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Sample records for ammonia emission factors

  1. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, prepared for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), identifies the most appropriate ammonia (NH3) emission factors available for inclusion in the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. H3 emission factors developed for several new NAPAP source categories...

  3. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated anaimal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  4. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U,.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  5. Ammonia emission factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) emission inventory. Final report, January 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Misenheimer, D.C.; Warn, T.E.; Zelmanowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides information on certain sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere for use in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emission inventories. Major anthropogenic sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are identified, and emission factors for these sources are presented based on a review of the most recent data available. The emission factors developed are used to estimate nationwide emissions for base year 1980 and are compared to ammonia emission factors used in other emission inventories. Major anthropogenic source categories covered are cropland spreading of livestock wastes, beef cattle feedlots, fertilizer manufacture and use, fuel combustion, ammonia synthesis, petroleum refineries, and coke manufacture. Approximately 840,000 tons of ammonia is estimated to have been emitted in the U.S. in 1980; over 64% of which is estimated to have been from livestock wastes.

  6. Emission factor for atmospheric ammonia from a typical municipal wastewater treatment plant in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlin; Geng, Xuesong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Boguang

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3), a common alkaline gas found in air, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry, such as in the formation of secondary particles. However, large uncertainties remain in the estimation of ammonia emissions from nonagricultural sources, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, the ammonia emission factors from a large WWTP utilizing three typical biological treatment techniques to process wastewater in South China were calculated using the US EPA's WATER9 model with three years of raw sewage measurements and information about the facility. The individual emission factors calculated were 0.15 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.06, and 0.25 ± 0.05 g NH3 m(-3) sewage for the adsorption-biodegradation activated sludge treatment process, the UNITANK process (an upgrade of the sequencing batch reactor activated sludge treatment process), and two slightly different anaerobic-anoxic-oxic treatment processes, respectively. The overall emission factor of the WWTP was 0.24 ± 0.06 g NH3m(-3) sewage. The pH of the wastewater influent is likely an important factor affecting ammonia emissions, because higher emission factors existed at higher pH values. Based on the ammonia emission factor generated in this study, sewage treatment accounted for approximately 4% of the ammonia emissions for the urban area of South China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) in 2006, which is much less than the value of 34% estimated in previous studies. To reduce the large uncertainty in the estimation of ammonia emissions in China, more field measurements are required.

  7. REVIEW OF EMISSION FACTORS AND METHODOLOGIES TO ESTIMATE AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM ANIMAL WASTE HANDLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes and discusses recent available U.S. and European information on ammonia (NH3) emissions from swine farms and assesses its applicability for general use in the U.S., particularly in North Carolina. Emission rates for the houses calculated by various methods s...

  8. A summary of ammonia emission factors and quality criteria for commercial poultry production in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David; Cowherd, Savannah; Van Heyst, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to quantify emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere from poultry housing in North America have been underway for the past two decades. In order to accurately estimate emissions from facilities in each poultry sector, emission factors used to derive the average must be of sufficiently high quality. However, it has become evident that current methods are inadequate and emission factors do not accurately reflect North American poultry production. Using an initial screening, based on measurement methods for ammonia and ventilation rates as well as study duration, a collection of studies have been identified that report the highest quality emission factors currently available. Each study was rated for data quality and then an average emission factor was developed for each sector of poultry production and rated based its ability to represent that sector. The laying hen sector, using deep pit manure storage, received a C (average) emission factor quality rating, which is the highest of all the poultry sectors evaluated. Laying hen with manure belts, broiler chicken, and turkey sectors received quality ratings considered to be below average or poor. This study highlights the need for additional research that needs to be conducted in order to accurately quantify ammonia releases from housing in most poultry sectors in North America.

  9. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  10. Ammonia emission factors from broiler litter in barns, in storage, and after land application.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A; Miles, Dana; Burns, Robert; Pote, Dan; Berg, Kess; Choi, In Hag

    2011-01-01

    We measured NH₃ emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage, and after land application and conducted a mass balance of N in poultry houses. Four state-of-the-art tunnel-ventilated broiler houses in northwest Arkansas were equipped with NH₃ sensors, anemometers, and data loggers to continuously record NH₃ concentrations and ventilation for 1 yr. Gaseous fluxes of NH₃, N₂O, CH₄, and CO₂ from litter were measured. Nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs were quantified. Ammonia emissions during storage and after land application were measured. Ammonia emissions during the flock averaged approximately 15.2 kg per day-house (equivalent to 28.3 g NH₃per bird marketed). Emissions between flocks equaled 9.09 g NH₃ per bird. Hence, in-house NH₃ emissions were 37.5 g NH₃ per bird, or 14.5 g kg(-1) bird marketed (50-d-old birds). The mass balance study showed N inputs for the year to the four houses totaled 71,340 kg N, with inputs from bedding, chicks, and feed equal to 303, 602, and 70,435 kg, respectively (equivalent to 0.60, 1.19, and 139.56 g N per bird). Nitrogen outputs totaled 70,396 kg N. Annual N output from birds marketed, NH₃ emissions, litter or cake, mortality, and NO₂ emissions was 39,485, 15,571, 14,464, 635, and 241 kg N, respectively (equivalent to 78.2, 30.8, 28.7, 1.3, and 0.5 g N per bird). The percent N recovery for the N mass balance study was 98.8%. Ammonia emissions from stacked litter during a 16-d storage period were 172 g Mg(-1) litter, which is equivalent to 0.18 g NH₃ per bird. Ammonia losses from poultry litter broadcast to pastures were 34 kg N ha (equivalent to 15% of total N applied or 7.91 g NH₃ per bird). When the litter was incorporated into the pasture using a new knifing technique, NH₃ losses were virtually zero. The total NH₃ emission factor for broilers measured in this study, which includes losses in-house, during storage, and after land application, was 45.6 g NH₃ per bird marketed.

  11. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  12. Comparison of ammonia emissions determined using different sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dynamic, flow-through flux chambers are sometimes used to estimate ammonia emissions from livestock operations; however, ammonia emissions from the surfaces are affected by many factors which can be affected by the chamber. Ammonia emissions estimated using environmental flow-through chambers may be...

  13. Ammonia emissions and emission factors of naturally ventilated dairy housing with solid floors and an outdoor exercise area in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrade, Sabine; Zeyer, Kerstin; Gygax, Lorenz; Emmenegger, Lukas; Hartung, Eberhard; Keck, Margret

    2012-02-01

    From an agricultural and environmental policy perspective there is a pressing need for up-to-date emission data on ammonia (NH 3) from dairy farming. The main aim of this study was to determine NH 3 emissions for the most common dairy farming situation in Switzerland of loose housing with an outdoor exercise area. Measurements were taken on six commercial farms, in naturally ventilated cubicle loose housing systems with solid floors and an outdoor exercise area located alongside the housing. The variation in climate over the course of a year was covered by a total of twelve measuring periods, in two out of three seasons (summer, transition period, winter) per farm. A tracer ratio method with two tracer gases (SF 6, SF 5CF 3) was employed to determine emissions from two areas of different source intensity. A variety of accompanying parameters was used to characterise each measuring situation and to derive the relevant influencing variables. The daily average NH 3 emission across all farms varied from 31 to 67 g LU -1 d -1 in summer, from 16 to 44 g LU -1 d -1 in the transition period, and from 6 to 23 g LU -1 d -1 in winter (1 LU = 500 kg live weight). From a linear mixed-effects model the wind speed in the housing ( p < 0.001) and the interaction of outside temperature and the urea content of the tank milk ( p < 0.001) emerged as significant variables influencing NH 3 emission. A model-based calculation with bootstrapped variance components was used to calculate yearly averaged emission factors for two mountain and plain regions and two wind speeds (0.3 and 0.5 m s -1). The model input was based on milk urea contents from commercial dairy farms and air temperatures over a five-year period. The calculated NH 3 emission factors, which thus accounted for regional differences due to climatic conditions and feeding levels, ranged between 22 and 25 g LU -1 d -1.

  14. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Boguang; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L-1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km-1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L-1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km-1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States.

  15. Seasonal and diel variations of ammonia and methane emissions from a naturally ventilated dairy building and the associated factors influencing emissions.

    PubMed

    Saha, C K; Ammon, C; Berg, W; Fiedler, M; Loebsin, C; Sanftleben, P; Brunsch, R; Amon, T

    2014-01-15

    Understanding seasonal and diel variations of ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions from a naturally ventilated dairy (NVD) building may lead to develop successful control strategies for reducing emissions throughout the year. The main objective of this study was to quantify seasonal and diel variations of NH3 and CH4 emissions together with associated factors influencing emissions. Measurements were carried out with identical experimental set-up to cover three winter, spring and summer seasons, and two autumn seasons in the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The data from 2010 and 2011 were used for developing emission prediction models and the data from 2012 were used for model validation. The results showed that NH3 emission varied seasonally following outside temperature whereas CH4 emission did not show clear seasonal trend. Diel variation of CH4 emission was less pronounced than NH3. The average NH3 and CH4 emissions between 6a.m. and 6p.m. were 66% and 33% higher than the average NH3 and CH4 emissions between 6p.m. and 6a.m., respectively for all seasons. The significant relationships (P<0.0001) between NH3 and influencing factors were found including outside temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, hour of the day and day of the year. The significant effect (P<0.0001) of climate factors, hours of the day and days of the year on CH4 emission might be directly related to activities of the cows.

  16. Ammonia emissions and emission factors: a summary of investigations at beef cattle feedyards on the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization is a major component of the nitrogen balance of a feedyard, and the effects of ammonia loss range from the economic (loss of manure fertilizer value) to the environmental (air quality degradation, overfertilization of ecosystems). Seven years of research at the USDA-ARS Conser...

  17. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  18. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  19. Ammonia emissions from two mechanically ventilated UK livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmers, T. G. M.; Burgess, L. R.; Short, J. L.; Phillips, V. R.; Clark, J. A.; Wathes, C. M.

    Ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings are required to construct an accurate emission inventory for the UK. Ventilation and ammonia emission rates from a fattening pig unit and a broiler house, both mechanically ventilated, were estimated using fan wheel anemometers and thermal converters with a chemiluminescence NO x-analyser to measure the ventilation rate and the ammonia concentration, respectively. The estimated ammonia emission factors were 46.9 and 16.6 kg lu -1 a -1 for the fattening pig unit and the broiler house, respectively. Both emission factors were within the range reported in the literature. A tracer gas (CO) method, based on a constant tracer release rate, was validated for measuring ventilation rates from naturally ventilated livestock buildings. Air inlets and outlets were identified using the air temperature or tracer concentration in the opening. Tracer concentration was found to be a more suitable criterion than temperature. In both houses, a significant correlation between the estimated ventilation rate using the tracer method and the measured ventilation rate using fan wheel anemometers was found. The ventilation rate was underestimated by 12 and 6% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The instantaneous ammonia emission derived from the tracer gas method was lower than the ammonia emission derived from the fan wheel anemometer method by 14 and 16% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The ventilation and ammonia emission estimates using the tracer method were within acceptable range from the ventilation and emission rates measured using measuring fans, but because of its accuracy and simplicity the fan wheel anemometer method is preferred for long-term measurements of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated buildings.

  20. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    is often a limiting factor in rural regions in France, and on meteorological conditions. The presented approach of ammonia emission calculation seems suitable for use in chemistry-transport models.

  1. Correspondence Between Small- and Large-Scale Determinations of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are known to be major emitters of ammonia. However, quantifying ammonia emissions from dairy barns is difficult due to their large volume, open ventilation, and other factors. Correspondence between ammonia emissions derived from small-scale and large-scale operational studies could faci...

  2. Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Natalie; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff

    2003-06-01

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these values, the emission factors for general livestock categories are usually annually averaged in current inventories. Activity levels for livestock are from the USDA Census of Agriculture, which does not give information about animal raising practices such as housing types and grazing times, waste handling systems, and approximate animal slurry spreading times or methods. Ammonia emissions in the United States in 1995 from sources other than livestock are much lower; for example, annual emissions are roughly 8x10(8) kg from fertilizer, 7x10(7) kg from industry, 5x10(7) kg from vehicles and 1x10(8) kg from humans. There is considerable uncertainty in the emissions from soil and vegetation, although this category may also be significant

  3. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  4. Emission factors and characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter at two high-rise layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Liu, Shule; Diehl, Claude A.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Bogan, Bill W.; Chen, Lide; Chai, Lilong; Wang, Kaiying; Heber, Albert J.

    2017-04-01

    Air pollutants emitted from confined animal buildings can cause environmental pollution and ecological damage. Long-term (>6 months) and continuous (or high frequency) monitoring that can reveal seasonal and diurnal variations is needed to obtain emission factors and characteristics about these pollutants. A two-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10) emissions from two 218,000-hen high-rise layer houses (H-A and H-B) in Indiana, USA was conducted from June 2007 to May 2009. Gaseous pollutant concentrations were measured with two gas analyzers and PM10 concentrations were measured with three Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances. The operation and performance of ventilation fans were continuously monitored with multiple methods. Only the emission rates calculated with valid data days (days with more than 18 h, or 75%, of valid data) are reported in this paper. The two-house and two-year mean ± standard deviation emissions per day per hen for NH3, H2S, CO2, and PM10 were 1.08 ± 0.42 g, 1.37 ± 0.83 mg, 76.7 ± 14.6 g, and 20.6 ± 22.5 mg, respectively. Seasonal emission variations were demonstrated for NH3 and CO2, but not evident for H2S and PM10. Ammonia and CO2 emissions were higher in winter than in summer. Significant daily mean emission variations were observed for all four pollutants between the two houses (P < 0.05), and between the two years from the same house (P < 0.01) except for CO2 at one house. Carbon dioxide originated from manure decomposition was >9% of that from bird respiration. Emissions of CO2 during molting were about 80% of those during normal egg production days. Emissions of H2S were not a major concern due to their very low quantities. Emissions of PM10 were more variable than other pollutants. However, not all of the emission statistics are explainable.

  5. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  6. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  7. Management Options for Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

  8. The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

  9. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions from a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Filipy, J. M.; Bays, J.; Mount, G. H.; Yonge, D.; Lamb, B. K.; Johnson, K.; Kincaid, R.

    2002-12-01

    Gaseous ammonia (NH3) emissions at high concentrations can damage human and animal respiratory systems. NH3 environmental impacts include aerosol formation, altering atmospheric chemistry, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification and global warming. Preindustrial NH3 emissions are estimated to be 21 Tg yr-1 while current emissions are estimated to be 47 Tg yr-1 with most of the increase coming from domestic animals (Galloway et al., 1995). There is a lack of detailed emission data from the United States and there are many problems with applying emissions estimates from Europe due to the difference in farming practices between the two regions. Feed and manure management practices can have a large impact on emissions. We are studying NH3 emissions at the WSU dairy located near Pullman, WA to provide a detailed emission inventory of the various sources at the dairy. The dairy has approximately 170 milking cows housed in open air barns and the waste from the milking cows is stored in liquid slurry lagoons until it is applied to grass fields in the late summer. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. As part of the detailed emission inventory, NH3 fluxes were determined from the milking stalls, main slurry lagoon and the application of slurry to the fields with a large sprinkler using a SF6 tracer technique and a dense point Gaussian plume model. NH3 emission fluxes from various parts of the dairy will be presented.

  10. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  11. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, A.J.; Littlejohn, D.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; Harley, R.A.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Lunden, M. M.

    2008-07-15

    Motor vehicle emissions of ammonia have been measured at a California highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. Between 1999 and 2006, light-duty vehicle ammonia emissions decreased by 38 {+-} 6%, from 640 {+-} 40 to 400 {+-} 20 mg kg{sup -1}. High time resolution measurements of ammonia made in summer 2001 at the same location indicate a minimum in ammonia emissions correlated with slower-speed driving conditions. Variations in ammonia emission rates track changes in carbon monoxide more closely than changes in nitrogen oxides, especially during later evening hours when traffic speeds are highest. Analysis of remote sensing data of Burgard et al. (Environ Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 7018-7022) indicates relationships between ammonia and vehicle model year, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. Ammonia emission rates from diesel trucks were difficult to measure in the tunnel setting due to the large contribution to ammonia concentrations in a mixed-traffic bore that were assigned to light-duty vehicle emissions. Nevertheless, it is clear that heavy-duty diesel trucks are a minor source of ammonia emissions compared to light-duty gasoline vehicles.

  12. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale ...

  13. Ammonia emission time profiles based on manure transport data improve ammonia modelling across north western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Van den Bril, B.; Verguts, V.; Schaap, M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of mitigation measures for nitrogen deposition and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) episodes requires a detailed representation of emission patterns from agriculture. In this study the meteorological influence on the temporal variability of ammonia emissions from livestock housing and application of manure and fertilizer are included in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS. For manure application, manure transport data from Flanders (Belgium) were used as a proxy to derive the emission variability. Using improved ammonia emission variability strongly improves model performance for ammonia, mainly by a better representation of the spring maximum. The impact on model performance for SIA was negligible as explained by the limited, ammonia rich region in which the emission variability was updated. The contribution of Flemish agriculture to modelled annual mean ammonia and SIA concentrations in Flanders were quantified at respectively 7-8 and 1-2 μg/m3. A scenario study was performed to investigate the effects of reducing ammonia emissions from manure application during PM episodes by 75%, yielding a maximum reduction in modelled SIA levels of 1-3 μg/m3 during episodes. Year-to-year emission variability and a soil module to explicitly model the emission process from manure and fertilizer application are needed to further improve the modelling of the ammonia budget.

  14. Ammonia emissions from cattle feeding operations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a colorless gas with an pungent odor that occurs naturally in trace amounts in the atmosphere, where it is the dominant base. Ammonia is produced during the decomposition of livestock manure. There is concern about atmospheric ammonia because of its potential effects on air quality, wat...

  15. Dietary adipic acid reduces ammonia emission from swine excreta.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, T A

    2001-09-01

    Adipic acid is only partially catabolized when it is fed to animals, and a portion of it is excreted in urine. The excreted portion may lower urinary pH and, as a result, ammonia emission. The present study tested this hypothesis. In Exp. 1, nursery pigs (n = 14) were fed (for a period of 7 d) either a standard nursery diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid to assess effects on urinary pH (collected on d 5 or 6) and in vitro ammonia emission from the collected urine samples that were mixed with control feces. In Exp. 2, grower pigs housed 10 each in one of two chambers were fed a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 1% adipic acid. Ventilated air was quantified and analyzed for ammonia using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the effects of feeding 1% adipic acid on ammonia emission. The results from Exp. 1 showed that adipic acid strongly reduced urinary pH (from 7.7 to 5.5, P < 0.05). In vitro ammonia emission from these urine samples was significantly reduced at all the time points evaluated (1, 3, 18, and 46 h with reductions of 94, 93, 70, and 39%, respectively, P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that adipic acid supplementation reduced ammonia emission by 25% (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the predicted reduction in ammonia emission based on the reduction in manure pH observed. In conclusion, feeding adipic acid lowers urinary pH and reduces ammonia emission. The reduction in ammonia emission, though, does not correspond to the reduction in urinary pH but corresponds to the reduction in fecal pH as a result of mixing the urine and feces, in which feces act as a strong buffer.

  16. Broiler litter ammonia emissions near sidewalls, feeders and waterers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from broiler litter diminishes indoor air quality which can potentially decrease bird productivity. Emissions of NH3 exhausted from broiler houses pose environmental concerns for ecosystem biodiversity, aquatic nutrient enrichment and particulate formation in the atmospher...

  17. The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 emissions on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a total seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies on an annual basis. The largest uncertainty in our emission estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 emission. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent emission estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent emission, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 emissions from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global emissions are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (±49%), seabird population estimates (±36%), variation in diet composition (±23%) and non-breeder attendance (±13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 emission from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These emissions are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic

  18. Reduction of the Livestock Ammonia Emission under the Changing Temperature during the Initial Manure Nitrogen Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m−2h−1. Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m−2h−1. The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between −15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m−2h−1) were observed in the semideep cowshed. PMID:24453912

  19. Reduction of the livestock ammonia emission under the changing temperature during the initial manure nitrogen biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m(-2)h(-1). Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m(-2)h(-1). The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between -15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m(-2)h(-1)) were observed in the semideep cowshed.

  20. Ammonia emission after slurry application to grassland in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häni, Christoph; Sintermann, Jörg; Kupper, Thomas; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) after field application of livestock slurry contributes between 30% and 50% of agricultural NH3 emissions from European countries. The objectives of this study were to re-evaluate NH3 emissions following application of cattle and pig slurry to grassland in Switzerland and to investigate the effectiveness of abatement techniques. In 17 field experiments, NH3 emissions were determined with a micrometeorological approach, relating the emission to the measured concentration by means of atmospheric dispersion modelling. The cattle slurry applied exhibited an average dry matter content of 3.3% (range between 1.0% and 6.7% dry matter). The emission after application of cattle slurry spread with a splash plate (referred to as reference technique) ranged from 10% to 47% of applied Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (% of TAN) and averaged to 25% of TAN. This range of losses is lower by approx. a factor of two compared to measurements from earlier Swiss experiments. Applications with trailing hose and trailing shoe systems yielded an average reduction of 51% and 53%, respectively, relative to the reference technique. A regression analysis showed that the dry matter content of the slurry and the air temperature are important drivers for NH3 emission.

  1. Measurements and modeling of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia from swine facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep Singh

    Ammonia has recently gained importance for its increasing atmospheric concentrations and its role in the formation of aerosols. Studies have shown increasing atmospheric concentration levels of NH3 and NH 4+, especially in the regions of concentrated animal feeding operations. Atmospheric inputs of reduced nitrogen as ammonia and ammonium by dry and wet deposition may represent a substantial contribution to the acidification of semi natural ecosystems and could also affect sensitive coastal ecosystems and estuaries. The anaerobic lagoon and spray method, commonly used for waste storage and disposal in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO), is a significant source of ammonia emissions. An accurate emission model for ammonia from aqueous surfaces can help in the development of emission factors. Study of dispersion and dry deposition patterns of ammonia downwind of a hog farm will help us to understand how much ammonia gets dry deposited near the farm, and how remaining ammonia gets transported farther away. An experimental and modeling study is conducted of emissions, dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia taking one swine farm as a unit. Measurements of ammonia flux were made at 11 swine facilities in North Carolina using dynamic flow-through chamber system over the anaerobic waste treatment lagoons. Continuous measurements of ammonia flux, meteorological and lagoon parameters were made for 8-10 days at each farm during each of the warm and cold seasons. Ammonia concentrations were continuously measured in the chamber placed over the lagoon using a Thermo Environmental Instrument Incorporated (TECO) Model 17c chemiluminescnce ammonia analyzer. A similar ammonia analyzer was used to measure ammonia concentrations at selected locations on the farm. Barn emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy. A 10 m meteorological tower was erected at each site to measure wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity

  2. Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor

    2011-12-01

    The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting.

  3. AGRICULTURAL AMMONIA EMISSIONS AND AMMONIUM DEPOSITION IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an estimate of county-scale annual ammonia (NH3) emissions in eight Southeastern States for the year 1997, using emission factors and activity data for all domestic livestock and fertilizer sources. A geographical distribution of the data yields local areas (1000...

  4. The effect of two ammonia-emission-reducing pig housing systems on odour emission.

    PubMed

    Mol, G; Ogink, N W M

    2004-01-01

    Odour nuisance from agricultural activities is increasing in densely populated countries like the Netherlands. To develop adequate regulations, a large-scale, government-financed monitoring programme was started in the mid-1990s to establish odour emission levels for both conventional and low ammonia emission housing systems for cattle, pigs and poultry. The results indicate that high- and low-odour emission housing are difficult to distinguish because of the large variation within housing systems. Measurements on different farm locations within the same housing system show both a large variation between locations and within one location (in time). The latter, however, is significantly smaller, which suggests that farm management is an important determinant in odour emission that interferes with the effects of housing systems. The current research was aimed at determining the effect of two common ammonia-reducing pig-housing systems on odour emissions compared to conventional housing systems under similar management conditions. The respective reduction principles of these systems are reducing the emitting surface of the manure pit and cooling of manure in the manure pit (both pits beneath slatted floor). Five farms that combined conventional housing with one low-ammonia system (three reduced emitting surface and two manure cooling) were selected for a direct, pair-wise comparison of (olfactometric) odour emission measurements. The results show a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) for two of the three reduced emitting surface systems and for one of the two manure cooling system. The average odour reduction percentages of these systems are 35% (from 24.9 to 16.0 OUE/s per animal) and 23% (from 30.1 to 24.0 OUE/s per animal) respectively. Although odour emission reduction through the type of housing system is possible, management factors interact with the system and thereby determine whether the system reduces odour emission or not.

  5. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  6. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  7. DEVELOPING SEASONAL AMMONIA EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH AN INVERSE MODELING TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant uncertainty exists in magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are needed for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural non-point sources. We sus...

  8. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  9. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  10. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  11. Measurement and modeling ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zifei

    Ammonia is a very important atmospheric pollutant. Agricultural activities, livestock production in particular, have been reported to be the largest contributor of ammonia emissions into the atmosphere. Accurate estimation of ammonia emission rate from individual operations or sources is important and yet a challenging task for both regulatory agencies and animal producers. The overall research objective of this study was to develop an emission model which can be used to estimate ammonia emission from broiler litter. In the reported model, the ammonia flux is essentially a function of the litter's total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content, moisture content, pH, and temperature, as well as the Freundlich partition coefficient (Kf), mass transfer coefficient (KG), ventilation rate (Q), and emission surface area (A). A dynamic flow-through chamber system and a wind tunnel were designed to measure ammonia fluxes from broiler litter. The dynamic flow-through chamber experiments evaluated the reported model with various litter samples under a constant temperature and wind profile. The wind tunnel experiments evaluated the reported model under various temperatures and wind profiles. Regression sub-models were developed to estimate Kf as a function of litter pH and temperature and to estimate KG as a function of air velocity and temperature. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that ammonia flux is very sensitive to litter pH and to a lesser extent temperature. A validation metric based on the mean and covariance in the measurement and in the model parameters were used to validate the model in the presence of measurement and model parameter uncertainties.

  12. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  13. Ammonia as a Potential Neurotoxic Factor in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; Sabbir, Mohammad G.; Albensi, Benedict C.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is known to be a potent neurotoxin that causes severe negative effects on the central nervous system. Excessive ammonia levels have been detected in the brain of patients with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Therefore, ammonia could be a factor contributing to the progression of AD. In this review, we provide an introduction to the toxicity of ammonia and putative ammonia transport proteins. We also hypothesize how ammonia may be linked to AD. Additionally, we discuss the evidence that support the hypothesis that ammonia is a key factor contributing to AD progression. Lastly, we summarize the old and new experimental evidence that focuses on energy metabolism, mitochondrial function, inflammatory responses, excitatory glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurotransmission, and memory in support of our ammonia-related hypotheses of AD. PMID:27551259

  14. A model for inventory of ammonia emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velthof, G. L.; van Bruggen, C.; Groenestein, C. M.; de Haan, B. J.; Hoogeveen, M. W.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is the major source of ammonia (NH 3). Methodologies are needed to quantify national NH 3 emissions and to identify the most effective options to mitigate NH 3 emissions. Generally, NH 3 emissions from agriculture are quantified using a nitrogen (N) flow approach, in which the NH 3 emission is calculated from the N flows and NH 3 emission factors. Because of the direct dependency between NH 3 volatilization and Total Ammoniacal N (TAN; ammonium-N + N compounds readily broken down to ammonium) an approach based on TAN is preferred to calculate NH 3 emission instead of an approach based on total N. A TAN-based NH 3-inventory model was developed, called NEMA (National Emission Model for Ammonia). The total N excretion and the fraction of TAN in the excreted N are calculated from the feed composition and N digestibility of the components. TAN-based emission factors were derived or updated for housing systems, manure storage outside housing, manure application techniques, N fertilizer types, and grazing. The NEMA results show that the total NH 3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands in 2009 was 88.8 Gg NH 3-N, of which 50% from housing, 37% from manure application, 9% from mineral N fertilizer, 3% from outside manure storage, and 1% from grazing. Cattle farming was the dominant source of NH 3 in the Netherlands (about 50% of the total NH 3 emission). The NH 3 emission expressed as percentage of the excreted N was 22% of the excreted N for poultry, 20% for pigs, 15% for cattle, and 12% for other livestock, which is mainly related to differences in emissions from housing systems. The calculated ammonia emission was most sensitive to changes in the fraction of TAN in the excreted manure and to the emission factor of manure application. From 2011, NEMA will be used as official methodology to calculate the national NH 3 emission from agriculture in the Netherlands.

