchlings between females cultured in 22 and 35(PSU) but the exoskeleton of the juveniles at 22(PSU) contained significantly less calcium. Ocean acidification may affect aspects of E. marinus development but exposure to realistic low salinities appear, in the short term, to be more important in impacting development than exposure to CO(2) acidified sea water at levels predicted for 300 years time.

  8. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  9. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact.

    PubMed

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-03-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  10. Subcellular localization of the magnetosome protein MamC in the marine magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 using immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valverde-Tercedor, C; Abadía-Molina, F; Martinez-Bueno, M; Pineda-Molina, Estela; Chen, Lijun; Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Brian H; Lower, Steven K; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C

    2014-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular magnetosomes, composed of magnetic (Fe3O4) crystals each enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane that contains proteins not found in other parts of the cell. Although partial roles of some of these magnetosome proteins have been determined, the roles of most have not been completely elucidated, particularly in how they regulate the biomineralization process. While studies on the localization of these proteins have been focused solely on Magnetospirillum species, the goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the localization of the most abundant putative magnetosome membrane protein, MamC, in Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. MamC was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against MamC and immunogold labeling TEM was used to localize MamC in thin sections of cells of M. marinus. Results show that MamC is located only in the magnetosome membrane of Mc. marinus. Based on our findings and the abundance of this protein, it seems likely that it is important in magnetosome biomineralization and might be used in controlling the characteristics of synthetic nanomagnetite.

  11. The caa(3) terminal oxidase of Rhodothermus marinus lacking the key glutamate of the D-channel is a proton pump.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M M; Verkhovskaya, M L; Teixeira, M; Verkhovsky, M I

    2000-05-30

    The thermohalophilic bacterium Rhodothermus marinus expresses a caa(3)-type dioxygen reductase as one of its terminal oxidases. The subunit I amino acid sequence shows the presence of all the essential residues of the D- and K-proton channels, defined in most heme-copper oxidases, with the exception of the key glutamate residue located in the middle of the membrane dielectric (E278 in Paracoccus denitrificans). On the basis of homology modeling studies, a tyrosine residue (Y256, R. marinus numbering) has been proposed to act as a functional substitute [Pereira, M. M., Santana, M., Soares, C. M., Mendes, J., Carita, J. N., Fernandes, A. S., Saraste, M., Carrondo, M. A., and Teixeira, M. (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1413, 1-13]. Here, R. marinus caa(3) oxidase was reconstituted in liposomes and shown to operate as a proton pump, translocating protons from the cytoplasmic side of the bacterial inner membrane to the periplasmatic space with a stoichiometry of 1H(+)/e(-), as in the case in heme-copper oxidases that contain the glutamate residue. Possible mechanisms of proton transfer in the D-channel with the participation of the tyrosine residue are discussed. The observation that the tyrosine residue is conserved in several other members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily suggests a common alternative mode of action for the D-channel.

  12. Subcellular localization of the magnetosome protein MamC in the marine magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1 using immunoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde-Tercedor, C; Abada-Molina, F; Martinez-Bueno, M; Pineda-Molina, Estela; Chen, Lijun; Oestreicher, Zachery; Lower, Brian H; Lower, Steven K; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Jimenez-Lopez, C

    2014-04-24

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular magnetosomes, composed of magnetic (Fe3O4) crystals each enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane that contains proteins not found in other parts of the cell. Although partial roles of some of these magnetosome proteins have been determined, the roles of most have not been completely elucidated, particularly in how they regulate the biomineralization process. While studies on the localization of these proteins have been focused solely on Magnetospirillum species, the goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the localization of the most abundant putative magnetosome membrane protein, MamC, in Magnetococcus marinus strain MC-1. MamC was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against MamC and immunogold labeling TEM was used to localize MamC in thin sections of cells of M. marinus. Results show that MamC is located only in the magnetosome membrane of Mc. marinus. Based on our findings and the abundance of this protein, it seems likely that it is important in magnetosome biomineralization and might be used in controlling the characteristics of synthetic nanomagnetite.

  13. Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb) seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat). Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA) and cell division (ftsZ, sepF), whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC) were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels of the dnaA gene

  14. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)).

  15. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  16. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  17. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  18. Structural Mechanism for Light-driven Transport by a New Type of Chloride Ion Pump, Nonlabens marinus Rhodopsin-3.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hato, Masakatsu; DeLong, Edward F; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Iwasaki, Wataru; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2016-08-19

    The light-driven inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin Nonlabens marinus rhodopsin-3 (NM-R3), from a marine flavobacterium, belongs to a phylogenetic lineage distinct from the halorhodopsins known as archaeal inward chloride ion-pumping rhodopsins. NM-R3 and halorhodopsin have distinct motif sequences that are important for chloride ion binding and transport. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a new type of light-driven chloride ion pump, NM-R3, at 1.58 Å resolution. The structure revealed the chloride ion translocation pathway and showed that a single chloride ion resides near the Schiff base. The overall structure, chloride ion-binding site, and translocation pathway of NM-R3 are different from those of halorhodopsin. Unexpectedly, this NM-R3 structure is similar to the crystal structure of the light-driven outward sodium ion pump, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2. Structural and mutational analyses of NM-R3 revealed that most of the important amino acid residues for chloride ion pumping exist in the ion influx region, located on the extracellular side of NM-R3. In contrast, on the opposite side, the cytoplasmic regions of K. eikastus rhodopsin 2 were reportedly important for sodium ion pumping. These results provide new insight into ion selection mechanisms in ion pumping rhodopsins, in which the ion influx regions of both the inward and outward pumps are important for their ion selectivities.

  19. Direct behavioral evidence that unique bile acids released by larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) function as a migratory pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjerselius , Rickard; Li, Weiming; Teeter, John H.; Seelye, James G.; Johnson, Peter B.; Maniak, Peter J.; Grant, Gerold C.; Polkinghorne, Christine N.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Four behavioral experiments conducted in both the laboratory and the field provide evidence that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) select spawning rivers based on the odor of larvae that they contain and that bile acids released by the larvae are part of this pheromonal odor. First, when tested in a recirculating maze, migratory adult lamprey spent more time in water scented with larvae. However, when fully mature, adults lost their responsiveness to larvae and preferred instead the odor of mature individuals. Second, when tested in a flowing stream, migratory adults swam upstream more actively when the water was scented with larvae. Third, when migratory adults were tested in a laboratory maze containing still water, they exhibited enhanced swimming activity in the presence of a 0.1 nM concentration of the two unique bile acids released by larvae and detected by adult lamprey. Fourth, when adults were exposed to this bile acid mixture within flowing waters, they actively swam into it. Taken together, these data suggest that adult lamprey use a bile acid based larval pheromone to help them locate spawning rivers and that responsiveness to this cue is influenced by current flow, maturity, and time of day. Although the precise identity and function of the larval pheromone remain to be fully elucidated, we believe that this cue will ultimately prove useful as an attractant in sea lamprey control.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  1. Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.

    PubMed

    Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

    2005-10-01

    Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.003-0.009). Populations in Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga are native. Alternative models that describe different routes and timing of colonization of freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River.

  2. Complete Sequence of a Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus) Mitochondrial Genome: Early Establishment of the Vertebrate Genome Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W. J.; Kocher, T. D.

    1995-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome has been determined. The lamprey genome is 16,201 bp in length and contains genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and two major noncoding regions. The order and transcriptional polarities of protein-coding genes are basically identical to those of other chordate mtDNAs, demonstrating that the common mitochondrial gene organization of vertebrates was established at an early stage of vertebrate evolution. The two major noncoding regions are separated by two tRNA genes. The first region probably functions as the control region because it contains distinctive conserved sequence blocks (CSB-II and III) common to other vertebrate control regions. The central conserved domain observed in other vertebrate control regions is not found in the lamprey, suggesting that it is a recently evolved functional domain in vertebrates. Noncoding segments are not found in the expected position of the origin of replication for the second strand, suggesting either that one of the tRNA genes has a dual function or that the second noncoding region may function as the second-strand origin. The base composition at the wobble positions of fourfold degenerate codon families is highly biased toward thymine (32.7%). Values of GC-and AT-skew are typical of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.genomes. PMID:7713438

  3. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  4. Complete sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome: Early establishment of the vertebrate genome organization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.J.; Kocher, T.D.

    1995-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) mitochondrial genome has been determined. The lamprey genome is 16,201 bp in length and contains genes for 13 proteins, two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and two major noncoding regions. The order and transcriptional polarities of protein-coding genes are basically identical to those of other chordate mtDNAs, demonstrating that the common mitochondrial gene organization of vertebrates was established at early stage of vertebrate evolution. The two major noncoding regions are separated by two tRNA genes. The first region probably functions as the control region because it contains distinctive conserved sequence blocks (CSB-II and III) common to other vertebrate control regions. The central conserved domain observed in other vertebrate control regions is not found in the lamprey, suggesting that it is a recently evolved functional domain in vertebrates. Noncoding segments are not found in the expected position of the origin of replication for the second strand, suggesting either that one of the tRNA genes has a dual function or that the second noncoding region may function as the second-strand origin. The base composition at the wobble positions of fourfold degenerate codon families is highly biased toward thymine (32.7%). Values of GC- and AT-skew are typical of vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. 38 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Synthesis and olfactory activity of unnatural, sulfated 5β-bile acid derivatives in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Aaron C.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of unnatural bile acid derivatives (9a–9f) were synthesized and used to examine the specificity with which the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) olfactory system detects these compounds. These compounds are analogs of petromyzonol sulfate (PS, 1), a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone. Both the stereochemical configuration at C5 (i.e., 5α vs. 5β) and the extent and sites of oxygenation (hydroxylation or ketonization) of the bile acid derived steroid skeleton were evaluated by screening the compounds for olfactory activity using electro-olfactogram recording. 5β-Petromyzonol sulfate (9a) elicited a considerable olfactory response at sub-nanomolar concentration. In addition, less oxygenated systems (i.e., 9b–9e) elicited olfactory responses, albeit with less potency. The sea lamprey sex pheromone mimic 9f (5β-3-ketopetromyzonol sulfate) was also examined and found to produce a much lower olfactory response. Mixture studies conducted with 9a and PS (1) suggest that stimulation is occurring via similar modes of activation, demonstrating a relative lack of specificity for recognition of the allo-configuration (i.e., 5α) in sea lamprey olfaction. This attribute could facilitate design of pheromone analogs to control this invasive species. PMID:21145335

  6. Relation of concentration and exposure time to the efficacy of niclosamide against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholefield, R.J.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Bills, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of 2’, 5-dichloro-4’-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) at various concentrations and exposure times was tested against free-swimming larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) at 12°C and 17°C in Lake Huron water. Concentrations of niclosamide in test solutions ranged from 0.46 to 4.7 mg/L with pH 7.8 to 8.3, total alkalinity 78 to 88 mg/L as CaCO3, and total hardness 95 to 105 mg/L as CaCO3. In each test, six groups of larvae were exposed to a single concentration of niclosamide for times ranging from 30 s to 30 min. Exposure time was treated as the dose and, for each concentration tested, the exposure time necessary to kill 50 and 99.9% of larvae (ET50 and ET99.9) was determined. Linear regressions of the log10-transformed ET50 and ET99.9 on the log10-transformed niclosamide concentrations were significant at both temperatures with r2ranging from 0.94 to 0.98. The predicted ET50 ranged from 58 sec to 21.7 min and the ET99.9 ranged from 2.5 to 43.5 min across the concentrations and temperatures tested. Niclosamide required a significantly longer time to kill larvae at 12°C than at 17°C.

  7. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hume, John B.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  8. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  9. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  10. Recruiting Migrant Students Reference Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leon, Ed.

    This document reports on a study evaluating the practices of identification and recruitment of migrant students. Guided by a 14-state advisory council, data were collected by ethnographic research of practice in migrant recruitment and focus-group studies of migrant families. The document consists of five sections each written by a different…

  11. Nutrition Knowledge among Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-27

    Nutrition Knovledge among Navy Recruits DTIC AELEOI7E flS SEP 2 8 1987 Terry L. Conway Linda K. Hervig D Ross R. Vickers, Jr. Health Psychology Department...5 Participants ............................................................. 5 Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire...Students ............................... 6 Recruits’ Nutrition Knowledge .................................... ...... 8 Correlates of Nutrition Knowledge

  12. Three Keys to Better Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazington, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment is an expensive business: In 2010-2011, the median cost to recruit an undergraduate was $2,185 among private colleges and universities, according to Noel-Levitz, an enrollment management consultancy. In these tough fiscal times, admissions departments are under pressure to keep those costs down even as they pursue higher enrollment and…

  13. Changing Attitudes toward Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Donald

    The identification, encouragement, and recruitment of teachers is a professional responsibility that must be faced today. The field of industrial arts holds no external attractors; the job of teacher recruitment rests on the shoulders of teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. Teachers have attitudes that fail to support any process that…

  14. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Interviews with Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and

  15. Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from glacier ice, and emended descriptions of Nonlabens marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Min; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, orange pigmented, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain AKS622(T), was isolated from a glacier core collected from the coast of King George Island, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AKS622(T) was affiliated to the genus Nonlabens of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed highest similarity to Nonlabens marinus S1-08(T) (97.9%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain AKS622(T) and N. marinus S1-08(T) was 46%. Optimal growth of strain AKS622(T) was observed at pH 7.0, at 15 °C and with 2.0% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH, C17:0 2-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c). The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified lipid were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strain AKS622(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nonlabens, for which the name Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AKS622(T) ( = KCCM 43019(T) = JCM 14068(T)). Emended descriptions of N. marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012 are given.

  16. Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

    1965-01-01

    The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

  17. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  18. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  19. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2003-07-01

    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  20. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  1. Survival and metamorphosis of low-density populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in streams following lampricide treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus control in the Great Lakes primarily involves application of lampricides to streams where larval production occurs to kill larvae prior to their metamorphosing and entering the lakes as parasites (juveniles). Because lampricides are not 100% effective, larvae that survive treatment maymetamorphose before streams are again treated. Larvae that survive treatment have not beenwidely studied, so their dynamics are notwell understood.Wetagged and released larvae in six Great Lake tributaries following lampricide treatment and estimated vital demographic rates using multistate tag-recovery models. Model-averaged larval survivals ranged from 56.8 to 57.6%. Model-averaged adult recovery rates, which were the product of juvenile survivals and adult capture probabilities, ranged from 6.8 to 9.3%. Using stochastic simulations, we estimated production of juvenile sea lampreys from a hypothetical population of treatment survivors under different growth conditions based on parameter estimates from this research. For fast-growing populations, juvenile production peaked 2 years after treatment. For slow-growing populations, juvenile production was approximately one-third that of fast-growing populations,with production not peaking until 4 years after treatment. Our results suggest that dynamics (i.e., survival, metamorphosis) of residual larval populations are very similar to those of untreated larval populations. Consequently, residual populations do not necessarily warrant special consideration for the purpose of sea lamprey control and can be ranked for treatment along with other populations. Consecutive lampricide treatments, which are under evaluation by the sea lamprey control program, would bemost effective for reducing juvenile production in large, fast-growing populations.

  2. Genetic Architecture of Local Adaptation in Lunar and Diurnal Emergence Times of the Marine Midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias S.; Heckel, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167–193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95–140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock. PMID:22384150

  3. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Requirements of a recruitment report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a written recruitment report... job opportunity up to the date of the preparation of the recruitment report, and the disposition...

  4. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  5. Spatial synchrony in cisco recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Jared T.; Yule, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael L.; Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Ebener, Mark P.; Berglund, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spatial scale of recruitment variability for disparate cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in the Great Lakes (n = 8) and Minnesota inland lakes (n = 4). We found that the scale of synchrony was approximately 400 km when all available data were utilized; much greater than the 50-km scale suggested for freshwater fish populations in an earlier global analysis. The presence of recruitment synchrony between Great Lakes and inland lake cisco populations supports the hypothesis that synchronicity is driven by climate and not dispersal. We also found synchrony in larval densities among three Lake Superior populations separated by 25–275 km, which further supports the hypothesis that broad-scale climatic factors are the cause of spatial synchrony. Among several candidate climate variables measured during the period of larval cisco emergence, maximum wind speeds exhibited the most similar spatial scale of synchrony to that observed for cisco. Other factors, such as average water temperatures, exhibited synchrony on broader spatial scales, which suggests they could also be contributing to recruitment synchrony. Our results provide evidence that abiotic factors can induce synchronous patterns of recruitment for populations of cisco inhabiting waters across a broad geographic range, and show that broad-scale synchrony of recruitment can occur in freshwater fish populations as well as those from marine systems.

  6. Facilitating Alzheimer disease research recruitment.

    PubMed

    Grill, Joshua D; Galvin, James E

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research faces challenges to successful enrollment, especially to clinical trials and biomarker studies. Failure to recruit the planned number of participants in a timely manner threatens the internal validity and success of clinical research, raising concerns about external validity and generalizability of results, and possibly leading to disparities in disease treatment. Methods to improve recruitment exist, but require varying levels of staff effort and financial resources, and evidence of effectiveness is often lacking or inconsistent. In this review, we summarize some of the available methods to improve AD research recruitment, the available literature to support or refute these strategies, and some of the experiences at the authors' AD Research Centers. We discuss the use of community-based participatory research principles and participant registries as a means to enhance research enrollment and increase diversity of research samples.

  7. International Student Recruitment: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, Santa

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current trends in international student recruitment. Focusing specifically on recruitment of Chinese students, important aspects of China's educational system relevant to recruitment are presented. Barriers to Chinese student recruitment are then discussed. Successful, employed, international graduates validate…

  8. Recruiting Trends, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2008-2009. This year's report is based on 945 respondents, including 57 K-12 schools. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth small companies and expended most of their energy in retaining their sample distribution, knowing that the prevailing economic situation would reduce responses.…

  9. Ethical Issues in Recruiting Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of deceptive recruitment are highlighted in a review of questionable practices used to attract students both from within the United States and abroad. Major issues for action are identified as sacrificing quality for numbers, the hiring of marketing consultants, professional training of admissions directors, and federal regulation.…

  10. Recruiting Trends, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    College students who plan on entering the labor market can expect to see more job opportunities in the spring of 2007, according to information supplied by 864 companies and organizations to this year's Recruiting Trends Report. After two years of double digit growth, the expansion will slow to a modest 4% to 6%. Two opposing factors appear to be…

  11. Building a Winning Recruiting Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Sherrie Gong

    2002-01-01

    Building a winning recruiting team is essential to the well being of virtually every organization. Putting together a great mix of people to represent an organization and bring in new talent can serve an organization well when competition is fierce or demand is down. (GCP)

  12. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in…

  13. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  14. Three Recruitment and Retention Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    This three-part report summarizes methodology and findings of three recruitment and retention studies conducted by the Bronx Community College (BCC) during 1979-1980. Part I examines a survey of enrolled students conducted to determine student attitudes toward BCC, the services that were most in demand, the reasons for attending BCC, and student…

  15. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (pro)].

    PubMed

    Suárez Sipmann, F

    2009-04-01

    In recent years lung recruitment maneuvers (RM) have awakened an increasing interest due to their potential beneficial effects in lung protection so that they have been progressively introduced into clinical practice. Many clinical and experimental studies have described the physiological benefits obtained after lung re-expansion although these benefits are not uniform, partly because of the wide heterogeneity of the RMs applied and lack of criteria defining their goal. Therefore, to date it has been difficult to establish the role of recruitment in the ventilatory management of ARDS patients. However, the information obtained from recent studies has improved our understanding regarding the mechanisms governing lung recruitment, interpretation of its response and its side effects and this has strongly contributed to its improved practical application. Lung recruitment must be applied in a protocolized and individualized way, establishing the pressure necessary to obtain the reasonably possible maximum lung re-expansion in each patient. Post RM PEEP adjustment is an essential aspect which, if ignored, renders RM useless and possibly without indication. Taking these essential aspects into account we are getting closer to, as the author believes, finally demonstrating the benefit of RM in lung protection and ARDS patients' outcome.

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, Janice

    2003-01-01

    Adult learners, long the stepchildren of colleges and universities, have nearly become the norm, and they spend billions of dollars each year on education. This chapter takes a customer-oriented approach to recruiting and retaining adult students in higher education. (GCP)

  17. Recruiting Trends, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2009-2010. This year's report is based on over 2,500 respondents, of which approximately 2,259 provided useable information with 1,846 including complete hiring figures used for the projections. The researchers continued their focus on fast-growth companies and expanded their efforts to ensure a…

  18. Marketer's forgotten challenge: physician recruitment.

    PubMed

    Plank, D

    1997-01-01

    As marketing department missions continue to expand, more and more people are finding themselves not just recruiting customers, but doctors. The good news: May of the tips and tricks of direct marketing can be used to reach out to in-demand physicians.

  19. Recruiting and Retaining Summer Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossen, Brian; Yerkes, Rita

    1998-01-01

    Recruiting of camp staff is challenged by economic and workplace restructuring, including business downsizing, part-time and temporary employment patterns, and generational attitude changes. Strategies for hiring and retaining staff include knowing what college-age workers want, marketing benefits, adopting new business strategies, and empowering…

  20. A recruiting failure turned success

    PubMed Central

    Hure, Alexis J; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes an attempt that was made to recruit child-bearing women into a nutrition-based research study and the knowledge that was gained when this approach was unsuccessful. The Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was a cross-sectional survey which planned to follow-up women and children who had previously been, or were currently enrolled in the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study. Methods Ethics approval was sought and obtained over an eight month period. After just six weeks it was obvious that our research objectives were not achievable because of an inadequate response rate (10%). This led to a review of the recruiting methodology as well as all written materials provided to potential participants. Advice was sought from those with expertise in the design of large public health campaigns and literature was consulted to refine our recruitment strategy. Results In subsequent redevelopment, the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity Study was merged with the Mathematical Model of Pregnancy Study to become what is now known as the Women and Their Children's Health Study. Consent rates improved from 10% and 35% in the Assessment Before Children Develop Obesity and Mathematical Model of Pregnancy studies respectively, to 61% in the Women and Their Children's Health Study (chi square test, p < 0.001). Successful recruitment for this research continues. The significant improvement in the participation rate is attributed to numerous factors including changes to the study name, recruiting method and information materials. Conclusion By sharing our experience we aim to assist other researcher in avoiding the same pitfalls and offer effective strategies for improving response rates. PMID:18366805

  1. Patient recruitment workflow with and without a patient recruitment system.

    PubMed

    Trinczek, Benjamin; Schulte, Britta; Breil, Bernhard; Dugas, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In clinical trials (CTs), the process of patient recruitment (PR) is one of the main risk factors, as almost half of all trial delays are caused by problems in PR. To our knowledge, no publication in this field describes the process of PR. Therefore, weak spots and potential benefits cannot be identified. By interviewing six domain experts and modeling the workflow in a standardized way, we describe the actors, tasks and tools within PR. We compare the current workflow with Patient Recruitment System (PRS)-supported PR. The identification of eligible participants is the most complex part, but adding a PRS simplifies it by automating repetitive tasks and taking work off the Investigators' hands. This work contributes to a common understanding of the PR process.

  2. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  3. Making medical recruitment practices fair.

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, S.

    1996-01-01

    The fact that in the past each medical student was assured of a post when qualified has led many in medicine to believe that selection for recruitment is merely a formality based on qualification and accreditation. Consequently little thought has gone into developing detailed person or post selection criteria. As a result most recruitment panel members are unclear on what basis to discriminate between equally qualified candidates and invariably plump for 'the face that fits'. This practice discriminates against women, black doctors and those white men not quite acceptable in manner, dress or attitudes. In this article, advice is offered on the development of equality strategies for public sector organisations and on the implementation of fair practices. PMID:8731704

  4. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III...RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. CU) MAR So L GOLDBERG UNCLASSIFIED CNA-PP-275 N ROFESSIONAL PAPE 75March 1980 6,) . ..... - R

  5. Defining optimal freshwater flow for oyster production: effects of freshet rate and magnitude of change and duration on eastern oysters and Perkinsus marinus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Gossman, B.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2009-01-01

    In coastal Louisiana, the development of large-scale freshwater diversion projects has led to controversy over their effects on oyster resources. Using controlled laboratory experiments in combination with a field study, we examined the effects of pulsed freshwater events (freshet) of different magnitude, duration, and rate of change on oyster resources. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that low salinity events (<5 psu) decreased Perkinsus marinus infection intensities. Furthermore, when salinity was low (<5 psu), parasite infection intensities continued to decrease even as temperatures exceeded 20°C. At the same time, oyster growth was positively correlated with salinity. To maximize oyster production, data indicate that both low and high salinity events will be necessary.

  6. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C

    2002-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  7. Recruiting and retaining indigenous farmworker participants

    PubMed Central

    Farquhar, Stephanie; de Jesus Gonzalez, Carmen; Hall, Jennifer; Samples, Julie; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information on the specific practices used to successfully recruit and retain indigenous and Latino farmworkers in research studies. This article describes the strategies used in a community-based participatory research project with indigenous agricultural workers. Participants were recruited through consulting with indigenous relatives and friends, identifying and meeting with indigenous leaders from hometown associations in countries of origin, and asking current participants to recruit fellow farmworkers. Adjustments were initiated to the second year protocol to enhance recruitment and retention. The difference in attrition rates between years one and two was statistically significant, a difference partially attributed to modifications to recruitment and retention protocol. Findings confirmed that active recruitment techniques and word-of-mouth recruitment were more effective than passive methods. Trust among academic, organization, and community partners, and shared language and culture between those doing the recruitment and the participants, contributed to sustained farmworker participation. PMID:23733354

  8. Navy Recruitment Potential in Junior Colleges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    could be employed in recruitment advertising directed to this target market segment. ~~iZ Uncla ssifie d SECURITY CLAUIPIC~f(ATION OFf THIS PA09(Wh•l...Alexandria, Virginia, CR-ED-74-1, July 1974. Grey Advertising . Market Target Recruitmen~t Incentive Study for Enlisted Personnel (draft report, internal NRC...the recruiter or the various advertising media. Survey findings document the importance of the recruiter, and suggestpromising media and appeals which

  9. Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    product markets have concluded that advertising increases demand in current and future periods, but its effects decline over time (see reference 2). A study...Apr 1979 2. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Nov 1976, pp. 345...7AD-AOA6201 CENTER FOR NAVAL ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA INST OF NAVAL--ETC F/6 5/9 I RECRUITERS, ADVERTISING , AND NAVY ENLISTMENTS. (U) IOCT 79 L

  10. Study of Navy Recruiting Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    recruiters never use NRST; further, four out five feel that NRST has no positive impact on their confidence, sales skills, productivity, or time ... management . Additionally, fewer than one in four Navy recruiters rated NRST favorably on its usability. The responses of recruiting supervisors were very

  11. Faculty Recruitment in an Era of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn; Schimpf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Faculty recruitment is a challenge for administration and departments, especially in an era of change in the academy. This article builds on information from an interactive conference panel session that focused on faculty recruitment best practices. The article addresses faculty recruitment strategies that focus on the optimization of search…

  12. Recruitment and Strategies for Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Edward H.

    The guide is designed to assist the small school administrator in the successful recruitment of teachers. It provides a recruitment design, which encompasses community and school assets, and a list of "ideal characteristics" of teachers who are congruent with the needs of small schools. Fifteen strategies for effective recruitment include…

  13. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  14. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  15. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  16. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recruitment. 618.310 Section 618.310 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment....

  17. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  18. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  19. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  20. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  1. 28 CFR 345.31 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 345.31 Section 345.31 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Recruitment and Hiring Practices § 345.31 Recruitment. Inmate workers...

  2. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  3. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each of its training programs, make comparable efforts to recruit members of each sex in the geographic area from which such entity attracts its students. A federally supported entity shall not recruit for... on the basis of sex in selection for a training program. (b) Recruitment practices. A...

  4. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet R.

    This guide, prepared by the United States Navy Recruit Training Command, was designed to address the differential training needs of male and female recruits in the area of personal security, i.e., rape awareness/prevention. In section I, the role of the Recruit Training Command is noted, and information on the incidence of sexual assault is…

  5. 45 CFR 618.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.310 Recruitment. (a... basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students. A recipient may be required to...

  6. Special Forces Recruiting: The Operational Need for Targeted Recruitment of First and Second Generation Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Prospecting......................................................28 2. Recruiting Trips (Temporary Duty) within the Market Areas .....29 3. Conducting...31 5. SFAS Requirements...........................................................................32 IV. RECRUITABLE MARKETS AND RECRUITERS...whether or not the market is penetrable, whether the candidates are useful to SF, whether or not such recruits are trainable, and finally, can

  7. Dental care needs of Army recruits.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W A; Mangelsdorff, A D; Brunner, D G

    1983-01-01

    To determine the prevalence amng current U.S. Army recruits of dental conditions requiring treatment, an assessment was done of the dental care needs of a 3 percent sample (N = 5,613) of incoming recruits at all seven U.S. Army reception stations that operate under a dental treatment planning concept. Both the treatment needs of the total sample and of each Army component--that is, Regular, Reserve, and National Guard forces--were quantified. The results indicated that the requirement for dental care among Army recruits currently being processed for training is approximately the same as it was for such recruits at the time that the Selective Service System draft was in effect, although the types of care needed have changed. Like the draft-based recruits, current Army recruits enter active-duty status with a substantial backlog of unmet dental care needs. PMID:6867262

  8. An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    SOUTH CAROLINA COULUMBIOIA, SOJUT II A \\ II~4AI 290 ANNAYSI . ..,". - AN ANALYSIS OF fEMALE MARINE RECRUIT ATTRITION I William H./Mobley Stuart...PERIOD COVERED An Analysis of Female Marine Recruit Attrition Technical Report S- PERFOMIWo ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 2. CONTRACT ON GRANT NUMer...number) Attrition Leadership Behavioral -Intentions Age Attitudes Group Cl imate Roles Recruit Training Expectations Job Conteuit Values Race Females

  9. Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATIONAL THEORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR RECRUITING THE MILLENNIALS by Colonel James P. Drago United States Army...by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel James P. Drago TITLE: Generational Theory: Implications for Recruiting the Millennials FORMAT: Strategy...and attitudes of Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Millennial generation , the target audience of the Army’s current recruiting efforts

  10. Understanding Millennials to Improve Recruiting Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    ABSTRACT The Millennial generation , born between 1982 and 2003, has been influenced by numerous events in their developmental years such as the 9/11...characteristics of the Millennial generation and the interrelationship with other generations in an effort to improve U.S. Army recruiting efficiencies... Millennials . Recruiting is a “people” business and the more USAREC leaders and recruiters understand generational interrelationships, influences, and

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    PubMed

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  12. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  13. [Utility of recruitment maneuvers (con)].

    PubMed

    Ochagavia, A; Blanch, L; Lopez-Aguilar, J

    2009-04-01

    A reduction in both total lung volume and in lung parenchyma useful for gas exchange has been observed in ARDS patients. Applying an appropriate ventilatory pattern that includes PEEP can open up collapsed areas of the lung to aeration, thus ensuring a more homogeneous distribution of air in the lung. However, the heterogeneous patterns observed in patients with ARDS vary widely in their response to ventilation with PEEP. Recruitment maneuvers (RM) have been proposed as an adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed lung tissue in ARDS. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether RM are useful when patients are ventilated with high PEEP or when they have fibrosis, stiff chest wall, or hypovolemia, among other conditions. Likewise, decisions about RM must take into account not only their short- and long-term efficacy and reversibility, but also possible adverse effects derived from the high pressures reached during RM, including barotrauma, hemodynamic alterations, reduced systolic volume and aortic flow, and difficulties in venous return, as well as the possibility of bacterial translocation to the bloodstream or other organs. This article review the effects of RM as adjuvant treatment to mechanical ventilation in ARDS patients and discuss its efficacy and potential benefits as well as the different interactions that RM can have with the diverse conditions that can be associated to ARDS.

  14. Interactions between Multiple Recruitment Drivers: Post-Settlement Predation Mortality and Flow-Mediated Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Antony M.; Firth, Louise B.; Walters, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Background Dispersal is a primary driver in shaping the future distribution of species in both terrestrial and marine systems. Physical transport by advection can regulate the distance travelled and rate of propagule supply to a habitat but post-settlement processes such as predation can decouple supply from recruitment. The effect of flow-mediated recruitment and predation on the recruitment success of an intertidal species, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was evaluated in two-replicated field experiments. Two key crab species were manipulated to test predator identity effects on oyster mortality. Findings Recruitment was ∼58% higher in high flow compared to low flow, but predation masked those differences. Predation mortality was primarily attributed to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, whilst the mud crab Panopeus herbstii had no effect on recruit mortality. Recruit mortality from predation was high when recruit densities were high, but when recruit density was low, predation effects were not seen. Under high recruitment (supply), predation determined maximum population size and in low flow environments, recruitment success is likely determined by a combination of recruitment and resource limitation but not predation. Conclusions Four processes are demonstrated: (1) Increases in flow rate positively affect recruitment success; (2) In high flow (recruitment) environments, resource availability is less important than predation; (3) predation is an important source of recruit mortality, but is dependent upon recruit density; and (4) recruitment and/or resource limitation is likely a major driver of population structure and functioning, modifying the interaction between predators and prey. Simultaneous testing of flow-mediated recruitment and predation was required to differentiate between the role of each process in determining population size. Our results reinforce the importance of propagule pressure, predation and post-settlement mortality as

  15. Estimating lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes: extrapolating from sampled streams using regression models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullett, Katherine M.; Heinrich, John W.; Adams, Jean V.; Young, Robert J.; Henson, Mary P.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Fodale, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    Lake-wide abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) can be used as one means to evaluate sea lamprey control efforts in the Great Lakes. Lake-wide abundance in each Great Lake was the sum of estimates for all streams thought to contribute substantial numbers of sea lampreys. A subset of these streams was sampled with traps and mark-recapture studies were conducted. When sea lampreys were captured in traps, but no mark-recapture study was conducted, abundance was estimated from a relation between trap catch and mark-recapture estimates observed in other years. In non-sampled streams, a regression model that used stream drainage area, geographic region, larval sea lamprey, production potential, the number of years since the last lampricide treatment, and spawning year was used to predict abundance of spawning-phase sea lampreys. The combination of estimates from sampled and non-sampled streams provided a 20-year time series of spawning-phase sea lamprey abundance estimates in the Great Lakes.