  15. EXAMINING THE TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the temporal variability of airborne emissions of ammonia from livestock operations and fertilizer application and nitric oxide from soils. In the United States, the livestock operations and fertilizer categories comprise the majority of the ammonia emissions...

  16. Comparison of odour emissions from animal housing systems with low ammonia emission.

    PubMed

    Ogink, N W; Koerkamp, P W

    2001-01-01

    Nuisance from livestock facilities is an increasing problem in densely populated areas like The Netherlands. It is in the interest of both farmers and society that housing systems and management methods are developed to minimise the emission of odour. An odour research programme has been completed in The Netherlands to investigate odour emission from both conventional housing systems and systems designed for low ammonia emission. The aim of this paper is to compare within each animal category the odour emission of a number of swine housing systems and poultry housing systems. Emission measurements including 17 housing systems were carried out at 24 livestock facilities. Results showed that investigated systems with low ammonia emission for fattening pigs and sows were significantly (p<0.025) lower than conventional systems, being 50%, or more, lower. For laying hens and broilers, housing systems with low ammonia emission showed odour emissions that in most cases only differed slightly from conventional systems. Correlations between ammonia and odour concentration (within facilities) did not show a consistent pattern. It is concluded that methods for restriction of emitting (slurry) surface in pig husbandry may reduce both ammonia and odour emission. In poultry housings the effects of methods for ammonia reduction that involve drying of fresh manure or litter cannot be directly extrapolated to odour emision.

  17. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha-1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m-2 s-1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m-2 s-1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  18. Emissions calculated from particulate matter and gaseous ammonia measurements from a commercial dairy in California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission rates and factors for particulate matter (PM) and gaseous ammonia (NH3) were estimated from measurements taken at a dairy in California, USA in June 2008. Concentration measurements were made using both point and remote sensors. Filter-based PM samplers and OPCs characterized aerodynamic an...

  19. SHOCK-ENHANCED AMMONIA EMISSION IN THE EGG NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh-V-Trung; Chiu, P.J.; Lim, Jeremy E-mail: pjchiu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2009-07-20

    We present high angular resolution observations of the NH{sub 3}(1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions from the Egg nebula, the archetypical protoplanetary nebula. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the emission in all three lines show four distinct components or lobes that are aligned with the polar and equatorial directions. The kinematics of the NH{sub 3} emission is also found to follow a clear pattern: redshifted emission in the south and west and blueshifted emission in the north and east. The morphology and spatial kinematics of NH{sub 3} emission are shown to have strong similarity to that observed previously in molecular hydrogen emission and CO emission which arise from the shocked molecular gas. We also find that the higher lying inversion transition NH{sub 3} (2, 2) and (3, 3) are stronger in the polar direction in comparison to the lower transition NH{sub 3} (1, 1). We conclude that the NH{sub 3} emission traces the warm molecular gas, which is shocked and heated by the interaction between the high-velocity outflows and the surrounding envelope. The presence of strong ammonia emission associated with the shock fronts and the lack of the emission at the center of the nebula indicate that the abundance of ammonia is significantly enhanced by shocks, a situation very similar to that found in outflows from protostars.

  20. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  1. Relationship among methane emission, ammonia emission and selected animal performance measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric methane (CH4) emission and subsequent CH4 emission from manure of ruminant livestock are major contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in many countries. Similarly, livestock manure is an important source of undesirable atmospheric ammonia (NH3). Identifying and quantif...

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Developing seasonal ammonia emission estimates with an inverse modeling technique.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, A B; Dennis, R L; Roselle, S J; Pierce, T E; Bender, L E

    2001-11-21

    Significant uncertainty exists in magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are needed for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural nonpoint sources. We suspect a strong seasonal pattern in NH 3 emissions; however, current NH3 emission inventories lack intra-annual variability. Annually averaged NH 3 emissions could significantly affect model-predicted concentrations and wet and dry deposition of nitrogen-containing compounds. We apply a Kalman filter inverse modeling technique to deduce monthly NH3 emissions for the eastern U.S. Final products of this research will include monthly emissions estimates from each season. Results for January and June 1990 are currently available and are presented here. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and ammonium (NH4+) wet concentration data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) network are used. The inverse modeling technique estimates the emission adjustments that provide optimal modeled results with respect to wet NH4+ concentrations, observational data error, and emission uncertainty. Our results suggest that annual average NH 3 emissions estimates should be decreased by 64% for January 1990 and increased by 25% for June 1990. These results illustrate the strong differences that are anticipated for NH3 emissions.

  4. Abatement of ammonia emissions from digested manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new strategy to avoid ammonia emissions from anaerobically digested swine manure was tested using the gas-permeable membrane process. Evaluation of the efficiency of ammonia recovery from digestate as well as mitigation of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere were carried out. Digestate was colle...

  5. New insights into the interactions between carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang; Wu, Chuandong; Wang, Ke

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of carbon dioxide in reducing ammonia emissions. Three variations of a composting experiment were conducted in a laboratory-scale reactor, all of which exhibited the three typical composting phases. Approximately 70% of the ammonia emissions occurred within 96-144 h of the thermophilic stage. The maximum rate of change for the carbon dioxide emissions occurred at different times for different carbon source types, mixing rates, and addition times. The rate of change and total concentration of emitted carbon dioxide played a crucial role in ammonia emission due to their relationship to the intensity of ammonia assimilation. The addition of a carbon source that could be utilized by thermophilic microorganisms stimulated ammonia assimilation and thus reduced ammonia emissions. These findings suggested that the addition of a 7:3 mixture of sucrose and straw powder at 108 h is suitable for reducing ammonia emissions.

  6. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Kim, Stella Seojin

    2011-09-20

    We present the first interferometric observations at 18.5 GHz of IRS 1 in NGC 7538. These observations include images of the nonmetastable {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9, 6) masers with a synthesized beam of 2 arcsec and images of the continuum emission with a synthesized beam of 150 mas. Of the maser emission, the previously known feature near v {sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} is spectrally resolved into at least two components and we observe several new maser emission features near v {sub LSR} = -57 km s{sup -1}. The new maser emission near -57 km s{sup -1} lies 250 {+-} 90 mas northwest of the maser emission near -60 km s{sup -1}. All of the masers are angularly unresolved indicating brightness temperatures T{sub B} > 2000 K. We are also able to conclusively associate the ammonia masers with the position of IRS 1. The excitation of these rare ammonia masers is discussed in the context of the rich maser environment of IRS 1.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  8. Non-agricultural ammonia emissions in urban China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    The non-agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions in cities have received little attention but could rival agricultural sources in term of the efficiency in PM formation. The starting point for finding credible solutions is to comprehensively establish a city-specific Non-agricultural Ammonia Emission Inventory (NAEI) and identify the largest sources where efforts can be directed to deliver the largest impact. In this paper, I present a NAEI of 113 national key cities targeted on environmental protection in China in 2010, which for the first time covers NH3 emissions from pets, infants, smokers, green land, and household products. Results show that totally 210 478 Mg, the NH3 emissions from traffic, fuel combustion, waste disposal, pets, green land, human, and household products are 67 671 Mg, 56 275 Mg, 44 289 Mg, 23 355 Mg, 7509 Mg, 7312 Mg, and 4069 Mg, respectively. The NH3 emission intensity from the municipal districts ranges from 0.08 to 3.13 Mg km-2 yr-1, with a average of 0.84 Mg km-2 yr-1. The high NH3 emission intensities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River Delta region support the view that non-agricultural NH3 sources play a key role in city-scale NH3 emissions and thus have potentially important implications for secondary PM formation (ammonium-sulfate-nitrate system) in urban agglomeration of China. Therefore, in addition to current SO2 and NOx controls, China also needs to allocate more scientific, technical, and legal resources on controlling non-agricultural NH3 emissions in the future.

  9. Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures.

    PubMed

    Järnström, H; Saarela, K; Kalliokoski, P; Pasanen, A-L

    2008-04-01

    Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significantly higher specific emission rates (SERs) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials. There were large differences between different PVC materials in their permeability for VOCs originating from the underlying structure. Glycol ethers and esters from adhesives used in the installation contributed to the emissions from the PVC covered structure. Emissions of 2-ethylhexanol and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were common. High ammonia SERs were measured from single adhesives but their contribution to the emissions from the complete structure did not appear as obvious as for VOCs. The results indicate that three factors affected the VOC emissions from the PVC flooring on a structure: 1) the permeability of the PVC product for VOCs, 2) the VOC emission from the adhesive used, and 3) the VOC emission from the backside of the PVC product.

  10. [Study on Ammonia Emission Rules in a Dairy Feedlot Based on Laser Spectroscopy Detection Method].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Wang, Li-ming; Gao, Yan-wei; Xu, Jin-feng; Gao, Zhi-ling; Ma, Wen-qi

    2016-03-01

    It needs on-line monitoring of ammonia concentration on dairy feedlot to disclose ammonia emissions characteristics accurately for reducing ammonia emissions and improving the ecological environment. The on-line monitoring system for ammonia concentration has been designed based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology combining with long open-path technology, then the study has been carried out with inverse dispersion technique and the system. The ammonia concentration in-situ has been detected and ammonia emission rules have been analyzed on a dairy feedlot in Baoding in autumn and winter of 2013. The monitoring indicated that the peak of ammonia concentration was 6.11 x 10(-6) in autumn, and that was 6.56 x 10(-6) in winter. The concentration results show that the variation of ammonia concentration had an obvious diurnal periodicity, and the general characteristic of diurnal variation was that the concentration was low in the daytime and was high at night. The ammonia emissions characteristic was obtained with inverse dispersion model that the peak of ammonia emissions velocity appeared at noon. The emission velocity was from 1.48 kg/head/hr to 130.6 kg/head/hr in autumn, and it was from 0.004 5 kg/head/hr to 43.32 kg/head/hr in winter which was lower than that in autumn. The results demonstrated ammonia emissions had certain seasonal differences in dairy feedlot scale. In conclusion, the ammonia concentration was detected with optical technology, and the ammonia emissions results were acquired by inverse dispersion model analysis with large range, high sensitivity, quick response without gas sampling. Thus, it's an effective method for ammonia emissions monitoring in dairy feedlot that provides technical support for scientific breeding.

  11. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; Doherty, Ruth M.; Laubach, Johannes; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) is capable of simulating the TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) and the water content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange is supported by our model results; however, the GAG model provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the literature. This, according to our findings, can be explained by the higher sensitivity to temperature close to urine application than in the later stages and may depend on interactions with other nitrogen cycling processes. In addition, we found that wind speed and relative humidity are also significant influencing factors. Considering that all the input parameters can be obtained for larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for field and regional scale application, serving as a tool for further investigation of the effects of climate change on ammonia emissions and deposition.

  12. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide emissions from five passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hua Lu

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, three unregulated components, ammonia, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, emitted from five passenger vehicles are investigated. With focus upon emission factors from existing production technology, vehicles produced between 1989 and 1998 with considerable mileage (7000 to 280,000) are chosen. Among the five vehicles, four were sold in the European market, whereas one was sold in the US market. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer. An EU2000 Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a US Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) of the Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) are used in the study. The regulated emissions are measured using a Horiba Mexa series. Unregulated emissions, ammonia (NH(3)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are analysed by mass spectrometer, gas chromatography and CNT-NA, TIM315-74W method, respectively. Both the unregulated emissions and the regulated emissions show driving cycle dependency; and they are also improved with newer vehicle and emission control technology. However, a gasoline direct injection vehicle (relatively new technology in this study) has rather high regulated emissions, whereas the NH(3), N(2)O and HCN emissions are low.

  13. Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

  14. Nitrogen cycling through swine production systems: ammonia, dinitrogen, and nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lowry A; Sharpe, Ron R; Parkin, Tim B; De Visscher, Alex; van Cleemput, Oswald; Byers, F Michael

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from animal systems have become a primary concern for all of livestock production. The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship of nitrogen (N) emissions to specific components of swine production systems and to determine accurate NH(3) emission factors appropriate for the regional climate, geography, and production systems. Micrometeorological instrumentation and gas sensors were placed over two lagoons in North Carolina during 1997-1999 to obtain information for determining ammonia emissions over extended periods and without interfering with the surrounding climate. Ammonia emissions varied diurnally and seasonally and were related to lagoon ammonium concentration, acidity, temperature, and wind turbulence. Conversion of significant quantities of ammonium NH(4)(+) to dinitrogen gas (N(2)) were measured in all lagoons with the emission rate largely dependent on NH(4)(+) concentration. Lagoon NH(4)(+) conversion to N(2) accounted for the largest loss component of the N entering the farm (43% as N(2)); however, small amounts of N(2)O were emitted from the lagoon (0.1%) and from field applications (0.05%) when effluent was applied nearby. In disagreement with previous and current estimates of NH(3) emissions from confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) systems, and invalidating current assumptions that most or all emissions are in the form of NH(3), we found much smaller NH(3) emissions from animal housing (7%), lagoons (8%), and fields (2%) using independent measurements of N transformation and transport. Nitrogen input and output in the production system were evaluated, and 95% of input N was accounted for as output N from the system.

  15. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions From Operational Areas of a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Mount, G. H.; Filipy, J.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Neger, M.; Yonge, D.; Johnson, K.; Kincaid, R.

    2001-12-01

    Ammonia gas is important in aerosol formation, soil acidification, aquatic eutrophication, acid rain and can damage human and animal respiratory systems. Anthropogenic emissions are approximately two-thirds of the global emissions of NH3 and agriculture is the dominant anthropogenic source. We are studying NH3 emissions from the WSU dairy located near Pullman, WA to provide a detailed emission inventory. The dairy has approximately 200 milking cows and 200 replacement heifers. The cows are housed in open air barns and the liquid waste is stored in four open air lagoons until it is applied to grass fields in the late summer. Agricultural emissions of NH3 have been measured in Europe but very few measurements have been made in the United States. Differences in feed and waste management practices between Europe and the U.S. could have a significant effect on NH3 emissions. Since NH3 is an aerosol precursor knowing emission levels is also important for the new U.S. EPA PM2.5 standard. NH3 was measured using an open short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm. The instrument has a time resolution of about a second and a limiting sensitivity of a few ppb. The open path method has the benefit that it is fast, self-calibrating and does not have errors associated with NH3 adherance to inlet walls. As part of a detailed emission inventory, NH3 fluxes were determined from the milking cow stalls and of the main slurry lagoon using a SF6 tracer technique. Emissions from various parts of the dairy will be discussed.

  16. The effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes)...

  17. Source Attribution of Methane Emissions in Northeastern Colorado Using Ammonia to Methane Emission Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Perring, A. E.; Robinson, E. S.; Holloway, M.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to recent advances in extraction technology, oil and natural gas extraction and processing in the Denver-Julesburg basin has increased substantially in the past decade. Northeastern Colorado is also home to over 250 concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), capable of hosting over 2 million head of ruminant livestock (cattle and sheep). Because of methane's high Global Warming Potential, quantification and attribution of methane emissions from oil and gas development and agricultural activity are important for guiding greenhouse gas emission policy. However, due to the co-location of these different sources, top-down measurements of methane are often unable to attribute emissions to a specific source or sector. In this work, we evaluate the ammonia:methane emission ratio directly downwind of CAFOs using a mobile laboratory. Several CAFOs were chosen for periodic study over a 12-month period to identify diurnal and seasonal variation in the emission ratio as well as differences due to livestock type. Using this knowledge of the agricultural ammonia:methane emission ratio, aircraft measurements of ammonia and methane over oil and gas basins in the western US during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field campaign in March and April 2015 can be used for source attribution of methane emissions.

  18. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

  19. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Swine Manure Management: A System Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Gerber, Pierre J; Xin, Hongwei; Smith, Pete; Opio, Carolyn; Steinfeld, Henning; Chadwick, Dave

    2017-03-29

    Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs). The resultant emission factors and mitigation efficiencies allow GHG and NH3 emissions to be estimated, as well as mitigation potentials for different stages of swine operation. In particular, changing swine manure management from liquid systems to solid-liquid separation systems, coupled with mitigation measures, could simultaneously reduce GHG emissions by 65% and NH3 emissions by 78%. The resultant potential reduction in GHG emissions from China's pig production alone is greater than the entire GHG emissions from agricultural sector of France, Australia, or Germany, while the reduction in NH3 emissions is equivalent to 40% of the total NH3 emissions from the European Union. Thus, improved swine manure management could have a significant impact on global environment issues.

  20. TEMPORALLY-RESOLVED AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORIES: CURRENT ESTIMATES, EVALUATION TOOLS, AND MEASUREMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluate the suitability of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) as a tool for assessing ammonia emission inventories, calculate the improvement in CTM performance owing to recent advances in temporally-varying ammonia emission estimates, and ident...

  1. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattamudi, Sanku; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  2. Agricultural ammonia emissions inventory and spatial distribution in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Dore, A J; Ma, L; Liu, X J; Ma, W Q; Cape, J N; Zhang, F S

    2010-02-01

    An agricultural ammonia (NH(3)) emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP) on a prefecture level for the year 2004, and a 5 x 5 km(2) resolution spatial distribution map, has been calculated for the first time. The census database from China's statistics datasets, and emission factors re-calculated by the RAINS model supported total emissions of 3071 kt NH(3)-N yr(-1) for the NCP, accounting for 27% of the total emissions in China. NH(3) emission from mineral fertilizer application contributed 1620 kt NH(3)-N yr(-1), 54% of the total emission, while livestock emissions accounted for the remaining 46% of the total emissions, including 7%, 27%, 7% and 5% from cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, and poultry, respectively. A high-resolution spatial NH(3) emissions map was developed based on 1 x 1 km land use database and aggregated to a 5 x 5 km grid resolution. The highest emission density value was 198 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1).

  3. Assessment of the magnitude of ammonia emissions in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Place, C. J.; Eager, M.; Fowler, D.; Smith, R. I.

    Estimates of ammonia emission in the U.K. have been critically reviewed with the aim of establishing the magnitude and uncertainty of each of the sources. European studies are also reviewed, with the U.K. providing a useful case study to highlight the uncertainties common to all ammonia emission inventories. This analysis of the emission factors and their application to U.K. sources supports an emission of 450 (231-715) Gg NH 3 yr -1. Agricultural activities are confirmed as the major source, providing 406 (215-630) Gg NH 3yr -1 (90% of the total), and therefore dominate uncertainties. Non-agricultural sources include sewage, pets, horses, humans, combustion and wild animals, though these contribute only 44 (16-85) Gg yr -1. Cattle represent the largest single uncertainty, accounting for 245 (119-389) Gg yr -1. The major uncertainties for cattle derive from estimation of the amount of nitrogen (N) excreted, the % N volatilized from land spreading of wastes, and the % N volatilized from stored farm-yard manure. Similar relative uncertainties apply to each of sheep, pigs and poultry, as well as fertilized crops, though these are quantitatively less important. Accounting; for regional differences in livestock demography, emission of 347, 63 and 40 Gg yr -1 are estimated for England & Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, respectively. Though very uncertain, the total is in good agreement with estimates required to balance the U.K. atmospheric NH. budget.

  4. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

    2011-10-01

    The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports average ammonia (NH3) emission factors (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique, measurement plot size, the year of measurement, and the year of publication. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements that appeared subsequently show substantially lower EFs, and appear to indicate a need for a revision of the EF in emission inventories.

  5. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

    2012-05-01

    The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3) emission factor (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  6. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  7. Flux-gradient estimates of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyard pens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia emitted to the atmosphere. There is a considerable amount of literature on ammonia emissions from poultry and swine, but few studies have investigated large, open lot beef cattle feedyards. We used the flux-gradient method to estima...

  8. Semi-empirical process-based models for ammonia emissions from beef, swine, and poultry operations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuilling, Alyssa M.; Adams, Peter J.

    2015-11-01

    Farm-level ammonia emissions factors in the literature vary by an order of magnitude due to variations in manure management practices and meteorology, and it is essential to capture this variability in emission inventories used for atmospheric modeling. Loss of ammonia to the atmosphere is modeled here through a nitrogen mass balance with losses controlled by mass transfer resistance parameters, which vary with meteorological conditions and are tuned to match literature-reported emissions factors. Variations due to management practices are captured by having tuned parameters that are specific to each set of management practices. The resulting farm emissions models (FEMs) explain between 20% and 70% of the variability in published emissions factors and typically estimate emission factors within a factor of 2. The r2 values are: 0.53 for swine housing (0.67 for shallow-pit houses); 0.48 for swine storage; 0.29 for broiler chickens; 0.70 for layer chickens; and 0.21 for beef feedlots (0.36 for beef feedlots with more farm-specific input data). Mean fractional error was found to be 22-44% for beef feedlots, swine housing, and layer housing; fractional errors were greater for swine lagoons (90%) and broiler housing (69%). Unexplained variability and errors result from model limitations, measurement errors in reported emissions factors, and a lack of information about measurement conditions.

  9. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark A; Reis, Stefan; Riddick, Stuart N; Dragosits, Ulrike; Nemitz, Eiko; Theobald, Mark R; Tang, Y Sim; Braban, Christine F; Vieno, Massimo; Dore, Anthony J; Mitchell, Robert F; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Fowler, David; Blackall, Trevor D; Milford, Celia; Flechard, Chris R; Loubet, Benjamin; Massad, Raia; Cellier, Pierre; Personne, Erwan; Coheur, Pierre F; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Ngadi, Yasmine; Clerbaux, Cathy; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole; Wichink Kruit, Roy J; Pinder, Robert W; Bash, Jesse O; Walker, John T; Simpson, David; Horváth, László; Misselbrook, Tom H; Bleeker, Albert; Dentener, Frank; de Vries, Wim

    2013-07-05

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5°C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.

  10. Reconsidering emissions of ammonia from chemical fertilizer usage in Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Srinidhi; Koloutsou-Vakakis, Sotiria; McFarland, D. Michael; Rood, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    We present alternative methods for estimating spatial surrogates and temporal factors for ammonia (NH3) emissions from chemical fertilizer usage (CFU), in the USA, at spatial and temporal scales used to simulate regional air quality and deposition of reactive nitrogen to ecosystems. The newly developed Improved Spatial Surrogate (ISS) method incorporates year-specific fertilizer sales data, high resolution and year-specific crop maps, and local crop nitrogen demands to allocate NH3 emissions at 4 km × 4 km grid cells. Results are compared with the commonly used gridded emission estimates by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) preprocessor. NH3 emissions over Central Illinois in the USA, estimated at the 4 km × 4 km grid level in SMOKE and ISS methods, exhibit differences between -10% and 120%, with 58% of the grid cells exhibiting more than ±10% difference. Application of the ISS method for a larger domain over the Midwest USA, at 4 km × 4 km, reflected similar differences. We also employed the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model to develop daily temporal factors of NH3 emissions from CFU using multi-site and multi-year analyses. Ratio of temporal factors estimated by SMOKE and DNDC methods is 0.54 ± 2.35, with DNDC identifying daily emission peaks 2.5-8 times greater than SMOKE. Identified emission peaks will be useful for future air quality modeling efforts to understand particulate matter episodes, as well as trends in regional particulate matter formation and nitrogen deposition for Midwest USA, using the proposed NH3 emissions inventory.

  11. Ammonia emissions from an anaerobic digestion plant estimated using atmospheric measurements and dispersion modelling.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michael W; Tang, Y Sim; Dragosits, Ulrike; Flechard, Chris R; Ward, Paul; Braban, Christine F

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly implemented within organic waste treatment operations. The storage and processing of large volumes of organic wastes through AD has been identified as a significant source of ammonia (NH3) emissions, however the totality of ammonia emissions from an AD plant have not been previously quantified. The emissions from an AD plant processing food waste were estimated through integrating ambient NH3 concentration measurements, atmospheric dispersion modelling, and comparison with published emission factors (EFs). Two dispersion models (ADMS and a backwards Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model) were applied to calculate emission estimates. The bLS model (WindTrax) was used to back-calculate a total (top-down) emission rate for the AD plant from a point of continuous NH3 measurement downwind from the plant. The back-calculated emission rates were then input to the ADMS forward dispersion model to make predictions of air NH3 concentrations around the site, and evaluated against weekly passive sampler NH3 measurements. As an alternative approach emission rates from individual sources within the plant were initially estimated by applying literature EFs to the available site parameters concerning the chemical composition of waste materials, room air concentrations, ventilation rates, etc. The individual emission rates were input to ADMS and later tuned by fitting the simulated ambient concentrations to the observed (passive sampler) concentration field, which gave an excellent match to measurements after an iterative process. The total emission from the AD plant thus estimated by a bottom-up approach was 16.8±1.8mgs(-1), which was significantly higher than the back-calculated top-down estimate (7.4±0.78mgs(-1)). The bottom-up approach offered a more realistic treatment of the source distribution within the plant area, while the complexity of the site was not ideally suited to the bLS method, thus the bottom-up method is believed

  12. Nitrogen sustainability and beef cattle feedyards: II. Ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management of beef cattle feedyard nitrogen (N) helps avoid environmental degradation and loss of manure fertilizer value due to ammonia volatilization. In this review we report the state-of-the-science concerning feedyard ammonia and evaluate methods to mitigate N losses. Up to 90% of f...

  13. Ammonia

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonia ; CASRN 7664 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  14. Ammonia Emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China: From 1978 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.

    2015-12-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. Chinese agricultural fertilizer (CAF), which is widely used in China, is the nation's largest source of NH3 emissions. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new CAF NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 ´1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) time trends were derived for 1978-2008 in which the spatial and temporal patterns and the uncertainties associated with the inventory were quantified; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3·yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0%. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0% to 45.5% because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3% (minimum: 33.4%; maximum: 42.7%). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3% and 8.5%. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF NH3

  15. Emission of ammonia from indoor concrete wall and assessment of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Bai, Z; Dong, Y; Wang, Z; Zhu, T

    2006-04-01

    Addition of urea-based antifreeze admixtures during cement mixing can make it possible to produce concrete cement in construction of buildings in cold weather; this, however, has led to increasing indoor air pollution due to continuous transformation and emission from urea to gaseous ammonia in indoor concrete wall. It is believed that ammonia is harmful to human body and exposure to ammonia can cause some serious symptoms such as headaches, burns, and even permanent damage to the eyes and lungs. In order to understand the emission of ammonia from indoor concrete wall in civil building and assess the health risk of people living in these buildings, the experimental pieces of concrete wall were first prepared by concreting cement and urea-based antifreeze admixtures to simulate the indoor wall in civil building in this work. Then environmental chamber was adopted for studying the effect of temperature, relative humility and air exchange rate on emission of ammonia from experimental pieces of concrete wall. Also the field experiment was made at selected rooms in given civil buildings. Exposure and potential dose of adult and children exposed to indoor/outdoor ammonia in summer and in winter are calculated and evaluated by using Scenario Evaluation Approach. The results indicated that high air exchange rate leads to decreased ammonia concentration, and elevation of temperature causes increasing ammonia concentration and volatilizing rate in chamber. The complete emission of ammonia from the wall containing urea-based antifreeze admixtures needs more than 10 years in general. Ventilating or improving air exchange can play a significant role in reducing ammonia concentration in actual rooms in field experiments. Urea-based antifreeze admixtures in concrete wall can give rise to high exposure and potential dose, especially in summer. Generally, adults have a high potential dose than children, while children have personal average dose rate beyond adults in the same

  16. A mass-flow model of ammonia emissions from UK livestock production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    This paper describes a mass-flow approach to estimating ammonia (NH 3) emissions from livestock production at the national scale. NH 3 is emitted from a pool of ammoniacal-N (TAN) in livestock excreta. This pool is not added to during manure management, but is depleted by losses as gaseous emissions and leachate and by immobilization in litter. At each stage of manure management, a proportion of TAN will be lost, mainly as NH 3, and the rest passed on to the next stage. This approach enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH 3 losses at later stages of manure management (downstream). Such a model facilitates scenario analysis of abatement options and cost-curve production. Model output is most sensitive to variation in estimates of the length of the housing period for cattle. Thus, the collation of accurate data on factors such as the length of the housing period and other 'activity' data, are as important in compiling accurate inventories of national emissions as improving the accuracy of emission factors. Priorities for research should be to accurately quantify the relationship between NH 3 emissions from livestock buildings and the proportion of the day those buildings are occupied, and to characterize and quantify the transformations of N that take place during storage of litter-based manures.