  16. Morphological and electrophysiological examination of olfactory sensory neurons during the early developmental prolarval stage of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, B.S.; Fredricks, Keith; McDonald, R.; Zaidi, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined olfactory sensory neuron morphology and physiological responsiveness in newly hatched sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. These prolarvae hatch shortly after neural tube formation, and stay within nests for approximately 18 days, before moving downstream to silty areas where they burrow, feed and pass to the larval stage. To explore the possibility that the olfactory system is functioning during this prolarval stage, morphological and physiological development of olfactory sensory neurons was examined. The nasal cavity contained an olfactory epithelium with ciliated olfactory sensory neurons. Axons formed aggregates in the basal portion of the olfactory epithelium and spanned the narrow distance between the olfactory epithelium and the brain. The presence of asymmetric synapses with agranular vesicles within fibers in the brain, adjacent to the olfactory epithelium suggests that there was synaptic connectivity between olfactory sensory axons and the brain. Neural recordings from the surface of the olfactory epithelium showed responses following the application of L-arginine, taurocholic acid, petromyzonol sulfate (a lamprey migratory pheromone), and water conditioned by conspecifics. These results suggest that lampreys may respond to olfactory sensory input during the prolarval stage. ?? 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: a powerful tool for understanding ancestral gene functions in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Square, Tyler; Romášek, Marek; Jandzik, David; Cattell, Maria V.; Klymkowsky, Michael; Medeiros, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Lamprey is one of only two living jawless vertebrates, a group that includes the first vertebrates. Comparisons between lamprey and jawed vertebrates have yielded important insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate physiology, morphology and development. Despite its key phylogenetic position, studies of lamprey have been limited by their complex life history, which makes traditional genetic approaches impossible. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a bacterial defense mechanism that was recently adapted to achieve high-efficiency targeted mutagenesis in eukaryotes. Here we report CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the genes Tyrosinase and FGF8/17/18 in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and detail optimized parameters for producing mutant F0 embryos. Using phenotype and genotype analyses, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 is highly effective in the sea lamprey, with a majority of injected embryos developing into complete or partial mutants. The ability to create large numbers of mutant embryos without inbred lines opens exciting new possibilities for studying development in lamprey and other non-traditional model organisms with life histories that prohibit the generation of mutant lines. PMID:26511928

  18. Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaye, C.A.; Heinrich, J.W.; Genovese, J.H.; Hanson, L.H.; McDonald, R.B.; Slade, J.W.; Swink, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

  19. Thyroid hormone deiodinase type 2 mRNA levels in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are regulated during metamorphosis and in response to a thyroid challenge.

    PubMed

    Stilborn, S Salina M; Manzon, Lori A; Schauenberg, Jennifer D; Manzon, Richard G

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial for normal vertebrate development and are the one obligate morphogen that drives amphibian metamorphosis. However, contrary to other metamorphosing vertebrates, lampreys exhibit a sharp drop in serum TH early in metamorphosis, and anti-thyroid agents such as potassium perchlorate (KClO(4)) induce metamorphosis. The type 2 deiodinase (D2) enzyme is a key regulator of TH availability during amphibian metamorphosis. We set out to determine how D2 may be involved in the regulation of lamprey metamorphosis and thyroid homeostasis. We cloned a 1.8Kb Petromyzon marinus D2 cDNA that includes the entire protein coding region and a selenocysteine (Sec) codon. Northern blotting indicated that the lamprey D2 mRNA is the longest reported to date (>9Kb). Using real-time PCR, we showed that intestinal and hepatic D2 mRNA levels were elevated prior to and during the early stages of metamorphosis and then declined dramatically to low levels that were sustained for the remainder of metamorphosis. These data are consistent with previously reported changes in serum TH levels and deiodinase activity. Treatment of larvae with either TH or KClO(4) significantly affected D2 mRNA levels in the intestine and liver. These D2 mRNA levels during metamorphosis and in response to thyroid challenges suggest that D2 may function in the regulation of TH levels during lamprey metamorphosis and the maintenance of TH homeostasis.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: a powerful tool for understanding ancestral gene functions in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Square, Tyler; Romášek, Marek; Jandzik, David; Cattell, Maria V; Klymkowsky, Michael; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2015-12-01

    Lamprey is one of only two living jawless vertebrates, a group that includes the first vertebrates. Comparisons between lamprey and jawed vertebrates have yielded important insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate physiology, morphology and development. Despite its key phylogenetic position, studies of lamprey have been limited by their complex life history, which makes traditional genetic approaches impossible. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a bacterial defense mechanism that was recently adapted to achieve high-efficiency targeted mutagenesis in eukaryotes. Here we report CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the genes Tyrosinase and FGF8/17/18 in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, and detail optimized parameters for producing mutant F0 embryos. Using phenotype and genotype analyses, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 is highly effective in the sea lamprey, with a majority of injected embryos developing into complete or partial mutants. The ability to create large numbers of mutant embryos without inbred lines opens exciting new possibilities for studying development in lamprey and other non-traditional model organisms with life histories that prohibit the generation of mutant lines.

  1. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  2. Evidence that sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) complete their life cycle within a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes by parasitizing fishes in inland lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Twohey, Michael B.; Miehls, Scott M.; Cwalinski, Tim A; Godby, Neal A; Lochet, Aude; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Jubar, Aaron K.; Siefkes, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) invaded the upper Laurentian Great Lakes and feeds on valued fish. The Cheboygan River, Michigan, USA, is a large sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron and despite having a renovated dam 2 km from the river mouth that presumably blocks sea lamprey spawning migrations, the watershed upstream of the dam remains infested with larval sea lamprey. A navigational lock near the dam has been hypothesized as the means of escapement of adult sea lampreys from Lake Huron and source of the upper river population (H1). However, an alternative hypothesis (H2) is that some sea lampreys complete their life cycle upstream of the dam, without entering Lake Huron. To evaluate the alternative hypothesis, we gathered angler reports of lamprey wounds on game fishes upstream of the dam, and captured adult sea lampreys downstream and upstream of the dam to contrast abundance, run timing, size, and statolith microchemistry. Results indicate that a small population of adult sea lampreys (n < 200) completed their life cycle upstream of the dam during 2013 and 2014. This is the most comprehensive evidence that sea lampreys complete their life history within a tributary of the upper Great Lakes, and indicates that similar landlocked populations could occur in other watersheds. Because the adult sea lamprey population upstream of the dam is small, complete elimination of the already low adult escapement from Lake Huron might allow multiple control tactics such as lampricides, trapping, and sterile male release to eradicate the population.

  3. Comparison of spring measures of length, weight, and condition factor for predicting metamorphosis in two populations of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henson, Mary P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Jean V.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict when sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) will metamorphose from the larval phase to the parasitic phase is essential to the operation of the sea lamprey control program. During the spring of 1994, two populations of sea lamprey larvae from two rivers were captured, measured, weighed, implanted with coded wire tags, and returned to the same sites in the streams from which they were taken. Sea lampreys were recovered in the fall, after metamorphosis would have occurred, and checked for the presence of a tag. When the spring data were compared to the fall data it was found that the minimum requirements (length ≥ 120 mm, weight ≥ 3 g, and condition factor ≥ 1.50) suggested for metamorphosis did define a pool of larvae capable of metamorphosing. However, logistic regressions that relate the probability of metamorphosis to size are necessary to predict metamorphosis in a population. The data indicated, based on cross-validation, that weight measurements alone predicted metamorphosis with greater precision than length or condition factor in both the Marengo and Amnicon rivers. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, weight alone was a better predictor in the Amnicon River, but length and condition factor combined predicted metamorphosis better in the Marengo River. There would be no additional cost if weight alone were used instead of length. However, if length and weight were measured the gain in predictive power would not be enough to justify the additional cost.

  4. Life stage dependent responses to the lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), provide insight into glucose homeostasis and metabolism in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Henry, Matthew; Birceanu, Oana; Clifford, Alexander M; McClelland, Grant B; Wang, Yuxiang S; Wilkie, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    The primary method of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Great Lakes is the treatment of streams and rivers with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which targets larval sea lamprey. However, less is known about the effects of TFM on other stages of the sea lamprey's complex life cycle. The goal of this study was to determine how TFM affected internal energy stores, metabolites, and ion balance in larval, juvenile (parasitic) and adult sea lamprey. The larvae were more tolerant to TFM than the adults, with a 2-fold higher 12h TFM LC50 and a 1.5-fold higher LC99.9. Acute (3h) exposure of the larvae, parasites and adults to their respective 12h TFM LC99.9 led to marked reductions in glycogen and phosphocreatine in the adult brain, with lesser or no effect in the larvae and parasites. Increased lactate in the brain, at less than the expected stoichiometry, suggested that it was exported to the blood. Kidney glycogen declined after TFM exposure, suggesting that this organ plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. TFM-induced disturbances to ion balance were minimal. In conclusion, TFM perturbs energy metabolism in all major stages of the sea lamprey life cycle in a similar fashion, but the adults appear to be the most sensitive. Thus, the adult stage could be a viable and effective target for TFM treatment, particularly when used in combination with other existing and emerging strategies of sea lamprey control.

  5. University Relations: An Aid to Recruiting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehocky, George J. And Others

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that placement and recruitment practitioners should market their professions to each other to assure assertive programing and dynamic programs. The six articles address survival in the face of increased accountability, emphasizing the marketing aspect of career planning, placement, and recruitment through a planned, organized effort. (JAC)

  6. Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris I.; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Social isolation, extreme weather conditions, inadequate housing, and low salaries often characterizing rural areas cause problems in recruiting and retaining special education personnel. Successful interviewers for rural districts must include four components in their recruitment strategies: the use of intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators,…

  7. Triton College Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's (Illinois) Faculty Recruitment Action Plan (FRAP) provides a detailed guide to hiring new faculty, focusing on the desired characteristics of new faculty; marketing and recruitment strategies; employment incentives; the application, interviewing, and selection process; new faculty orientation; a timeline for implementation; cost…

  8. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment...

  12. Evaluating and Selecting Schools for Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachhuber, Thomas; Paight, Laura

    2003-01-01

    To improve their campus recruiting outcomes, some companies have developed their own methods for evaluating and selecting tools for recruitment. This article highlights the methods of Pfizer Global Research & Development, which uses a scientific approach to ensure its success on campus. (GCP)

  13. Turf Wars: School Administrators and Military Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagotte, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Although a decade has passed since passage, few have noticed that section 9528 in No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandates schools to assist military recruiting. This article focuses on administrators' responsibility to inform parents of their privacy rights and the struggle to manage recruiting in schools. I highlight two conclusions with policy…

  14. Policies That Support Effective Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This School Board Policy kit, one of a series, covers the subject of Policies that Support Effective Teacher Recruitment. It requests all district boards to "incorporate into written policy form their refusal to consider race, religion, sex, or national origin as a basis for employment," and stresses the importance of teacher recruitment as a…

  15. A Community-Based Recruitment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard D.; Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    1979-01-01

    Analyses community-based recruitment techniques initiated by Moraine Valley Community College, Illinois, to stabilize enrollment, expand participation of the under-served, and increase the pool of college attendees. Delineates the eight goals of recruitment and the plan implemented at Moraine Valley. Discusses major activities and results. (CAM)

  16. Personnel Recruitment and Retention in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris; Marrs, Lawrence W.

    Recruitment and retention of special education teachers and related services staff have been persistent problems of rural school districts nationwide. High teacher attrition rates have serious ramifications for personnel development and program stability. Effective recruitment strategies for rural areas have four main components: (1) emphasis on…

  17. Al-Qaida: Terrorist Selection and Recruitment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    like them, not alien outsiders. 9. Surrounding potential recruits with peers who are already established recruits. 10. E. Goffman , Behavior in Public...Cultic Studies Journal 1:2 (1984): 167–177. 88 SECTION 1 Al-Qaida and Global Jihad Goffman , E., Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social

  18. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  19. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  20. 29 CFR 36.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited... apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission of students....

  1. 32 CFR 240.7 - Recruitment program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in participating in the DoD IASP. Graduate students and rising junior or senior undergraduates... Students. (d) Recruitment students are provided scholarships, covering the full cost of tuition and...) MISCELLANEOUS DOD INFORMATION ASSURANCE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM (IASP) § 240.7 Recruitment program. (a) Annually,...

  2. Considering the Audience: Air Force Recruiting Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Darek L.

    2012-01-01

    Each Air Force recruiter is formally trained in public speaking and the art of salesmanship or persuasion. These recruiters communicate to thousands of high school students each year through presentations in classrooms, auditoriums and other venues as part of their assigned duties. Persuasive presentations are public speaking events specifically…

  3. 44 CFR 19.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 19.310 Section 19.310 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... shall not recruit primarily or exclusively at educational institutions, schools, or entities that...

  4. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  5. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  6. 5 CFR 330.402 - Direct recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct recruitment. 330.402 Section 330.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Positions Restricted to Preference Eligibles § 330.402 Direct...

  7. 20 CFR 655.48 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... report. The employer must prepare, sign, and date a recruitment report. The recruitment report must...

  8. 22 CFR 146.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment...

  9. Early recruitment dynamics in tropical restoration.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Howe, Henry F

    2013-07-01

    Unassisted secondary succession in abandoned tropical pastures often results in species-poor forests of pioneer trees that persist for decades. We characterize recruitment rates of woody vegetation in planting treatments during the first 60 months of experimental restoration on thin, eroded soils at Los Tuxtlas, southern Mexico. We test the hypothesis that recruitment of later-successional trees is greater in fenced plots planted with native trees than in fenced controls that simulate natural succession, and further that recruitment of such species would be greater in plots planted with animal-dispersed trees than in those planted with wind-dispersed trees. Results indicated much greater recruitment of later-successional animal-dispersed trees in planted plots as compared with controls. Three censuses per year recorded 960 recruited individuals of 44 species of trees and shrubs from 20-60 months after cattle exclusion. Ninety-six percent of recruits were not of planted species. Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that recruited communities included more species of pioneers than of later-successional trees and shrubs, with more individuals and species dispersed by animals than by wind. Recruitment of pioneers did not differ between control and planted plots. Later-successional recruits dispersed by animals accumulated > 10 times faster in planted than control plots, with apparent acceleration after planted Cecropia obtusifolia and Ficus yoponensis first produced fleshy fruits 48 months after cattle exclusion. Sparse later-successional wind-dispersed recruits did not differ by treatment. Our preliminary results over the first five years after cattle exclusion indicate that planted stands clearly accelerate succession through accumulation of later-successional trees and shrubs dispersed by animals.

  10. Recruiting participants for research from online communities.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of people use the Internet for information and support about health and illness experiences. Likewise, researchers are increasingly turning to Internet communities as recruitment sites for research participants. Based on the use of online recruitment for a study of women living with lupus, the challenges and strategies associated with this method are discussed. How participants were obtained through posts on Web sites, the role of gatekeepers in accessing online communities, issues associated with list lurkers and posters, and challenges to authenticity when working with a sample recruited from this environment are covered, as are strategies for addressing identified problems.

  11. Recruiting physicians: avoiding the legal minefield.

    PubMed

    Copeland, W M

    1992-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses the legal problems and pitfalls associated with the implementation of a physician recruitment program. Careful structuring is necessary to strike a balance meeting the requirements of both the Internal Revenue Code and the Medicare fraud and abuse provisions. The various tax considerations that may affect physician recruitment are comprehensively analyzed. Similar analysis is made of the Medicare fraud and abuse statute. Also included is a list of items that must be taken into consideration when embarking on a physician recruitment program.

  12. Improving healthcare recruitment: the jupiter medical center experience.

    PubMed

    Uomo, Paul Dell; Schwieters, Jill

    2009-04-01

    Hospitals that want to improve their recruitment efforts should: Make recruitment a priority within the organization. Take steps to reduce high vacancy rates and turnover among first-year employees. Develop a recruitment marketing plan for key positions. Establish human resources metrics to track costs and effectiveness of recruiting efforts. Enhance the recruitment process for hiring managers and job candidates.

  13. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a)...

  14. 20 CFR 655.156 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... job opportunity up to the date of the preparation of the recruitment report, and the disposition of... applicable, for each U.S. worker who applied for the position but was not hired, explain the lawful...

  15. College Recruiting: After the Campus Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Robert A.; Swails, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of off-campus recruiting in personnel selection. Suggests that after the campus interview, site visit interviews, employment-offer communication, and initial employee training are important for companies seeking new college-trained personnel. (JAC)

  16. 22 CFR 229.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.510 Recruitment. (a)...

  17. The Relationship Between Increasing Sea-surface Temperature and the Northward Spread of Perkinsus marinus(Dermo) Disease Epizootics in Oysters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, T.; Folli, M.; Klinck, J.; Ford, S.; Miller, J.

    1998-04-01

    From its initial discovery in the Gulf of Mexico in the late 1940s until 1990,Perkinsus marinus, the parasite responsible for Dermo disease in the eastern oyster,Crassostrea virginica, was rarely found north of Chesapeake Bay. In 1990-92, an apparent range extension of the parasite led to epizootic outbreaks of the disease over a 500 km range north of Chesapeake Bay. One of the hypotheses for the range extension argues that small, undetected numbers of parasites were already present in northern oysters as the result of repeated historical introductions, and that a sharp warming trend in 1990-92 stimulated the disease outbreak. This argument was based on trends in air temperature. The present study examined this hypothesis by analysing water temperatures, rather than air temperatures, for five stations located in areas affected by the recent epizootics. At all five stations, there was a strong increasing trend in winter sea-surface temperature (SST) between 1986 and 1991. At four of the five stations, there was a smaller increasing trend in winter temperatures after 1960. There were no consistent or obvious trends in summer (August) temperatures. In Delaware Bay, which has a 40 year history of monitoring for oyster diseases, occasional findings ofP. marinusin oysters were correlated with warming episodes that were especially notable in the winter (February) record. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis showed that winter temperatures varied consistently at the stations examined and were associated with variations inP. marinusprevalence. Associations using EOF analysis with August temperatures were much weaker. The SST record is consistent with the hypothesis that increasing winter water temperatures have been important in the recent outbreak ofP. marinusepizootics in the north-eastern U.S.A.

  18. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed.