  17. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Riddick, Stuart N.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Nemitz, Eiko; Theobald, Mark R.; Tang, Y. Sim; Braban, Christine F.; Vieno, Massimo; Dore, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Fowler, David; Blackall, Trevor D.; Milford, Celia; Flechard, Chris R.; Loubet, Benjamin; Massad, Raia; Cellier, Pierre; Personne, Erwan; Coheur, Pierre F.; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Ngadi, Yasmine; Clerbaux, Cathy; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole; Wichink Kruit, Roy J.; Pinder, Robert W.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.; Simpson, David; Horváth, László; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Bleeker, Albert; Dentener, Frank; de Vries, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5°C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100. PMID:23713128

  18. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianlei; Bai, Mei; Shen, Jianlin; Griffith, David W T; Denmead, Owen T; Hill, Julian; Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R; Chen, Deli

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH3 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6kgm(-2), were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH3 and N2O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH3 analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH3 and N2O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240gNhead(-1)day(-1)) was lost via NH3 volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH3 volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH3 emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1) (<0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N2O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22gN2O-Nhead(-1)day(-1), for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N2O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N2O emission due to decreased NH3 volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH3 for indirect N2O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N2O emissions.

  19. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale

  20. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  1. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  2. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI¯), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3¯), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4

  3. On-road Ammonia Emissions in China and Comparison with the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Existing atmospheric measurements suggest that traffic may provide significant amount of NH3 in urban areas. On-road NH3 emissions may cause greater impact on air quality and human health, since significant sources of other PM2.5 precursors (SO2, NOx) are usually collocated in heavily populated urban areas. However, the on-road NH3 emission inventories are subject to significant uncertainties and potentially underestimated. A mobile platform is developed by mounting an open-path NH3 sensor, an open-path CO sensor, and an open-path CO2 sensor on top of a passenger car. The high time resolution and fast response of the open-path sensors are especially advantageous for capturing transient concentration changes. The collocation of open-path sensors makes it straightforward to calculate real-time emission ratios with high time resolution. We participated in the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in California and the CAREBeijing-NCP campaign in China in 2013. More than 80 hours of on-road measurements covering a distance of over 4300 km have been performed in New Jersey and California in the US. We also covered 3300 km in four provinces in the North China Plain with a driving time of 66 hours. The mean NH3:CO emission ratios were 0.019×0.005 ppbv/ppbv in roadside measurements in Princeton, NJ, 0.029×0.007 ppbv/ppbv during on-road measurements near Princeton, NJ and 0.031×0.005 ppbv/ppbv in SF bay area, CA. Preliminary NH3:CO emission ratios in Beijing are ~ 0.027 ppbv/ppbv, consistent with the US fleet data. NH3 emission factors are calculated based on NH3:CO and NH3:CO2 emission ratios. Significant correlations between road gradient and NH3 emission factors were found during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The average on-road NH3 emission factors correlate with freeway road gradient with enhancement of 53 mg/kg fuel per

  4. Measurements of ambient ammonia using a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer: Characteristics of ambient ammonia emissions in an urban area of New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongquan; Schwab, James J.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2006-05-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) was deployed during the PMTACS-NY Supersite winter 2004 intensive field campaign at Queens College in New York City to measure the ambient gaseous ammonia. For the characterization of ammonia emissions from the mobile sources, a LI-7000 CO2/H2O analyzer was also collocated with the TDLAS to measure ambient CO2 and H2O vapor. The field measurements and laboratory calibration with certified ammonia standard have been used to evaluate the performance of the TDLAS system. High time resolved TDLAS ambient ammonia measurements performed at Queens College from 10 January to 6 February showed high variability, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) to maxima of 197.4 ppb and a mean value of 0.8 ppb over the entire campaign. Many high-frequency NH3 spikes spanning over a less than 1-min duration were observed during the high traffic periods. The occurrence of the NH3 spikes was closely correlated with observed CO2 spikes, a good marker of traffic exhaust. This correlation yielded an NH3 emission ratio of 0.12 ppbv/ppmv, which can be used to estimate an NH3 emission factor of 35.5 mg/km. The [NH3]/[CO2] ratios over the entire field study was also obtained and added into the best NH3 emission estimates. On a snowy day, no obvious drop of NH3 and CO2 concentrations was measured as the ambient H2O vapor increased. The observed dramatic decrease in the ambient NH3 and CO2 concentrations on a rainy day resulted from a quick air mass switch. Two similar bimodal diurnal patterns associated with the rush hour traffic were observed during school holidays and school days of Queens College, New York. More NH3 emissions from cold start vehicles might contribute to a higher peak in the late afternoon hours. Such observations suggest that the NH3 emissions from the traffic exhaust could be a major source of the ambient NH3 in urban areas.

  5. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  6. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and animal and manure management. Because the measurement of these emissions is difficult and expensive, the use of process based models provides another option for estimating whole farm emis...

  7. Determining ammonia emissions from a cattle feedlot with an inverse dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inverse-dispersion technique is used to calculate ammonia (NH3) gas emissions from a cattle feedlot. The technique relies on a simple backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion model to relate atmospheric NH3 concentration to the emission rate Qbls. Because the wind and the source configurat...

  8. [Effects of turning frequency on emission of greenhouse gas and ammonia during swine manure windrow composting].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Li, Hong-Mei; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhong, Jia; Zheng, Jia-Xi; Han, Sheng-Hui; Wan, He-Feng

    2014-02-01

    It is of great concern for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of animal manure management in China due to the extreme lack of GHG emission data during animal manure composting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of turning frequency on the emission of GHG (CH4, N2O) and NH3 during swine manure windrow composting through on-site observation of a full scale test in Beijing. Results showed that the turning frequency had significant impacts on the emission of both GHG and ammonia, which did not only increase the emission of GHG and ammonia, but also increased the percentage of total nitrogen loss due to NH3 emission (42.2% at turning once a week and 70.05% at turning twice a week, respectively). Compared with N2O emission, CH4 emission was the main contributor to Global Warming Potentials (GWPs).

  9. Effect of Dietary Protein on Ammonia Emission from Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH3) volatilization from dairy cow manure. Two types of manure were prepared by feeding lactating dairy cows diets with 16% (DM basis; HighCP) or 14% CP (LowCP). The manure was used in 2...

  10. Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Production Systems in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) gas is reactive and is the major basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze and is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition and as a potential human health hazard. T...

  11. Review: Ammonia emissions from dairy farms and beef feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emitted from animal feeding operations is an environmental and human health hazard, causing water eutrophication, and fine particulate matter formation, and at the same time is a net loss of manure fertilizer value. A significant portion of cattle manure nitrogen, primarily from urinary urea...

  12. PM2.5 pollution is substantially affected by ammonia emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing; Erisman, Jan Willem; Reis, Stefan; Fang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuming

    2016-11-01

    Urban air quality in China has been declining substantially in recent years due to severe haze episodes. The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions since 2013 does not yet appear to yield substantial benefits for haze mitigation. As the reductions of those key precursors to secondary aerosol formation appears not to sufficient, other crucial factors need to be considered for the design of effective air pollution control strategies. Here we argue that ammonia (NH3) plays a - so far - underestimated role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, a main component of urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in China. By analyzing in situ concentration data observed in major cities alongside gridded emission data obtained from remote sensing and inventories, we find that emissions of NH3 have a more robust association with the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 levels than emissions of SO2 and NOx. As a consequence, we argue that urban PM2.5 pollution in China in many locations is substantially affected by NH3 emissions. We highlight that more efforts should be directed to the reduction of NH3 emissions that help mitigate PM2.5 pollution more efficiently than other PM2.5 precursors. Such efforts will yield substantial co-benefits by improving nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems. As a consequence, such integrated strategies would not only improve urban air quality, but also contribute to China's food-security goals, prevent further biodiversity loss, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lead to economic savings.

  13. Seasonal ammonia emissions from a free-stall dairy in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Mutlu, Atilla; Lacey, Ronald E; Parnell, Calvin B

    2009-05-01

    Studies show that agricultural and animal feeding operations (AFOs) contribute a considerable amount of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Agricultural NH3 emissions are recognized as an important air quality issue. Biological decomposition of manure from dairy operations results in emissions of NH3 and other gases. There is a need to determine NH3 emission factors (EFs) to compile annual NH3 inventories. NH3 emissions should be estimated from different ground-level area sources (GLAS) including open-lots (cows on earthen corrals), free-stalls (cows in barns), manure composting sites, primary and secondary lagoons, separated solids, and milking parlors. A protocol using flux chambers was used to determine NH3 EFs from different GLAS of a free-stall dairy in central Texas. Data including NH3 emissions from GLAS were collected during winter and summer seasons. NH3 concentration measurements were made using chemiluminescence-based analyzers. The EFs for the free-stall dairy were estimated as 11 +/- 4.9 (confidence interval [CI]) kg-NH3 x yr(-1) x head(-1) for summer and 4.7 +/- 4.9 kg-NH3 x yr(-1) x head(-1) for winter. The estimated annual NH3 EF was 8.4 +/- 4.9 kg-NH3 x yr(-1) head(-1) for this free-stall dairy. This seasonal difference was attributed to temperature, loading rate of dairy waste, and manure bacterial activity of GLAS. In winter, composted manure and free-stalls contributed nearly 77% of the total NH3 emissions for the dairy; however, in summer, two lagoons at the dairy contributed 65% of the overall NH3 emissions.

  14. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  15. Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

  16. Global oceanic emission of ammonia: Constraints from seawater and atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M. T.; Bell, T. G.; Baker, A. R.; Keene, W. C.; Lima, I. D.; Doney, S. C.; Stock, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    Current global inventories of ammonia emissions identify the ocean as the largest natural source. This source depends on seawater pH, temperature, and the concentration of total seawater ammonia (NHx(sw)), which reflects a balance between remineralization of organic matter, uptake by plankton, and nitrification. Here we compare [NHx(sw)] from two global ocean biogeochemical models (BEC and COBALT) against extensive ocean observations. Simulated [NHx(sw)] are generally biased high. Improved simulation can be achieved in COBALT by increasing the plankton affinity for NHx within observed ranges. The resulting global ocean emissions is 2.5 TgN a-1, much lower than current literature values (7-23 TgN a-1), including the widely used Global Emissions InitiAtive (GEIA) inventory (8 TgN a-1). Such a weak ocean source implies that continental sources contribute more than half of atmospheric NHx over most of the ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. Ammonia emitted from oceanic sources is insufficient to neutralize sulfate aerosol acidity, consistent with observations. There is evidence over the Equatorial Pacific for a missing source of atmospheric ammonia that could be due to photolysis of marine organic nitrogen at the ocean surface or in the atmosphere. Accommodating this possible missing source yields a global ocean emission of ammonia in the range 2-5 TgN a-1, comparable in magnitude to other natural sources from open fires and soils.

  17. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  18. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  19. Seasonal and spatial variations of ammonia emissions from an open-lot dairy operation.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Mutlu, Atilla; Capareda, Sergio C; Parnell, Calvin B

    2008-03-01

    There is a need for a robust and accurate technique to measure ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs) to obtain emission inventories and to develop abatement strategies. Two consecutive seasonal studies were conducted to measure NH3 emissions from an open-lot dairy in central Texas in July and December of 2005. Data including NH3 concentrations were collected and NH3 emission fluxes (EFls), emission rates (ERs), and emission factors (EFs) were calculated for the open-lot dairy. A protocol using flux chambers (FCs) was used to determine these NH3 emissions from the open-lot dairy. NH3 concentration measurements were made using chemiluminescence-based analyzers. The ground-level area sources (GLAS) including open lots (cows on earthen corrals), separated solids, primary and secondary lagoons, and milking parlors were sampled to estimate NH3 emissions. The seasonal NH3 EFs were 11.6 +/- 7.1 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for the summer and 6.2 +/- 3.7 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for the winter season. The estimated annual NH3 EF was 9.4 +/- 5.7 kg-NH3 yr(-1)head(-1) for this open-lot dairy. The estimated NH3 EF for winter was nearly 47% lower than summer EF. Primary and secondary lagoons (approximately 37) and open-lot corrals (approximately 63%) in summer, and open-lot corrals (approximately 95%) in winter were the highest contributors to NH3 emissions for the open-lot dairy. These EF estimates using the FC protocol and real-time analyzer were lower than many previously reported EFs estimated based on nitrogen mass balance and nitrogen content in manure. The difference between the overall emissions from each season was due to ambient temperature variations and loading rates of manure on GLAS. There was spatial variation of NH3 emission from the open-lot earthen corrals due to variable animal density within feeding and shaded and dry divisions of the open lot. This spatial variability was attributed to dispirit manure loading within these areas.

  20. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2010-02-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  1. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. IV. Coincident Masers in Adjacent States of Para-ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Joyce, Spenser A.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first detection of para-ammonia masers in NGC 7538: multiple epochs of observation of the 14NH3 (J, K) = (10, 8) and (9,8) lines. We detect both thermal absorption and nonthermal emission in the (10,8) and (9,8) transitions and the absence of a maser in the (11,8) transition. The (9,8) maser is observed to increase in intensity by 40% over six months. Using interferometric observations with a synthesized beam of 0.''25, we find that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers originate at the same sky position near IRS 1. With strong evidence that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers arise in the same volume, we discuss the application of pumping models for the simultaneous excitation of nonmetastable (J > K) para-ammonia states having the same value of K and consecutive values of J. We also present detections of thermal absorption in rotational states ranging in energy from E/kB ~ 200 K to 2000 K, and several non-detections in higher-energy states. In particular, we describe the populations in eight adjacent rotational states with K = 6, including two maser transitions, along with the implications for ortho-ammonia pumping models. An existing torus model for molecular gas in the environment of IRS 1 has been applied to the masers; a variety of maser species are shown to agree with the model. Historical and new interferometric observations of 15NH3 (3,3) masers in the region indicate a precession of the rotating torus at a rate comparable to continuum-emission-based models of the region. We discuss the general necessity of interferometric observations for diagnosing the excitation state of the masers and for determining the geometry of the molecular environment.

  2. New maser emission from nonmetastable ammonia in NGC 7538. IV. Coincident masers in adjacent states of para-ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Joyce, Spenser A.

    2014-02-20

    We present the first detection of para-ammonia masers in NGC 7538: multiple epochs of observation of the {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (J, K) = (10, 8) and (9,8) lines. We detect both thermal absorption and nonthermal emission in the (10,8) and (9,8) transitions and the absence of a maser in the (11,8) transition. The (9,8) maser is observed to increase in intensity by 40% over six months. Using interferometric observations with a synthesized beam of 0.''25, we find that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers originate at the same sky position near IRS 1. With strong evidence that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers arise in the same volume, we discuss the application of pumping models for the simultaneous excitation of nonmetastable (J > K) para-ammonia states having the same value of K and consecutive values of J. We also present detections of thermal absorption in rotational states ranging in energy from E/k{sub B} ∼ 200 K to 2000 K, and several non-detections in higher-energy states. In particular, we describe the populations in eight adjacent rotational states with K = 6, including two maser transitions, along with the implications for ortho-ammonia pumping models. An existing torus model for molecular gas in the environment of IRS 1 has been applied to the masers; a variety of maser species are shown to agree with the model. Historical and new interferometric observations of {sup 15}NH{sub 3} (3,3) masers in the region indicate a precession of the rotating torus at a rate comparable to continuum-emission-based models of the region. We discuss the general necessity of interferometric observations for diagnosing the excitation state of the masers and for determining the geometry of the molecular environment.

  3. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  4. Estimates of the emission rates of ammonia from light-duty vehicles using standard chassis dynamometer test cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Thomas D.; Wilson, Ryan D.; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Miller, J. Wayne; Huai, Tao; Rhee, Sam H.

    Emissions rates of ammonia (NH 3) are reported for a fleet of 39 in-use light-duty gasoline-fueled vehicles. The fleet consisted of both light-duty passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks with various levels of emission control technologies, ranging from non-catalyst vehicles to those that were certified at the ULEV standard for California. NH 3 measurements were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the federal test procedure (FTP) driving cycle. The FTP NH 3 emission rate for this fleet of vehicles averaged 54 mg mi -1 with a range from <4 to 177 mg mi -1. For this fleet of vehicles, NH 3 emissions did not decline as significantly as the regulated pollutants with improvements in emission control technology. A subset of 5 vehicles was tested over the US06, the New York City Cycle (NYCC), and a high-speed freeway cycle for comparison with the FTP cycle. NH 3 emissions showed a strong cycle dependence, with increased emissions under more aggressive driving conditions. These results show that NH 3 emissions formed during more aggressive driving conditions should be considered in the development of NH 3 emission factors. The onset of NH 3 emissions typically occurred after catalyst light-off, near when the catalyst reached its equilibrium temperature. Initial studies showed that NH 3 emissions increased as the sulfur content in the fuel was decreased.

  5. Artificial neural networks for modeling ammonia emissions released from sewage sludge composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.; Pilarski, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.

    2012-09-01

    The project was designed to develop, test and validate an original Neural Model describing ammonia emissions generated in composting sewage sludge. The composting mix was to include the addition of such selected structural ingredients as cereal straw, sawdust and tree bark. All created neural models contain 7 input variables (chemical and physical parameters of composting) and 1 output (ammonia emission). The α data file was subdivided into three subfiles: the learning file (ZU) containing 330 cases, the validation file (ZW) containing 110 cases and the test file (ZT) containing 110 cases. The standard deviation ratios (for all 4 created networks) ranged from 0.193 to 0.218. For all of the selected models, the correlation coefficient reached the high values of 0.972-0.981. The results show that he predictive neural model describing ammonia emissions from composted sewage sludge is well suited for assessing such emissions. The sensitivity analysis of the model for the input of variables of the process in question has shown that the key parameters describing ammonia emissions released in composting sewage sludge are pH and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N).

  6. Ammonia emissions from a U.S. broiler house--comparison of concurrent measurements using three different technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need for robust and accurate techniques for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from poultry production facilities. Reasonable estimates of ammonia emission rate (ER) from poultry facilities are needed to guide discussions about t...

  7. Effects of conservation tillage practices on ammonia emissions from Loess Plateau rain-fed winter wheat fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Chunju; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Meng, Yuan; Tian, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Linquan

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities contribute to air pollution. For the rain-fed winter wheat system in the Loess Plateau there is a lack of information about ammonia emissions. Current study aimed to provide field data on ammonia emissions affected by conservation tillage practices and nitrogen applications. A two-year field experiment was conducted during 2011-2013 wheat growing seasons followed a split-plot design. Main plots consisted of one conventional tillage (CT, as the control) and five conservation tillage systems, i.e., stalk mulching (SM), film mulching (FM), ridge tillage (RT), ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge (RTfm), and ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge and stalk mulch in the furrow (RTfmsm); while subplots consisted of two nitrogen application rates, i.e., 0 and 180 kg N ha-1. Ammonia emissions were measured using an acid trapping method with vented chambers. Results showed ammonia fluxes peaked during the first 10 days after fertilization. On average, nitrogen application increased ammonia emissions by 26.5% (1.31 kg N ha-1) compared with treatments without nitrogen application (P < 0.05). Ammonia fluxes were strongly dependent on soil ammonium, moisture, and temperature. Tillage systems had significant effects on ammonia emissions. On average, conservation tillage practices reduced ammonia emissions by 7.7% (0.46 kg N ha-1) compared with conventional tillage (P < 0.05), with FM most effective. Deep-band application of nitrogen fertilizer, stalk mulches, and film mulches were responsible for reductions in ammonia emissions from nitrogen fertilization in conservation tillage systems, thus they were recommended to reduce ammonia emissions from winter wheat production regions in the southern Loess Plateau.

  8. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  9. Nutritional and environmental effects on ammonia emissions from dairy cattle housing: A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) excreted in urine by dairy cows can be potentially transformed to ammonia (NH3) and emitted to the atmosphere. Dairy production contributes to NH3 emission, which can create human respiratory problems and odor issues, reduces manure quality, and is an indirect source of nitrous oxide (N...

  10. Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

  11. Reducing swine farm ammonia emission with a full-scale manure treatment system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new full-scale treatment system in its second-generation was implemented at a 5000-head finishing swine farm in North Carolina to improve treatment lagoon water quality and reduce ammonia emissions. The system combined high-rate solid-liquid separation with nitrogen and phosphorus removal process...

  12. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  13. Abatement of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from dairy farms using milk urea N (MUN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary urea N (UUN) excreted by dairy cows is the principal nitrogen (N) source that controls emissions of ammonia (which can be hazardous to human and ecosystem health) and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from dairy manure. The objectives of this study were (1) to inves...

  14. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from manure incorporated with different soil aerator configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incorporation of swine manure with tillage effectively reduces ammonia emissions and conserves crop available N but is not compatible with no-till and many other conservation tillage programs. Rolling-tine aerators potentially provide a means to enhance manure infiltration with limited disruptio...

  15. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  16. Analysis of Saturn's Thermal Emission at 2.2-cm Wavelength: Spatial Distribution of Ammonia Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laraia, A. L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, Michael A.; Gulkis, Samuel; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Allison, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on determining the latitudinal structure of ammonia vapor in Saturn's cloud layer near 1.5 bars using the brightness temperature maps derived from the Cassini RADAR (Elachi et al., 2004) instrument, which works in a passive mode to measure thermal emission from Saturn at 2.2-cm wavelength. We perform an analysis of five brightness temperature maps that span epochs from 2005 to 2011, which are presented in a companion paper by Janssen et al. (2013a, this issue). The brightness temperature maps are representative of the spatial distribution of ammonia vapor, since ammonia gas is the only effective opacity source in Saturn's atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. Relatively high brightness temperatures indicate relatively low ammonia relative humidity (RH), and vice versa. We compare the observed brightness temperatures to brightness temperatures computed using the Juno atmospheric microwave radiative transfer (JAMRT) program which includes both the means to calculate a tropospheric atmosphere model for Saturn and the means to carry out radiative transfer calculations at microwave frequencies. The reference atmosphere to which we compare has a 3x solar deep mixing ratio of ammonia (we use 1.352x10(exp -4) for the solar mixing ratio of ammonia vapor relative to H2; see Atreya, 2010) and is fully saturated above its cloud base. The maps are comprised of residual brightness temperatures-observed brightness temperature minus the model brightness temperature of the saturated atmosphere.

  17. Model estimation and measurement of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyuan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Guoqiang; Rom, Hans Benny; Strøom, Jan S

    2006-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel with a model of a slurry pit to investigate the characteristics of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs. Ammonia emission at different temperatures and air velocities over the floor surface above the slurry pit was measured with uniform feces spreading and urine sprinkling on the surface daily. The data were used to improve a model for estimation of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings. Estimates from the updated emission model were compared with measured data from five naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. The overall measured ammonia emission rates were in the range of 11-88 g per cow per day at air temperatures of 2.3-22.4 degrees C. Ammonia emission rates estimated by the model were in the range of 19-107 g per cow per day for the surveyed buildings. The average ammonia emission estimated by the model was 11% higher than the mean measured value. The results show that predicted emission patterns generally agree with the measured one, but the prediction has less variation. The model performance may be improved if the influence of animal activity and management strategy on ammonia emission could be estimated and more reliable data of air velocities of the buildings could be obtained.

  18. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from a commercial broiler house

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex variation in gas emissions from animal facilities has been shown in recent research reports; uncertainties in these emission estimates are driving research activities concerning different animal species across the globe. Greenhouse gas (GHG, nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) and ...

  19. Measurement and estimation of ammonia emissions from lagoon-atmosphere interface using a coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions model, and an equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep S.; Aneja, Viney P.; Pal Arya, S.

    Ammonia has recently gained importance for its increasing atmospheric concentrations and its role in the formation of aerosols. The anaerobic lagoon and spray method, commonly used for waste storage and disposal in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO), is a significant source of ammonia emissions. An accurate emission model for ammonia from aqueous surfaces can help in the development of emission factors. Data collected from field measurements made at hog waste lagoons in south eastern North Carolina, using the flow through dynamic chamber technique, were used to evaluate the Coupled mass transfer and Chemical reactions model and Equilibrium model developed by Aneja et al. [2001a. Measurement and modeling of ammonia emissions at waste treatment lagoon-Atmospheric Interface. Water, Air and Soil pollution: Focus 1, 177-188]. Sensitivity analysis shows that ammonia flux increases exponentially with lagoon temperature and pH, but a linear increase was observed with an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Ammonia flux also shows a nonlinear increase with increasing wind speed. Observed ammonia fluxes were generally lower in the cold season than in the warm season when lagoon temperatures are higher. About 41% of the equilibrium model predictions and 43% of the Coupled model predictions are found to be within a factor of two of the observed fluxes. Several model performance statistics were used to evaluate the performance of the two models against the observed flux data. These indicate that the simpler Equilibrium model does as well as the Coupled model. The possible effects of the "artificial" environment within the chamber, which is different from that in the ambient atmospheric conditions above the open lagoon surface, on the measured fluxes are also recognized.

  20. The emission density and trend of ammonia over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Xiao-Feng Lu; Yan-Bo Pang; Tao Wang

    1996-12-31

    Nationwide, province-based and gridded anthropogenic NH{sub 3} emissions in China have been made based on the number of livestock, poultry, fertilizer application, NH{sub 3} production and human beings. The total annual emissions have been calculated to be 89194.4 kt in 1991. In which livestock, fertilizer application, human beings, poultry and NH{sub 3} production account for 56.8%, 17.5%, 16.7% and 0.9% respectively. The gridded emission densities show that the high densities have appeared in the Middle Eastern China and Sichuan Basin. The average emission density over China is 0.9 t/km{sup 2} a in 1991. Which is just less than that of Europe (1.1 t/km{sup 2} a). The emission trends of NH{sub 3} have also been calculated from 1991 to 1992.

  1. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  2. Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle cubicle houses via improved management- or design-based strategies: A modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luciano B; Pieters, Jan G; Snoek, Dennis; Ogink, Nico W M; Brusselman, Eva; Demeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Given the current scarcity of empirical data on ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy cattle under different management-based mitigation techniques, a modeling approach to assess potential NH3 emission reduction factors is needed. This paper introduces a process-based model that estimates NH3 emission reduction factors for a dairy cattle barn featuring single or multiple management-based NH3 emission mitigation techniques, as compared to another barn, to which no mitigation measure is applied. The model accounts for the following emission mitigation measures: (a) floor scraping, (b) floor type, (c) floor flushing with water and (d) indoor acidification of manure. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that manure acidification was the most efficient NH3 emission reduction technique. A fair agreement was observed between reduction factors from the model and empirical estimates found in the literature. We propose a list of combinations of techniques that achieve the largest reductions. In order of efficiency, they are: (a) floor scraping combined with manure acidification (reduction efficiency 44-49%); (b) solid floor combined with scraping and flushing (reduction efficiency 21-27%); (c) floor scraping combined with flushing and (d) floor scraping alone (reduction efficiency 17-22%). The model is currently being used to advise the Flemish Government (Belgium), on the performance of certain NH3 emission reduction systems for dairy barns in Flanders.

  3. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  4. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2009-10-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM). The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM) yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  5. Ammonia emissions from cattle-feeding operations. Part 1: issues and emissions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) is a lighter-than-air, colorless gas, with a recognizable pungent smell. It is a source of the essential nutrient nitrogen (N) for plants and animals, but it is also classified as a hazardous substance by the EPA. Ammonia occurs naturally and occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere...

  6. Evolution of farm and manure management and their influence on ammonia emissions from agriculture in Switzerland between 1990 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupper, Thomas; Bonjour, Cyrill; Menzi, Harald

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of farm and manure management and their influence on ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in Switzerland between 1990 and 2010 was modeled. In 2010, total agricultural NH3 emissions were 48,290 t N. Livestock contributed 90% (43,480 t N), with the remaining 10% (4760 t N) coming from arable and fodder crops. The emission stages of grazing, housing/exercise yard, manure storage and application produced 3%, 34%, 17% and 46%, respectively, of livestock emissions. Cattle, pigs, poultry, small ruminants, horses and other equids accounted for 78%, 15%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively, of the emissions from livestock and manure management. Compared to 1990, total NH3 emissions from agriculture and from livestock decreased by 16% and 14%, respectively. This was mainly due to declining livestock numbers, since the emissions per animal became bigger for most livestock categories between 1990 and 2010. The production volume for milk and meat remained constant or increased slightly. Other factors contributing to the emission mitigation were increased grazing for cattle, the growing importance of low-emission slurry application techniques and a significant reduction in the use of mineral fertilizer. However, production parameters enhancing emissions such as animal-friendly housing systems providing more surface area per animal and total volume of slurry stores increased during this time period. That such developments may counteract emission mitigation illustrates the challenge for regulators to balance the various aims in the striving toward sustainable livestock production. A sensitivity analysis identified parameters related to the excretion of total ammoniacal nitrogen from dairy cows and slurry application as being the most sensitive technical parameters influencing emissions. Further improvements to emission models should therefore focus on these parameters.