  19. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Elbin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed. PMID:25471353

  20. CO2-responsive expression and gene organization of three ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase enzymes and carboxysomes in Hydrogenovibrio marinus strain MH-110.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Yoichi; Toyoda, Koichi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2004-09-01

    Hydrogenovibrio marinus strain MH-110, an obligately lithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, fixes CO2 by the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Strain MH-110 possesses three different sets of genes for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO): CbbLS-1 and CbbLS-2, which belong to form I (L8S8), and CbbM, which belongs to form II (Lx). In this paper, we report that the genes for CbbLS-1 (cbbLS-1) and CbbM (cbbM) are both followed by the cbbQO genes and preceded by the cbbR genes encoding LysR-type regulators. In contrast, the gene for CbbLS-2 (cbbLS-2) is followed by genes encoding carboxysome shell peptides. We also characterized the three RubisCOs in vivo by examining their expression profiles in environments with different CO2 availabilities. Immunoblot analyses revealed that when strain MH-110 was cultivated in 15% CO2, only the form II RubisCO, CbbM, was expressed. When strain MH-110 was cultivated in 2% CO2, CbbLS-1 was expressed in addition to CbbM. In the 0.15% CO2 culture, the expression of CbbM decreased and that of CbbLS-1 disappeared, and CbbLS-2 was expressed. In the atmospheric CO2 concentration of approximately 0.03%, all three RubisCOs were expressed. Transcriptional analyses of mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR showed that the regulation was at the transcriptional level. Electron microscopic observation of MH-110 cells revealed the formation of carboxysomes in the 0.15% CO2 concentration. The results obtained here indicate that strain MH-110 adapts well to various CO2 concentrations by using different types of RubisCO enzymes.

  1. Investigating population structure of Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) in Western Iberian Peninsula using morphological characters and heart fatty acid signature analyses.

    PubMed

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Mateus, Catarina S; Lourenço, Marta; Ferreira, Ana F; Quintella, Bernardo R; Almeida, Pedro R

    2014-01-01

    This study hypothesizes the existence of three groups of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. in Portugal (North/Central group, Tagus group, and Guadiana group), possibly promoted by seabed topography isolation during the oceanic phase of the life cycle. Within this context, our purpose was to analyze the existence of a stock structure on sea lamprey populations sampled in the major Portuguese river basins using both morphological characters and heart tissue fatty acid signature. In both cases, the multiple discriminant analysis revealed statistically significant differences among groups, and the overall corrected classification rate estimated from cross-validation procedure was particularly high for the cardiac muscle fatty acid profiles (i.e. 83.8%). Morphometric characters were much more useful than meristic ones to discriminate stocks, and the most important variables for group differentiation were eye length, second dorsal fin length and branchial length. Fatty acid analysis showed that all lampreys from the southern Guadiana group were correctly classified and not mixing with individuals from any other group, reflecting a typical heart fatty acid signature. Our results revealed that 89.5% and 72.2% of the individuals from the Tagus and North/Central groups, respectively, were also correctly classified, despite some degree of overlap between individuals from these groups. The fatty acids that contributed to the observed segregation were C16:0; C17:0; C18:1ω9; C20:3ω6 and C22:2ω6. Detected differences are probably related with environmental variables to which lampreys may have been exposed, which leaded to different patterns of gene expression. These results suggest the existence of three different sea lamprey stocks in Portugal, with implication in terms of management and conservation.

  2. Expression of three GnRH receptors in specific tissues in male and female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus at three distinct life stages

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Daukss, Dana M.; Hayes, Mary K.; Marquis, Timothy J.; Morin, Scott J.; Kelleher, Thomas F.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2013-01-01

    Two recently cloned gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (lamprey GnRH-R-2 and lamprey GnRH-R-3) along with lamprey (l) GnRH-R-1 were shown to share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other vertebrate receptors. Here we report on our findings of RNA expression of these three GnRH receptors in the three major life stages (larval, parasitic, and adult phases) of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a basal vertebrate. For each stage, we examined the expression of messenger RNA encoding the receptors in the brain, pituitary, gonad, heart, muscle, liver, eye, intestine, kidney, skin, thyroid, gill, and endostyle by RT-PCR. In adult lampreys, the spatial expression of the three receptors in the brain and pituitary was investigated by in situ hybridization. In general, the receptors were more widely expressed in adult tissues as compared to parasitic-phase tissues and least widely expressed in the larval tissues. There were noted differences in male and female lampreys in the adult and parasitic phases for all three receptors. The data showed the presence of all three receptor transcripts in brain tissues for adult and parasitic phases and all three receptor transcripts were expressed in the adult pituitaries, but not in the parasitic pituitaries. However, in the larval phase, only lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the larval brain and pituitary. In situ hybridization revealed that lGnRH-R-2 and -3 were expressed in the pineal tissue of adult female lampreys while lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the pineal in adult male lampreys, all restricted to the pineal pellucida. In summary, these data provide an initial comparative analysis of expression of three lamprey GnRH receptors suggesting differential regulation within males and females at three different life/reproductive stages. PMID:23754972

  3. Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium from the culture broth of a microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122, and emended description of the genus Hwangdonia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingxing; Tan, Li; Wu, Hualian; Dai, Shikun; Li, Tao; Chen, Chenghao; Li, Jiaying; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang; Wang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain GYP-24T, was isolated from the culture broth of a marine microalga, Picochlorum sp. 122. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain GYP-24T forms a robust cluster with H.wangdoniaseohaensis KCTC 32177T (95.8 % sequence similarity) in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Growth of strain GYP-24T was observed at 15, 22, 28, 30, 33 and 37 °C (optimal 30-33 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimal pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal 2-3 %). The only menaquinone of strain GYP-24T was MK-6, and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.9 mol%. The major fatty acid profile comprised iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/ω6c), iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C15 : 0. The major polar lipids of strain GYP-24T were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. Comprehensive analyses based on polyphasic characterization of GYP-24T indicated that it represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Gelatiniphilus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GYP-24T (=KCTC 42903T=MCCC 1K01730T). An emended description of the genus Hwangdonia is also given.

  4. Distribution of a Y1 receptor mRNA in the brain of two Lamprey species, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the river Lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A

    2013-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y system consists of several neuropeptides acting through a broad number of receptor subtypes, the NPY family of receptors. NPY receptors are divided into three subfamilies (Y1, Y2, and Y5) that display a complex evolutionary history due to local and large-scale gene duplication events and gene losses. Lampreys emerged from a basal branch of the tree of vertebrates and they are in a key position to shed light on the evolutionary history of the NPY system. One member of the Y1 subfamily has been reported in agnathans, but the phylogenetic tree of the Y1 subfamily is not yet clear. We cloned the sequences of the Y1-subtype receptor of Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra fluviatilis to study the expression pattern of this receptor in lampreys by in situ hybridization and to analyze the phylogeny of the Y1-subfamily receptors in vertebrates. The phylogenetic study showed that the Y1 receptor of lampreys is basal to the Y1/6 branch of the Y1-subfamily receptors. In situ hybridization showed that the Y1 receptor is widely expressed throughout the brain of lampreys, with some regions showing numerous positive neurons, as well as the presence of numerous cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells in the spinal cord. This broad distribution of the lamprey Y1 receptor is more similar to that found in other vertebrates for the Y1 receptor than that of the other members of the Y1 subfamily: Y4, Y8, and Y6 receptors. Both phylogenetic relationship and expression pattern suggest that this receptor is a Y1 receptor.

  5. The emergence of the vasopressin and oxytocin hormone receptor gene family lineage: Clues from the characterization of vasotocin receptors in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Mayasich, Sally A; Clarke, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a jawless vertebrate at an evolutionary nexus between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Lampreys are known to possess the arginine vasotocin (AVT) hormone utilized by all non-mammalian vertebrates. We postulated that the lamprey would possess AVT receptor orthologs of predecessors to the arginine vasopressin (AVP)/oxytocin (OXT) family of G protein-coupled receptors found in mammals, providing insights into the origins of the mammalian V1A, V1B, V2 and OXT receptors. Among the earliest animals to diverge from the vertebrate lineage in which these receptors are characterized is the jawed, cartilaginous elephant shark, which has genes orthologous to all four mammalian receptor types. Therefore, our work was aimed at helping resolve the critical gap concerning the outcomes of hypothesized large-scale (whole-genome) duplication events. We sequenced one partial and four full-length putative lamprey AVT receptor genes and determined their mRNA expression patterns in 15 distinct tissues. Phylogenetically, three of the full-coding genes possess structural characteristics of the V1 clade containing the V1A, V1B and OXT receptors. Another full-length coding gene and the partial sequence are part of the V2 clade and appear to be most closely related to the newly established V2B and V2C receptor subtypes. Our synteny analysis also utilizing the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) genome supports the recent proposal that jawless and jawed vertebrates shared one-round (1R) of WGD as the most likely scenario.

  6. Hybridization between previously isolated ancestors may explain the persistence of exactly two ancient lineages in the genome of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Peter C; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Hare, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    Theory predicts that neutral genetic variation accumulates within populations to a level determined by gains through mutation and losses by genetic drift. This balance results in a characteristic distribution of allelic variation with the maximum allelic difference determined by effective population size. Here, we report a striking departure from these expectations in the form of allelic dimorphism, observed at the majority of seven loci examined in Perkinsus marinus, an important oyster parasite that causes Dermo disease. DNA sequences were collected from five loci flanking microsatellite repeats and two loci coding for superoxide dismutase enzymes that may mediate the parasite's interaction with its host. Based on 474 sequences, sampled across 5000 km of the eastern United States coastline, no more than two alleles were observed at each locus (discounting singletons). Depending on the locus, the common allele ranged in overall frequency from 72% to 92%. At each locus the two alleles differed substantially (3.8% sequence difference, on average), and the among-locus variance in divergences was not sufficient to reject a simultaneous origin for all dimorphisms using approximate Bayesian methods. Dimorphic alleles were estimated to have diverged from a common ancestral allele at least 0.9 million years ago. Across these seven loci, only five other alleles were ever observed, always as singletons and differing from the dimorphic alleles by no more than two nucleotides. Free recombination could potentially have shuffled these dimorphisms into as many as 243 multilocus combinations, but the existence of only ten combinations among all samples strongly supports low recombination frequencies and is consistent with the observed absence of intragenic recombination. We consider several demographic and evolutionary hypotheses to explain these patterns. Few can be conclusively rejected with the present data, but we advance a recent hybridization of ancient divergent lineages

  7. Changes in mortality of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Michigan waters of Lake Superior in relation to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, 1968-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Total mortality rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of age VII and older from eastern Lake Superior were estimated from catch curves of age distributions each year in 1968–78. The instantaneous rate of total mortality Z varied from 0.62 to 2.31 in close synchrony with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding rates on lake trout. The regression of transformed Z on the index of lamprey wounding, accounted for over 89% of the variation in lake trout mortality (r2 = 0.893). An iterative method of estimating rates of exploitation u, instantaneous rates of fishing mortality F, K (a constant relating sample catch per unit effort to population size), instantaneous normal natural mortality rate M, and instantaneous rate of mortality due to sea lamprey predationL from the sample catch per unit effort and total catch by the fishery is presented. A second method using the results of a 1970–71 tagging study to estimate the mean F in 1970–77 yielded closely similar results to the above and is presented as corroboration. The estimates of u, F, andM appear to be reasonable. F ranged from 0.17 in 1974 to 0.42 in 1969 and M was estimated at 0.26. L varied from 0.21 in 1974 to 1.70 in 1968. Management implications of various policies concerning sea lamprey control, exploitation, and stocking are discussed.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey, lamprey control, mortality, predation, Lake Superior, fishery, management

  8. Investigating Population Structure of Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L.) in Western Iberian Peninsula Using Morphological Characters and Heart Fatty Acid Signature Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lança, Maria João; Machado, Maria; Mateus, Catarina S.; Lourenço, Marta; Ferreira, Ana F.; Quintella, Bernardo R.; Almeida, Pedro R.

    2014-01-01

    This study hypothesizes the existence of three groups of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. in Portugal (North/Central group, Tagus group, and Guadiana group), possibly promoted by seabed topography isolation during the oceanic phase of the life cycle. Within this context, our purpose was to analyze the existence of a stock structure on sea lamprey populations sampled in the major Portuguese river basins using both morphological characters and heart tissue fatty acid signature. In both cases, the multiple discriminant analysis revealed statistically significant differences among groups, and the overall corrected classification rate estimated from cross-validation procedure was particularly high for the cardiac muscle fatty acid profiles (i.e. 83.8%). Morphometric characters were much more useful than meristic ones to discriminate stocks, and the most important variables for group differentiation were eye length, second dorsal fin length and branchial length. Fatty acid analysis showed that all lampreys from the southern Guadiana group were correctly classified and not mixing with individuals from any other group, reflecting a typical heart fatty acid signature. Our results revealed that 89.5% and 72.2% of the individuals from the Tagus and North/Central groups, respectively, were also correctly classified, despite some degree of overlap between individuals from these groups. The fatty acids that contributed to the observed segregation were C16:0; C17:0; C18:1ω9; C20:3ω6 and C22:2ω6. Detected differences are probably related with environmental variables to which lampreys may have been exposed, which leaded to different patterns of gene expression. These results suggest the existence of three different sea lamprey stocks in Portugal, with implication in terms of management and conservation. PMID:25259723

  9. Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a biofilter in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhu; Liu, Liang-Zi; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-23

    A Gram-staining-negative bacterial strain (termed CZ-AZ5T) was isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. CZ-AZ5T cells were non-spore-forming, non-motile rods, 0.6-0.7 μm wide and 3.0-3.7 μm long. CZ-AZ5T was strictly heterotrophic, aerobic, oxidase-negative, and catalase-positive. Growth occurred in the temperature range 20-40 °C (optimal: 30 °C), pH range 6.0-8.5 (optimal: 7.5), and salinity range 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimal: 1 %). In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, CZ-AZ5T was assigned to the family Saprospiraceae (phylum Bacteroidetes) and was clustered with the genera Saprospira and Aureispira within the family. It showed highest sequence similarity to Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens (86.2 %), followed by Saprospira grandis ATCC 23119T (85.7 %) and Lewinella persica T-3T (85.6 %). DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol %, the major menaquinone was MK-7, and the major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16:1ω7c and iso-C15:0. Our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic observations, taken together, led us to conclude that strain CZ-AZ5T represents a new species and genus of the family Saprospiraceae, for which the name Membranicola marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CZ-AZ5T (= CGMCC 1.13179T = JCM 18886T).

  10. 2000 Military Recruiter Survey: Overview Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Survey, the overview report focuses on satisfaction, job performance, and strain among active duty production recruiters. Structural equation modeling with... structural equation modeling of the 2000 survey responses (see Chapters 2 and 3) provide some indication of the relative importance of issues that...commonly known as structural equation modeling with latent variables (SEM). The analyses focus on active duty recruiters with goals/missions and one or

  11. Understanding Recruitment and Retention in Neurological Research

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Given, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining subjects with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established, chronic neurological conditions. For the purpose of this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was an NIH funded project designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (N=496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (NINR, RO1 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine bio-behavioral interactions in family caregivers (N=59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor (PMBT) recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (N=1019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal SAH (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with PMBTs and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital

  12. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacological Characterization of Two Novel GnRH Receptors in the Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nerine T.; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; MacDonald, Caryn; Decatur, Wayne A.; Hall, Jeffrey A.; Kavanaugh, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the identification, expression, binding kinetics, and functional studies of two novel type III lamprey GnRH receptors (lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3) in the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. These novel GnRH receptors share the structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome GnRH receptors. The ligand specificity and activation of intracellular signaling studies showed ligands lGnRH-II and -III induced an inositol phosphate (IP) response at lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3, whereas the ligand lGnRH-I did not stimulate an IP response. lGnRH-II was a more potent activator of lGnRH-R-3 than lGnRH-III. Stimulation of lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3 testing all three lGnRH ligands did not elicit a cAMP response. lGnRH-R-2 has a higher binding affinity in response to lGnRH-III than lGnRH-II, whereas lGnRH-R-3 has a higher binding affinity in response to lGnRH-II than IGnRH-III. lGnRH-R-2 precursor transcript was detected in a wide variety of tissues including the pituitary whereas lGnRH-R-3 precursor transcript was not as widely expressed and primarily expressed in the brain and eye of male and female lampreys. From our phylogenetic analysis, we propose that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from a common ancestor of all vertebrate GnRH receptors and lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3 likely occurred due to a gene duplication within the lamprey lineage. In summary, we propose from our findings of receptor subtypes in the sea lamprey that the evolutionary recruitment of specific pituitary GnRH receptor subtypes for particular physiological functions seen in later evolved vertebrates was an ancestral character that first arose in a basal vertebrate. PMID:22569788

  13. Recruiting adoptive parents for children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brown, E

    1988-01-01

    One agency describes a systematic approach to recruitment of prospective adoptive families for children with developmental disabilities. The recruitment methodology, preliminary conclusions, and implications for future recruitment of families are presented.

  14. Lung Volume Recruitment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Srour, Nadim; LeBlanc, Carole; King, Judy; McKim, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function abnormalities have been described in multiple sclerosis including reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC) and cough but the time course of this impairment is unknown. Peak cough flow (PCF) is an important parameter for patients with respiratory muscle weakness and a reduced PCF has a direct impact on airway clearance and may therefore increase the risk of respiratory tract infections. Lung volume recruitment is a technique that improves PCF by inflating the lungs to their maximal insufflation capacity. Objectives Our goals were to describe the rate of decline of pulmonary function and PCF in patients with multiple sclerosis and describe the use of lung volume recruitment in this population. Methods We reviewed all patients with multiple sclerosis referred to a respiratory neuromuscular rehabilitation clinic from February 1999 until December 2010. Lung volume recruitment was attempted in patients with FVC <80% predicted. Regular twice daily lung volume recruitment was prescribed if it resulted in a significant improvement in the laboratory. Results There were 79 patients included, 35 of whom were seen more than once. A baseline FVC <80% predicted was present in 82% of patients and 80% of patients had a PCF insufficient for airway clearance. There was a significant decline in FVC (122.6 mL/y, 95% CI 54.9–190.3) and PCF (192 mL/s/y, 95% 72–311) over a median follow-up time of 13.4 months. Lung volume recruitment was associated with a slower decline in FVC (p<0.0001) and PCF (p = 0.042). Conclusion Pulmonary function and cough decline significantly over time in selected patients with multiple sclerosis and lung volume recruitment is associated with a slower rate of decline in lung function and peak cough flow. Given design limitations, additional studies are needed to assess the role of lung volume recruitment in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23383293

  15. Recruitment variability of alewives in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.

  16. Recruitment and retention of novice faculty.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Karen; Ritchie, Heidi

    2006-05-01

    As nursing faculty members younger than 35, we consider ourselves to be in the minority. Our concern about the future of nursing education has driven us to consider ways to recruit and retain new, young faculty. To stimulate discussion, 10 suggestions for schools of nursing in the recruitment and retention of new faculty are presented: provide guidance, foster socialization, encourage flexibility, conduct orientation, provide support, facilitate collaboration, allow for mistakes, coordinate teaching assignments, grow your own, and offer rewards. While this list is far from complete, we believe it is a starting point from which schools could develop individual strategies for recruitment and retention of faculty members in nursing academia. The nursing shortage continues to intensify the lack of nursing faculty members. As a result, strategies to recruit and retain young faculty members only gain importance. Generations are changing, and it is important that schools of nursing are aware that recruitment and retention strategies that may have been successful in the past, may now be obsolete.