  7. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  8. Challenges in using flux chambers to measure ammonia and VOC emissions from open feedlot pen surfaces and retention ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few methodologies currently available to estimate ammonia and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from livestock operations have been adequately validated for accuracy. Flow-through flux chambers and wind tunnels are sometimes used; however, ammonia and VOC flux from pen or pond surfaces are a...

  9. Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂), and nitrous oxide (N₂O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH₃, 0.49 kg CH₄, 28.1 kg CO₂, and 0.01 kg N₂O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH₃, 103 g CH₄, 637 g CO₂, and 0.49 g N₂O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH₃, 13.5 g CH₄, 516 g CO₂, and 0.90 g N₂O. The combined emissions of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH₃, CO₂, and N₂O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions.

  10. Vehicle Emissions as an Important Urban Ammonia Source in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Miller, David J; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi M; Zondlo, Mark A; Griffin, Robert J; Wallace, H W; Leong, Yu Jun; Yang, M Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong

    2017-02-21

    Ammoniated aerosols are important for urban air quality, but emissions of the key precursor NH3 are not well quantified. Mobile laboratory observations are used to characterize fleet-integrated NH3 emissions in six cities in the U.S. and China. Vehicle NH3:CO2 emission ratios in the U.S. are similar between cities (0.33-0.40 ppbv/ppmv, 15% uncertainty) despite differences in fleet composition, climate, and fuel composition. While Beijing, China has a comparable emission ratio (0.36 ppbv/ppmv) to the U.S. cities, less developed Chinese cities show higher emission ratios (0.44 and 0.55 ppbv/ppmv). If the vehicle CO2 inventories are accurate, NH3 emissions from U.S. vehicles (0.26 ± 0.07 Tg/yr) are more than twice those of the National Emission Inventory (0.12 Tg/yr), while Chinese NH3 vehicle emissions (0.09 ± 0.02 Tg/yr) are similar to a bottom-up inventory. Vehicle NH3 emissions are greater than agricultural emissions in counties containing near half of the U.S. population and require reconsideration in urban air quality models due to their colocation with other aerosol precursors and the uncertainties regarding NH3 losses from upwind agricultural sources. Ammonia emissions in developing cities are especially important because of their high emission ratios and rapid motorizations.

  11. Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Newell, M.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Schmale, J.; Hill, P. W.; Wanless, S.; Trathan, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.

  12. The application of inverse-dispersion and gradient methods to estimate ammonia emissions from a penguin colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Mark R.; Crittenden, Peter D.; Tang, Y. Sim; Sutton, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    Penguin colonies represent some of the most concentrated sources of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere in the world. The ammonia emitted into the atmosphere can have a large influence on the nitrogen cycling of ecosystems near the colonies. However, despite the ecological importance of the emissions, no measurements of ammonia emissions from penguin colonies have been made. The objective of this work was to determine the ammonia emission rate of a penguin colony using inverse-dispersion modelling and gradient methods. We measured meteorological variables and mean atmospheric concentrations of ammonia at seven locations near a colony of Adélie penguins in Antarctica to provide input data for inverse-dispersion modelling. Three different atmospheric dispersion models (ADMS, LADD and a Lagrangian stochastic model) were used to provide a robust emission estimate. The Lagrangian stochastic model was applied both in ‘forwards’ and ‘backwards’ mode to compare the difference between the two approaches. In addition, the aerodynamic gradient method was applied using vertical profiles of mean ammonia concentrations measured near the centre of the colony. The emission estimates derived from the simulations of the three dispersion models and the aerodynamic gradient method agreed quite well, giving a mean emission of 1.1 g ammonia per breeding pair per day (95% confidence interval: 0.4-2.5 g ammonia per breeding pair per day). This emission rate represents a volatilisation of 1.9% of the estimated nitrogen excretion of the penguins, which agrees well with that estimated from a temperature-dependent bioenergetics model. We found that, in this study, the Lagrangian stochastic model seemed to give more reliable emission estimates in ‘forwards’ mode than in ‘backwards’ mode due to the assumptions made.

  13. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions.

  14. Assessment of N2O emission from a photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, Melissa P; da Silva, Márcio L B; Nicoloso, Rodrigo S; Ibelli, Adriana M G; Bortoli, Marcelo; Viancelli, Aline; Soares, Hugo M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the interactions between naturally occurring bacteria and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris within a lab scale photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate effluent. Nitrification and denitrification were assessed by targeting ammonia monoxygenases (amoA), nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS), nitric oxide (norB) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases genes. Oxygen produced from microalgae photosynthesis stimulated nitrification. Under limiting carbon availability (i.e., <1.44 for mg TOC/mg NO2-N and 1.72 for mg TOC/mg NO3-N), incomplete denitrification led to accumulation of NO2 and NO3. Significant N2O emission (up to 118 μg N2O-N) was linked to NO2 metabolism in Chlorella. The addition of acetate as external carbon source recovered heterotrophic denitrification activity suppressing N2O emission. Effluent methane concentrations trapped within photobioreactor was removed concomitantly with ammonia. Overall, closed photobioreactors can be built to effectively remove nitrogen and mitigate simultaneously greenhouse gases emissions that would occur otherwise in open microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems.

  15. Potential for reducing on-farm greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy cows with prolonged diet alterations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal agriculture significantly contributes to gaseous emissions that are implicated in global climate change and local environmental problems. Dairy cows specifically are responsible for enteric methane (CH4) emissions, and produce nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from manure. Here,...

  16. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Móring, A.; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R. M.; Laubach, J.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget) are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p < 0.01 significance level). We found that process-based modelling of pH is necessary to reproduce the temporal development of NH3 emission. In addition, our results suggested that more sophisticated simulation of CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters

  17. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: feasibility of abatement strategies.

    PubMed

    Carew, Richard

    2010-08-01

    An updated national ammonia (NH(3)) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH(3) emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH(3) emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Québec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH(3) emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods.

  18. Short-term emissions of ammonia and carbon dioxide from cattle urine contaminated tropical grassland microcosm.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Manoj; Drabar, Reena; Vyas, Manish

    2006-11-01

    The study was designed to understand the emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from a single cattle urination event on a tropical grassland and underline the significance of the emissions in the context of huge animal population grazing on large pasture areas in some countries. Emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were monitored for three weeks from a tropical grassland (dominated by Cynodon dactylon Pers.) microcosm contaminated with cow and buffalo urine. The grassland microcosms were treated with urine (50 and 100 ml of each) only once and irrigated with water once every week. Ammonia was sampled by an automatic sampling system comprising of a vacuum pump, three-way stopcocks and rubber tubing and an impinger containing suitable absorbing solution (H(2)SO(4)), connected to the tubing suitably. The sampled gas, after sucked by the vacuum pump and absorbed in H(2)SO(4), was allowed to enter the closed microcosm again maintaining internal pressure of the microcosm. Carbon dioxide was sampled by absorption in an alkali (NaOH) trap inside the microcosm. Both NH(3) and CO(2) emissions were highly variable temporally and there was no continuous increasing or decreasing emission trend with time. Respectively, 45 and 46% of total NH(3)-N were emitted within first 48 h from 50 and 100 ml cow urine application while the corresponding values for buffalo urine were 34 and 32%. Total NH(3)-N emissions, integrated for sampling days (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 18 and 21st) were 11 and 6% in cow and 8 and 5% in buffalo urine, of the total-N added through 50 and 100 ml urine samples. Carbon dioxide emissions were standardized at 25 degrees C by using a suitable formula which were lower than actual emissions at actual soil temperature (> 25 degrees C). Carbon dioxide emission rates were classified on the basis of soil repiratory classification and classes ranged from moderately low soil activity up to unusually high soil activity, the latter

  19. Characterizing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from a swine waste treatment lagoon in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden, Jessica; Aneja, Viney P.

    Emissions of atmospheric ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3-N, where NH 3-N=(14/17)NH 3) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) from a commercial anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon (17,150 m 2 at normal liquid level) were measured over a 1-year period. Continuous simultaneous measurements were made at the lagoon using a dynamic flow-through chamber system for ˜1 week during four seasons, October-November 2004 (fall), February 2005 (winter), April 2005 (spring), and June 2005 (summer) in an effort to examine diurnal and seasonal variability, and the respective relationships of NH 3-N and H 2S emissions to lagoon physicochemical properties. Continuously measured lagoon physicochemical parameters include lagoon surface temperature and lagoon pH. Aqueous lagoon samples were collected daily and analyzed for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and total sulfide concentration. TKN, TAN, and sulfide concentrations ranged from 400-650, 360-590, and 0.1-13.0 mg L -1, respectively. For NH 3-N, the largest fluxes were observed during the summer (>4200 μg N m -2 min -1). During the fall and spring, average NH 3-N fluxes were 1634±505 and >2495 μg N m -2 min -1, respectively. The lowest fluxes were observed during the winter where average flux values were 1290±246 μg N m -2 min -1. Fluxes for H 2S were negligible during the winter season. Average fluxes increased during the fall (0.3±0.1 μg m -2 min -1) and spring (0.5±1.0 μg m -2 min -1), and highest flux values were observed during the summer (5.3±3.2 μg m -2 min -1). The seasonal NH 3-N and H 2S emission factors ranged from ˜10 to ˜40 kg N AU -1 yr -1 (1 AU=500 kg live animal weight) and ˜0 to ˜0.05 kg H 2S AU -1 yr -1, respectively. Generally, the lagoon emissions for H 2S were ˜3-4 orders of magnitude less than NH 3-N. The gas fluxes were related to various physicochemical parameters including the pH and near-surface temperature of the lagoon, and the aqueous concentration of the respective gas.

  20. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  1. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Lin, Y. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Zhao, C. X.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters, (3) the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective

  2. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-08-01

    We have obtained the first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn. These measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on November 9, 1987. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 1.2 × 10-4. Ammonia, however, did not correlate well with CO2 suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  3. Nitric acid and ammonia emissions from a mid-latitude prescribed wetlands fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebel, P. J.; Cofer, W. R., III; Levine, J. S.; Vay, S. A.; Roberts, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    The first simultaneous measurements of gaseous nitric acid and ammonia in the smoke plume of a wetlands biomass burn were obtained. The measurements were made using tungsten oxide-coated diffusion denuder tubes from a helicopter during a prescribed burn on November 9, 1987, at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, located at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing ratios. Nitric acid correlated well with carbon dioxide produced by the combustion. The mean CO2-normalized emission ratio for HNO3 was found to be 0.00012. Ammonia, however, dit not correlate well with CO2, suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and production/release of NH3.

  4. Doubling of annual ammonia emissions from the peat fires in Indonesia during the 2015 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, S.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.; Turquety, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2016-10-01

    In the autumn of 2015, thousands of square kilometers of forest and peatlands in Indonesia went up in flames. Among the primary species emitted by fires, ammonia (NH3) is of special relevance for air quality. Here we derive daily and total NH3 emission fluxes over the affected area using satellite measurements for the years 2008-2015. The 2015 fires emitted an estimated 1.4-8.2 Tg of NH3 (with a maximum of 0.06-0.33 Tg d-1). On an annual basis, the 2015 NH3 emissions are a factor 2-3 larger than in the previous 7 years. We derive NH3 emission factors for peat soils, which are found to be 2.5-8 times lower than those used in the GFASv1.2 emission inventory but in excellent agreement with those reported in other recent studies. Finally, we estimate that 3.28 × 109 m3 peat soil was consumed during these 2015 fires, corresponding to an average burn depth of 39 cm.

  5. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  6. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H. H.; Hutchings, N. J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Döhler, H.; Dämmgen, U.

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH 3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH 3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH 3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs.

  7. Cost-effective means of reducing ammonia emissions from UK agriculture using the NARSES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Ryan, M.; Anthony, S. G.; Brewer, A.; Laws, J.; Aller, M. F.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    To comply with International agreements to improve air quality, signatory states need to reduce emissions of ammonia (NH 3). Since the majority of NH 3 emissions come from agriculture, measures may need to be implemented by the farming industry. Member states of the EU will, by 2010, require large pig and poultry production units to reduce NH 3 emissions to comply with the integrated pollution prevention and control directive (IPPC). The NARSES model uses a mass-flow method to estimate NH 3 emission from UK agriculture and to identify the most cost-effective means of reducing NH 3 emissions. Model runs were carried out to assess the likely impact of the IPPC Directive on UK NH 3 emissions and the sensitivity of model output to input data on the costs and abatement efficiencies of proposed abatement measures. The impact of the IPPC Directive is likely to be small, offering a reduction of c. 8700 t, 3.5% of total UK agricultural NH 3 emissions. Even large (30%) changes in our estimates of cost or changes of 10% in our estimates of abatement efficiency will make little difference to the ranking of abatement techniques according to cost-effectiveness. The most cost-effective reductions may be achieved by replacing urea fertilizer with ammonium nitrate, immediate incorporation of manures and slurries to tillage land by discs, storing all FYM and poultry manures before spreading to land and applying slurries to grassland by trailing shoe.

  8. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  9. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  10. AMMONIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, EMISSIONS, INORGANIC PM 2.5, AND CLEAN AIR INTERSTATE RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has be...

  11. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (P<0.05). Over the subsequent storage periods NH 3 emissions from the FYM were small and unaffected by storage treatment. However, during the second storage period heavy and persistent rainfall during heap establishment and the following week appeared to reduce NH 3 emissions markedly. The low ammonium-N content of the FYM in the third storage period may have reduced the risk of NH 3 emission and reduced the relative effect of the compaction/covering treatment. Compaction and covering also significantly reduced N 2O emissions from cattle FYM (P<0.05) by ca. 30% during the first storage period. Subsequent N 2O emissions were unaffected by treatment. Methane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  12. Daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Rhoades, Marty B; Parker, David B; Casey, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive N to the environment, contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter, and represents a significant loss of N from beef cattle feedyards. We used open path laser spectroscopy and an inverse dispersion model to quantify daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual NH emissions during 2 yr from two commercial cattle feedyards in the Panhandle High Plains of Texas. Annual patterns of NH fluxes correlated with air temperature, with the greatest fluxes (>100 kg ha d) during the summer and the lowest fluxes (<15 kg ha d) during the winter. Mean monthly per capita emission rate (PCER) of NH-N at one feedyard ranged from 31 g NH-N head d (January) to 207 g NH-N head d (October), when increased dietary crude protein from wet distillers grains elevated emissions. Ammonia N emissions at the other feedyard ranged from 36 g NH-N head d (January) to 121 g NH-N head d (September). Monthly fractional NH-N loss ranged from a low of 19 to 24% to a high of 80 to 85% of fed N at the two feedyards. Seasonal PCER at the two feedyards averaged 60 to 71 g NH-N head d during winter and 103 to 158 g NH-N head d during summer. Annually, PCER was 115 and 80 g NH-N head d at the two feedyards, which represented 59 and 52% of N fed to the cattle. Detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of management and environmental variables such as diet, temperature, precipitation, and manure water content on NH emissions.

  13. Ammonia in the atmosphere: a review on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and deposition on terrestrial bodies.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Sharma, Mukesh; Aneja, Viney P; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-11-01

    Gaseous ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere. In addition, it is a major component of total reactive nitrogen. The largest source of NH3 emissions is agriculture, including animal husbandry and NH3-based fertilizer applications. Other sources of NH3 include industrial processes, vehicular emissions and volatilization from soils and oceans. Recent studies have indicated that NH3 emissions have been increasing over the last few decades on a global scale. This is a concern because NH3 plays a significant role in the formation of atmospheric particulate matter, visibility degradation and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to sensitive ecosystems. Thus, the increase in NH3 emissions negatively influences environmental and public health as well as climate change. For these reasons, it is important to have a clear understanding of the sources, deposition and atmospheric behaviour of NH3. Over the last two decades, a number of research papers have addressed pertinent issues related to NH3 emissions into the atmosphere at global, regional and local scales. This review article integrates the knowledge available on atmospheric NH3 from the literature in a systematic manner, describes the environmental implications of unabated NH3 emissions and provides a scientific basis for developing effective control strategies for NH3.

  14. Ammonia emissions from a U.S. broiler house--comparison of concurrent measurements using three different technologies.

    PubMed

    Casey, Kenneth D; Gates, Richard S; Shores, Richard C; Thoma, Eben D; Harris, D Bruce

    2010-08-01

    There is a need for robust and accurate techniques for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from poultry production facilities. Reasonable estimates of NH3 emission rate (ER) from poultry facilities are needed to guide discussions about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. The design of these facilities features numerous emission points and results in emission characteristics of relatively low concentrations and exhaust flow rates that vary diurnally, seasonally, and with bird age over a considerable range. These factors combine to render conventional emissions monitoring approaches difficult to apply. Access to these facilities is also often restricted for biosecurity reasons. The three objectives of this study were (1) to compare three methods for measuring exhaust NH3 concentrations and thus ERs, (2) to compare ventilation rates using in situ measured fan characteristics versus using manufacturer sourced fan curves, and (3) to examine limitations of the alternative measurement technologies. In this study, two open-path monitoring systems operating outside of the buildings were compared with a portable monitoring system sampling upstream of a primary exhaust fan. The position of the open-path systems relative to the exhaust fans, measurement strategy adopted, and weather conditions significantly influenced the quality of data collected when compared with the internally located, portable monitoring system. Calculation of exhaust airflow from the facility had a large effect on calculated emissions and assuming that the installed fans performed as per published performance characteristics potentially overestimated emissions by 13.6-26.8%. The open-path measurement systems showed promise for being able to obtain ER measurements with minimal access to the house, although the availability of individual fan characteristics markedly improved the calculated ER accuracy. However, substantial operator skill and

  15. Reducing ammonia emissions from laying-hen houses through dietary manipulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Xin, Hongwei; Burns, Robert T; Roberts, Stacey A; Li, Shuhai; Kliebenstein, James; Bregendahl, Kristjan

    2012-02-01

    Feed additives can change the microbiological environment of the animal digestive track, nutrient composition of feces, and its gaseous emissions. This 2-yr field study involving commercial laying-hen houses in central Iowa was conducted to assess the effects of feeding diets containing EcoCal and corn-dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, and N2O) emissions. Three high-rise layer houses (256,600 W-36 hens per house) received standard industry diet (Control), a diet containing 7% EcoCal (EcoCal) or a diet containing 10% DDGS (DDGS). Gaseous emissions were continuously monitored during the period of December 2007 to December 2009, covering the full production cycle. The 24-month test results revealed that mean NH3 emission rates were 0.58 +/- 0.05, 0.82 +/- 0.04, and 0.96 +/- 0.05 g/hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. Namely, compared to the Control diet, the EcoCal and DDGS diets reduced NH3 emission by an average of 39.2% and 14.3%, respectively. The concurrent H2S emission rates were 5.39 +/- 0.46, 1.91 +/- 0.13, and 1.79 +/- 0.16 mg/ hen/day for the EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diet, respectively. CO2 emission rates were similar for the three diets, 87.3 +/- 1.37, 87.4 +/- 1.26, and 89.6 +/- 1.6 g/hen/day for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control, respectively (P = 0.45). The DDGS and EcoCal houses tended to emit less CH4 than the Control house (0.16 and 0.12 vs. 0.20 g/hen/day) during the monitored summer season. The efficacy of NH3 emission reduction by the EcoCal diet decreased with increasing outside temperature, varying from 72.2% in February 2009 to -7.10% in September 2008. Manure of the EcoCal diet contained 68% higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and 4.7 times higher sulfur content than that of the Control diet. Manure pH values were 8.0, 8.9, and 9.3 for EcoCal, DDGS, and Control diets, respectively. This extensive field study verifies that dietary manipulation

  16. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions and a Nitrogen Mass Balance for a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Mount, G. H.; Filipy, J. M.; Lamb, B.; Yonge, D.; Wetherelt, S.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have many impacts on the environment and human health. Environmental NH3 impacts include terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification, and aerosol formation. Aerosols affect global radiative transfer and have been linked to human health effects. The global emissions of NH3 are estimated to be 45 Tg N yr-1 (Dentener and Crutzen, 1994) with most of the emissions coming from domestic animals. The largest per animal emission come from dairy cows at 33 kg N animal{-1} year{-1} versus 10 kg N animal{-1} {-1} for cattle. On a global scale the emissions uncertainty is about 25%, but local emissions are highly uncertain (Bouwman et al., 1997). Local emissions determination is required for proper treatment in air pollution models. The main sources of emission from dairies are the cow stalls where urea and manure react to form NH3, the storage lagoons where NH3 is the end product of microbial degradation and the disposal of the waste. There have been numerous studies of NH3 emissions in Europe but farming practices are quite different in Europe than in the U.S.. The impact of these differences on emissions is unknown. We have been studying the NH3 emissions from the Washington State University dairy for three years to develop a detailed emission model for use in a regional air pollution model. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. A SF6 tracer technique has been used to measure fluxes from the three main emission sources: the cow stalls, anaerobic lagoon and the waste application to grass fields using a sprinkler system. Estimated yearly emissions from each source will be compared to a nitrogen mass balance model for the dairy.

  17. The effect of biofuel production on swine farm methane and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lowry A; Flesch, Thomas K; Weaver, Kim H; Wilson, John D

    2010-01-01

    Methane (CH) and ammonia (NH3) are emitted to the atmosphere during anaerobic processing of organic matter, and both gases have detrimental environmental effects. Methane conversion to biofuel production has been suggested to reduce CH4 emissions from animal manure processing systems. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the change in CH4 and NH3 emissions in an animal feeding operation due to biofuel production from the animal manure. Gas emissions were measured from swine farms differing only in their manure-management treatment systems (conventional vs. biofuel). By removing organic matter (i.e., carbon) from the biofuel farms' manure-processing lagoons, average annual CH4 emissions were decreased by 47% compared with the conventional farm. This represents a net 44% decrease in global warming potential (CO2 equivalent) by gases emitted from the biofuel farms compared with conventional farms. However, because of the reduction of methanogenesis and its reduced effect on the chemical conversion of ammonium (NH4+) to dinitrogen (N2) gas, NH3 emissions in the biofuel farms increased by 46% over the conventional farms. These studies show that what is considered an environmentally friendly technology had mixed results and that all components of a system should be studied when making changes to existing systems.

  18. Hidden cost of U.S. agricultural exports: particulate matter from ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel J

    2014-01-21

    We use a model of agricultural sources of ammonia (NH3) coupled to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). We find that food export accounts for 11% of total U.S. NH3 emissions (13% of agricultural emissions) and that it increases the population-weighted exposure of the U.S. population to PM2.5 by 0.36 μg m(-3) on average. Our estimate is sensitive to the proper representation of the impact of NH3 on ammonium nitrate, which reflects the interplay between agricultural (NH3) and combustion emissions (NO, SO2). Eliminating NH3 emissions from food export would achieve greater health benefits than the reduction of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 from 15 to 12 μg m(-3). Valuation of the increased premature mortality associated with PM2.5 from food export (36 billion US$ (2006) per year) amounts to 50% of the gross food export value. Livestock operations in densely populated areas have particularly large health costs. Decreasing SO2 and NOx emissions will indirectly reduce health impact of food export as an ancillary benefit.

  19. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  20. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  1. Modeling ammonia emissions from dairy production systems in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jia; Li, Changsheng; Wang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Dairy production systems are hot spots of ammonia (NH3) emission. However, there remains large uncertainty in quantifying and mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy farms due to the lack of both long-term field measurements and reliable methods for extrapolating these measurements. In this study, a process-based biogeochemical model, Manure-DNDC, was tested against measurements of NH3 fluxes from five barns and one lagoon in four dairy farms over a range of environmental conditions and management practices in the United States. Results from the validation tests indicate that the magnitudes and seasonal patterns of NH3 fluxes simulated by Manure-DNDC were in agreement with the observations across the sites. The model was then applied to assess impacts of alternative management practices on NH3 emissions at the farm scale. The alternatives included reduction of crude protein content in feed, replacement of scraping with flushing for removal of manure from barn, lagoon coverage, increase in frequency for removal of slurry from lagoon, and replacement of surface spreading with incorporation for manure land application. The simulations demonstrate that: (a) all the tested alternative management practices decreased the NH3 emissions although the efficiency of mitigation varied; (b) a change of management in an upstream facility affected the NH3 emissions from all downstream facilities; and (c) an optimized strategy by combining the alternative practices on feed, manure removal, manure storage, and land application could reduce the farm-scale NH3 emission by up to 50%. The results from this study may provide useful information for mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy production systems and emphasize the necessity of whole-farm perspectives on the assessment of potential technical options for NH3 mitigation. This study also demonstrates the potential of utilizing process-based models, such as Manure-DNDC, to quantify and mitigate NH3 emissions from dairy farms.

  2. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  3. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from housed Holstein steers fed different levels of diet crude protein.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W; Palumbo, N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of diet CP levels on nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4) emissions from 1) cattle housed in confined settings and 2) cattle manure following surface application to incubated soils. Twelve 500-kg Holstein steers were fed diets containing 10% CP (10CP) and 13% CP (13CP). The experimental design was a 2 × 2 Latin square conducted during two 20-d periods. Diets were fed for 14 d before each measurement period to allow for diet acclimation. Steers were housed in environmentally controlled rooms allowing for continuous emission measures of N2O, NH3, and CH4. At the end of the second period, manure was collected and surface applied to incubated soils to verify potential NH3 and N2O emissions. To assess emissions from incubated soils, 2 experiments were set up with 3 replicates each: Exp. 1, in which soil fertilization was based on manure mass (496 g of manure), and Exp. 2, in which soil fertilization was based on manure N content (targeted at 170 kg N/ha). Manure emissions were monitored for 7 d. Steers fed 13CP diets had increased daily NH3 emissions when compared to steers fed 10CP diets (32.36 vs. 11.82 ± 1.10 g NH3/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily N2O emissions from steers fed 13CP and 10CP diets were significantly different only during Period 1 (0.82 vs. 0.31 ± 0.24 g N2O/d; P = 0.04). Steers fed the 10CP diet had greater N2O emissions per unit of N consumed than steers fed the 13CP diet (9.73 vs. 4.26 ± 1.71 mg N2O/g N intake; P = 0.01). Diet CP levels did not affect enteric CH4 production from steers. In terms of soil emissions, different CP levels did not affect NH3, N2O, or CH4 emissions when soil fertilization was based on manure mass. However, NH3 emissions were reduced when manure from steers fed the 10CP diet was applied to soil based on N content. Ammonia emissions decreased during the 7-d incubation period. Conversely, N2O emissions increased over the period. Our results

  4. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  5. Floor slat openings impact ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions associated with group-housed gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Philippe, F X; Laitat, M; Wavreille, J; Nicks, B; Cabaraux, J F

    2016-12-01

    According to EU legislation, group-housed gestating sows must have a minimum of 2.25 m2 floor area per sow with at least 1.3 m2 of continuous solid floor of which a maximum of 15% is reserved for drainage openings. The aim of the experiment was to quantify the impact of different drainage openings on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were used. Each batch was divided into two groups kept separately in two identical rooms with similar volume and surface. The solid part of the floor presented 15% drainage openings in the first room and 2.5% in the second room. The gas emissions (ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O)) were measured three times during 6 consecutive days. Gaseous emissions were significantly lower with 15% drainage openings with reductions of 19% for NH3 (12.77 v. 15.83 g/day per sow), 15% for CH4 (10.15 v. 11.91 g/day per sow), 10% for N2O (0.47 v. 0.52 g/day per sow), 9% for CO2 (2.41 v. 2.66 kg/day per sow) and 13% for H2O (3.25 v. 3.75 kg/day per sow). This trial showed the advantage, in an environmental point of view, to use 15% drainage openings on the solid part of partly slatted floors in pens for group-housed gestating sows.

  6. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide and particulate matter from cage-free layer houses in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingjun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; El-Mashad, Hamed; Xin, Hongwei

    2017-03-01

    Cage-free housing systems have attracted considerable attention in the United States recently as they provide more space and other resources (such as litter area, perches, and nest boxes) for hens and are considered to be more favorable from the standpoint of hen welfare. This study was carried out to quantify emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from cage-free layer houses in California and compare the values with those for other types of layer houses. Two commercial cage-free houses with 38,000 hens each were monitored from March 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. Results show that NH3 and CO2 concentrations in the houses were affected by ventilation rate, which was largely influenced by ambient air temperature. The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the houses depended on the activity of birds, ventilation rate and relative humidity of the ambient air. The average emission rates of NH3, CO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.29, 89.9, 0.163 and 0.020 g d-1 hen-1, respectively. The NH3 emission rate determined in this study was higher than those of aviary houses. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates were higher than those reported for high-rise layer houses.

  7. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  8. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  9. Imaging of the pancreas using dynamic positron emission tomography with N-13 ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, N.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Adachi, H.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Torizuka, K.

    1985-05-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new imaging technique of the pancreas. Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 3 normal volunteers, 9 patient without the evidence of pancreatic diseases, 2 patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head and one patient with islet cell carcinoma. Immediately after the intravenous injection of 10-20mCi of N-13 ammonia, data were obtained every 150 seconds for 30 minutes using a multi-slice whole-body PET scanner. In two cases of adenocarcinoma, the pancreas was not imaged, probably because the nontumorous portion of the pancreas was also suffered from severe pancreatitis due to the duct obstruction at the pancreatic head. In the case with islet cell carcinoma, the radionuclide was accumulated in the tumor and pancreas similarly. Thus, both of them were visualized but not separated. The central necrosis of the tumor showed poor radioactivity. The mechanism of the radionuclide accumulation in the pancreas is not well understood. However, the authors also studied the biodistribution of N-13 ammonia in mice and confirmed that there is an early and high accumulation of the radionuclide in the murine pancreas. These preliminary results of this paper suggest that the dynamic PET study may be useful for the imaging of the pancreas as well as for the further study of the blood supply and metabolism of the pancreas.

  10. Ammonia emissions from different fertilizing strategies in Mediterranean rainfed winter cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Serra, Àngela D.; Yagüe, María R.; Teira-Esmatges, María R.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions mainly result from agricultural activities where manure spreading plays a significant role. For a Mediterranean rainfed winter cereal system there is a lack of data regarding NH3 emissions. The aim of this work is to provide field data on N losses due to NH3 volatilization as a consequence of the introduction of slurries in fertilization strategies and also, to assess the influence of environmental conditions and slurry characteristics on emissions. The fertilizing strategies include the use of slurry from fattening pigs (PS), sows (PSS) and/or mineral fertilizer (M) as ammonium nitrate. Fertilizers were spread over the calcareous soil at sowing and/or at tillering at rates from 15 to 45 kg NH4+-N ha-1 for M and from 48.8 to 250.3 kg NH4+-N ha-1 for slurries. The NH3 emissions were quantified during three cropping seasons. Average losses from the total ammonium nitrogen applied ranged from 7 to 78% for M and from 6 to 64% for slurries and they were not directly proportional to the amounts of applied ammonium. The best results on NH3 volatilization reduction were registered when soil water content (SWC, 0-30 cm) was below 56% of its field capacity and also, when slurry dry matter (DM) was in the interval of 6.1-9.3% for PS or much lower (0.8%) for PSS. High slurry DM favoured crust formation and the lower rates promoted infiltration, both of which reduced NH3 emissions. Nevertheless, at tillering, the lower DM content was the most effective in controlling emissions (<9 kg NH3-N ha-1) and equalled M fertilizer in cumulative NH3 loss (p > 0.05). A single slurry application at tillering did not negatively affect yield biomass. The combining of recommended timing of applications with slurry DM content and SWC should allow producers to minimize volatilization while maintaining financial benefits.

  11. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application rate and a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on ammonia oxidizers and N2O emissions in a grazed pasture soil.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; He, Ji-Zheng

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia oxidizers, including ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are important drivers of a key step of the nitrogen cycle - nitrification, which affects the production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen application rates and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on the abundance of AOB and AOA and on N2O emissions in a grazed pasture soil. Nitrogen (N) was applied at four different rates, with urea applied at 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1) and animal urine at 300 and 600 kg N ha(-1). DCD was applied to some of the N treatments at 10 kg ha(-1). The results showed that the AOB amoA gene copy numbers were greater than those of AOA. The highest ratio of the AOB to AOA amoA gene copy numbers was 106.6 which occurred in the urine-N 600 treatment. The AOB amoA gene copy numbers increased with increasing nitrogen application rates. DCD had a significant impact in reducing the AOB amoA gene copy numbers especially in the high nitrogen application rates. N2O emissions increased with the N application rates. DCD had the most significant effect in reducing the daily and total N2O emissions in the highest nitrogen application rate. The greatest reduction of total N2O emissions by DCD was 69% in the urine-N 600 treatment. The reduction in the N2O emission factor by DCD ranged from 58% to 83%. The N2O flux and NO3(-)-N concentrations were significantly correlated to the growth of AOB, rather than AOA. This study confirms the importance of AOB in nitrification and the effect of DCD in inhibiting AOB growth and in decreasing N2O emissions in grazed pasture soils under field conditions.

  13. Constraining U.S. ammonia emissions using TES remote sensing observations and the GEOS-Chem adjoint model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia (NH(3)has significant impacts on biodiversity, eutrophication, and acidification. Widespread uncertainty in the magnitude and seasonality of NH3 emissions hinders efforts to address these issues. In this work, we constrain U.S. NH3 sources using obse...

  14. Process-based modeling of ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from open lot beef and dairy facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air emissions, such as ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), vary considerably among beef and dairy open lot operations as influenced by the climate and manure pack conditions. Because of the challenges with direct measurement, process-based modeling is a recommended approach for estimating air emi...

  15. Characterizing the isotopic composition of atmospheric ammonia emission sources using passive samplers and a combined oxidation-bacterial denitrifier approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions are a substantial source of nitrogen pollution to sensitive terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Dependable quantification of NH3 sources is of growing importance due to recently observed increases in ammonium (NH4+) deposition rates that are directly proportional to ...

  16. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. However, little information exists on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net...

  17. Effect of alum additions to poultry litter on in-house ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 •14H2O) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) concentrations in poultry houses and NH3 fluxes from litter; however, continuous, accurate measurements of in-house NH3 concentrations and emissions from alum-treated and untreated commercial poultry houses i...

  18. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (P<0.05) ADG, final BW, and HCW. Cattle on BAA had greater HCW and LM area (P<0.05) and had lower (P<0.05) CH4, methanol, and NH3 emissions per kilogram HCW than cattle on the remaining treatments

  19. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kang

    As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3

  20. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  1. Effects of dietary fiber and reduced crude protein on ammonia emission from laying-hen manure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S A; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Russell, J R; Bregendahl, K

    2007-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emission is a major concern for the poultry industry. The objective of this research was to determine whether inclusion of dietary fiber and a reduced dietary CP content would decrease NH(3) emission from laying-hen manure. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 levels of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. The fiber treatments included a corn and soybean meal-based control diet and diets formulated with either 10.0% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 7.3% wheat middlings (WM), or 4.8% soybean hulls (SH) to contribute equal amounts of additional neutral detergent fiber. The CP contents of the reduced-CP diets were approximately 1 percentage unit lower than those of the normal-CP diets. All diets were formulated on the basis of digestible amino acid content and were formulated to be isoenergetic. Fresh manure was collected such that pH, uric acid, and Kjeldahl N contents could be measured. The NH(3) emission from manure was measured over 7 d by placing pooled 24-h manure samples in NH(3) emission vessels. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple-comparisons procedure to compare results from the fiber treatments with the control, whereas the main effect of protein was used to compare the normal- and reduced-CP treatments. Dietary corn DDGS, WM, or SH lowered (P emission from 3.9 g/kg of DM manure for the control to 1.9, 2.1, and 2.3 g/kg of DM manure, respectively, and lowered (P < 0.05) the daily NH(3) emission rate. Results of this study showed that dietary inclusion of 10.0% corn DDGS, 7.3% WM, or 4.8% SH lowered NH(3) emission from laying-hen manure; however, reducing the CP content by 1 percentage unit had no measurable effect on NH(3) emission.

  2. Spatial variability of ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the Central Valley, California with open-path mobile measurements during NASA DISCOVER-AQ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. J.; Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is an important fine aerosol gas-phase precursor, with implications for regional air quality and climate change. Atmospheric methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with high uncertainties in the partitioning of various emission sources. Ammonia and methane agricultural emissions are highly variable in space and time and are highly uncertain, with a lack of widespread, in-situ measurements. We characterize the spatial variability of dairy livestock emissions by performing high resolution (5 Hz), in-situ, on-road mobile measurements of NH3, CH4, CO2, N2O, CO and H2O simultaneously with open-path sensors mounted on a passenger vehicle. This suite of multiple trace gas measurements allows for emission ratio calculations and separation of agricultural, petrochemical and combustion emission signatures. Mobile measurements were performed in the Tulare County dairy farm region (~120 dairy farms sampled downwind) in the Central Valley, California during NASA DISCOVER-AQ in winter 2013. We calculate the ΔNH3/ΔCH4 and ΔNH3/ΔCO2 emission ratios for each dairy farm sampled downwind. Emission plumes from individual farms are isolated based on known dairy farm locations and high resolution (1 km) surface wind field simulations. Background concentrations are subtracted to calculate the emission ratios. We find high spatial variability of ammonia and methane concentrations, with localized maximums of >1 ppmv NH3 downwind of individual dairy farms. The spatial extent of individual farm emission plumes are evaluated for NH3, CH4 and CO2, which all show well-defined enhancements localized to the dairy farms near the roadside (typical sampling proximity of ≤ 50 m). The NH3 concentrations are correlated with the distance from each dairy farm. The observed median concentration within 100 m downwind of the dairy farms is 63 ppbv NH3, with the 95th percentile at 417 ppbv NH3 and decreases to background conditions at ~500 m distance downwind. The

  3. Broadcast urea reduces N2O emissions but increases NO emissions compared with conventional and shallow-applied anhydrous ammonia in a coarse-textured soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes from corn (Zea Mays L.) production fields under contrasting fertilizer regimes is essential for identifying ways of mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite the importance of anhydrous ammonia (AA) and urea as N fert...

  4. High-resolution measurement of ammonia emissions from fertilization of vegetable and rice crops in the Pearl River Delta Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Weiwei; Zhang, Yisheng; Huang, Xiaofeng; Luan, Shengji

    2013-02-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) as a result of intensive N fertilization, especially due to agronomic practices in South China, is not well characterized. To investigate mechanisms and characteristics of NH3 volatilization after urea application, an on-line monitoring system, with 30-min data resolution, was used to study vegetable and rice fields from January 2009 to September 2010. Ammonia emissions and concurrent meteorological conditions were monitored for up to 20 days after fertilization in 12 experiments. Standard recovery test results indicated that the on-line measurement system was both stable and accurate. The NH3 emission factors (EFs) related to broadcast (soil surface) basal dressing and top dressing to Brassica rapa L. were 23.6% and 21.3%, respectively. The NH3 EFs from holing basal dressing and broadcasting top dressing for lettuce were 17.6% and 24.0%, respectively. The NH3 EFs for early rice in parallel broadcast basal dressing process were 10.7% and 14.2%, while in parallel top dressing process were 24.0% and 22.6%, respectively. The NH3 EFs for late rice were 15.4% and 21.0% in parallel broadcasting basal dressing process, while 13.2% and 17.6% in parallel top dressing process. Emission of NH3 from vegetable and rice fields occurred mainly in the first 2-3 weeks after fertilization. Ammonia emission flux was positively correlated with air temperature and soil temperature in the majority of the experiments. Relationships between NH3 emissions and humidity, soil moisture or wind speed were explored, which were not consistent among all tests. Ammonia emission in vegetable and rice fields was primarily associated with temperature. High-resolution data, such as those gathered in the current investigation, will contribute to a more thorough quantitative understanding of the relationship between fertilizer application, environmental conditions, and NH3 volatilization which, in turn, will improve the accuracy of atmospheric modeling on local, regional and global

  5. Biochar lowers ammonia emission and improves nitrogen retention in poultry litter composting.

    PubMed

    Agyarko-Mintah, Eunice; Cowie, Annette; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Smillie, Robert; Harden, Steven; Fornasier, Flavio

    2017-03-01

    The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins. Ammonia emissions accounted for 17% of the total N (TN) lost from the control and 12-14% from the biochar-amended compost. The TN emitted as NH3, as a percentage of initial TN, was significantly lower (P<0.05) i.e. by 60% and 55% in the compost amended with GWB and PLB, respectively, relative to the control. The proportion of N retained in the finished compost, as a percentage of initial TN, was 84%, 78% and 67% for the GWB, PLB and nil biochar control, respectively. Lower concentration of dissolved organic C (DOC) together with higher activity of beta-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were found in the GWB-amended compost (cf. control). It is hypothesized that lower NH3 emission in the GWB-amended compost was caused not just by the higher surface area of this biochar but could also be related to greater incorporation of ammonium (NH4(+)) in organic compounds during microbial utilisation of DOC. Furthermore, the GWB-amended compost retained more NH4(+) at the end of composting than the PLB-amended compost. Results showed that addition of biochar, especially GWB, generated multiple benefits in composting of poultry litter: decrease of NH3 volatilisation, decrease in NH3 toxicity towards microorganisms, and improved N retention, thus enhancing the fertiliser value of the composted litter. It is suggested that the latter benefit is

  6. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.

    1994-12-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1{degrees} (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at {approximately}10%/year, accounted for {approximately}37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 40% of the world`s total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, {approximately}75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N{sub 2}O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N{sub 2}O-N in 1984. This equals <1% to {approximately}3% of the total nitrogen applied via commercial fertilizers and represents ,=<1% to 15% of the annual emission of N{sub 2}O from terrestrial sources. Assuming that the {approximately}4% annual increase in consumption of nitrogenous fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a {approximately}4% rise in the release of N{sub 2}O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are <0.01 to 0.08 Tg N{sub 2}O-N equal to <1% to 3% of the current growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide. 98 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Impacts of Edaphic Factors on Communities of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrification in Tropical Soils

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Hickey, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is a key process in soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, but relatively little is known about it in tropical soils. In this study, we examined soils from Trinidad to determine the edaphic drivers affecting nitrification levels and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in non-managed soils. The soils were naturally vegetated, ranged in texture from sands to clays and spanned pH 4 to 8. The AOA were detected by qPCR in all soils (ca. 105 to 106 copies archaeal amoA g−1 soil), but AOB levels were low and bacterial amoA was infrequently detected. AOA abundance showed a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) with levels of soil organic carbon, clay and ammonium, but was not correlated to pH. Structures of AOA and AOB communities, as determined by amoA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis, differed significantly between soils (p<0.001). Variation in AOA TRF profiles was best explained by ammonium-N and either Kjeldahl N or total N (p<0.001) while variation in AOB TRF profiles was best explained by phosphorus, bulk density and iron (p<0.01). In clone libraries, phylotypes of archaeal amoA (predominantly Nitrososphaera) and bacterial amoA (predominanatly Nitrosospira) differed between soils, but variation was not correlated with pH. Nitrification potential was positively correlated with clay content and pH (p<0.001), but not to AOA or AOB abundance or community structure. Collectively, the study showed that AOA and AOB communities were affected by differing sets of edaphic factors, notably that soil N characteristics were significant for AOA, but not AOB, and that pH was not a major driver for either community. Thus, the effect of pH on nitrification appeared to mainly reflect impacts on AOA or AOB activity, rather than selection for AOA or AOB phylotypes differing in nitrifying capacity. PMID:24586878

  8. Comparison of Techniques to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Time-Averaged and Instantaneous Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) that volatilizes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can form aerosols that travel long distances where such aerosols can deposit in sensitive regions, potentially causing harm to local ecosystems. However, quantifying the emissions of ammonia from CAFOs through direct measurement is very difficult and costly to perform. A system was therefore developed at Colorado State University for conditionally sampling NH3 concentrations based on weather parameters measured using inexpensive equipment. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a two-week deployment period. The samplers are exposed by a robotic mechanism so they are only deployed when wind is from the direction of the CAFO at 1.4 m/s or greater. These concentration data, along with other weather variables measured during each sampler deployment period, can then be used in a simple inverse model (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France) to estimate emissions. There are not yet any direct comparisons of the modeled emissions derived from time-averaged concentration data to modeled emissions from more sophisticated backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) techniques that utilize instantaneous measurements of NH3 concentration. In the summer and autumn of 2013, a suite of robotic passive sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot at the same time as an open-path infrared (IR) diode laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) which continuously measured ammonia concentrations instantaneously over a 225-m path. This particular laser is utilized in agricultural settings, and in combination with a bLs model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Scientific, Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), has become a common method for estimating NH3 emissions from a variety of agricultural and industrial operations. This study will first

  9. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  10. Nutritional and Environmental Effects on Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Housing: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of NO. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing NH emissions from dairy housing; and (ii) identify key explanatory variables in the NH emissions prediction from dairy housing using a meta-analytical approach. Data from 25 studies were used for the preliminary analysis, and data from 10 studies reporting 87 treatment means were used for the meta-analysis. Season and flooring type significantly affected NH emissions. For nutritional effect analysis, the between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean NH emission was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect ( < 0.01). Therefore, random-effect models were extended to mixed-effect models to explain heterogeneity regarding the available dietary and animal variables. The final mixed-effect model included milk yield, dietary crude protein, and dry matter intake separately, explaining 45.5% of NH emissions heterogeneity. A unit increase in milk yield (kg d) resulted in a 4.9 g cow d reduction in NH emissions, and a unit increase in dietary crude protein content (%) and dry matter intake (kg d) resulted in 10.2 and 16.3 g cow d increases in NH emissions, respectively, in the scope of this study. These results can be further used to help identify mitigation strategies to reduce NH emissions from dairy housing by developing predictive models that could determine variables with strong association with NH emissions.

  11. Analysis of Saturn’s thermal emission at 2.2-cm wavelength: Spatial distribution of ammonia vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraia, A. L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, M. A.; Gulkis, S.; Oyafuso, F.; Allison, M.

    2013-09-01

    This work focuses on determining the latitudinal structure of ammonia vapor in Saturn’s cloud layer near 1.5 bars using the brightness temperature maps derived from the Cassini RADAR (Elachi et al. [2004], Space Sci. Rev. 115, 71-110) instrument, which works in a passive mode to measure thermal emission from Saturn at 2.2-cm wavelength. We perform an analysis of five brightness temperature maps that span epochs from 2005 to 2011, which are presented in a companion paper by Janssen et al. (Janssen, M.A., Ingersoll, A.P., Allison, M.D., Gulkis, S., Laraia, A.L., Baines, K., Edgington, S., Anderson, Y., Kelleher, K., Oyafuso, F. [2013]. Icarus, this issue). The brightness temperature maps are representative of the spatial distribution of ammonia vapor, since ammonia gas is the only effective opacity source in Saturn’s atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. Relatively high brightness temperatures indicate relatively low ammonia relative humidity (RH), and vice versa. We compare the observed brightness temperatures to brightness temperatures computed using the Juno atmospheric microwave radiative transfer (JAMRT) program which includes both the means to calculate a tropospheric atmosphere model for Saturn and the means to carry out radiative transfer calculations at microwave frequencies. The reference atmosphere to which we compare has a 3× solar deep mixing ratio of ammonia (we use 1.352 × 10-4 for the solar mixing ratio of ammonia vapor relative to H2; see Atreya [2010]. In: Galileo’s Medicean Moons - Their Impact on 400 years of Discovery. Cambridge University Press, pp. 130-140 (Chapter 16)) and is fully saturated above its cloud base. The maps are comprised of residual brightness temperatures-observed brightness temperature minus the model brightness temperature of the saturated atmosphere. The most prominent feature throughout all five maps is the high brightness temperature of Saturn’s subtropical latitudes near ±9° (planetographic). These latitudes

  12. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  13. AIRBORNE REDUCED NITROGEN: AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURE AND OTHER SOURCES. (R826371C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM2.5 mass in easte...

  14. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from two acidic soils of Nova Scotia fertilised with liquid hog manure mixed with or without dicyandiamide.

    PubMed

    Mkhabela, M S; Gordon, R; Burton, D; Madani, A; Hart, W; Elmi, A

    2006-11-01

    Gaseous nitrogen (N) loss from field-applied manure in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has negative agronomic, environmental and health implications. This study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of soil type and dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH(3) and N(2)O emissions following application of liquid hog manure. Soil samples (100g) were placed in 500 mL screw-top Mason-jars and de-ionised water was added to bring the soil samples to 50%, 70% and 90% water-filled pore space (WFPS). Slurry and slurry+DCD treatments were applied at a rate of 116000 l ha(-1). The jars were then sealed and incubated at 21 degrees C for 21 d. Ammonia volatilisation was quantified using boric acid traps while N(2)O gas concentrations were analysed using gas chromatography. Results showed that DCD had no effect (p>0.05) on either NH(3) or N(2)O emissions. However, soil type had a significant effect (p<0.05) on both gases. Overall, the Pugwash soil produced 3 and 2.5 times more NH(3) and N(2)O, respectively, than the Acadia soil. N(2)O emissions from both soils increased with an increase in %WFPS, indicating that during the spring and fall in Atlantic Canada, when soils are generally wet, a significant amount of N(2)O may be emitted from these soils. The relationship between cumulative N(2)O and %WFPS was best described by an exponential function R(2)=0.83 and p<0.05 (both soils). Therefore, soil type should be taken into consideration when formulating N(2)O emission factors. The addition of DCD together with slurry may not be a viable strategy to mitigate N(2)O emissions from acidic soils. To reduce emissions of both gases, livestock slurry should not be applied on wet soils.

  15. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%).

  16. Spatially-differentiated atmospheric source-receptor relationships for nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and ammonia emissions at the global scale for life cycle impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Huijbregts, Mark; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to advance regional worldwide source-receptor relationships, providing fate factors for acidifying and eutrophying air emissions (NOx, HNO3, SO2, SO4 and NH3) to be used within life cycle impact assessment. A simulation for the reference year 2005 of the three-dimensional global scale tropospheric GEOS-Chem model was used as the basis of a novel methodological approach to derive source-receptor matrices (SRMs) whose elements are fate factors at a global 2° × 2.5° grid. This new approach makes it possible to assess the impact of transboundary emissions while maintaining regional scale emission differentiation. These 2° × 2.5° grid resolution fate factors were later aggregated at continental and country resolutions using emission weighting. Continental fate factor results showed that 50-70% of nitrogen oxides (NOx, HNO3) and sulfur oxides (SO2, SO4) and approximately 80% of ammonia (NH3) emissions will deposit on the same continent. Results showed that the developed fate factor derivation approach was within a ±10% agreement with GEOS-Chem simulations in which fate factors were determined by withdrawing the regional emission inventory over Canada and in ±50% agreement with current state-of-the-art LCIA fate factors (calculated with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) model). The SRMs outlined in this paper facilitate further modeling developments without having to run the underlying tropospheric model, thus opening the door to the assessment of the regional life cycle inventories of a global economy.

  17. UPDATE OF EPA'S EMISSION FACTORS FOR LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes an effort to collect updated data and determine if changes are needed to AP-42, a document that provides emission factors characterizing landfill gas (LFG) emissions from sites with and without LFG controls. The work underway includes the types of measurement ...

  18. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A.; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e.g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e.g. N2O emissions if manure is incorporated). Here, we present a novel methodology to provide an integrated assessment of the best strategies to abate NH3 from N applications to crops. Using scenario analyses, we assessed the potential of 11 mitigation measures to reduce NH3 volatilization while accounting for their side effects on crop productivity, N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus (used as an indicator of potential N losses by denitrification/nitrification and NO3- leaching/run-off). Spain, including its 48 provinces, was selected as a case study as it is the third major producer of agricultural goods in Europe, and also the European country with the highest increase in NH3 emissions from 1990 to 2011. Mitigation scenarios comprised of individual measures and combinations of strategies were evaluated at a country- and regional level. Compared to the reference situation of standard practices for the year 2008, implementation of the most effective region-specific mitigation strategy led to 63% NH3 mitigation at the country level. Implementation of a single strategy for all regions reduced NH3 by 57% at the highest. Strategies that involved combining mitigation measures produced the largest NH3 abatement in all cases, with an 80% reduction in some regions. Among the strategies analyzed, only suppression of urea application combined with manure incorporation and incorporation of N synthetic fertilizers other than urea showed a fully beneficial situation: yield-scaled NH3 emissions were reduced by 82

  19. The development of seasonal emission factors from a Canadian commercial laying hen facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Robert J.; Wood, David J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2014-04-01

    Pollutants emitted from poultry housing facilities are a concern from a human health, bird welfare, and environmental perspective. Development of emission factors for these aerial pollutants is difficult due to variable climatic conditions, the number and type of poultry, and the wide range of management practices used. To address these concerns, a study was conducted to develop emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter over a period of one year from a commercial poultry laying hen facility in Wellington County, Ontario, Canada. Instruments housed inside an on-site mobile trailer were used to monitor in-house concentrations of ammonia and size fractionated particulate matter via a heated sample line. Along with a ventilation profile, emission factors were developed for the facility. Average emissions of 19.53 ± 19.97, 2.55 ± 2.10, and 1.10 ± 1.52 g day-1 AU-1 (where AU is defined as an animal unit equivalent to 500 kg live mass) for ammonia, PM10, PM2.5, respectively, were observed. All emissions peaked during the winter months, with the exception of PM2.5 which increased in the summer.

  20. Nutrient Recovery and Emissions of Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide, and Methane from Animal Manure in Europe: Effects of Manure Treatment Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Staritsky, Igor G; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-03

    Animal manure contributes considerably to ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Various treatment technologies have been implemented to reduce emissions and to facilitate its use as fertilizer, but a systematic analysis of these technologies has not yet been carried out. This study presents an integrated assessment of manure treatment effects on NH3, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from manure management chains in all countries of EU-27 in 2010 using the MITERRA-Europe model. Effects of implementing 12 treatment technologies on emissions and nutrient recovery were further explored through scenario analyses; the level of implementation corresponded to levels currently achieved by forerunner countries. Manure treatment decreased GHG emissions from manures in EU countries by 0-17% in 2010, with the largest contribution from anaerobic digestion; the effects on NH3 emissions were small. Scenario analyses indicate that increased use of slurry acidification, thermal drying, incineration and pyrolysis may decrease NH3 (9-11%) and GHG (11-18%) emissions; nitrification-denitrification treatment decreased NH3 emissions, but increased GHG emissions. The nitrogen recovery (% of nitrogen excreted in housings that is applied to land) would increase from a mean of 57% (in 2010) to 61% by acidification, but would decrease to 48% by incineration. Promoting optimized manure treatment technologies can greatly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets set in EU environmental policies.

  1. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  3. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research

  4. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  5. Variability of atmospheric ammonia related to potential emission sources in downtown Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingjing; Zhang, Leiming; Evans, Greg J.; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in downtown Toronto was investigated through the analysis of 24 hr integrated denuder NH3 samples collected at a site above a street canyon every third day from July 2003 to September 2011 (Dataset 1). The measured NH3 mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit to 14.7 ppb during the eight-year period. Distinctive seasonal variations were observed with summer averages (±standard deviation) of 3.9 ± 1.6 ppb and winter averages of 1.1 ± 0.6 ppb. Two other datasets, weekly/biweekly passive samples of NH3 monitored at 74 agricultural and remote sites across southern Ontario during the period of June 2006 to March 2007 (Dataset 2) and semi-continuous measurements of NH3 and ammonium (pNH4+) in PM2.5 collected at a site inside a street canyon approximately 170 m away from the downtown site in December 2008 and February, March and May 2009 (Dataset 3), were further used to evaluate the potential NH3 sources in downtown Toronto. The NH3 mixing ratios at the downtown location were higher than those at the surrounding agricultural sites, and the mixing ratios within the street canyon were almost double those measured above it. These results suggested that the observed NH3 at the downtown location was mainly from local sources within the street canyon. Analysis of Dataset 3 showed that the diurnal cycles of NH3 at the downtown location cannot be simply explained by traffic and water consumption patterns. A green space inside the street canyon was identified as a potential important source contributing to the observed NH3 when T > 0 °C. However, the major NH3 emission sources at T ≤ 0 °C are yet to be investigated.