  17. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20

  18. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  19. A Strategic Systems Model for Effective Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    recruiters do a tour in recruiting, then return to their original career field. As former/then Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Jim Finch believes...and Implications,” 44. 100Paul Boyce and Laura DeFrancisco, “Army Awards Distance Education Contract to PricewaterhouseCoopers to Form Army University...www.ijoa. org/imta96/paper29.html>. Internet. Accessed 28 September 2002. Boyce , Paul, and DeFrancisco, Laura. “Army Awards Distance Education

  20. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species. PMID:26063571

  1. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  2. Biology of larval and metamorphosing sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, of the 1960 year class in the Big Garlic River, Michigan, Part II, 1966-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Smith, Bernard R.

    1978-01-01

    The 1960 year class of sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, isolated in a tributary of southern Lake Superior continued to yield information on the early life history of the sea lamprey. The larval population persisted and newly metamorphosed individuals were captured from 1966 until the study was terminated in 1972. The average lengths of larvae collected in October (when yearly growth is nearly complete) in successive years from 1966 to 1972 were 111, 113, 112, 114, 121, 128, and 129 mm. The average lengths of transforming lampreys during the same years were 150, 151, 145, 143, 144, 148, and 156 mm. A gradual downstream shift of the population took place. Catches in an inclined-plane trap at the lower end of the study area increased to a peak of 13,244 in the 1968-69 migration year (September 1-August 31), and then steadily decreased. As the number of lampreys decreased in the upper sections and increased in the lower ones, the changes in density were reflected in changes in growth rates. Although the mean length of ammocetes throughout the stream was 111 mm in 1966, it had increased by 1971 to 151 and 143 mm in the upstream sections (IV and V), but to only 115 mm in the densely populated area immediately above the trap. Of a total of 9,889 larvae marked in 1962-68 to study movement and distribution, 2,045 were recovered as larvae and 1,396 as newly transformed adults. Major downstream movements of larvae occurred during high water in April and May, and of transformed lampreys in mid-October through November. Each year about 40% (range, 30-68) of the annual production of transformed lampreys migrated from the Big Garlic River system in one 12-hour period, and 82% by the end of October. The Big Garlic River study proved conclusively that metamorphosis of a single year class occurs over a considerable number of years. Newly metamorphosed individuals were captured in almost steadily increasing numbers from 1965 (age V) to the termination of the study in 1972 (age XII

  3. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  4. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  5. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  6. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  7. 28 CFR 92.8 - Providing recruitment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.8 Providing recruitment services. The... populations to a police department. The recruitment strategies employed may include: (a) A process for recruiting applicants for employment by a police department. These processes should include working...

  8. Selection and Training of Navy Recruit Company Commanders. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Thomas F., Jr.; And Others

    This report addresses the selection, training, and utilization of Navy Recruit Company Commanders (Recruit Training Instructors). It represents one in a series of reports concerning the optimization of Navy Recruit Training to meet the needs of the post-1980 period. The report provides a comprehensive review of the Navy's Recruit Company Commander…

  9. 45 CFR 83.12 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment. 83.12 Section 83.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Discrimination in Admissions...

  10. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recruitment activities or failed in any obligation of this part, the CO may require pre-filing supervised... provided below. (1) The CO will direct where the advertisements are to be placed. (2) The employer must supply a draft advertisement and job order to the CO for review and approval no fewer than 150...

  11. 14 CFR 1253.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  12. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  13. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  14. 21st Century Recruiting: Automated, Digital, Electronic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways in which technology is changing staffing office practices. Discusses features of the worldwide web, some of the potential problems in establishing a web site, and the importance of carefully planning a web site. Looks at digital resume warehouses and the increased power such warehouses offers recruiters. (RJM)

  15. 10 CFR 1042.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  16. 14 CFR 1253.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  17. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  18. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  19. Recruiting and Communications Part Two: Beyond Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Arnold R.

    1981-01-01

    New methods for campus recruiting include: video presentations, selective and personal mailings, and exposure of students to a company through work programs and career-related events. Applying public relations techniques and presenting a favorable employer image are also recommended. (KMF)

  20. Recruiting Faculty: Complementary Tales from Two Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matier, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing individuals with firm job offers to join the faculty at two research universities, urban and rural, are examined, focusing on the relative importance of tangible, intangible, and non-work-related benefits in the decision-making process. Comparisons are drawn to previous faculty recruitment studies and a complementary retention…

  1. Factors Influencing Career Choice among Police Recruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, non-experimental study examined the career choice factors of 154 (n = 154) police recruits to determine a correlation of age group generation to the five career choice factors presented in the Sibson Reward of Work Model. Law enforcement agencies faced a shortage of viable candidates to fill vacant positions. While extensive…

  2. Recruiting Minority Students with Limited Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    Reviews efforts to improve minority recruitment within journalism. Suggests enlisting the aid of community groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Urban League. Calls for support of minority journalism by encouraging minority students in high school journalism programs, promoting student…

  3. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  4. 10 Ideas for Recruiting New Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Vicki; Wall, Milan

    This booklet presents ideas based on actions taken by community leaders to recruit new and emerging leaders to join in the improvement of a community. The discussion includes: (1) asking the question "who's not here?" to make sure the community organization is representative; (2) looking for skills, not names to discover leadership…

  5. 18 CFR 1317.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recruitment. 1317.510 Section 1317.510 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  6. 18 CFR 1317.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recruitment. 1317.310 Section 1317.310 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  7. 18 CFR 1317.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recruitment. 1317.510 Section 1317.510 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  8. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... sex so discriminated against so as to overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination....

  9. 7 CFR 15a.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.23 Section 15a.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... members of one sex, if such actions have the effect of discriminating on the basis of sex in violation...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  11. 20 CFR 655.48 - Recruitment report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recruitment report. 655.48 Section 655.48 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF... Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.53 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recruitment. 15a.53 Section 15a.53 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  13. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  14. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  15. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  16. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  17. 45 CFR 618.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.510... overcome the effects of such past or present discrimination. (b) Recruitment patterns. A recipient...

  18. Teacher Education Recruitment: A Comprehensive Marketing Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didham, Cheryl K.; Kortokrax-Clark, Deborah

    Due to a declining enrollment and a predicted teacher shortage, a specific student recruitment plan was implemented at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio. This helped foster a 26 percent increase in teacher education enrollment. With the understanding that an institution must find out what its public expects and what their perceptions…

  19. Providence Sponsors Diocesan Teacher Recruiting Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dygert, William

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…

  20. Recruitment Methods for a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillermo, Artemio; Murray, Steve

    1979-01-01

    Among the most effective tools of recruitment found in this survey were the college catalog, newspaper publicity, and brochures. "Word of mouth" from friends such as alumni, students, and the community, and publicity materials in newspapers, including advertising, were found to be the best sources of information about the college. (Author)

  1. Literature Review on Teacher Recruitment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clewell, Beatriz Chu; Darke, Katherine; Davis-Googe, Thenoa; Forcier, Laurie; Manes, Sarah

    This literature review is part of a multiyear evaluation of the Higher Education Act's Title II programs to recruit teachers. It is intended to help the U.S. Department of Education focus on key research questions that provide the background for the evaluation, as well as supply a reference tool for administrators and grantees of these…

  2. Does Education Reform Make Recruiting More Difficult?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Virginia 1986ac Idaho 2006c New Mexico 1990c Washington 2007c Indiana 2000c New York 1985ac 67 Appendix A Other (state-level) data and sources We...Analysis of Eval- uation of Homeschool and ChalleNGe Program Recruits, Jan 2004 (CNA Research Memorandum D0009351.A2) [36] Janice H. Laurence. Education

  3. Violent Video Games Recruit American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, William

    2006-01-01

    An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…

  4. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2011 General Data Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]), in cooperation with MBA Career Services Council and EFMD, presents the results of the 2011 Corporate Recruiters Survey, the tenth annual survey of business graduates' employers. The primary purposes of this study are to examine the job market for graduates from MBA and other…

  5. 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]). Conducted annually since 2001, this survey examines the job outlook for recent graduate business students as well as employer needs and expectations. The objectives of this study are to obtain a picture of…

  6. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  7. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  8. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  9. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  10. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resumes or applications for the job opportunity to the CO for referral to the employer; (ii) Include an... job requirements, which can not exceed any of the requirements entered on the application form by the..., post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  11. How Colleges Use Alumni to Recruit Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many college alumni wear their love for their alma maters on their sleeves, if not their sweatshirts. They are practically a walking advertisement for the college, so it often makes sense to rely on them when recruiting, a new survey of admissions officers suggests. The survey, however, also showed that admissions offices with budgets of less than…

  12. College Recruiting on a Tight Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Allison

    2002-01-01

    Even during the best economic times, many companies question the value of their college relations program and its place within their human resources function. To achieve positive recruiting outcomes despite limited means, college relations professionals need to know their market, use internal resources, be creative, and make smart decisions. (GCP)

  13. 20 CFR 655.30 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advertising for the job opportunity or opportunities in accordance with the required recruitment steps... advertisements are to be placed. (2) The employer must supply a draft advertisement and job order to the CO for... posting of the job order and no fewer than 5 calendar days after the date on which the last newspaper...

  14. Recruiting Middle School Students into Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matutina, Robin E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to illustrate the importance of initiating nursing recruitment during the middle school years. Data sources included citations from the years 1989 to 2006. The study focused on middle school students 9 to 13 years of age in Grades 6 to 8. One survey compared middle school students' perceptions of an ideal…

  15. Texas Teacher Recruitment and Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This report on teacher recruitment and retention in Texas identifies and analyzes programs offered by higher education institutions, school districts, regional education service centers, and other organizations that address the teacher shortage in Texas. The study was undertaken with the understanding that teacher compensation issues are pervasive…

  16. 2010 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…

  17. Internship: A Recruitment and Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hao; Liden, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined internship as a recruitment and selection process. On the basis of impression management theory, we hypothesized that both organizations and interns make efforts to impress the other party during the internship if they intend to hire or be hired. Using longitudinal data collected at 3 points from 122 intern-supervisor…

  18. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  19. Recruitment Strategies in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldbaum, Eleanor G.

    A two-part study was conducted to investigate the underrepresentation of blacks in the medical and nursing professions. Through a literature search it was found that due to the low number of minority applicants medical schools have created positions for minority recruiters who serve as role models, empathize with black student concerns, and help…

  20. 1978-79 Recruitment & Retention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard

    The Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) 1978-79 Recruitment Program seeks to increase the pool of students who wish to attend college rather than compete more aggressively for those students who have already decided to participate in higher education. A special adjunct Retention Program has been developed to enhance the entire recruitment…

  1. New Twist to Student Recruitment Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensman, Richard

    1983-01-01

    While student recruitment and the promotion of Catholic schools should always be community-wide efforts, neighborhoods traditionally producing large percentage of Catholic school students should be identified and targeted as natural school constituencies. Describes the marketing efforts of Saint Augustine and Saint Monica Schools in New York. (DMM)

  2. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  3. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  4. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  5. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  6. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  7. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  8. 40 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of...

  9. Searching for Success in Teacher Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodda, Cary

    2000-01-01

    Two California districts that have successfully recruited good teachers are Elk Grove Unified School District, near Sacramento, and Hesperia Unified School District, northeast of Los Angeles. Elk Grove grows their own teacher candidates, in partnership with San Francisco State University. Hesperia conducts nationwide searches, targeting states…

  10. 49 CFR 25.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and... through 25.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and admission...

  11. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  12. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  13. 49 CFR 25.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  14. 28 CFR 54.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  15. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  16. 45 CFR 86.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  17. 29 CFR 36.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or... not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient...

  18. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex...) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the...

  19. 45 CFR 86.23 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex... recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  20. 10 CFR 1042.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in... hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of...

  1. 10 CFR 1042.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 1042.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  2. Recruiting and Mentoring Minority Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, William; Yglesias, Kenneth; Murray, John P.

    2010-01-01

    For the foreseeable future, community colleges must seriously address hiring, retaining, and facilitating upward mobility for faculty members. Moreover, they should recruit a faculty corps that is more reflective of both the students they serve and the demographics of their college service area. It is critical for community colleges to employ and…

  3. Recruiting and Retention, A Force Planning Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military relations, military history, and military sociology must be incorporated in the curriculum. JROTC comprises a critical element of the marketing mix for...factored into the marketing mix . Using commercial telemarketing practices to generate leads from centrally produced lists of potential recruits, and

  4. Recruitment and Retention with a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Rita; Hixson, Carla Braun

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning and innovation at Bismarck State College (BSC) found common ground in the college's goal to recruit and retain employees in an environment of low unemployment and strong competition for skilled employees. BSC's strategic plan for 2007-09 included the objective "to increase retention of employees." One of the strategies…

  5. THE RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESH, SEYMOUR

    A SURVEY OF 20 EMPLOYERS, ASSOCIATION REPRESENTATIVES, AND UNION LEADERS INDICATED THAT DIFFICULTIES IN RECRUITING CAPABLE YOUTH FOR THE AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS TRADE ARE CAUSED BY (1) A CHAOTIC STRUCTURE, INCLUDING UNCLEAR DEFINITION OF FUNCTION, VARIETY OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT, AND SIZE OF THE EMPLOYING UNITS, (2) THE COMPLEXITIES OF TRAINING AND…

  6. Identification and Recruitment: Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Susan

    This chapter examines trends and issues related to the identification and recruitment of migrant children and youth for the Migrant Education Program (MEP). The MEP is federally funded and implemented by the states. Requirements and definitions of student eligibility and the functions of state MEP programs are spelled out in the Elementary and…

  7. Research Guides Mayo Clinic's Recruitment, Retention Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayar, Veena R.; Morrey, Michael A.; Schneider, Kenneth J.; Purrington, Anne W.; Wilshusen, Laurie L.; Mullen, Michael P.; Seltman, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a collaborative study between Mayo Clinic's departments of human resources and marketing to identify the factors that influence candidates' decisions to accept or decline job offers and the reasons behind staff resignations. Study aimed to increase the effectiveness of employee recruitment advertising, streamline its interviewing…

  8. The Counselor and Armed Forces Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael D.; Warren, Phyllis

    1975-01-01

    Young people considering enlistment in the armed forces often need objective assistance in the decision-making process. The authors discuss how counselors are in a unique position to help: by increasing the scope of information available, by safeguarding the rights of potential enlistees, and by working to eliminate recruitment abuses. (Author)

  9. 22 CFR 229.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission... which §§ 229.300 through 229.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment...

  10. 22 CFR 146.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and....300 through 146.310 apply shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and...

  11. 40 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.510 Recruitment....

  12. Recruiting International Students to Your Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Cheryl; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Mallett, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what institutional, program, and recruitment characteristics influenced international students to attend institutions in the United States. Two hundred sixteen international students at a Southern public research university responded to the survey (53% response rate) from 56 countries representing 8…

  13. Grassroots Campaign Trail Methods to Recruit for Clinical Trials: Recruitment Lessons Learned from Trail to Trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan; Merenstein, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Literature reviews have identified recruitment as the single most challenging obstacle in conducting pediatric trials. This paper describes a paradigm shift in recruitment design, developed from experience with grassroots campaigns through the DRINK study (Decreasing the Rates of Illness in Kids). The objective of this study was to explain a new method for recruiting in clinical trials based on lessons learned from grassroots political campaigning. Methods and findings: The study described is a randomized controlled trial of 638 3–6 year olds from the Washington, DC Area. The design involved a comparison between new recruiting approaches modeled after grassroots campaigns and traditional techniques. Traditional techniques for the purpose of this paper are defined by the use of physician referral, mass media such as radio and television advertisements, along with posters in public places like the subway. Grassroots approaches alternatively developed and utilized community contacts and employed targeted small market media community. The main outcome measures were the percentage of budget used and the number of eligible participants recruited. Conclusions: The results showed that the grassroots recruitment approach saved 30% of the budget, recruited 638 kids in 4 months and retained over 90% for the 90 day trial. New techniques need further exploration as community studies are stressed. PMID:23761994

  14. The Florida Air National Guard: A Model for Successful Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    morale of the recruiters and retainers. In an interview with the author, Master Sgt. Emilio Gelfenstein discussed his twelve years in recruiting and...Office Manager (ROM), the Recruiting Office Supervisor ( ROS ), Geographically Separated Units (GSU), commanders, and GSU Recruiting and Retention NCOs...34 Master Sergeant. Emilio Gelfenstein, Recruiting and Retaining Non- Commissioned Officer (RRNCO), is an Active Guard and Reserve NCO (AGR) with over

  15. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Kaakko, T.; Murtomaa, H.; Milgrom, P.; Getz, T.; Ramsay, D. S.; Coldwell, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment. PMID:11495403

  16. Arthropod invasion disrupts Cycas micronesica seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Terry, L Irene

    2011-11-01

    We recently described characteristics of reproductive effort for the cycad Cycas micronesica on the island of Guam. The data were serendipitously recorded just prior to the devastating invasion of the armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui. This invasion decimated the cycad population and after six years of infestation no recruitment is occurring among the survivors. We describe various underlying mechanisms that may explain how this homopteran insect has eliminated host recruitment among categories including plant-pollinator mutualism disruptions, direct damage to reproductive structures, population level responses to declining plant health, and failures of seedlings to establish. Our pre-invasion data on reproductive effort will serve as the benchmark for quantifying how this alien pest is endangering the endemic cycad.