  6. Estimating Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from an Anaerobic Livestock Lagoon Using Micrometeorological Methods and Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the impact of increased carbon and nitrogen emissions on local air quality and regional bionetworks due to animal agricultural activity is of great interest to the public, political, economic and ecological welfare of areas within the scope of these practices. Globally, livestock operations account for 64% of annual anthropogenic emissions of ammonia (NH3) [1]. Concerning methane (CH4), anaerobic lagoons from commercial dairy operations contribute the second largest share of CH4 emissions from manure in the United States[1], and additionally are a local source of NH3 as well. Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used in commercial animal agriculture and as significant local sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), there is a strong need to quantify GHG emissions from these systems. In 2012 at a commercial dairy operation in Northern Colorado, USA, measurements of CH4 were made using eddy covariance (EC), while NH3 was estimated using a combination of real-time monitoring (cavity ring-down spectroscopy as well as time-integrated passive samplers). Methane emissions have been measured at this lagoon using EC since 2011, with fluxes ranging from 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 in early summer to >2 mg m-2 s-1 in late summer and early fall. Concentration data of both CH4 and NH3 were used to estimate emissions using a 2-dimensional inverse model based on solving the advection-diffusion equation[2]. In the case of the CH4-EC data, results from the inverse model were compared with the EC-derived flux estimates for enhanced parameterization of surface geometry within the lagoon environment. The model was then applied using measured NH3 concentrations to achieve emissions estimates. While NH3 fluxes from the lagoon tend to be much lower than those of CH4 by comparison, modeling emissions of NH3 from the simple geometry of a lagoon will assist in applying the model to more complex surfaces. [1] FAO, 2006. Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Livestock, Environment, and

  7. Linkage of food consumption and export to ammonia emissions in Canada and the overriding implications for mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, S. C.; Bittman, S.

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture to the atmosphere, along with emissions of other pollutants from a variety of sources, are of concern to agriculture worldwide. National emissions from agricultural sources in Canada are linked to domestic consumption and export demand for agricultural products. The onus to limit emissions is often directed to the producers, but the marketplace and consumer are also responsible for the environmental impact of their choices. This objective of this study was to quantitatively link agricultural NH3 emissions to per person consumption of food and protein and to agricultural exports from Canada. There are substantial differences in the NH3 emissions per unit consumed protein among the various food types. As a result, shifts in the Canadian diet have had a large impact on relative per person NH3 emissions. From 1981 to 2006, the total per person protein intake in the Canadian diet increased about 5%, but NH3 emission related to that diet decreased 20%. This is largely related to consumption of less beef, which has a high emission per unit of meat or protein, and more poultry and cereals which have much lower emissions. Although these changes in diet were not because of environmental concerns by the consumers, they had substantial effects on national-level emissions. These consumer driven effects may well exceed the possible effects of best management practices intended to address NH3 emissions at the producer level. Note that the Canadian population has increased 50% from 1981 to 2006 and meat and egg exports increased 570%, so that total emissions from food production in Canada have increased. Our results imply there will be further effects on national NH3 emissions because of dietary and export drivers that are generally outside the scope of agro-environmental policy.

  8. Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: II. Greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Wulf, S; Maeting, M; Clemens, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different application techniques on greenhouse gas emission from co-fermented slurry. Ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions were measured in two field experiments with four different application techniques on arable and grassland sites. To gather information about fermentation effects, unfermented slurry was also tested, but with trail hose application only. Co-fermented slurry was applied in April at a rate of 30 m3 ha(-1). Measurements were made every 4 h on the first day after application and were continued for 6 wk with gradually decreasing sampling frequency. Methane emissions were <150 g C ha(-1) from co-fermentation products and seemed to result from dissolved CH4. Only in the grassland experiment were emissions from unfermented slurry significantly higher, with wetter weather conditions probably promoting CH4 production. Nitrous oxide emission was significantly increased by injection on arable and grassland sites two- and threefold, respectively. Ammonia emissions were smallest after injection or trail shoe application and are discussed in the preceding paper. We evaluated the climatic relevance of the measured gas emissions from the different application techniques based on the comparison of CO2 equivalents. It was evident that NH3 emission reduction, which can be achieved by injection, is at least compensated by increased N2O emissions. Our results indicate that on arable land, trail hose application with immediate shallow incorporation, and on grassland, trail shoe application, bear the smallest risks of high greenhouse gas emissions when fertilizing with co-fermented slurry.

  9. Composition of extracellular polymeric substances in a partial nitrification reactor treating high ammonia wastewater and nitrous oxide emission.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Du, Bin; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Li, Yiran

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during the achievement of partial nitrification and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) emission treating high ammonia wastewater. After operation of 120days, the reactor achieved high ammonia removal efficiency and stable nitrite accumulation. The average size of sludge flocs in the reactor increased from 102.6 to 258.5μm. The main compositions of EPS, including protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), increased to 65.46±3.27 and 21.63±1.08mg/g VSS, respectively. Results of three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy implied that EPS transferred to tryptophan PN-like and humic acid-like substrates. N2O emission accounts for 11.67% of removed nitrogen during the steady state of partial nitrification reactor. The obtained results could contribute a better understanding the achievement of partial nitrification through the composition changes of EPS, and provide more information to determine nitrogen removal by considering N2O emission.

  10. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Seojin Kim, Stella

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  11. Managing ammonia emissions from dairy cows by amending slurry with alum or zeolite or by diet modification.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, J J; Lefcourt, A M; Van Kessel, J A; Wilkerson, V

    2001-10-27

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. Ammonia (NH3) volatilization represents a loss of plant available N to the farmer and a potential contributor to eutrophication in low-nitrogen input ecosystems. This research evaluated on-farm slurry treatments of alum or zeolite and compared three diets for lactating dairy cows in their effectiveness to reduce NH3 emissions. NH3 emissions were compared using a group of mobile wind tunnels. The addition of 2.5% alum or 6.25% zeolite to barn-stored dairy slurry reduced NH3 volatilization by 60% and 55%, respectively, compared to untreated slurry. The alum conserved NH3 by acidifying the slurry to below pH 5, while the zeolite conserved ammonia by lowering the solution-phase nitrogen through cation exchange. The use of alum or zeolite also reduced soluble phosphorus in the slurry. NH3 loss from fresh manure collected from lactating dairy cows was not affected by three diets containing the same level of crude protein but differing in forage source (orchardgrass silage vs. alfalfa silage) or neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content (30% vs. 35% NDF). NH3 losses from the freshly excreted manures occurred very rapidly and included the urea component plus some unidentified labile organic nitrogen sources. NH3 conservation strategies for fresh manures will have to be active within the first few hours after excretion in order to be most effective. The use of alum or zeolites as an on-farm amendment to dairy slurry offers the potential for significantly reducing NH3 emissions.

  12. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhou; Wang, Jim J; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Zengqiang; Dodla, Syam K; Myers, Gerald

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea+NBPT, and urea+DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N2O-N than NH3-N and the most N2O-N and NH3-N emissions were during the first 30-50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH3-N volatilization (by 58-63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N2O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N2O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea+DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH3-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N2O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO2-C and CH4-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N2O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the Mississippi delta region.

  13. Optical absorption and emission spectroscopy studies of ammonia-containing plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. J.; Donnelly, V. M.

    2007-05-01

    The chemistry of NH3/Ar/He plasmas was investigated, using a combination of ultraviolet (UV) optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Absolute NH3 number densities in 1 Torr plasmas were measured by OAS as a function of inductively coupled plasma power and substrate heater temperature (Th). OES and actinometry were used to determine semi-quantitative H-atom density. A 'self-actinometry' method was introduced to measure the absolute number density of N2 that formed following the dissociation of NH3 and secondary reactions. In this approach, small amounts of N2 are added to the NH3-containing plasma, leading to an increase in the N2(C 3 Πu → B 3 Πg) emission intensity. This provides an accurate calibration factor for converting relative N2 emission intensities into absolute number densities. The number densities of NH3 were found to decrease with increasing power and Th, reaching >90% dissociation at 400 W and 900 K. N2 densities increased with power and Th. The majority of dissociated NH3 was converted to N2 (i.e. the total nitrogen content was conserved in the sum of these two species). The major hydrogen-containing species appeared to be H2; however, a substantial amount of H-atoms (comparable to H2) was present at the highest powers.

  14. Interactive effects of multiple climate change factors on ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuijing; Shen, Jupei; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Juntao; Zhang, Limei; Yang, Zhongling; Han, Hongyan; Wan, Shiqiang; He, Jizheng

    2017-03-15

    Global climate change could have profound effects on belowground microbial communities and subsequently affect soil biogeochemical processes. The interactive effects of multiple co-occurring climate change factors on microbially-mediated processes are not well understood. A four-factorial field experiment with elevated CO2, watering, nitrogen (N) addition and night warming was conducted in a temperate steppe of northern China. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, combined with clone library techniques were applied to examine the effects of those climate change factors on N-related microbial abundance and community composition. Only the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria significantly increased by nitrogen addition and decreased by watering. The interactions of watering × warming on the bacterial amoA community and warming × nitrogen addition on the nosZ community were found. Redundancy analysis indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community was affected by total N and total carbon, while the community of bacterial amoA and nosZ were significantly affected by soil pH. According to a structural equation modeling analysis, climate change influenced net primary production indirectly by altering microbial abundance and activities. These results indicated that microbial responses to the combination of chronic global change tend to be smaller than expected from single-factor global change manipulations.

  15. Impact of dicyandiamide on emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and ammonia from agricultural field in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Di; Mu, Yujing

    2016-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from an agricultural field in the North China Plain were compared for three treatments during a whole maize growing period from 26 June to 11 October, 2012. Compared with the control treatment (without fertilization, designated as CK), remarkable pulse emissions of N2O, NO and NH3 were observed from the normal fertilization treatment (designated as NP) just after fertilization, whereas only N2O and NH3 pulse emissions were evident from the nitrification inhibitor treatment (designated as ND). The reduction proportions of N2O and NO emissions from the ND treatment compared to those from the NP treatment during the whole maize growing period were 31% and 100%, respectively. A measurable increase of NH3 emission from the ND treatment was found with a cumulative NH3 emission of 3.8 ± 1.2 kg N/ha, which was 1.4 times greater than that from the NP treatment (2.7 ± 0.7 kg N/ha).

  16. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  17. Ammonia emissions from open lot dairies: lessons learned from beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Open lot dairies share more similarities with open lot beef cattle feedyards than with closed dairy housing. The well-developed understanding of ammonia loss from feedyards can inform our study of open lot dairies by recognizing differences and similarities and then apply what we have learned. Metho...

  18. Ammonia emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human activity has more than doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen that cycles through terrestrial ecosystems, with many negative impacts on ecosystem function and health, and air quality. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) are major sources of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere. There...

  19. Impacts of flavanoid monomers and simple hydrolyzable tannins on ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of ammonia production in manure provides for a healthier environment for dairy farmers working in confined quarters. The resulting conservation of urea provides for an enhanced nitrogen concentration, and thus, fertilizing capacity, of the manure. The use of a mixture of tannins from queb...

  20. Nutrition - An effective tool for mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy and feedlot operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emitted from animal feeding operations is a potential environmental and human health hazard, contributing to eutrophication of surface waters and nitrate contamination of ground waters, soil acidity, and fine particulate matter formation. It may also contribute to global warming through nitr...

  1. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  2. Eutrophication, Ammonia Intoxication, and Infectious Diseases: Interdisciplinary Factors of Mass Mortalities in Cultured Nile Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Elala, Nermeen M; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Marouf, Sherif; Abdelaziz, Mohamed; Moustafa, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess the possible causes of the mass mortalities of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at El-Behera Governorate, Egypt, in relationship to environmental and microbiotic factors. Water samples were collected from fish farms at different locations and from Lake Edku to analyze water temperature, water pH, salinity, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen, and un-ionized ammonia. A number of moribund and freshly dead fish were sampled and submitted to our laboratory for microbiological, molecular, and histopathological examination. Water analysis of the fish farms revealed noticeable increases in the previously mentioned physicochemical parameters. Clinical examinations of moribund fish showed severe gill rot and massive external and internal hemorrhages. Ordinary and molecular laboratory findings confirmed the presence of Branchiomyces sp. in gill tissue and mixed bacterial fish pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, and P. aeruginosa) in visceral organs. The histopathological and transmission electron microscopic examinations revealed severe necrosis of gill filaments and blockage of branchial blood vessels and lamellar capillaries with Branchiomyces sp. hyphae and spores mixed with different shapes of bacteria. Severe inflammations were detected in liver, kidney, heart, and brain tissues. Ultimately, we can conclude that the syndrome of mass fish kills in this area is a consequence of ecological damage to the aquatic environment, which is mainly related to natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as to the presence of infectious agents. Received September 30, 2015; accepted April 12, 2016.

  3. The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yunhua; Zou, Zhong; Deng, Congrui; Huang, Kan; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Jing; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural activities are a major source contributing to NH3 emissions in Shanghai and most other regions of China; however, there is a long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the contributions of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere. From April 2014 to April 2015, we conducted measurements of a wide range of gases (including NH3) and the chemical properties of PM2.5 at hourly resolution at a Shanghai urban supersite. This large data set shows NH3 pollution events, lasting several hours with concentrations 4 times the annual average of 5.3 µg m-3, caused by the burning of crop residues in spring. There are also generally higher NH3 concentrations (mean ± 1 σ) in summer (7.3 ± 4.9 µg m-3; n = 2181) because of intensive emissions from temperature-dependent agricultural sources. However, the NH3 concentration in summer was only an average of 2.4 µg m-3 or 41 % higher than the average NH3 concentration of other seasons. Furthermore, the NH3 concentration in winter (5.0 ± 3.7 µg m-3; n = 2113) was similar to that in spring (5.1 ± 3.8 µg m-3; n = 2198) but slightly higher, on average, than that in autumn (4.5 ± 2.3 µg m-3; n = 1949). Moreover, other meteorological parameters like planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity were not major factors affecting seasonal NH3 concentrations. These findings suggest that there may be some climate-independent NH3 sources present in the Shanghai urban area. Independent of season, the concentrations of both NH3 and CO present a marked bimodal diurnal profile, with maxima in the morning and the evening. A spatial analysis suggests that elevated concentrations of NH3 are often associated with transport from regions west-northwest and east-southeast of the city, areas with dense road systems. The spatial origin of NH3 and the diurnal concentration profile together suggest the importance of vehicle-derived NH3 associated with daily commuting in the urban environment. To further examine vehicular NH3

  4. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  5. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p < 0.05); all of the gas emissions in October and the CO2 concentrations and emissions in February also showed significant diurnal variations (p < 0.05). These significant diurnal variations indicated that the OGCER during different periods of a day should be monitored when quantifying OGCER concentrations and emissions; for example, source emission data used in air dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  6. Flue gas cleaning with ammonia reduces SO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Emish, G.J.; Schulte, W.; Ellison, W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the technical and commercial development and basis for application in North America for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) of the AMASOX{reg_sign} (i.e. Ammonia Absorbs Sulfur Oxides) Process of Krupp Uhde (Germany) employing ammonia reagent. This process technology has been emerging slowly and stepwise over a twenty-year period in reaching the present stage of commercial applicability. The discussion herein considers the need for accommodating to and advantageously addressing the increasing number of applications with high and ultra-high flue-gas concentrations of SO{sub 2} at the boiler outlet accompanied by significant levels of other pollutants. Key measures in accomplishing this include use of important process innovations. This, as well, calls for the effective use, when applicable, of wet electrostatic precipitator mist-elimination means to gain low/minimum-opacity stack plume trailoff in wet scrubber use together with reduction of air toxics to low concentrations. With cost-effectiveness in electric utility service, detailed herein, superior to FGD processes commonly used to date in high-sulfur service, utilization of this technology is expanding. Important, potentially trend-setting types of powerplant applications of ammonia FGD are reviewed to identify foreseen market sectors and procurement trends that will at the same time serve to substantially broaden lowest-cost coal utilization.

  7. Trends in agricultural ammonia emissions and ammonium concentrations in precipitation over the Southeast and Midwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Konarik; Aneja, Viney P.

    Emissions from agricultural activities, both crop and animal, are known to contain gaseous ammonia (NH 3) which through chemical reaction in rainwater changes into ammonium ion (NH 4+). Using wet deposition data of ammonium from several National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and ambient levels of ammonium from Clean Air Status Trends Network (CAST Net) sites as well as calculated NH 3 emissions from North Carolina, and the Southeast and Midwest regions of the United States, trends in ammonium concentrations in precipitation were analyzed for the period of 1983-2004. The beginning of 1997 coincides with the implementation of a swine population moratorium in the state of North Carolina. Results from the analysis in North Carolina indicate a lessening in the rate of increases in NH 4+ concentration in precipitation since the moratorium went into effect. Sampson County, NC, saw stable NH 4+ concentrations from 1983 to 1989, an average rise of 9.5% from 1989 to 1996, and an average increase of only 4% from 1997 to 2004. In addition, HYSPLIT back-trajectory model was used to determine that when ambient air in downwind sites arrived from the high NH 3 emissions source region, ammonium concentrations in precipitation were enhanced. For the Southeast United States domain, analysis shows that NH 4+ concentrations generally increased with increasing NH 3 emissions from within the same region. Similar analysis has been performed over the Midwest United States and compared to the results from the Southeast United States. Emissions from the Midwest are attributed to larger animals, including hogs and cattle, whereas the Southeast has a higher percentage of emissions coming from smaller livestock, such as chickens. In addition, the states of the Midwest United States have a much more uniform spatial distribution of emissions.

  8. Seasonal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER profiles from two types of swine grower-finisher rooms in Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 12-month period. The results indicate that the OGCERs were significantly affected by the sampling month and ambient temperature (P < 0.05), which indicates that monthly OGCERs should be measured and used as representative monthly or seasonal values in air dispersion models to reduce uncertainties in setback calculations. It was also found that the seasonal OGCERs from the rooms with fully slatted floors were 6.3-40.6% higher than those with partially slatted floors. The seasonal OGCERs (except for the NH3 concentrations in October, November, and January; the CO2 concentrations in August; and the CO2 emission rates in December) between these two rooms for each measuring month did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The measured gas concentrations were generally below the permissible exposure limits (PELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) throughout the year except for the NH3 concentrations in cold weather (December, January, and February).

  9. Controlled-release urea commingled with rice seeds reduced emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiaohui; Geng, Yuqing

    2013-11-01

    Reduction of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emission and enhanced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency have been investigated with different N fertilizer management and application methods for irrigated rice production. Few studies have examined NH and NO emissions from rice paddy soil when commingling controlled release urea with rice seeds. The objective of this study was to assess NH volatilization and NO emission from a novel controlled-release urea formulation (CRU-180) when commingled at the full application rate with seeds in a single application during the preparation of plant plugs at the nursery stage. The experiment was conducted as a factorial design with two fertilizer sources (conventional urea and CRU-180), four rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha), and three replicates. The entire amount of CRU-180 was incorporated into each plug with germinated seed. The conventional urea was split into four applications based on the standard practice for fertilizer application. The CRU-180 treatments reduced the NH and NO concentration in the paddy flood water and paddy soil solution as compared with the conventional urea treatments. The percentage of applied N fertilizer emitted as NH volatilization and NO emission in the CRU-180 treatments was only about 10% of that from the conventional urea treatments at the same N application rate. The application of CRU-180 with seeds offers a novel N fertilizer management technique, a method to reduce environmental impacts associated with rice production and the cost of rice production.

  10. Seasonal Diet Affects on Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal and state regulations are being promulgated under the Clean Air Act to reduce hazardous air emissions from livestock operations. Although much is known about air emissions from livestock operations in Europe, few data are available on emissions from livestock facilities in the USA and the ma...

  11. Season and Bedding Impacts on Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal and state regulations are being promulgated under the Clean Air Act to reduce hazardous air emissions from livestock operations. Whereas much is known about air emissions from livestock operations in Europe, very little data is available on emissions from livestock facilities in the USA, and...

  12. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  13. Lower Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Anhydrous Ammonia Application Prior to Soil Freezing in Late Fall Than Spring Pre-Plant Application.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Mario; Gao, Xiaopeng; Flaten, Donald N; Amiro, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Fall application of anhydrous ammonia in Manitoba is common but its impact on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions is not well known. A 2-yr study compared application before freeze-up in late fall to spring pre-plant application of anhydrous ammonia on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from a clay soil in the Red River Valley, Manitoba. Spring wheat ( L.) and corn ( L.) were grown on two 4-ha fields in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Field-scale flux of NO was measured using a flux-gradient micrometeorological approach. Late fall treatment did not induce NO emissions soon after application or in winter likely because soil was frozen. Application time did alter the temporal pattern of emissions with late fall and spring pre-plant applications significantly increasing median daily NO flux at spring thaw and early crop growing season, respectively. The majority of emissions occurred in early growing season resulting in cumulative emissions for the crop year being numerically 33% less for late fall than spring pre-plant application. Poor yield in the first year with late fall treatment occurred because of weed and volunteer growth with delayed planting. Results show late fall application of anhydrous ammonia before freeze-up increased NO emissions at thaw and decreased emissions for the early growing season compared to spring pre-plant application. However, improved nitrogen availability of late fall application to crops the following year is required when planting is delayed because of excessive moisture in spring.

  14. Utilization of Bacillus sp. strain TAT105 as a biological additive to reduce ammonia emissions during composting of swine feces.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Waki, Miyoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Akihiro; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain TAT105 is a thermophilic, ammonium-tolerant bacterium that grows assimilating ammonium nitrogen and reduces ammonia emission during composting of swine feces. To develop a practical use of TAT105, a dried solid culture of TAT105 (5.3 × 10(9) CFU/g of dry matter) was prepared as an additive. It could be stored for one year without significant reduction of TAT105. Laboratory-scale composting of swine feces was conducted by mixing the additive. When the additive, mixed with an equal weight of water one day before use, was added to obtain a TAT105 concentration of above 10(7) CFU/g of dry matter in the initial material, the ammonia concentration emitted was lower and nitrogen loss was approximately 22% lower in the treatment with the additive than in the control treatment without the additive. The colony formation on an agar medium containing high ammonium could be used for enumeration of TAT105 in the composted materials.

  15. Search for Ammonia Radio Emission in Comet 9P/Tempel~1 after the Deep Impact Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, G. P.; Palagi, F.; Codella, C.; Poppi, S.; Crovisier, J.

    About 30 hours after the DI impact event, comet 9P/Tempel 1 has been observed with the 32 m dish of Medicina observatory (Bologna, Italy) to search for the NH_3 inversion transitions in the region around 24 GHz. The results show the presence of a line with S/N of about 6 and a FWHM equal to 1.35 km/s close to the NH_3(1,1) frequency. The cometary origin of the line seems sure, because the search for possible background sources of such a emission, performed a few days later along the same comet path, did not show any line at that frequency. Its identification is however dubious because of its too high outflow projected velocity and the too high ammonia production necessary to fit the line intensity. The frequency of the line is also close to a transition of methyl formate, a species already observed in comet Hale-Bopp and in hot cores. The outflow projected velocity would be smaller than in the case of the ammonia, but its abundance would be too high as well.

  16. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  17. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia, lactation performance and manure excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and manure ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard devi...

  18. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the topical application of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manu...

  19. Ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States and Northern Europe estimated using DairyGEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production system, diet, geographic location, and climate affect the environmental footprint of dairy farms. The objective of this analysis was to estimate ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States (US) and Northern Europe (NE). Sixteen US fa...

  20. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  1. Ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scale

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; ...

    2015-09-27

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013more » field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv–1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20–30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. As a result, our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.« less

  2. Ammonia and methane dairy emission plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  3. Comparison of atmospheric stability methods for calculating ammonia and methane emission rates with WindTrax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inverse dispersion models are useful tools for estimating emissions from animal feeding operations, waste storage ponds, and manure application fields. Atmospheric stability is an important input parameter to such models. The objective of this study was to compare emission rates calculated with a ba...

  4. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  5. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P < 0.01), whereas deep-pit houses had the highest H2S emission rate (16.03 kg/yr per pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S

  6. Remote sensing and in situ measurements of methane and ammonia emissions from a megacity dairy complex: Chino, CA.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ira; Melton, Christopher; Tratt, David M; Buckland, Kerry N; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre; Frash, Jason; Gupta, Manish; Johnson, Patrick D; Leen, J Brian; Van Damme, Martin; Whitburn, Simon; Yurganov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) directly and indirectly affect the atmospheric radiative balance with the latter leading to aerosol generation. Both have important spectral features in the Thermal InfraRed (TIR) that can be studied by remote sensing, with NH3 allowing discrimination of husbandry from other CH4 sources. Airborne hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin as well as in situ CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and NH3 data. TIR data showed good spatial agreement with in situ measurements and showed significant emissions heterogeneity between dairies. Airborne remote sensing mapped plume transport for ∼20 km downwind, documenting topographic effects on plume advection. Repeated multiple gas in situ measurements showed that emissions were persistent on half-year timescales. Inversion of one dairy plume found annual emissions of 4.1 × 10(5) kg CH4, 2.2 × 10(5) kg NH3, and 2.3 × 10(7) kg CO2, suggesting 2300, 4000, and 2100 head of cattle, respectively, and Chino Dairy Complex emissions of 42 Gg CH4 and 8.4 Gg NH3 implying ∼200k cows, ∼30% more than Peischl et al. (2013) estimated for June 2010. Far-field data showed chemical conversion and/or deposition of Chino NH3 occurs within the confines of the Los Angeles Basin on a four to six h timescale, faster than most published rates, and likely from higher Los Angeles oxidant loads. Satellite observations from 2011 to 2014 confirmed that observed in situ transport patterns were representative and suggests much of the Chino Dairy Complex emissions are driven towards eastern Orange County, with a lesser amount transported to Palm Springs, CA. Given interest in mitigating husbandry health impacts from air pollution emissions, this study highlights how satellite observations can be leveraged to understand exposure and how multiple gas in situ emissions studies can inform on best practices given that emissions reduction of one gas could increase those of

  7. A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscadelli, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Goddi, C.; Furuya, R. S.; Sanna, A.; Pestalozzi, M.

    2013-10-01

    Aims: We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. Methods: We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared. Results: Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO observations. After analyzing our previous N2H+(1-0) observations again, we conclude that two scenarios are possible. In one case both the radio jet and the ammonia emission would trace the root of the large-scale CO bipolar outflow. The different orientation of the jet and the ammonia flow could be explained by precession and/or a non-isotropic density distribution around the star. In the other case, the N2H+(1-0) and ammonia bipolarity is interpreted as two overlapping clumps moving with different velocities along the line of sight. The ammonia gas also seems to undergo rotation consistent with the maser disk. Our infrared images complemented by archival data allow us to derive a bolometric luminosity of ~104 L⊙ and to conclude that most of the luminosity is due to the young stellar object associated with the maser disk. Conclusions: The new data suggest a scenario where the luminosity and the outflow activity of the whole region could

  8. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  9. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  10. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, A. H. W.; Bouwman, A. F.; Heuberger, P. S. C.; Van Drecht, G.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH 3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH 3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH 3 emission from agricultural systems is 27-38 (with a mean of 32) Tg NH 3-N yr -1, N fertilizer use contributing 10-12 (11) Tg yr -1 and livestock production 16-27 (21) Tg yr -1. Most of the emissions from livestock production come from animal houses and storage systems (31-55%); smaller contributions come from the spreading of animal manure (23-38%) and grazing animals (17-37%). This uncertainty analysis allows for identifying and improving those input parameters with a major influence on the results. The most important determinants of the uncertainty related to the global agricultural NH 3 emission comprise four parameters (N excretion rates, NH 3 emission rates for manure in animal houses and storage, the fraction of the time that ruminants graze and the fraction of non-agricultural use of manure) specific to mixed and landless systems, and total animal stocks. Nitrogen excretion rates and NH 3 emission rates from animal houses and storage systems are shown consistently to be the most important parameters in most parts of the world. Input parameters for pastoral systems are less relevant. However, there are clear differences between world regions and individual countries, reflecting the differences in livestock production systems.

  11. Characteristics of ammonia emission during thermal drying of lime sludge for co-combustion in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Cao, Haihua; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal drying was used to reduce sludge moisture content before co-combustion in cement kilns. The characteristics of ammonia (NH3) emission during thermal drying of lime sludge (LS) were investigated in a laboratory-scale tubular dry furnace under different temperature and time conditions. As the temperature increased, the NH3 concentration increased in the temperature range 100-130°C, decreased in the temperature range 130-220°C and increased rapidly at >220°C. Emission of NH3 also increased as the lime dosage increased and stabilized at lime dosages>5%. In the first 60 min of drying experiments, 55% of the NH3 was released. NH3 accounted for about 67-72% of the change in total nitrogen caused by the release of nitrogen-containing volatile compounds (VCs) from the sludge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the main forms of nitrogen in sludge were amides and amines. The addition of lime (CaO) could cause conversion of N-H, N-O or C-N containing compounds to NH3 during the drying process.