  17. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    PubMed

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  18. Breeding population inventories and measures of recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Blohm, R.J.; Batt, D.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Ankney, C.D.; Johnson, D.H.; Kadlec, J.A.; Krapu, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we review the techniques used to measure two important parameters of waterfowl populations, size of breeding population and recruitment. If waterfowl are to be managed toward goals defined in terms of population sizes such as those in the recently signed North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] and Canadian Wildlife Service [CWS] 1986), there must be some measure of population size for the various species. Waterfowl managers usually measure population size during the breeding season, although for some species and in some areas winter inventories may be used. Population size is a function of natality and mortality. Other chapters in this volume deal in detail with the biology of those processes. This chapter discusses procedural aspects of measurement and reviews some of the operational systems that have been used to estimate population size and recruitment, especially in North America.

  19. Evaluation of Smoking Interventions in Recruit Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-23

    about smoking IF(3,553).l.22, p > .051. Perceptions related to tobacco use. Since the education group was told to exert peer pressure to reduce...control group. It is possible that information that the Navy discourages smoking, and " peer pressure " applied to smokers, paired with limiting the...hazards of smoking, learning that the Navy discourages smoking, and being encouraged to apply peer pressure will be effective in preventing recruits

  20. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium.

    PubMed

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts.

  1. Common Myna Roosts Are Not Recruitment Centres

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Manaswini; Arvind, Chiti; Lakshman, Abhilash; Vidya, T. N. C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied communal roosting in the Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) in the light of the recruitment centre hypothesis and predation at the roost. The number and sizes of flocks departing from and arriving at focal roosts were recorded over a two year period. We also recorded the sizes and behaviour of foraging flocks. We found that flock sizes of birds departing from roosts at sunrise were larger than those at the feeding site, suggesting that there was no recruitment from the roosts. Flocks entering the roosts during sunset were larger on average than those leaving the following sunrise, suggesting no consolidation of flocks in the morning. Flocks entering the roosts at sunset were also larger on average than those that had left that sunrise, although there was no recruitment at the feeding site. There was no effect of group size on the proportion of time spent feeding. Contrary to expectation, single birds showed lower apparent vigilance than birds that foraged in pairs or groups, possibly due to scrounging tactics being used in the presence of feeding companions. Thus, the recruitment centre hypothesis did not hold in our study population of mynas. Predation at dawn and dusk were also not important to communal roosting: predators near the roosts did not result in larger flocks, and resulted in larger durations of arrival/departure contrary to expectation. Since flock sizes were smallest at the feeding site and larger in the evening than in the morning, but did not coincide with predator activity, information transfer unrelated to food (such as breeding opportunities) may possibly give rise to the evening aggregations. PMID:25122467

  2. Stochastic modelling of muscle recruitment during activity

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Saulo; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki; Viceconti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Muscle forces can be selected from a space of muscle recruitment strategies that produce stable motion and variable muscle and joint forces. However, current optimization methods provide only a single muscle recruitment strategy. We modelled the spectrum of muscle recruitment strategies while walking. The equilibrium equations at the joints, muscle constraints, static optimization solutions and 15-channel electromyography (EMG) recordings for seven walking cycles were taken from earlier studies. The spectrum of muscle forces was calculated using Bayesian statistics and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, whereas EMG-driven muscle forces were calculated using EMG-driven modelling. We calculated the differences between the spectrum and EMG-driven muscle force for 1–15 input EMGs, and we identified the muscle strategy that best matched the recorded EMG pattern. The best-fit strategy, static optimization solution and EMG-driven force data were compared using correlation analysis. Possible and plausible muscle forces were defined as within physiological boundaries and within EMG boundaries. Possible muscle and joint forces were calculated by constraining the muscle forces between zero and the peak muscle force. Plausible muscle forces were constrained within six selected EMG boundaries. The spectrum to EMG-driven force difference increased from 40 to 108 N for 1–15 EMG inputs. The best-fit muscle strategy better described the EMG-driven pattern (R2 = 0.94; RMSE = 19 N) than the static optimization solution (R2 = 0.38; RMSE = 61 N). Possible forces for 27 of 34 muscles varied between zero and the peak muscle force, inducing a peak hip force of 11.3 body-weights. Plausible muscle forces closely matched the selected EMG patterns; no effect of the EMG constraint was observed on the remaining muscle force ranges. The model can be used to study alternative muscle recruitment strategies in both physiological and pathophysiological neuromotor conditions. PMID:25844155

  3. Assessing a Science Graduate School Recruitment Symposium

    PubMed Central

    González-Espada, Wilson; Díaz-Muñoz, Greetchen; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; López-Casillas, Marcos; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A.; Fernández-Repollet, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting science, research and scientific education among Latinos, organized an educational symposium to provide college science majors the tools, opportunities and advice to pursue graduate degrees and succeed in the STEM disciplines. In this article we share our experiences and lessons learned, for others interested in developing large-scale events to recruit underrepresented minorities to STEM and in evaluating the effectiveness of these efforts. PMID:26770074

  4. Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov., two novel species isolated from a Great scallop (Pecten maximus) hatchery in Norway and emended description of the genus Neptuniibacter.

    PubMed

    Diéguez, Ana L; Balboa, Sabela; Magnesen, Thorolf; Romalde, Jesús L

    2017-03-01

    Nine isolates obtained from a great scallop hatchery in Norway were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strains were Gram-negative, aerobic and motile rods with oxidative metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes showed that these strains formed two different groups associated with members of the genus Neptuniibacter. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) demonstrated that the isolates constituted two novel species of this genus, which can be phenotypically differentiated from their closest relatives. The names Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov are proposed, with ATR 1.1(T) (=CECT 8938(T)=DSM 100783(T)) and LFT 1.8(T) (=CECT 8936(T)=DSM 100781(T)) as respective type strains.

  5. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants’ expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget. PMID:26407102

  6. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-05

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans.

  7. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Gregory L.; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans. PMID:26668368

  8. Heterogeneous Participant Recruitment for Comprehensive Vehicle Sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazhi; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Widely distributed mobile vehicles wherein various sensing devices and wireless communication interfaces are installed bring vehicular participatory sensing into practice. However, the heterogeneity of vehicles in terms of sensing capability and mobility, and the participants' expectations on the incentives blackmake the collection of comprehensive sensing data a challenging task. A sensing data quality-oriented optimal heterogeneous participant recruitment strategy is proposed in this paper for vehicular participatory sensing. In the proposed strategy, the differences between the sensing data requirements and the collected sensing data are modeled. An optimization formula is established to model the optimal participant recruitment problem, and a participant utility analysis scheme is built based on the sensing and mobility features of vehicles. Besides, a greedy algorithm is then designed according to the utility of vehicles to recruit the most efficient vehicles with a limited total incentive budget. Real trace-driven simulations show that the proposed strategy can collect 85.4% of available sensing data with 34% incentive budget.

  9. Occupational Medicine Model and Asthma Military Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    Medical evidence hints that asymptomatic recruits with a history of childhood asthma, quiescent since their 13th birthday, are still at risk for adverse changes in their clinical status following unfavorable environmental exposures during military deployment or combat. Asthmatic persons, claiming none or few symptoms, may still manifest airflow obstruction and display biomarkers of airway inflammation even when they are relatively asymptomatic and experience few if any respiratory complaints. The occupational medicine model offers a credible foundation for acknowledging the importance of personal susceptibility in the pathogenesis of military-associated asthma. It is appropriate to re-explore the current military standard for recruits with asymptomatic childhood asthma (≥12 months) not prescribed antiasthma medications. Raising the acceptance age for these recruits may be a consideration. Unfortunately, there is no effectual screening test that recognizes such susceptible soldiers at risk for future asthma attacks. Nevertheless, there is general support for evidence-based, scientifically valid medical screening that judges fitness for military service. Screening tests comprising asthma biomarkers and genetic indices may better verify vulnerable soldiers destined to suffer future asthma reactivation.

  10. Practical solutions for staff recruitment & retention.

    PubMed

    Vander Hoek, N

    2001-01-01

    There are three essential topics for radiology managers to consider in light of persistent staffing shortages: support of the profession and educational programs, perks as recruitment tools and incentives as retention tools. Some activities that can help support departments and educational programs for radiologic technologists are job shadowing, training for volunteer services, advanced placement for school applicants, sponsoring an educational program or clinical training site, creating a positive work environment and supporting outreach projects geared to local high schools. Traditional perks used in recruitment efforts have included relocation assistance, travel and lodging expenses during the interview process, loan repayment, scholarships and sign-on bonuses. Some common incentives for retaining employees are tuition reimbursement, cross training, availability of educational resources, continuing education opportunities, professional development and incremental increases in salary. There are many other tools that can be used, such as career ladders, creating an environment conducive to teamwork or a more personal atmosphere and showcasing talents of various staff members. There is much overlap among these suggestions in support of the profession and educational programs, recruitment and retention of qualified staff radiologic technologists. Radiology managers can and should be creative in developing different programs to build loyalty and commitment to a radiology department.

  11. Monitoring recruitment success and cost in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Perri, Romina; Wollin, Stephanie; Drolet, Nicolas; Mai, Stephanie; Awad, Manal; Feine, Jocelyne

    2006-09-01

    Recruitment of older adults into research studies is challenging and, as a consequence, the recruitment period is often extended and more expensive than planned. This study monitored the effectiveness (number of subjects attracted) and cost of different recruitment strategies when recruiting edentulous elderly adults. Socio-demographic data were gathered and compared to 2001 Canadian census data. Advertisements in major Montreal newspapers attracted the most people (24.3%). However, the most economical recruitment method proved to be placement of ads in senior newspapers (dollar 73.74 per subject). The information gathered in this study will assist others in planning recruitment strategies for edentulous elderly populations.

  12. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR AN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDY OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruiting study participants is always a challenge for researchers. It poses an even bigger challenge for researchers to recruit participants for a study involving intrusive, burdensome data collection activities. A study of preschool children's exposure to persistent organic ...

  13. We Can Recruit Minorities Into The Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, S.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the dismal numbers, efforts to recruit minorities into the geosciences are improving, thanks in part to NSF's "Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences" (OEDG) initiative. At Wesleyan University, a small liberal arts college in Connecticut, we have significantly increased our recruitment of minority students. Twenty percent (four students) of the class of 2013 are African American. Most of the recruitment is done on an individual basis and working in conjunction with the "Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement" and courting minority students in introductory classes. The Dean for Diversity and Student Engagement is aware of our interest in increasing diversity and that we are able to hire minority students during the academic year and through the summer with OEDG funds. When she identifies minority students who might be interested in the geosciences, she refers them to faculty in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department. Our faculty can provide employment, mentoring and a variety of geo-related experiences. Courting students in introductory courses can include inviting them to lunch or other activity, and attending sports, theater or dance events in which they are participating. Not all efforts result in new majors. Courses in ancillary sciences may be stumbling blocks and higher grades in less demanding courses have lured some students into other majors. Nevertheless, we now have a large enough cohort of minority students so that minority students from other majors visit their friends in our labs. A critical mass? Even a student, who chooses another major, may continue an interest in geoscience and through outreach efforts and discussions with younger family members, may provide a bridge that becomes a conduit for future students.

  14. 20 CFR 655.71 - CO-ordered assisted recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false CO-ordered assisted recruitment. 655.71... States (H-2B Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.71 CO-ordered assisted recruitment. (a) Requirement of assisted recruitment. If, as a result of audit or otherwise, the CO determines that a violation...

  15. 20 CFR 655.71 - CO-ordered assisted recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false CO-ordered assisted recruitment. 655.71... States (H-2B Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.71 CO-ordered assisted recruitment. (a) Requirement of assisted recruitment. If, as a result of audit or otherwise, the CO determines that a violation...

  16. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  17. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  18. 28 CFR 92.9 - Publicizing the Police Recruitment Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Publicizing the Police Recruitment... ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.9 Publicizing the Police... the affected geographic area. The methods for publicizing the Police Recruitment programs may...

  19. Recruiter-Applicant Differences in Perceptions of Extrinsic Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Kermit R., Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined how accurate recruiters would be in estimating relative preferences of college seniors for important category of extrinsic rewards. Compared preferences of 602 graduating college seniors for 11 extrinsic rewards with preference estimates of 486 recruiters. Recruiters underestimated importance of medical and life insurance, pension plans,…

  20. Recruiting Strategically: Increasing Enrollment in Academic Programs of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Settle, Quisto; Chiarelli, Christy; Irani, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture continues to struggle to find enough qualified students to advance the industry. Thus, recruiting practice improvement is imperative. This study assessed the efficacy of message strategies, message channels, recruiting materials, and messages for recruiting students into an academic program with low enrollment. Focus groups were…

  1. Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the E-Business World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    TRANSFORMING PERSONNEL ACCESSIONS: RECRUITING IN THE E- BUSINESS WORLD BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL ARTHUR D. GLIKIN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...20020806 194 USAWC FELLOWSHIP RESEARCH PAPER Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World by Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Arthur D. Glikin TITLE: Transforming Personnel Accessions: Recruiting in the e- Business World FORMAT: Fellowship Research

  2. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  3. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  4. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    PubMed

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  5. Paediatric lung recruitment: a review of the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Jauncey-Cooke, Jacqui; East, Chris E; Bogossian, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Lung recruitment is used as an adjunct to lung protective ventilation strategies. Lung recruitment is a brief, deliberate elevation of transpulmonary pressures beyond what is achieved during tidal ventilation levels. The aim of lung recruitment is to maximise the number of alveoli participating in gas exchange particularly in distal and dependant regions of the lung. This may improve oxygenation and end expiratory levels. Restoration of end expiratory levels and stabilisation of the alveoli may reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). Various methods of lung recruitment have been studied in adult and experimental populations. This review aims to establish the evidence for lung recruitment in the pediatric population.

  6. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May–June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment. PMID:27123994

  7. Adult Prey Neutralizes Predator Nonconsumptive Limitation of Prey Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Romoth, Katharina; Molis, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that predator chemical cues can limit prey demographic rates such as recruitment. For instance, barnacle pelagic larvae reduce settlement where predatory dogwhelk cues are detected, thereby limiting benthic recruitment. However, adult barnacles attract conspecific larvae through chemical and visual cues, aiding larvae to find suitable habitat for development. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of adult barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) can neutralize dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment. We did a field experiment in Atlantic Canada during the 2012 and 2013 barnacle recruitment seasons (May-June). We manipulated the presence of dogwhelks (without allowing them to physically contact barnacles) and adult barnacles in cages established in rocky intertidal habitats. At the end of both recruitment seasons, we measured barnacle recruit density on tiles kept inside the cages. Without adult barnacles, the nearby presence of dogwhelks limited barnacle recruitment by 51%. However, the presence of adult barnacles increased barnacle recruitment by 44% and neutralized dogwhelk nonconsumptive effects on barnacle recruitment, as recruit density was unaffected by dogwhelk presence. For species from several invertebrate phyla, benthic adult organisms attract conspecific pelagic larvae. Thus, adult prey might commonly constitute a key factor preventing negative predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment.

  8. Recruitment stability in masseter motor units during isometric voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    Scutter, S D; Türker, K S

    1998-10-01

    Recruitment of single motor units (SMUs) of the masseter muscle was studied using macro representation (MacroRep) as the indicator of motor unit size. When subjects followed a slow isometric force ramp, units were usually recruited in order of MacroRep size. However, pooling the data from repeated ramps in the same subject resulted in a weak relationship between MacroRep size and force recruitment threshold, probably due to marked variations in the relative contributions of the jaw muscles, and varying levels of cocontraction, in the development of total bite force in each ramp. The force recruitment thresholds of individual SMUs showed marked variability, but recruitment threshold stability was improved when expressed as a percentage of maximum surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity in the ipsilateral masseter. Therefore the SEMG recruitment threshold was concluded to be a more stable and accurate indicator of the SMU's position in the recruitment hierarchy in a given muscle. It was concluded that SMUs in masseter are recruited according to the size principle, and that when investigating recruitment in jaw muscles, SEMG recruitment threshold should be used in preference to force recruitment threshold.

  9. Analysis of Recruit Attrition from the Navy’s Delayed Entry Program and Recruit Training Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    credential, time in DEP, gender , marital status, AFQT score, enlistment program, and Navy Recruiting District are significant factors affecting DEP...attrition probabilities. Results show that education credential, time in DEP, gender , marital status, AFQT score, enlistment program, and Navy...HISTORICAL REVIEW OF ATTRITION RESEARCH BY GENDER .32 F. OVERVIEW: TRENDS ..................................35 III. ANALYSIS OF NAVY DELAYED ENTRY PROGRAM

  10. Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".

    PubMed

    Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member

  11. Pseudooceanicola atlanticus gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from surface seawater of the Atlantic Ocean and reclassification of Oceanicola batsensis, Oceanicola marinus, Oceanicola nitratireducens, Oceanicola nanhaiensis, Oceanicola antarcticus and Oceanicola flagellatus, as Pseudooceanicola batsensis comb. nov., Pseudooceanicola marinus comb. nov., Pseudooceanicola nitratireducens comb. nov., Pseudooceanicola nanhaiensis comb. nov., Pseudooceanicola antarcticus comb. nov., and Pseudooceanicola flagellatus comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiliang; Li, Guizhen; Liu, Xiupian; Du, Yaping; Sun, Fengqin; Shao, Zongze

    2015-04-01

    be assigned to the genus Oceanicola; consequently strain 22II-S11g(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of a novel genus in the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Pseudooceanicola atlanticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain 22II-S11g(T) = KCTC 42004(T) = LMG 27424(T) = MCCC 1A09160(T)). Six misclassified species should be transferred to the novel genus Pseudooceanicola as follows: O. batsensis should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola batsensis comb. nov. (type strain HTCC2597(T) = ATCC BAA-863(T) = DSM 15984(T) = KCTC 12145(T)); Oceanicola marinus should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola marinus comb. nov. (type strain AZO-C(T) = LMG 23705(T) = BCRC 17591(T)); O. nitratireducens should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola nitratireducens comb. nov. (type strain JLT1210(T) = LMG 24663(T) = CGMCC 1.7292(T)); Oceanicola nanhaiensis should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola nanhaiensis comb. nov. (type strain SS011B1-20(T) = LMG 23508(T) = CGMCC 1.6293(T)); Oceanicola antarcticus should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola antarcticus comb. nov. (type strain Ar-45(T) = CGMCC 1.12662(T) = LMG 27868(T)); and Oceanicola flagellatus should be transferred to the genus Pseudooceanicola as Pseudooceanicola flagellatus comb. nov. (type strain DY470(T) = CGMCC 1.12664(T) = LMG 27871(T)).

  12. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  13. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems. PMID:24577050

  14. Ocean acidification impairs vermetid reef recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Chan, Vera Bin San; Fine, Maoz; Alessi, Cinzia; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Chemello, Renato

    2014-02-01

    Vermetids form reefs in sub-tropical and warm-temperate waters that protect coasts from erosion, regulate sediment transport and accumulation, serve as carbon sinks and provide habitat for other species. The gastropods that form these reefs brood encapsulated larvae; they are threatened by rapid environmental changes since their ability to disperse is very limited. We used transplant experiments along a natural CO2 gradient to assess ocean acidification effects on the reef-building gastropod Dendropoma petraeum. We found that although D. petraeum were able to reproduce and brood at elevated levels of CO2, recruitment success was adversely affected. Long-term exposure to acidified conditions predicted for the year 2100 and beyond caused shell dissolution and a significant increase in shell Mg content. Unless CO2 emissions are reduced and conservation measures taken, our results suggest these reefs are in danger of extinction within this century, with significant ecological and socioeconomic ramifications for coastal systems.

  15. Researching mental health in minority ethnic communities: reflections on recruitment.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, Jorun; Canvin, Krysia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reflect on the recruitment of research participants to two related studies of experiences of mental health problems in Black and minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. A total of 65 people were recruited via three main strategies: the employment of bicultural recruiters, intensive information sharing about the studies, and work through local community groups. Three main issues seemed to affect recruitment: gatekeepers' attitudes, the (non)payment of participants, and reciprocal arrangements with local community groups. The type of strategy employed resulted in recruits with differing characteristics (although our sample was too small to draw generalizable conclusions). We conclude that to ensure that research participation is accessible to all, researchers must employ flexible recruitment methods that permit adaptation to specific needs arising out of health status, level of involvement with services, culture, and socioeconomic status. Systematic research into this part of the research process is needed.

  16. Evaluating strategies and costs to recruit smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; Enstad, Chris; Asche, Stephen E; Thoele, Merry J; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2007-12-01

    We recruited smokeless tobacco users throughout Minnesota to participate in a trial testing telephone counseling versus a written self-help manual for cessation. This paper describes the recruitment strategies applied on a state-wide basis. We established a recruitment tracking system to monitor weekly rates of screened callers and returned consents, allowing us to adjust future recruitment efforts. Screening was completed with 783 callers, with 406 subjects enrolled. Overall 44% of initial contacts and 52% of those screened enrolled in the study. The overall average cost per consented subject was $99. Sports talk radio, small print ads, and newspaper articles based on press releases were consistently effective channels for recruitment. The overall cost was expensive but reflected the geographic diversity of recruitment and the prevalence of oral snuff use.

  17. Physician recruitment success: how to acquire top physician talent.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Judy

    2011-01-01

    This article provides step-by-step instructions on how to complete the strategic planning needed to ensure success in physician recruitment efforts, outlines how to build a successful recruitment team, and provides helpful advice to avoid common recruiting mistakes that can sabotage the recruitment efforts of even the best practices. This article discusses the role of the in-house hospital recruiter in the recruitment process, how to evaluate independent search firms, how to make use of the physicians in your group to ensure success during a site visit, and how to ensure that your new hire will be able to successfully develop a practice. The article also discusses how to find and use benchmarking data to ensure that your compensation package is competitive, and provides advice on how to help your new physician hit the ground running.

  18. Using marketing theory to inform strategies for recruitment: a recruitment optimisation model and the txt2stop experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Methods Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Results Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Conclusions Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials. PMID:24886627

  19. Improving Recruiting of the 6th Recruiting Brigade Through Statistical Analysis and Efficiency Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    commentary/2013/10/16/op-ed-why-ending- volunteer-service-next-fight-military-equalityPost. 11 Ibid. 12 Kathy Roth -Douquet and Frank Schaefer, AWOL...Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis, 4th ed. ( Mason , OH: Thomson South-Western, 2004), 107. 27 U.S. Army Recruiting Command, G7/9 - Marketing, Education...2009. http://www.defense.gov/news/ newsarticle.aspx?id=53310. Ragsdale, Cliff T. Spreadsheet Modeling & Decision Analysis. 4th ed. Mason , OH

  20. Learning communities: the link to recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Sherry; Polifroni, E Carol

    2005-01-01

    The professional learning community is a strategy to help staff development educators address recruitment and retention and organizational culture. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of learning communities and discuss their potential to increase the recruitment and retention of new graduate nurses and returning practitioners to the nursing profession. Incorporating learning communities into the healthcare organization will decrease the number of nurses leaving nursing, foster retention, and thus, enhance recruitment.

  1. Recruit--An Ontology Based Information Retrieval System for Clinical Trials Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Diogo F C; Oleynik, Michel; Massicano, Felipe; Morassi Sasso, Ariane

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials are studies designed to assess whether a new intervention is better than the current alternatives. However, most of them fail to recruit participants on schedule. It is hard to use Electronic Health Record (EHR) data to find eligible patients, therefore studies rely on manual assessment, which is time consuming, inefficient and requires specialized training. In this work we describe the design and development of an information retrieval system with the objective of finding eligible patients for cancer trials. The Recruit system has been in use at A. C. Camargo Cancer Center since August/2014 and contains data from more than 500,000 patients and 9 databases. It uses ontologies to integrate data from several sources and represent medical knowledge, which helps enhance results. One can search both in structured data and inside free text reports. The preliminary quality assessments shows excellent recall rates. Recruit proved to be an useful tool for researchers and its modular design could be applied to other clinical conditions and hospitals.

  2. Substrate temperature constrains recruitment and trail following behavior in ants.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Boulay, Raphaël; Lenoir, Alain; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerda, Xim

    2012-06-01

    In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures.

  3. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics.

  4. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-09-23

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes.

  5. Platelets in leucocyte recruitment and function.

    PubMed

    Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Platelets have a longstanding recognition as an essential cellular component of the coagulation system. However, substantial research over the last decade has added another important aspect to platelet function in that they are also an integral part of the innate immune system. Complex organisms are facing a constant threat of infections by invading pathogens, and they have developed a sophisticated and elegant measure to combat this threat, namely the immune system. Leucocyte recruitment to sites of infections is an essential step at the forefront of the immune response. Platelets have been shown to be involved in several steps of this process and they are an integrated connecting element among haemostasis, host defence, and additional immunological functions (e.g. neutrophil extracellular traps formation). However, the immune system also requires a tight regulation, as an overshooting immune response carries the risk of harming the host itself. This review aims at highlighting the unique features and molecular mechanisms that allow for the interactions of platelets and leucocytes and the regulation of this process. Furthermore, this article identifies the functional relevance of these events for the immune response.

  6. Elevated Temperature and Allelopathy Impact Coral Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Ross, Cliff; Paul, Valerie J.

    2016-01-01

    As climate change continues to alter seawater temperature and chemistry on a global scale, coral reefs show multiple signs of degradation. One natural process that could facilitate the recovery of reef ecosystems is coral recruitment, which can be influenced by the benthic organisms in a local habitat. We experimentally tested both a global stressor (increased seawater temperature) and a local stressor (exposure to microcolin A, a natural product from a common marine benthic cyanobacterium) to determine how these stressors impacted coral larval sublethal stress, survival and settlement. Larvae of Porites astreoides had the same survival and settlement as the controls after exposure to increased temperature alone, but elevated temperature did cause oxidative stress. When exposed to natural concentrations of microcolin A, larval survival and settlement were significantly reduced. When larvae were exposed to these two stressors sequentially there was no interactive effect; but when exposed to both stressors simultaneously, there was a synergistic reduction in larval survival and an increase in oxidative stress more than in either stressor treatment alone. Increased seawater temperatures made larvae more susceptible to a concurrent local stressor disrupting a key process of coral reef recovery and resilience. These results highlight the importance of understanding how interactive stressors of varying spatial scales can impact coral demographics. PMID:27926916

  7. Diaphragm Motor Unit Recruitment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that considerable force reserve exists for the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) to generate transdiaphragmatic pressures (Pdi) necessary to sustain ventilation. In rats, we measured Pdi and DIAm EMG activity during different ventilatory (eupnea and hypoxia (10% O2) – hypercapnia (5% CO2)) and non-ventilatory (airway occlusion and sneezing induced by intranasal capsaicin) behaviors. Compared to maximum Pdi (Pdimax - generated by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation), the Pdi generated during eupnea (21±2%) and hypoxia-hypercapnia (28±4%) were significantly less (P<0.0001) than that generated during airway occlusion (63±4%) and sneezing (94±5%). The Pdi generated during spontaneous sighs was 62±5% of Pdimax. Relative DIAm EMG activity (root mean square [RMS] amplitude) paralleled the changes in Pdi during different ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors (r2=0.78; p<0.0001). These results support our hypothesis of a considerable force reserve for the DIAm to accomplish ventilatory behaviors. A model for DIAm motor unit recruitment predicted that ventilatory behaviors would require activation of only fatigue resistant units. PMID:20620243

  8. Navy recruits: fitness measuring, validation, and norming.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Damir; Males, Boris; Miletic, Djurdjica

    2006-08-01

    During the standard Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) used on Croatian Navy recruits (CNR), we found the standard APFT battery to be both excessively demanding and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to validate alternate APFT tests (A-APFT) that would be appropriate for CNR. In the sample of 295 CNR (mean age, 23 +/- 2.6 years), we applied the standard APFT (2-minute sit-ups and push-ups, and 2-mile-run) and A-APFT (30-second sit-ups and push-ups, 1,500-meter run, and 2-minute squats). Using linear correlations and linear regression equations, we established validity of the A-APFT compared to the APFT. Thirty-second push-ups, but not 30-second sit-ups, can be considered as a valuable alternative to the same 2-minute test, while the 1500-meter run may be considered as a valid replacement of the 2-mile run. The modified standards for the A-APFT and some suggestions for the enhancement of the physical fitness training in CNR are presented.

  9. Nicotine recruits glutamate receptors to postsynaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jing-Jing; Lozada, Adrian F; Gou, Chen-Yu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuan; Berg, Darwin K

    2015-09-01

    Cholinergic neurons project throughout the nervous system and activate nicotinic receptors to modulate synaptic function in ways that shape higher order brain function. The acute effects of nicotinic signaling on long-term synaptic plasticity have been well-characterized. Less well understood is how chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine, such as those encountered by habitual smokers, can alter neural connections to promote addiction and other lasting behavioral effects. We show here that chronic exposure of hippocampal neurons in culture to low levels of nicotine recruits AMPA and NMDA receptors to the cell surface and sequesters them at postsynaptic sites. The receptors include GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by AMPA receptors on the neurons, and include NMDA receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. Moreover, we find that the nicotine treatment also increases expression of the presynaptic component synapsin 1 and arranges it in puncta juxtaposed to the additional AMPA and NMDA receptor puncta, suggestive of increases in synaptic contacts. Consistent with increased synaptic input, we find that the nicotine treatment leads to an increase in the excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Further, the increases skew the ratio of excitatory-to-inhibitory input that the cell receives, and this holds both for pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor redistribution at synapses is associated with a significant increase in GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a site known to prevent GluN2B endocytosis. These results suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine not only alters functional connections but also is likely to change excitability levels across networks. Further, it may increase the propensity for synaptic plasticity, given the increase in synaptic NMDA receptors.

  10. Nicotine Recruits Glutamate Receptors to Postsynaptic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jing-jing; Lozada, Adrian F.; Gou, Chen-yu; Xu, Jing; Chen, Yuan; Berg, Darwin K.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons project throughout the nervous system and activate nicotinic receptors to modulate synaptic function in ways that shape higher order brain function. The acute effects of nicotinic signaling on long-term synaptic plasticity have been well-characterized. Less well understood is how chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine, such as those encountered by habitual smokers, can alter neural connections to promote addiction and other lasting behavioral effects. We show here that chronic exposure of hippocampal neurons in culture to low levels of nicotine recruits AMPA and NMDA receptors to the cell surface and sequesters them at postsynaptic sites. The receptors include GluA2-containing AMPA receptors, which are responsible for most of the excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by AMPA receptors on the neurons, and include NMDA receptors containing GluN1 and GluN2B subunits. Moreover, we find that the nicotine treatment also increases expression of the presynaptic component synapsin 1 and arranges it in puncta juxtaposed to the additional AMPA and NMDA receptor puncta, suggestive of increases in synaptic contacts. Consistent with increased synaptic input, we find that the nicotine treatment leads to an increase in the excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. Further, the increases skew the ratio of excitatory-to-inhibitory input the cell receives, and this holds both for pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor redistribution at synapses is associated with a significant increase in GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472, a site known to prevent GluN2B endocytosis. These results suggest that chronic exposure to low levels of nicotine not only alters functional connections but also is likely to change excitability levels across networks. Further, it may increase the propensity for synaptic plasticity, given the increase in synaptic NMDA receptors. PMID:26365992

  11. Telomerase recruitment requires both TCAB1 and Cajal bodies independently.

    PubMed

    Stern, J Lewis; Zyner, Katherine G; Pickett, Hilda A; Cohen, Scott B; Bryan, Tracy M

    2012-07-01

    The ability of most cancer cells to grow indefinitely relies on the enzyme telomerase and its recruitment to telomeres. In human cells, recruitment depends on the Cajal body RNA chaperone TCAB1 binding to the RNA subunit of telomerase (hTR) and is also thought to rely on an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit, hTERT. We demonstrate that coilin, an essential structural component of Cajal bodies, is required for endogenous telomerase recruitment to telomeres but that overexpression of telomerase can compensate for Cajal body absence. In contrast, recruitment of telomerase was sensitive to levels of TCAB1, and this was not rescued by overexpression of telomerase. Thus, although Cajal bodies are important for recruitment, TCAB1 has an additional role in this process that is independent of these structures. TCAB1 itself localizes to telomeres in a telomerase-dependent but Cajal body-independent manner. We identify a point mutation in hTERT that largely abolishes recruitment yet does not affect association of telomerase with TCAB1, suggesting that this region mediates recruitment by an independent mechanism. Our results demonstrate that telomerase has multiple independent requirements for recruitment to telomeres and that the function of TCAB1 is to directly transport telomerase to telomeres.

  12. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  13. Recruiting Teachers, Principals, and Superintendents: A Job Choice Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rose Mary; Witherspoon, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    Recruitment includes all organizational practices and decisions affecting the number and type of individuals willing to apply for and accept vacant positions (Rynes, 1991). Effective recruitment practices have the potential to improve the quality of educational experience for students, reduce the cost of personnel development, and decrease the…

  14. Recruitment and Retention of Latino Children in a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Angelica; Richardson, Irma M.; Gesell, Sabina; Barkin, Shari L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe promising recruitment and retention strategies for transient Latino populations, assisting investigators who work with this population in their research design and implementation. Methods: Strategies in recruitment and retention from a year-long intervention in children and their families are described. Results: Of the 159…

  15. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-34 - Recruitment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recruitment costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-34 Recruitment costs. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this subsection, the following costs...

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-34 - Recruitment costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recruitment costs. 31.205... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-34 Recruitment costs. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this subsection, the following costs...

  18. An Analysis of the Incidence of Recruiter Irregularities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    provided data and answered our questions about the incidence of recruiter irregularities. The people are Ted Disney at the U.S. Army Recruiting...are more likely to ultimately be substantiated. The Army and the Navy, in contrast, have fairly expansive inter- nal reporting requirements that

  19. The Decision To Recruit Online: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanaki, Eleanna

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 34 of 99 United Kingdom information technology companies explored effects of cost effectiveness, response rate and quality, company image, targeting, time and effort, and overload. The effectiveness of online recruiting depends largely on its implementation and the quality of the recruitment process as a whole. (Contains 38…

  20. Coping by Copying? Higher Education Institutions' Student Recruitment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Brandt, Synnove; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Growing national and international competition for students puts pressure on higher education institutions (HEIs) to develop marketing and student recruitment strategies; these are also driven by financial stress caused by performance-based funding mechanisms. In this paper we explore Norwegian HEIs' student recruitment strategies. What type of…

  1. Recruitment and Staff Development of Teachers: A Rural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthes, William A.; Carlson, Robert V.