  12. Effect of ammonia on ozone-initiated formation of indoor secondary products with emissions from cleaning products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Nanying; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. Ammonia (NH3) is ubiquitous in ambient and indoor environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of ammonia (NH3) on secondary pollutants formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from cleaning products including floor cleaner (FC), kitchen cleaner (KC) and dishwashing detergent (DD) in a large environmental chamber. Our results demonstrated that the presence of NH3 (maximum concentration is 240 ppb) could significantly enhance secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation from the ozonolysis of all the three categories of cleaning products. For example, for the FC sample, the maximum total particle concentration was up to 2.0 × 104 # cm-3 in the presence of NH3, while it was 1.3 × 104 # cm-3 which was 35% lower without NH3. However, it was found that the extent of NH3 effect on SOAs formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emissions was component-dependent. The presence of NH3 in the reaction systems could increase the consumptions of d-limonene that is the dominant BVOC species as identified in cleaning products. The percent yields (%) of secondary carbonyl compounds generated from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from three categories of cleaning products were identified in the presence and absence of NH3, respectively. The increase in SOAs particle number concentration can be attributed to the formation of condensable salts from reactions between NH3 and organic compounds generated from the BVOCs ozonolysis processes. By investigating the NH3 effect on the ozonolysis of BVOCs mixtures in contrast to the chemistry of individual compounds, a better assessment can be made of the overall impact cleaning products have on real indoor environments.

  13. Determination of ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from land application of swine slurry: a comparison of three application methods.

    PubMed

    Lovanh, Nanh; Warren, Jason; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the comparison and monitoring of the initial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using a flux chamber and gas analyzer from three different liquid manure application methods at a swine farm in Kentucky were carried out. Swine slurry was applied to farmland by row injection, surface spray, and Aerway injection. Ammonia and GHG concentrations were monitored immediately after application, 72 and 216h after application. The results showed that the initial ammonia flux ranged from 5.80 mg m(-2)h(-1) for the surface spray method to 1.80 mg m(-2)h(-1) for the row injection method. The initial fluxes of methane ranged from 8.75 mg m(-2)h(-1) for surface spray to 2.27 mg m(-2)h(-1) for Aerway injection, carbon dioxide ranged from 4357 mg m(-2)h(-1) for surface spray to 60 mg m(-2)h(-1) for row injection, and nitrous oxide ranged from 0.89 mg m(-2)h(-1) for surface spray to 0.22 mg m(-2)h(-1) for row injection. However, the Aerway injection method seemed to create the highest gas (GHG) concentrations inside the monitoring chambers at the initial application and produced the highest gas fluxes at subsequent sampling time (e.g., 72h after application). Nevertheless, the surface spray method appeared to produce the highest gas fluxes, and the row injection method appeared to emit the least amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Gas fluxes decreased over time and did not depend on the initial headspace concentration in the monitoring flux chambers.

  14. Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer: Agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts.

    PubMed

    Riva, C; Orzi, V; Carozzi, M; Acutis, M; Boccasile, G; Lonati, S; Tambone, F; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion produces a biologically stable and high-value fertilizer product, the digestate, which can be used as an alternative to mineral fertilizers on crops. However, misuse of digestate can lead to annoyance for the public (odours) and to environmental problems such as nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions into the air. Full field experimental data are needed to support the use of digestate in agriculture, promoting its correct management. In this work, short-term experiments were performed to substitute mineral N fertilizers (urea) with digestate and products derived from it to the crop silage maize. Digestate and the liquid fraction of digestate were applied to soil at pre-sowing and as topdressing fertilizers in comparison with urea, both by surface application and subsurface injection during the cropping seasons 2012 and 2013. After each fertilizer application, both odours and ammonia emissions were measured, giving data about digestate and derived products' impacts. The AD products could substitute for urea without reducing crop yields, apart from the surface application of AD-derived fertilizers. Digestate and derived products, because of high biological stability acquired during the AD, had greatly reduced olfactometry impact, above all when they were injected into soils (82-88% less odours than the untreated biomass, i.e. cattle slurry). Ammonia emission data indicated, as expected, that the correct use of digestate and derived products required their injection into the soil avoiding, ammonia volatilization into the air and preserving fertilizer value. Sub-surface injection allowed ammonia emissions to be reduced by 69% and 77% compared with surface application during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns.

  15. Factors controlling dimethylsulfide emission from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors that control the emission of methylated gases from salt marshes are being studied. Research focusses on dimethylsulfide (DMS) formation and the mechanism of DMS and CH4 emission to the atmosphere. The approach is to consider the plants as valves regulating the emission of methylated gases to the atmosphere with the goal of developing appropriate methods for emission measurement. In the case of CH4, the sediment is the source and transport to the atmosphere occurs primarily through the internal gas spaces in the plants. The source of DMS appears to be dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) which may play a role in osmoregulation in plant tissues. Concentrations of DMSP in leaves are typically several-fold higher than in roots and rhizomes. Even so, the large below ground biomass of this plant means that 2/3 of the DMSP in the ecosystem is below ground on the aerial basis. Upon introduction to sediment water, DMSP rapidly decomposes to DMS and acrylic acid. The solubility of a gas (its equilibrium vapor pressure) is a fundamental aspect of gas exchange kinetics. The first comprehensive study was conducted of DMS solubility in freshwater and seawater. Data suggest that the Setchenow relation holds for H at intermediate salinities collected. These data support the concept that the concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  16. Factors limiting aliphatic chlorocarbon degradation by Nitrosomonas europaea: Cometabolic inactivation of ammonia monooxygenase and substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Rasche, M.E.; Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The soil nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea is capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated hydrocarbons. TCE cometabolism by N. europaea resulted in an irreversible loss of TCE biodegradative capacity, ammonia-oxidizing activity, and ammonia-dependent O{sub 2} uptake by the cells. Inactivation was not observed in the presence of allylthiourea, a specific inhibitor of enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, or under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the TCE-mediated inactivation required ammonia monooxygenase activity. When N. europaea cells were incubated with ({sup 14}C)TCE under conditions which allowed turnover of ammonia monooxygenase, a number of cellular proteins were covalently labeled with {sup 14}C. Treatment of cells with allylthiourea or acetylene prior to incubation with ({sup 14}C)TCE prevented incorporation of {sup 14}C into proteins. The ammonia-oxidizing activity of cells inactivated in the presence of TCE could be recovered through a process requiring de novo protein synthesis. In addition to TCE, a series of chlorinated methanes, ethanes, and other ethylenes were screened as substrates for ammonia monooxygenase and for their ability to inactivate the ammonia-oxidizing system of N. europaea. The chlorocarbons would be divided into three classes depending on their biodegradability and inactivating potential: (1) compounds which were not biodegradable by N. europaea and which had no toxic effect on the cells (2) compounds which were cooxidized by N. europaea and had little or no toxic effect on the cells; and (3) compounds which were cooxidized and produced a turnover-dependent inactivation of ammonia oxidation by N. europaea.

  17. Control of ammonia air pollution through the management of thermal processes in cowsheds.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdoniene, Indre

    2016-10-15

    Experimental researches performed in manufacturing cowsheds have demonstrated a variation of ammonia concentration and the factors influencing this most during different periods of the year. The process of ammonia evaporation from manure is influenced by many varying and interrelated factors with temperature and the intensity of air ventilation being the most critical ones. The influence of these factors on the process of ammonia evaporation was established by laboratory researches. An increase in temperature results in an exponential increase in ammonia emission, whereas the dependence of the emission on the air velocity is best expressed by a second degree polynomial. The results obtained may be used as a forecast of the ammonia emissions from cowsheds during different periods of the year. Intensive ventilation is required for the removal of excess moisture from the housing, and this limits the possibilities to reduce ammonia emissions by controlling the intensity of ventilation. A reduction in the amount of ventilation is only recommended if the air quality indices meet the requirements applied to the housing. Better opportunities to reduce ammonia emissions are provided through management of the thermal processes in a cowshed. If the average annual air temperature (11.3°C) is reduced by one degree in a cubicle housing cowshed, the ammonia emissions will decrease by 10%.

  18. Effects of dicyandiamide and acetylene on N2O emissions and ammonia oxidizers in a fluvo-aquic soil applied with urea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Li-Mei; Shen, Ju-Pei; Du, Shuai; Han, Li-Li; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are crucial for N2O emission as they carry out the key step of nitrification. Dicyandiamide (DCD) and acetylene (C2H2) are typical nitrification inhibitors (NIs), while the comparative effects of these NIs on N2O production and ammonia oxidizers' (AOB and AOA) growth are unclear. Four treatments including a control, urea, urea + DCD, and urea + C2H2 were set up to investigate their effect of inhibiting soil nitrification, nitrification-related N2O emission as well as the growth of ammonia oxidizers with a fluvo-aquic soil using microcosms for 28 days. N2O emission and net nitrification rate increased after the application of urea, but were significantly restrained in urea + NI treatments, while C2H2 was more effective in reducing N2O emission and nitrification rate than DCD. The abundance of AOB, which was significantly correlated with N2O emission and net nitrification rate, was more inhibited by C2H2 than DCD. Furthermore, the application of urea in all the soils had little impact on the AOA community, while obvious shifts of AOB community structure were found compared with the control. All AOB sequences fell within Nitrosospira cluster 3, and the AOA community was clustered to group 1.1b. Collectively, it indicated that application of urea combined with NIs (DCD or C2H2) could potentially alter N2O emission, mainly through regulating the growth of AOB but not AOA in this fluvo-aquic soil.

  19. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Stackhouse, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Increased animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. Little information exists, however, on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net decrease in emission from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California that use various management technologies to enhance animal performance. The IFSM is a farm process model that simulates crop growth, feed production, animal performance, and manure production and handling through time to predict the performance, economics, and environmental impacts of production systems. The simulated beef production systems compared were 1) Angus-natural, with no use of growth-enhancing technologies, 2) Angus-implant, with ionophore and growth-promoting implant (e.g., estrogen/trenbolone acetate-based) application, 3) Angus-ß2-adrenergic agonists (BAA; e.g., zilpaterol), with ionophore, growth-promoting implant, and BAA application, 4) Holstein-implant, with growth implant and ionophore application, and 5) Holstein-BAA, with ionophore, growth implant, and BAA use. During the feedlot phase, use of BAA decreased NH(3) emission by 4 to 9 g/kg HCW, resulting in a 7% decrease in NH(3) loss from the full production system. Combined use of ionophore, growth implant, and BAA treatments decreased NH(3) emission from the full production system by 14 g/kg HCW, or 13%. The C footprint of beef was decreased by 2.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e)/kg HCW using all the growth-promoting technologies, and the Holstein beef footprint was decreased by 0.5 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW using BAA. Over the full production systems, these decreases were relatively small at 9% and 5% for Angus and Holstein beef, respectively. The growth

  20. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately quantifying emissions of ammonia (NH3) from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is vital not only to the livestock industry, but essential to understanding nitrogen cycling along the Front Range of Colorado, USA, where intensive agriculture, urban sprawl, and pristine ecosystems (e.g., Rocky Mtn Nat'l Park) lie within 100-km of each other. Most observation-based techniques for estimating NH3 emissions can be expensive and highly technical. Many methods rely on concentration observations on location, which implicitly depends on weather conditions. A system for sampling NH3 using on-site weather data was developed to allow remote measurement of NH3 in a simple, cost-effective way. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a typical two-week deployment. Cartridge exposure is robotically managed so they are only visible when winds are 1.4 m/s or greater from the direction of the CAFO. These concentration data can be coupled with stability parameters (measured on-site) in a simple inverse model to estimate emissions (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures). Few studies have directly compared emissions estimates of NH3 using concentration data obtained from multiple measurement systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, in the summer and autumn of 2014, several conditional sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot concomitant with an open-path infrared laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc.) and a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) (G1103, Picarro Inc.) which each measured instantaneous NH3 concentrations. This study will test the sampler technology by first comparing concentration data from the three different methods. In livestock research, it is common to estimate NH3 emissions by using such instantaneous data in a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Sci.) Considering this, NH3 fluxes

  1. Utilizing vegetative environmental buffers to mitigate ammonia and particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs) are vegetation designed as a visual screen, which usually consist of trees, shrubs, grass and other potential plants. VEBs are placed around the poultry houses for the purpose of minimizing the air pollutant emissions. The expansion of the poultry industry due...

  2. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  3. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  4. Field measurement of greenhouse gas emission rates and development of emission factors for wastewater treatment. Final report, September 1994-March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; LaCosse, J.

    1997-09-01

    The report gives results of field testing to develop more reliable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Wastewater treatment (WWT) lagoons. Field tests of emissions were conducted for WWT lagoons that use anaerobic processes to treat large volumes of wastewater with large biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings. Air emissions and wastewater were measured at anaerobic lagoons at three meat processing plants and two publicly owned treatment works. The overall emission rates of CH4, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, ammonia (NH3), and chlorofluorocarbons were measured from each source using an open-path monitoring approach. The emitted compounds were identified and quantified by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Emission factors were developed for CH4 and NH3 as a function of the plant production rate, wastewater parameters (e.g., influent BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loadings), and WWT system performance (e.g., BOD and COD removal rates).

  5. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  6. Potential application of Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Neerackal, George M; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, Hung-Soo; Wang, Xiang; Frear, Craig S; Harrison, Joseph H; Beutel, Marc W

    2016-04-01

    This research examined the potential mitigation of NH3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4. The studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. Aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), respectively. Intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical TAN removal to continuous aeration. The results revealed that adequate oxygen supply and supplementing dairy wastewater with carbon are essential for this bioprocess. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, only 4% of TAN was released as NH3 gas, while the majority was retained in either the microbial biomass (58%) or converted to nitrogen gas (36%). The mass balance results reveal high potential for environmentally friendly bio-treatment of dairy wastewater using A. faecalis strain No. 4 with respect to NH3 emissions.

  7. Combined Flux Chamber and Genomics Approach Links Nitrous Acid Emissions to Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Urban and Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Schütte, Ursel M E; Berke, Andrew E; Banina, Lauren; Peel, Hannah R; Donaldson, Melissa A; Hemmerich, Chris; White, Jeffrey R; Raff, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a photochemical source of hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide in the atmosphere that stems from abiotic and biogenic processes, including the activity of ammonia-oxidizing soil microbes. HONO fluxes were measured from agricultural and urban soil in mesocosm studies aimed at characterizing biogenic sources and linking them to indigenous microbial consortia. Fluxes of HONO from agricultural and urban soil were suppressed by addition of a nitrification inhibitor and enhanced by amendment with ammonium (NH4(+)), with peaks at 19 and 8 ng m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In addition, both agricultural and urban soils were observed to convert (15)NH4(+) to HO(15)NO. Genomic surveys of soil samples revealed that 1.5-6% of total expressed 16S rRNA sequences detected belonged to known ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Peak fluxes of HONO were directly related to the abundance of ammonia-oxidizer sequences, which in turn depended on soil pH. Peak HONO fluxes under fertilized conditions are comparable in magnitude to fluxes reported during field campaigns. The results suggest that biogenic HONO emissions will be important in soil environments that exhibit high nitrification rates (e.g., agricultural soil) although the widespread occurrence of ammonia oxidizers implies that biogenic HONO emissions are also possible in the urban and remote environment.

  8. [Mitigation effect of several controlled-release N fertilizers on ammonia volatilization and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Sun, Kejun; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qiming; Jia, Aiping; Liao, Zongwen

    2004-12-01

    By using static absorption and soil column leaching methods, this paper studied the behaviors of several controlled-release N fertilizers in soil under laboratory conditions. The results showed that under the application rate of 450 mg x kg(-1), total ammonia volatilization from three controlled-release fertilizers decreased by 49.7%, 28.0% and 71.2%, respectively, in comparing with common urea. When the application rate was 600 mg x kg(-1), total ammonia volatilization decreased by 34.6%, 12.3%, 69.9%, respectively. Controlled-release fertilizers could markedly reduce total ammonia volatilization from soil and decrease environment pollution via fertilization. The results also indicated that total ammonia volatilization correlated significantly with soil urease activity, pH value and N leaching rate. The correlation coefficient between total ammonia volatilization and accumulated N leaching rate was 0.9533, and that between total ammonia volatilization and soil urease activity and pH value was 0.9533 and 0.9908, respectively.

  9. Ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scale

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sasche, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo; Zondlo, Mark A.; Pan, Da

    2015-09-27

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv–1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20–30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. As a result, our analyses have

  10. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

  11. Dynamics of Air Temperature, Velocity and Ammonia Emissions in Enclosed and Conventional Pig Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. I.; Park, K.-H.; Jeon, J. H.; Choi, H. L.; Barroga, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig’s growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (p<0.05). These findings proved that despite the difference in the housing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to

  12. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  13. Emissive infrared projector temperature resolution limiting factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierkowski, Leszek; Joyce, Robert A.; Williams, Owen M.

    2004-08-01

    Array nonuniformity is the dominant factor limiting the temperature resolution of the current generation of emissive dynamic infrared scene projectors. Over the past five years or so numerous papers have been presented associated with the measurement of the array nonuniformities and the design and implementation of efficient nonuniformity correction (NUC) techniques. A considerable amount of progress has been made towards achieving the desired NUC goals. A number of factors, however, limit the achievement of fine temperature resolution within emissive infrared projection systems, improvements still being needed to achieve residual nonuniformity levels low enough to satisfy the demanding requirements of low NETD thermal imaging systems. In particular, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the projector NUC procedure. In this paper we describe an alternative method for collecting projector NUC data that relies on the use of several integration times and also multiple calibration points for correcting the camera nonuniformities, the method being designed to improve the accuracy of the projector NUC procedure.

  14. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  15. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems — Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, T. A.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Stinn, J. P.; Hayes, M. D.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P < 0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P < 0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P < 0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study

  16. Factors affecting the removal of ammonia from air on carbonaceous materials: Investigation of reactive adsorption mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Camille

    Air pollution related to the release of industrial toxic gases, represents one of the main concerns of our modern world owing to its detrimental effect on the environment. To tackle this growing issue, efficient ways to reduce/control the release of pollutants are required. Adsorption of gases on porous materials appears as a potential solution. However, the physisorption of small molecules of gases such as ammonia is limited at ambient conditions. For their removal, adsorbents providing strong adsorption forces must be used/developed. In this study, new carbon-based materials are prepared and tested for ammonia adsorption at ambient conditions. Characterization of the adsorbents' texture and surface chemistry is performed before and after exposure to ammonia to identify the features responsible for high adsorption capacity and for controlling the mechanisms of retention. The characterization techniques include: nitrogen adsorption, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy. The results obtained indicate that ammonia removal is governed by the adsorbent's surface chemistry. On the contrary, porosity (and thus physisorption) plays a secondary role in this process, unless strong dispersive forces are provided by the adsorbent. The surface chemistry features responsible for the enhanced ammonia adsorption include the presence of oxygen-(carboxyl, hydroxyl, epoxy) and sulfur- (sulfonic) containing groups. Metallic species improve the breakthrough capacity as well as they lead to the formation of Lewis acid-base interactions, hydrogen-bonding or complexation. In addition to the latter three mechanisms, ammonia is retained on the adsorbent surface via Bronsted acid-base interactions or via specific reactions with the adsorbent's functionalities leading to the incorporation of ammonia into the adsorbent's matrix. Another mechanism

  17. Emission factors for smouldering peat megafires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Rory; Santamaria, Simon; Pironi, Paolo; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Smouldering wildfires occur in large deposits of peat across the globe in boreal and temperate regions. These fires are the most persistent fires on earth and consume large quantities of biomass which can take centuries or longer to regenerate. Recently large peat fires in Indonesia have caused significant health issues across a large geographic area in south east Asia. A similar event that occurred in 1997 was estimated to have released up to 13.7Gt of carbon to the atmosphere. Globally, the carbon stored in peatlands is greater than that stored in vegetation and is similar to that stored in the atmosphere. One of the major threats to these ecosystems is smouldering megafires which can be ignited easily in peat with the resulting fire persisting for extended periods of time (often many weeks or months). Given the potential impact on global carbon balances, it is essential to have accurate estimates of carbon emitted from these fires. Is is established that the emissions from any combustion process are strongly dependent on the combustion conditions these include the temperature (energy balance), availability of oxygen and the fuel composition. Because smouldering is a persistent form of combustion, it can occur over a wide range of conditions. This necessitates an understanding of emission factors linked to the burning dynamics. To allow for controlled, repeatable burning conditions across this range of conditions, a series of laboratory scale experiments were undertaken to identify the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane flux from samples of smouldering sphagnum moss peat. This peat is used as it has been extensively studied experimentally and numerically. By using repeatable experimental conditions delivered by the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus, the flux of CO, CO2 and methane can be linked to the smouldering fire dynamics. Smouldering in shallow fronts is represented by burning in ambient oxygen concentration while deep fronts are simulated using

  18. Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Slurry Storage: Impacts of Temperature and Potential Mitigation through Covering (Pig Slurry) or Acidification (Cattle Slurry).

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, Tom; Hunt, John; Perazzolo, Francesca; Provolo, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS). Cumulative emissions of both gases were influenced by mean temperature over the storage period. Methane emissions from the control treatments over the 2-mo storage periods for the cool, temperate, and warm periods were 0.3, 0.1, and 34.3 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for CS and 4.4, 20.1, and 27.7 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for PS. Respective NH emissions for each period were 4, 7, and 12% of initial slurry N content for CS and 12, 18, and 28% of initial slurry N content for PS. Covering PS with clay granules reduced NH emissions by 77% across the three storage periods but had no impact on CH emissions. Acidification of CS reduced CH and NH emissions by 61 and 75%, respectively, across the three storage periods. Nitrous oxide emissions were also monitored but were insignificant. The development of approaches that take into account the influence of storage timing (temperature) and duration on emission estimates for national emission inventory purposes is recommended.

  19. Interannual variability of ammonia concentrations over the United States: sources and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Heald, Colette L.; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Nowak, John B.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Eilerman, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), emitted largely from agricultural sources, is an important factor when considering how inorganic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and nitrogen cycling are changing over the United States. This study combines new observations of ammonia concentration from the surface, aboard aircraft, and retrieved by satellite to both evaluate the simulation of ammonia in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and identify which processes control the variability of these concentrations over a 5-year period (2008-2012). We find that the model generally underrepresents the ammonia concentration near large source regions (by 26 % at surface sites) and fails to reproduce the extent of interannual variability observed at the surface during the summer (JJA). Variability in the base simulation surface ammonia concentration is dominated by meteorology (64 %) as compared to reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions imposed by regulation (32 %) over this period. Introduction of year-to-year varying ammonia emissions based on animal population, fertilizer application, and meteorologically driven volatilization does not substantially improve the model comparison with observed ammonia concentrations, and these ammonia emissions changes have little effect on the simulated ammonia concentration variability compared to those caused by the variability of meteorology and acid-precursor emissions. There is also little effect on the PM2.5 concentration due to ammonia emissions variability in the summer when gas-phase changes are favored, but variability in wintertime emissions, as well as in early spring and late fall, will have a larger impact on PM2.5 formation. This work highlights the need for continued improvement in both satellite-based and in situ ammonia measurements to better constrain the magnitude and impacts of spatial and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations.

  20. Study on the factors affecting simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese by pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) for drinking water pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Zhao, Zhi-wei; Gao, Wei; Cui, Fu-yi

    2013-10-01

    It was demonstrated that simultaneous removal of ammonia and manganese could be accomplished by biological aerated filter (BAF) with low-cost lava as media. Long-term operation performance and impact factors were systematically studied. DGGE analysis demonstrated that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and simultaneous ammonia and manganese oxidizing bacteria (SAMOB) co-existed in the bio-film. Ammonia and manganese concentration profiles along the height of BAF column, including that in the influent and effluent, were investigated with varying hydraulic loadings, aeration intensities and feed ammonia concentrations. It was inferred that AOB and MOB may have different spatial distribution in vertical direction, and AOB and MOB may compete for oxygen capture or be present on different layers of the bio-films. Further work should focus on the distribution of AOB, MOB and SAMOB in the reactor and optimize it for more efficient mass transfer and better system performance.

  1. Determination of GHG and ammonia emissions from stored dairy cattle slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber.

    PubMed

    Minato, Keiko; Kouda, Yasuyuki; Yamakawa, Masaaki; Hara, Satoshi; Tamura, Tadashi; Osada, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We developed a system for measuring emissions from stored slurry by using a floating dynamic chamber. CH(4) , CO(2) , N(2) O and NH(3) emitted from the storage tank of a dairy cattle farm in eastern Hokkaido were measured during summer 2008 (7/16-8/6), fall 2008 (10/2-10/26), spring 2009 (6/2-6/21) and winter 2009 (3/11). Average daily gas emission rates in summer, fall and spring were, respectively, 54.8, 54.2 and 34.3 g/m(2) for CH(4) ; 602, 274 and 254 g/m(2) for CO(2) ; 55.4, 68.2 and trace mg/m(2) for N(2) O; and 0.55, 0.73 and 0.46 g/m(2) for NH(3) . CH(4) , CO(2) and NH(3) emission rates during the brief measurement period in winter were reduced to 1/4, 1/23 and 1/2, respectively, of summer emission rate levels. All gas emissions showed diurnal fluctuation and were greatest during the daytime, when the ambient temperature rose. CH(4) , NH(3) and CO(2) emissions increased significantly during the daytime, and the daily emission (in grams) of each gas was positively correlated with maximum daily temperature. According to the combined spring, summer and fall measurements, the CH(4) , N(2) O and NH(3) annual emission factors were 1.42% (g CH(4) /g volatile solids), 0.02% (g N(2) O-N/g total N) and 0.43% (g NH(3) -N/g total N), respectively.

  2. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Gregoire, P. K.; Cheyne, C. A. L.; Tevlin, A. G.; Hems, R.

    2014-05-01

    A 50 day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface-atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3) with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+]) yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil=[NH4+]/[H+]) for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290). The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) and a~simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were neglected due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m-2 s-1 in August (i.e. net emission) and -5.8 ± 3.0 ng m-2 s-1 in September (i.e. net deposition). These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (HYSPLIT) was used to calculate air parcel back trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3(g)]. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  3. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Gregoire, P. K.; Cheyne, C. A. L.; Tevlin, A. G.; Hems, R.

    2014-10-01

    A 50-day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface-atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3) with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+]) yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil = [NH4+]/[H+]) for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290). The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) and a simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were ignored due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m-2 s-1 in August (i.e. net emission) and -5.8 ± 3.0 ng m-2 s-1 in September (i.e. net deposition). These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory - HYSPLIT) was used to calculate air parcel back-trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3]g. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  4. Regional Variation and Trends in IASI-Observed Atmospheric Ammonia Concentrations over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.; Van Damme, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying atmospheric ammonia is a critical first step in investigating its role in the formation of fine particulate matter and ecosystem change. This study uses five years (2008-2012) of a new measurement of ammonia column concentrations derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument to explore ammonia levels in several regions (e.g. the Midwest, California, the Southeast) of the United States. These satellite measurements offer extensive daily coverage, providing a constraint on the evolution and spatial variation of ammonia across the United States. We identify observed ammonia variation between the regions in terms of both intra-annual (seasonal) change and trends throughout the entire time period. These variations are related to factors controlling ammonia emissions, chemistry and deposition, such as human and animal populations, farming practices, land use change and meteorological variables. These variations can also be used to drive Earth system model simulations of ammonia's effects on air quality, radiation balance and environmental degradation.

  5. Controlling factors of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummer, C.; Richter, U.; Smith, J. J.; Delorme, J. P.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate net biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia. During a three month field campaign from February to May 2014, we tested the performance of a quantum cascade laser within an eddy-covariance setup. The laser was operated at a semi-natural peatland site that is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and intensive livestock production (~1 km distance). Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 15 ppb. Different concentration patterns could be identified. The variability was closely linked to the timing of management practices and the prevailing local climate, particularly wind direction, temperature and surface wetness with the latter indicating higher non-stomatal uptake under wet conditions leading to decreased concentrations. Average ammonia fluxes were around -15 ng N m-2 s-1 at the beginning of the campaign in February and shifted towards a neutral average exchange regime of -1 to 0 ng N m-2 s-1 in April and May. Intriguingly, during the time of decreasing ammonia uptake, concentrations were considerably rising, which clearly indicated N saturation in the predominant vegetation such as bog heather, purple moor-grass, and cotton grass. The cumulative net uptake for the period of investigation was ~300 g N ha-1. This stresses the importance of a thorough method inter-comparison, e.g. with denuder systems in combination with dry deposition modeling. As previous results from the latter methods showed an annual uptake of ~9 kg N ha-1 for the same site, the implementation of adequate ammonia compensation point parameterizations become crucial in surface-atmosphere exchange schemes for bog vegetation. Through their high temporal resolution, robustness and continuous measurement mode, quantum cascade lasers will help assessing the effects of atmospheric N loads to vulnerable N-limited ecosystems such as peatlands.