    The paper summarizes recruitment and retention approaches designed to assist rural school administrators in securing/holding well-prepared/qualified teachers and presents findings from a 1985 study that examined teachers' perceptions of professional preparation. Outlined recruitment approaches include paying candidate's interview and moving…

  2. Army Recruiting Challenges in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    on top of the normal daily challenges recruiters routinely face, it is time to revisit Army recruiting and make it more relevant in the 21st Century...prescription medication and other behavior altering drugs, such as Ritalin , makes Generation Yers the most medicated generation in history

  3. Understanding Student Recruitment in Mainland China: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, John A.; Wong, Isabella Y. S.

    2010-01-01

    While China continues to be perhaps the most important student recruitment region for many leading international universities, changes in this market, resulting in more regional mobility of students, are fast becoming apparent. This, the increasing penetration and efforts of the traditional recruiting institutions and the entry of new universities…

  4. The Recruitment Problem in Psychiatry: A Critical Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampfer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The continuing shortfall in recruitment to Psychiatry is examined with suggestions for affirmative action. Recruitment may improve in the near future because of the high demand for psychiatrists, the incentives offered, greater competition for other specialties and a pool of international graduates willing to work in Psychiatry. There remains the…

  5. Importing Educators: Causes and Consequences of International Teacher Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report contains case studies of international recruiters who help school districts in the United States acquire work visas and hire noncitizens. Recruiters sometimes use fees charged to workers to pay for U.S. school officials' overseas trips, where they stay in luxury hotels and handpick teachers at job fairs. Not surprisingly, some school…

  6. In situ tissue regeneration: chemoattractants for endogenous stem cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.

  7. Assessing Cultural Change in the United States Army Recruiting Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-10

    of the uniformed control companies. This speaks well for contract recruiting, since this was accomplished despite the problems of high turnover and a...characterization may be. As COL Glenn Richey, a former USAREC battalion commander, explains, "Recruiters that are naturally extroverted tend adapt to the

  8. JTPA Recruitment Made (Much) Easier. Employment and Training Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jodie Sue

    Intended for Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) administrators and service deliverers, this publication provides those programs that are experiencing recruitment difficulties with new and innovative approaches to attracting eligible clients into their programs. It begins by listing the 10 most common recruitment marketing errors. Marketing is…

  9. The Admissions Strategist: Recruiting in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Proven market/institutional research techniques and technological developments in computer systems that can be used by college admissions offices to enhance recruitment efforts are discussed in 13 articles. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: "Student Reactions to College Recruiting Techniques" (Arthur D. Lopatin);…

  10. A New Hire Looks at the Recruiter's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zider, Robert B.

    1971-01-01

    This article is a followup to one by M. C. Kidd, in this issue. The recruiter of technical personnel must be part psychologist, part engineer, and part accountant, keeping in mind the kind of investment each prospect represents. He must be specific, comprehensive, and more sales" oriented than the nontechnical recruiter. (Author/CJ)

  11. IDENTIFYING RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for the National Children's Study
    Danelle T Lobdell1, Suzanne Gilboa2, Pauline Mendola1 (1US EPA, NHEERL; 2UNC Chapel Hill)

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, co...

  12. The Recruiting Process: Turning a Fiasco into a Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Curtis

    1982-01-01

    Suggests an effective recruiting strategy--the nominating committee--based on the Boy Scouts of America. A nominating committee reduces recruiting fiascos, as when no one is willing to accept a position or those interested are not qualified. Offers guidelines for the committee's mode of operation. (WD)

  13. Hearts and Minds: Military Recruitment and the High School Battlefield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, William

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, military recruitment has failed, with rare exceptions, to meet its quotas. The nations's high schools have thus become battlefields for the hearts and minds of young people as recruiters dangle gifts and promises of future benefits before teenagers in an effort to fill the ranks of an all-volunteer military. In this article, the…

  14. Librarian Recruitment Process at Home in the Wired Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbeitt, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward online recruitment for librarians and describes a survey of library employees who had posted jobs online. Topics include reasons for online job postings; where positions were advertised, including types of Web sites and print media; electronic communication and emailed resumes; and the future of online recruitment. (LRW)

  15. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there... to non-H-2A employers in the area. The CO will ensure that the effort, including the location(s) and... employer made to obtain foreign workers. (c) Nature of the additional positive recruitment. The CO...

  16. Recruiting Campaigns: How Advertising and Training Target the Millennial Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    RECRUITING CAMPAIGNS: HOW ADVERTISING AND TRAINING TARGET THE MILLENNIAL GENERATION A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...cohorts: G.I., Silent, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (referred to as Millennials throughout this paper) explains commonalities and...goals, traits, and desires of the Millennial Generation . USAREC correctly adapted its advertising campaigns and must focus recruiter training on

  17. Recruitment Practices Change, but Issues Remain the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, Esther

    2012-01-01

    What the author found most surprising about Richard Haines' survey on 1974 recruitment practices was that the major issues are still relevant. His main points about recruitment, college and counselor interaction, and the need for better information still resonate as the profession consistently calls for clarity and transparency in the college…

  18. Targeted Recruitment of GLBT Students by Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegler, Tyler D.

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and admission practices of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students by admission offices in higher education are examined as an emerging trend. Limited research on the targeted recruitment and hopeful admission and matriculation of the LGBT prospective student populations exists. Third-party GLBT organizations have…

  19. Recruitment/Selectors' Perceptions of Male and Female Trainee Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether those involved with recruitment/selection (RS) react differently towards male and female trainee managers. Design/methodology/approach: Measures of the perceptions towards trainee managers were collected from 440 managers and professionals involved in recruitment/selection (RS). Findings: It…

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Faculty, "An Imperiled National Resource."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, George H.

    One of the working papers in the final report of the Arizona Board of Regents' (ABOR) Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, this document discusses a survey on faculty recruitment and retention in Arizona's public universities. The importance of faculty, the projected nationwide shortage of faculty, and recruitment projections…

  1. The Student's Role in Recruiting: Methods and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas M., Jr.; Fuller, C. Todd

    Students in the Southwest Baptist University's speech and debate program actively participate in recruiting and contribute to the small college's culture. While scholarship on peer recruitment is scarce, the literature suggests two foundational principles that can serve as guides: colleges and universities must be willing to develop personal…

  2. Strategies to engage clinical staff in subject recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Segre, Lisa S.; Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Friedemann, Marie-Luise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In many countries, meeting subject recruitment goals is challenging for researchers relying on clinical staff members (CSMs) to identify or recruit subjects. This paper describes research strategies that improved staff engagement in three different studies conducted in US clinical settings. Method The recruitment strategies described in this paper were identified during the process of consultation among three US researchers recruiting via CSMs. Strategies which successfully engaged CSMs are described. Results Our approach improved engagement with CSMs in three different US studies. Early engagement strategies included establishing trust, gathering input from CSMs, and using succinct training procedures as well as a study logo. Middle phase strategies included assigning recruitment, publishing a study newsletter, giving the CSMs compensation and appreciation for their participation, and expanding the subject pool. Completion strategies included closing with an appreciation meeting and adding merit letters to personnel files. Conclusion Recruitment of an adequate number of subjects is often challenging, even within clinical settings where subject populations are abundant. CSMs have rightly prioritised clinical care over directing subjects to research studies. It is therefore critical that researchers recruiting in such clinical settings anticipate recruitment challenges and plan to implement appropriate engagement strategies in all phases of research. PMID:21869904

  3. A University Approach to Improving STEM Teacher Recruitment and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Keith; Embry-Jenlink, Karen; Beverly, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe successful STEM teacher recruiting and training practices developed through the Talented Teachers in Training for Texas (T4) program. They discuss implementing three distinctive recruiting experiences--a STEM Master Teacher Job Shadow, a STEM Day, and a NASA Aerospace Teachers Program--along with a multiyear scholarship and…

  4. Macomb Community College Recruitment Plan, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.

    Michigan's Macomb Community College's (MCC's) student recruitment plan outlines specific activities, timelines, and budgets to meet the institution's goals for college advancement and the instructional divisions' and service departments' goals and objectives for student recruitment. Section I offers a summary of MCC's market segmentation approach…

  5. Training New Admissions Recruiters: A Guide for Survival and Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Roger M.; Wilkinson, Christine Kajikawa

    This volume is a guide for new college admissions recruiters and their supervisors. Chapter 1 discusses office space and related policy and telephone and computer equipment use as well as other important practical information. Chapter 2 discusses the recruiter's duty to become completely informed about his/her institution in various categories.…

  6. Selection, Training, and Utilization of Navy Recruit Training Command Officers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Severe Weather Extremes of Heat and Cold Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Orientation The Heimlich Maneuver Common Recruit Injuries and Complaints...TOPIC 7. DIVISION OFFICER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Severe Weather Extremes of Hot and Cold Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Orientation The Heimlich ... Maneuver Common Recruit Injuries/Complaints Medical Plan Fire Epidemic Incidents Which May Result in Extensive News Coverage Psychiatric Disorders Suicide

  7. Hiring and Recruitment Practices in Academic Libraries: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raschke, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    Academic libraries need to change their recruiting and hiring procedures to stay competitive in today's changing marketplace. To be more competitive and effective in their recruitment and hiring processes, academic libraries must foster manageable internal solutions, look to other professions for effective hiring techniques and models, and employ…

  8. Tools for Success in Recruiting and Retaining Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about strategies for success in recruiting and retaining Hispanic students. One strategy suggested by Raul Lorenzo, account director for Bauza & Associates, a Hispanic marketing agency that helps colleges and universities recruit and retain Hispanic students, is that institutions need to speak to the heart as well…

  9. Inhibition of coral recruitment by macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Becerro, M.A.; Paul, V.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coral recruitment is a key process in the maintenance and recovery of coral reef ecosystems. While intense competition between coral and algae is often assumed on reefs that have undergone phase shifts from coral to algal dominance, data examining the competitive interactions involved, particularly during the larval and immediate post-settlement stage, are scarce. Using a series of field and outdoor seawater table experiments, we tested the hypothesis that common species of macroalgae and cyanobacteria inhibit coral recruitment. We examined the effects of Lyngbya spp., Dictyota spp., Lobophora variegata (J. V. Lamouroux) Womersley, and Chondrophycus poiteaui (J. V. Lamouroux) Nam (formerly Laurencia poiteaui) on the recruitment success of Porites astreoides larvae. All species but C. poiteaui caused either recruitment inhibition or avoidance behavior in P. astreoides larvae, while L. confervoides and D. menstrualis significantly increased mortality rates of P. astreoides recruits. We also tested the effect of some of these macrophytes on larvae of the gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum. Exposure to Lyngbya majuscula reduced survival and recruitment in the octocoral larvae. Our results provide evidence that algae and cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. On reefs experiencing phase shifts or temporary algal blooms, the restocking of adult coral populations may be slowed due to recruitment inhibition, thereby perpetuating reduced coral cover and limiting coral community recovery. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  10. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  11. Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.

  12. Recruitment and Resilience of a Harvested Caribbean Octocoral

    PubMed Central

    Lasker, Howard R.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance events are an important component of the ecology of coral reefs and increasingly frequent disturbances coupled with a lack of population resilience may contribute to changes in the structure of coral reef communities. The harvest of the Caribbean octocoral Antillogorgia elisabethae provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between adult abundance and recruitment and the manner in which recruitment contributes to the resilience of local populations. Recruitment of A. elisabethae was monitored in 20, 1-m2 quadrats at 8 sites along the southern edge of the Little Bahama Bank from 2004 through 2007. A. elisabethae has been harvested in The Bahamas for over fifteen years and all of the sites had been harvested three times, including a harvest during the course of the study. Abundances of adult colonies at those sites as well as a location that had not been harvested were also determined. Recruitment was highly variable, differing between sites, transects within sites, and, depending on the site, between years. Recruitment was best correlated with adult abundance averaged across the surrounding site. Regression analyses suggest abundance on smaller scales had only small effects on recruitment. The effects of the harvesting were site specific ranging from a 38 to 67% reduction in the density of mature colonies. The sites with the most abundant A. elisabethae continued to have the highest abundances after harvesting and there was no significant difference in recruitment before and after harvesting. Population size-structure at 6 of 8 sites that have been harvested multiple times exhibited an overall depletion in small colonies suggesting long term suppression of recruitment and declining populations. Severe depression of adult abundances coupled with local recruitment can create a negative feedback and lead to the decline of local populations. Populations that are dependent on self-recruitment are not resilient to large disturbance events. PMID

  13. Improving actuation efficiency through variable recruitment hydraulic McKibben muscles: modeling, orderly recruitment control, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Meller, Michael; Chipka, Jordan; Volkov, Alexander; Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2016-11-03

    Hydraulic control systems have become increasingly popular as the means of actuation for human-scale legged robots and assistive devices. One of the biggest limitations to these systems is their run time untethered from a power source. One way to increase endurance is by improving actuation efficiency. We investigate reducing servovalve throttling losses by using a selective recruitment artificial muscle bundle comprised of three motor units. Each motor unit is made up of a pair of hydraulic McKibben muscles connected to one servovalve. The pressure and recruitment state of the artificial muscle bundle can be adjusted to match the load in an efficient manner, much like the firing rate and total number of recruited motor units is adjusted in skeletal muscle. A volume-based effective initial braid angle is used in the model of each recruitment level. This semi-empirical model is utilized to predict the efficiency gains of the proposed variable recruitment actuation scheme versus a throttling-only approach. A real-time orderly recruitment controller with pressure-based thresholds is developed. This controller is used to experimentally validate the model-predicted efficiency gains of recruitment on a robot arm. The results show that utilizing variable recruitment allows for much higher efficiencies over a broader operating envelope.

  14. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    growth of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (fig. 1). Red mangrove propagules (recruits) of select sizes and genotypes (i.e., genetically similar groups) were planted both in greenhouses and in the field. Seedling growth was monitored in both studies on a quarterly basis for over a year; measurements included shoot growth, seedling height, and a final harvest of plant biomass.

  15. Recruiting participants to walking intervention studies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health). The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i) electronic literature databases and websites, (ii) grey literature from internet sources, (iii) contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv) snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to other limitations in the

  16. Rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles by a mechanism analogous to raf recruitment by ras.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, B; Chou, J H; Li, C; Südhof, T C; Jahn, R

    1996-01-01

    GTP activates the interaction between the synaptic vesicle proteins rabphilin and rab3. This raises the question of whether rabphilin is a resident vesicle protein that recruits rab3 in a stage-dependent fashion, or if it is instead an effector protein recruited by rab3. We now show that rabphilin, like rab3, dissociates from synaptic vesicles after exocytosis in a manner requiring both Ca2+ and membrane fusion. Rabphilin interacts with GTP-rab3 via a N-terminal domain comprising a novel Zn2+(-)finger motif, and this interaction is essential for rabphilin binding to synaptic vesicles. Thus, in the same way that ras recruits raf to the plasma membrane, rab3 reversibly recruits rabphilin to synaptic vesicles in a stage-dependent manner. These results reveal an unexpected similarity between the molecular mechanisms by which small G protein function in recruiting effector proteins to membranes during membrane traffic and signal transduction. Images PMID:8617225

  17. Combining traits and density to model recruitment of sessile organisms.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Luis; Jenkins, Stuart R

    2013-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that explains patterns of recruitment to adult populations in sessile organisms by considering the numbers of individuals and their body size. A recruitment model, based on a small number of parameters, was developed for sessile organisms and tested using the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, a marine invertebrate inhabiting North Atlantic intertidal shores. Incorporating barnacle body size improved model fit beyond that based on density alone, showing that growth played an important role in how resource limitation affected survival. Our approach uncovered the following: First, changes in the shape of the recruitment curve resulted from the balance between individual growth and mortality. Second, recruitment was limited by the least plastic trait used to characterise body size, operculum area. Basal area, a trait that responded to increases in barnacle density, did not contribute significantly to explain patterns of recruitment. Third, some temporal variation is explained by changes in the amount of space occupied by shells of dead barnacles: at high cover barnacles are densely packed and these shells remain long after death. Fourth, seasonal variation and spatial variation in survival can be separated from that resulting from resource limitation; survival was predicted for two different shores and four sampling times using a single recruitment model. We conclude that applying this integrative approach to recruitment will lead to a considerable advance in understanding patterns of mortality of early stages of sessile organisms.

  18. Combining Traits and Density to Model Recruitment of Sessile Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Giménez, Luis; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that explains patterns of recruitment to adult populations in sessile organisms by considering the numbers of individuals and their body size. A recruitment model, based on a small number of parameters, was developed for sessile organisms and tested using the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, a marine invertebrate inhabiting North Atlantic intertidal shores. Incorporating barnacle body size improved model fit beyond that based on density alone, showing that growth played an important role in how resource limitation affected survival. Our approach uncovered the following: First, changes in the shape of the recruitment curve resulted from the balance between individual growth and mortality. Second, recruitment was limited by the least plastic trait used to characterise body size, operculum area. Basal area, a trait that responded to increases in barnacle density, did not contribute significantly to explain patterns of recruitment. Third, some temporal variation is explained by changes in the amount of space occupied by shells of dead barnacles: at high cover barnacles are densely packed and these shells remain long after death. Fourth, seasonal variation and spatial variation in survival can be separated from that resulting from resource limitation; survival was predicted for two different shores and four sampling times using a single recruitment model. We conclude that applying this integrative approach to recruitment will lead to a considerable advance in understanding patterns of mortality of early stages of sessile organisms. PMID:23469247

  19. Enhancing marketing recruitment strategies: administrator tenure and nursing expenditures.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Norris White

    2005-01-01

    When recruiting nurses, long-term care facilities require an ability to identify salient organizational characteristics that are attractive to potential nursing services candidates vis-à-vis their competitors. The findings of this study suggest that information on administrative tenure can be utilized to attract applicants by appealing to criteria within their high-involvement job search activities. High-involvement applicants proactively seek recruitment content that provides essential job attributes that match their needs and skills and are more apt to be a higher quality candidate. Based upon the study's findings, managers are offered marketing strategy recommendations for tailoring recruiting messages that appeal to high-involvement job seekers.

  20. Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.