  6. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  7. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  8. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( < 0.001) with feeding EN, and urinary urea concentration tended to be lower ( = 0.078) for EN versus Control. The hourly emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation.

  9. Fate of Ammonia Emissions at the Local to Regional Scale as Simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen contributes to eutrophication of estuarine waters and acidification of lakes and streams. Ammonia also contributes to fine particle formation in the atmosphere and associated health effects. Model projections suggest that NH3 depositi...

  10. Separating methane emissions from biogenic sources and natural gas by vertical column enhancements of ammonia, ethane, and methane in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Hannigan, J. W.; Kille, N.; Frey, M.; Kumar Sha, M.; Orphal, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane sources in the Colorado Front Range include biogenic sources from cattle feedlots and natural gas operations. Although numerous studies have measured methane emissions, there remains significant uncertainty regarding the relative contributions of these various methane emission sources. Here we present data from a March 2015 field campaign that deployed two Bruker EM27 Sun Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and the University of Colorado Solar Occultation Flux (CU-SOF) FTS in Eaton, Colorado; the former were used to measure enhancements in the methane vertical column densities (VCD), while the latter was used to measure ethane and ammonia VCDs. A third EM27 FTS was deployed to a background site in Westminster, Colorado which was far removed from cattle and petroleum operations. Northerly winds make possible the determination of methane VCD column enhancement from Westminster to Eaton. All instruments were compared during several background days at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. This presentation explores the potential of methane source attribution using ammonia as a tracer for feedlot emissions and ethane as a tracer for petroleum emissions.

  11. A quantitative index of regional blood flow in canine myocardium derived noninvasively with N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nienaber, C.A.; Ratib, O.; Gambhir, S.S.; Krivokapich, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-01-01

    To derive a quantitative index of regional myocardial blood flow, the arterial input function of the flow tracer N-13 ammonia and the regional myocardial N-13 activity concentrations were noninvasively determined in 29 experiments in eight dogs. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and cross-sectional images were acquired dynamically using an ECAT III positron emission tomograph with an effective in-plane resolution of 13.46 mm full-width half-maximum. Time-activity curves were derived from the serial images by assigning regions of interest to the left ventricular myocardium and left ventricular blood pool. Tracer net extractions were estimated from the myocardial time-activity concentrations at various times after tracer injection and the integral of the arterial input function. Myocardial blood flow was altered by intravenous dipyridamole, morphine, propranolol and partial or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and ranged from 9 to 860 ml/min per 100 g. Estimates of tracer net extractions were most accurate when determined from the myocardial N-13 activity concentrations at 60 s divided by the integral of the arterial input function to that time. These estimates correlated with regional myocardial blood flows determined independently by the microsphere technique by y = x (1 - 0.64(e-114/x); SEE = 22.9; r = 0.94). First pass extraction fractions of N-13 ammonia determined noninvasively with this approach declined with higher flows in a nonlinear fashion and were similar to those determined invasively by direct intracoronary N-13 ammonia injections. The findings indicate that an accurate index of regional myocardial blood flow can be obtained noninvasively by high temporal sampling of arterial and myocardial tracer activity concentrations with positron emission tomography.

  12. WOODSTOVE EMISSION MEASUREMENT METHODS COMPARISON AND EMISSION FACTORS UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper compares various field and laboratory woodstove emission measurement methods. n 1988, the U.S. EPA promulgated performance standards for residential wood heaters (woodstoves). ver the past several years, a number of field studies have been undertaken to determine the a...

  13. Environmental factors shaping the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in sugarcane field soil.

    PubMed

    Tago, Kanako; Okubo, Takashi; Shimomura, Yumi; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Tomoyuki; Nagayama, Atsushi; Hayatsu, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors such as pH and nutrient content on the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in soil has been extensively studied using experimental fields. However, how these environmental factors intricately influence the community structure of AOB and AOA in soil from farmers' fields is unclear. In the present study, the abundance and diversity of AOB and AOA in soils collected from farmers' sugarcane fields were investigated using quantitative PCR and barcoded pyrosequencing targeting the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) gene. The abundances of AOB and AOA amoA genes were estimated to be in the range of 1.8 × 10(5)-9.2 × 10(6) and 1.7 × 10(6)-5.3 × 10(7) gene copies g dry soil(-1), respectively. The abundance of both AOB and AOA positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The dominant sequence reads of AOB and AOA were placed in Nitrosospira-related and Nitrososphaera-related clusters in all soils, respectively, which varied at the level of their sub-clusters in each soil. The relationship between these ammonia-oxidizing community structures and soil pH was shown to be significant by the Mantel test. The relative abundances of the OTU1 of Nitrosospira cluster 3 and Nitrososphaera subcluster 7.1 negatively correlated with soil pH. These results indicated that soil pH was the most important factor shaping the AOB and AOA community structures, and that certain subclusters of AOB and AOA adapted to and dominated the acidic soil of agricultural sugarcane fields.

  14. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Ammonia Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: NH3 Formal name: Ammonia, plasma Related tests: Liver Panel , ALT , AST , ALP , ...

  15. Emission factors of air toxics from semiconductor manufacturing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yun-Sung; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Suk-Jo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Dae-Gyun; Bang, Sun-Ae

    2006-11-01

    The development of local, accurate emission factors is very important for the estimation of reliable national emissions and air quality management. For that, this study is performed for pollutants released to the atmosphere with source-specific emission tests from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is one of the major sources of air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); thus, understanding the emission characteristics of the emission source is a very important factor in the development of a control strategy. However, in Korea, there is a general lack of information available on air emissions from the semiconductor industry. The major emission sources of air toxics examined from the semiconductor manufacturing industry were wet chemical stations, coating applications, gaseous operations, photolithography, and miscellaneous devices in the wafer fabrication and semiconductor packaging processes. In this study, analyses of emission characteristics, and the estimations of emission data and factors for air toxics, such as acids, bases, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds from the semiconductor manufacturing process have been performed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride from the packaging process was the highest among all of the processes. In addition, the emission factor of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the packaging process was higher than that of the wafer fabrication process. Emission factors estimated in this study were compared with those of Taiwan for evaluation, and they were found to be of similar level in the case of TVOCs and fluorine compounds.

  16. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  17. Improved land cover and emission factors for modeling biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Wong, P.; Cheung, B. K. H.; Guenther, A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a study of local biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). An improved land cover and emission factor database was developed to estimate Hong Kong emissions using MEGAN, a BVOC emission model developed by Guenther et al. (2006). Field surveys of plant species composition and laboratory measurements of emission factors were combined with other data to improve existing land cover and emission factor data. The BVOC emissions from Hong Kong were calculated for 12 consecutive years from 1995 to 2006. For the year 2006, the total annual BVOC emissions were determined to be 12,400 metric tons or 9.82 × 10 9 g C (BVOC carbon). Isoprene emission accounts for 72%, monoterpene emissions account for 8%, and other VOCs emissions account for the remaining 20%. As expected, seasonal variation results in a higher emission in the summer and a lower emission in the winter, with emission predominantly in day time. A high emission of isoprene occurs for regions, such as Lowest Forest-NT North, dominated by broadleaf trees. The spatial variation of total BVOC is similar to the isoprene spatial variation due to its high contribution. The year to year variability in emissions due to weather was small over the twelve-year period (-1.4%, 2006 to 1995 trendline), but an increasing trend in the annual variation due to an increase in forest land cover can be observed (+7%, 2006 to 1995 trendline). The results of this study demonstrate the importance of accurate land cover inputs for biogenic emission models and indicate that land cover change should be considered for these models.

  18. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p < .001). Furthermore, well depth and hydrogeological setting might have some impacts on nitrogen contamination and the major sources of inorganic nitrogen contamination may be nitrogenous chemical fertilizer. Therefore, PWSWs built for all families are the best way to ensure the drinking water safety in villages. For DTWs it is necessary to use seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

  19. Source sampling of particulate matter emissions from cotton harvesting - System field testing and emission factor development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission factors are used in the air pollution regulatory process to quantify the mass of pollutants emitted from a source. Accurate emission factors must be used in the air pollution regulatory process to ensure fair and appropriate regulation for all sources. Agricultural sources, including cotton...

  20. An intercomparison of models used to simulate the short-range atmospheric dispersion of agricultural ammonia emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emitted into the atmosphere from agricultural sources can have an impact on nearby sensitive ecosystems either through elevated ambient concentrations or dry/wet deposition to vegetation and soil surfaces. Short-range atmospheric dispersion models are often used to assess...

  1. Manure-DNDC: a biogeochemical process model for quantifying greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from livestock manure systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the point of view of biogeochemistry, manure is a complex of organic matter containing minor minerals. When manure is excreted by animals, it undergoes a series of reactions such as decomposition, hydrolysis, ammonia volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, and fermentation from which ca...

  2. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P < 0.001) with an average difference of 1.32 ± 0.24 units. Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P < 0.001), with an average of 4.8 ppm at 42 days of age (62.9% lower than the control), and

  3. Mobile measurements of ammonia: Sources and spatial variations in the Wallis region and Zurich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Pieber, Simone; Wolf, Robert; Krishna Kumar, Nivedita; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has negative impacts on human health, climate, ecosystems and materials. Moreover, it is also an important precursor for the formation of secondary aerosols in the form of ammonium salts (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride). Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of the ammonia emissions come from the agricultural sector (mostly from livestock farming and fertilizing activities). Other sources such as road transport, waste deposit, energy use and supply can also contribute to the ammonia levels in the urban areas. High concentrations of ammonia are commonly measured at the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) stations in Switzerland. Mobile measurements of ammonia and other pollutants (including BC, CO2, NOx and NR-PM) were conducted in the Wallis region and in Zurich in 2013 to study the spatial distribution of ammonia in Switzerland and identify its major emission sources in these regions. A new heated inlet setup was developed to improve the response time of the ammonia measurements, so that even very local sources could be identified. For both, the Wallis region and Zurich, it was observed that the background values of ammonia have a regional origin, as other pollutants affected by regional changes show similar background trends. These regional background values varied between 5 to 10 ppb during the different days of measurements. Moreover, no big differences were observed in the background values between the city center, the surrounding areas, the highway and the rural areas. The major local source of ammonia observed during these measurements was road transport, producing increases on the NH3 levels up to 4 times the background values. Based on emission factors estimated from tunnel measurements, the traffic was estimated to contribute between 20 -30% of the measured ammonia levels on a daily average in Zurich. Other sources of ammonia that can also contribute significantly to the levels of ammonia

  4. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  5. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.

    PubMed

    Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study.

  6. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-02

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments.

  7. The effect of steam flaked or dry ground corn and supplemental phytic acid on nitrogen partitioning in lactating cows and ammonia emission from manure.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, K M; Guyton, A D; McKinney, J M; Knowlton, K F

    2004-08-01

    The effect of starch source and supplemental phytic acid (PA) on N partitioning and excretion and ammonia volatilization from dairy manure was evaluated with 8 midlactation cows. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with four 18-d periods. Diets were 61% forage, 25% starch, 17.2% crude protein, and 31% neutral detergent fiber and included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF) with no supplemental P (L; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified PA (0.45% P) to provide additional P from a non-mineral source. Total collection of milk, urine, and feces was conducted on d 16 to 18 of each period. Cows fed SF had lower dry matter (DM) intakes than those fed DG, which, in addition to increased starch digestibility and ruminal fermentation, contributed to higher DM digestibility. Cows fed SF had reduced feces and urine excretion compared with cows fed DG. Also, N intake for cows fed SF was lower, and N digestibility was higher, compared with cows fed DG; therefore, N excretion in both feces and urine was reduced in these cows. Despite the differences in DM intake, lactation performance was not affected by starch sources. Therefore, the efficiency of N utilization increased with SF. Addition of PA did not affect N intake or utilization. Feces and urine were subsampled from each cow, and wet feces and urine were mixed in sealed chambers in the proportions excreted. Ammonia volatilization was measured for 36 h using acid traps sampled on a planned time course. Nitrogen at time zero (A0), rate of ammonia emission (k), and residual N (R) were calculated using the exponential decay model At = A0 e(-kt) + R. Rate of ammonia loss from mixed feces and urine was lower from cows fed SF than from those fed DG. Altering dietary starch source to improve nutrient digestibility and to reduce N excretion by lactating cows may provide opportunity to reduce ammonia losses from manure.

  8. Ammonia Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  9. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yuan, Chao-Lei; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75–1945 km apart) of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors. PMID:26388866

  10. Emission Factor from Small Scale Tropical Peat Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, W.; Damanhuri, E.; Lestari, P.; Dewi, K.

    2017-03-01

    Peatfire in Indonesia recently had become an important issue regarding its global warming impact of green house gases emitted. Emission factor is one of important variables to determine total emission of carbon released by peatfire. But currently there were only a few studies about Indonesian peat fire emission factors. The previous studies of Indonesian peat fire emission factor reported the results from a very limited number of samples and during smoldering combustion stages only. Therefore this study attempts to quantify carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission factors from laboratory peat combustion based on higher number of samples and taken both of combustion stages (flaming and smoldering) into consideration. Peats were sampled from five different districts in Pontianak, West Kalimantan. Ultimate analysis showed that pure peat composed of relatively high carbon content (52.85 – 59.43% dry basis). Laboratory experiments were carried out by burning small amout of peats in a mini furnace and measuring their CO2 and CH4 emission concentration during flaming and smoldering. CO2, CO and CH4 average emission factors and their related average MCE for flaming were found to be 2,088 ± 21 g/kg (n = 17), 3.104 ± 7.173 g/kg (n = 17), 0.143 ± 0.132 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.998 ± 0.005 (n = 17), respectively, while for smoldering were 1,831 ± 131 g/kg (n = 17), 138 ± 72 g/kg (n = 17), 17 ± 12 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.894 ± 0.055 g/kg (n = 17), respectively. This emission factors based on the laboratory combustion experiment can be conveniently used to estimate CO2 and CH4 emission from Indonesian peat fire. Equation models to correlate between MCE and emission factors for both flaming and smoldering were developed. MCE and CO2 emission factor during flaming was relatively higher than smoldering. On the contrary, CO and CH4 emission factors were relatively smaller during flaming than smoldering.

  11. Marginal emissions factors for the U.S. electricity system.

    PubMed

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Morgan, M Granger

    2012-05-01

    There is growing interest in reducing emissions from electricity generation in the United States (U.S.). Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy conservation are all commonly suggested solutions. Both supply- and demand-side interventions will displace energy-and emissions-from conventional generators. Marginal emissions factors (MEFs) give a consistent metric for assessing the avoided emissions resulting from such interventions. This paper presents the first systematic calculation of MEFs for the U.S. electricity system. Using regressions of hourly generation and emissions data from 2006 through 2011, we estimate regional MEFs for CO(2), NO(x), and SO(2), as well as the share of marginal generation from coal-, gas-, and oil-fired generators. Trends in MEFs with respect to system load, time of day, and month are explored. We compare marginal and average emissions factors (AEFs), finding that AEFs may grossly misestimate the avoided emissions resulting from an intervention. We find significant regional differences in the emissions benefits of avoiding one megawatt-hour of electricity: compared to the West, an equivalent energy efficiency measure in the Midwest is expected to avoid roughly 70% more CO(2), 12 times more SO(2), and 3 times more NO(x) emissions.

  12. Urea Fertilizer Decreases N2O Emissions Compared to Anhydrous Ammonia in Corn Cropping Systems in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from corn and soybean fields under different fertilizer regimes is essential to developing national inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to compare N2O emissions in plots managed for more than 15 yr under continuous ...

  13. Factors governing particle number emissions in a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Senem; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-05-01

    Particle number concentration and size distribution measurements were performed on the stack gas of a waste-to-energy plant which co-incinerates municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and clinical waste in two lines. Average total number of particles was found to be 4.0·10(5)cm(-3) and 1.9·10(5)cm(-3) for the line equipped with a wet flue gas cleaning process and a dry cleaning system, respectively. Ultrafine particles (dp<100nm) accounted for about 97% of total number concentration for both lines, whereas the nanoparticle (dp<50nm) contribution differed slightly between the lines (87% and 84%). The experimental data is explored statistically through some multivariate pattern identifying methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis to help the interpretation of the results regarding the origin of the particles in the flue gas with the objective of determining the factors governing the particle number emissions. The higher moisture of the flue gas in the wet cleaning process was found to increase the particle number emissions on average by a factor of about 2 due to increased secondary formation of nanoparticles through nucleation of gaseous precursors such as sulfuric acid, ammonia and water. The influence of flue gas dilution and cooling monitored through the variation of the sampling conditions also confirms the potential effect of the secondary new particle formation in increasing the particle number emissions. This finding shows the importance of reporting the experimental conditions in detail to enable the comparison and interpretation of particle number emissions. Regarding the fuel characteristics no difference was observed in terms of particle number concentration and size distributions between the clinical waste feed and the municipal solid waste co-incineration with sludge.

  14. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  15. Legacy effects of simulated short-term climate change on ammonia oxidisers, denitrifiers, and nitrous oxide emissions in an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoya; Liu, Xiaorui; Li, Yong; Ran, Yu; Liu, Yapeng; Zhang, Qichun; Li, Zheng; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming; Di, Hongjie

    2017-03-21

    Although the effect of simulated climate change on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and on associated microbial communities has been reported, it is not well understood if these effects are short-lived or long-lasting. Here, we conducted a field study to determine the interactive effects of simulated warmer and drier conditions on nitrifier and denitrifier communities and N2O emissions in an acidic soil and the longevity of the effects. A warmer (+2.3 °C) and drier climate (-7.4% soil moisture content) was created with greenhouses. The variation of microbial population abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB), and denitrifiers (nirK/S, nosZ) were determined using real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the simulated warmer and drier conditions under the greenhouse following urea application significantly increased N2O emissions. There was also a moderate legacy effect on the N2O emissions when the greenhouses were removed in the urea treatment, although this effect only lasted a short period of time (about 60 days). The simulated climate change conditions changed the composition of AOA with the species affiliated to marine group 1.1a-associated lineage increasing significantly. The abundance of all the functional denitrifier genes decreased significantly under the simulated climate change conditions and the legacy effect, after the removal of greenhouses, significantly increased the abundance of AOB, AOA (mainly the species affiliated to marine group 1.1a-associated lineage), and nirK and nosZ genes in the urea-treated soil. In general, the effect of the simulated climate change was short-lived, with the denitrifier communities being able to return to ambient levels after a period of adaptation to ambient conditions. Therefore, the legacy effect of simulated short-time climate change conditions on the ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier communities and N2O emissions were temporary and once the

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  17. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  18. Studying electric field enhancement factor of the nanostructured emission surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartdinov, A. N.; Nikiforov, K. A.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical model of nanostructured field emission surface is proposed. In order to determine geometrical parameters of the surface structure digital processing of scanning electron microscopy images was used. Effective value of local electrical field enhancement factor is defined and calculated within the Fowler-Nordheim theory. It was found effective enhancement factor decreases as the applied electrical field increases for a fixed geometry.

  19. Accuracy of exhaust emission factor measurements on chassis dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Joumard, Robert; Laurikko, Juhani; Le Han, Tuan; Geivanidis, Savas; Samaras, Zissis; Merétei, Tamás; Devaux, Philippe; André, Jean-Marc; Cornelis, Erwin; Lacour, Stéphanie; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Vermeulen, Robin; Zallinger, Michael

    2009-06-01

    To improve the accuracy, reliability, and representativeness of emission factors, 10 European laboratories worked together to study the influence of 20 parameters on the measurement of light-vehicle emission factors on chassis dynamometer of 4 main categories: driving patterns, vehicle-related parameters, vehicle sampling, and laboratory-related parameters. The results are based on (1) literature synthesis, (2) approximately 2700 specific tests with 183 vehicles, and (3) the reprocessing of more than 900 tests. These tests concern the regulated atmospheric pollutants and pre-Euro to Euro 4 vehicles. Of the 20 parameters analyzed, 7 seemed to have no effect, 7 were qualitatively influential, and 6 were highly influential (gearshift strategy, vehicle mileage, ambient temperature, humidity, dilution ratio, and driving cycle). The first four of the six were able to have correction factors developed for them. The results allow for the design of recommendations or guidelines for the emission factor measurement method.

  20. Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high strength ammonia wastewater and its greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Zhang, Keyi; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Wang, Siyu; Li, Jibin; Han, Fei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2017-04-01

    In present study, the feasibility of partial nitrification (PN) process achievement and its greenhouse gas emission were evaluated in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). After 90days' operation, the average effluent NH4(+)-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of PN-SBBR were high of 98.2% and 87.6%, respectively. Both polysaccharide and protein contents were reduced in loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) during the achievement of PN-biofilm. Excitation-emission matrix spectra implied that aromatic protein-like, tryptophan protein-like and humic acid-like substances were the main compositions of both kinds of EPS in seed sludge and PN-biofilm. According to typical cycle, the emission rate of CO2 had a much higher value than that of N2O, and their total amounts per cycle were 67.7 and 16.5mg, respectively. Free ammonia (FA) played a significant role on the inhibition activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and the occurrence of nitrite accumulation.

  1. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of an Odour Emission Factor (OEF) to estimate odour emissions from landfill surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucernoni, Federico; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-11-01

    Emission factors are fundamental tools for air quality management. Odour Emission Factors (OEFs) can be developed in analogy with the emission factors defined for other chemical compounds, which relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere to a given associated activity. Landfills typically represent a common source of odour complaint; for this reason, the development of specific OEFs allowing the estimation of odour emissions from this kind of source would be of great interest both for the landfill design and management. This study proposes an up-to-date methodology for the development of an OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfills, thereby focusing on the odour emissions related to the emissions of landfill gas (LFG) from the exhausted landfill surface. The proposed approach is an "indirect" approach based on the quantification of the LFG emissions from methane concentration measurements carried out on an Italian landfill. The Odour Emission Rate (OER) is then obtained by multiplying the emitted gas flow rate by the LFG odour concentration. The odour concentration of the LFG emitted through the landfill surface was estimated by means of an ad hoc correlation investigated between methane concentration and odour concentration. The OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfill surfaces was computed, considering the landfill surface as the activity index, as the product between the mean specific LFG flux emitted through the surface resulting from the experimental campaigns, equal to 0.39 l/m2/h, and its odour concentration, which was estimated to be equal to 105‧000 eq. ouE/m3, thus giving an OEF of 0.011 ouE/m2/s. This value, which is considerably lower than those published in previous works, should be considered as an improved estimation based on the most recent developments of the research in the field of odour sampling on surface sources.

  3. Emission computed tomography of /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and /sup 13/N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-Ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the /sup 18/FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization.

  4. Emission factors from road dust resuspension in a Mediterranean freeway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Orza, J. A. G.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Querol, X.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter emissions from paved roads are currently one of the main challenges for a sustainable transport in Europe. Emissions are scarcely estimated due to the lack of knowledge about the resuspension process severely hampering a reliable simulation of PM and heavy metals concentrations in large cities and evaluation of population exposure. In this study the Emission Factors from road dust resuspension on a Mediterranean freeway were estimated per single vehicle category and PM component (OC, EC, mineral dust and metals) by means of the deployment of vertical profiles of passive samplers and terminal concentration estimate. The estimated PM10 emission factors varied from 12 to 47 mg VKT-1 (VKT: Vehicle Kilometer Traveled) with an average value of 22.7 ± 14.2 mg VKT-1. Emission Factors for heavy and light duty vehicles, passenger cars and motorbikes were estimated, based on average fleet composition and EPA ratios, in 187-733 mg VKT-1, 33-131 VKT-1, 9.4-36.9 VKT-1 and 0.8-3.3 VKT-1, respectively. These range of values are lower than previous estimates in Mediterranean urban roads, probably due to the lower dust reservoir on freeways. PM emitted material was dominated by mineral dust (9-10 mg VKT-1), but also OC and EC were found to be major components and approximately 14-25% and 2-9% of average PM exhaust emissions from diesel passenger cars on highways respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the inverse dispersion modelling method for estimating ammonia multi-source emissions using low-cost long time averaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Carozzi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric ammonia (NH3) is a key player in atmospheric chemistry and its deposition is a threat for the environment (ecosystem eutrophication, soil acidification and reduction in species biodiversity). Most of the NH3 global emissions derive from agriculture, mainly from livestock manure (storage and field application) but also from nitrogen-based fertilisers. Inverse dispersion modelling has been widely used to infer emission sources from a homogeneous source of known geometry. When the emission derives from different sources inside of the measured footprint, the emission should be treated as multi-source problem. This work aims at estimating whether multi-source inverse dispersion modelling can be used to infer NH3 emissions from different agronomic treatment, composed of small fields (typically squares of 25 m side) located near to each other, using low-cost NH3 measurements (diffusion samplers). To do that, a numerical experiment was designed with a combination of 3 x 3 square field sources (625 m2), and a set of sensors placed at the centre of each field at several heights as well as at 200 m away from the sources in each cardinal directions. The concentration at each sensor location was simulated with a forward Lagrangian Stochastic (WindTrax) and a Gaussian-like (FIDES) dispersion model. The concentrations were averaged over various integration times (3 hours to 28 days), to mimic the diffusion sampler behaviour with several sampling strategy. The sources were then inferred by inverse modelling using the averaged concentration and the same models in backward mode. The sources patterns were evaluated using a soil-vegetation-atmosphere model (SurfAtm-NH3) that incorporates the response of the NH3 emissions to surface temperature. A combination emission patterns (constant, linear decreasing, exponential decreasing and Gaussian type) and strengths were used to evaluate the uncertainty of the inversion method. Each numerical experiment covered a period of 28

  6. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  7. Selection of emission factor standards for estimating emissions from diesel construction equipment in building construction in the Australian context.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomin; Sandanayake, Malindu; Setunge, Sujeeva; Li, Chunqing; Fang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from equipment usage and transportation at the construction stage are classified as the direct emissions which include both greenhouse gas (GHG) and non-GHG emissions due to partial combustion of fuel. Unavailability of a reliable and complete inventory restricts an accurate emission evaluation on construction work. The study attempts to review emission factor standards readily available worldwide for estimating emissions from construction equipment. Emission factors published by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (AUS NGA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) are critically reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses. A selection process based on the availability and applicability is then developed to help identify the most suitable emission factor standards for estimating emissions from construction equipment in the Australian context. A case study indicates that a fuel based emission factor is more suitable for GHG emission estimation and a time based emission factor is more appropriate for estimation of non-GHG emissions. However, the selection of emission factor standards also depends on factors like the place of analysis (country of origin), data availability and the scope of analysis. Therefore, suitable modifications and assumptions should be incorporated in order to represent these factors.

  8. 3,4-Dimethylpyrazol phosphate effect on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide emissions from grasslands.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2006-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of NH3, N2O, and NO emissions because of the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) to fertilizers maintains soil N in ammonium form. Consequently, N2O and NO losses are less likely to occur and the potential for N utilization is increased, and NH3 volatilization may be increased. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions following the application of 97 kg N ha(-1) as ammonium sulfate nitrate (ASN) and 97 kg NH4+ -N ha(-1) as cattle slurry to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain). After slurry application, 16.0 and 0.7% of the NH4+ -N applied was lost in the form of N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP induced a decrease of 29 and 25% in N2O and NO emissions, respectively. After ASN application 4.6 and 2.8% of the N applied was lost as N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP with ASN (as ENTEC 26; COMPO, Münster, Germany) unexpectedly did not significantly reduce N2O emissions, but induced a decrease of 44% in NO emissions. The amount of NH4+ -N lost in the form of NH3 following slurry and slurry + DMPP applications was 7.8 and 11.0%, respectively, the increase induced by DMPP not being statistically significant. Levels of CO2 emissions were unaffected in all cases by the use of DMPP. We conclude that DMPP is an efficient nitrification inhibitor to be used to reduce N2O and NO emissions from grasslands.

  9. Relationship between Quantitative Adverse Plaque Features from Coronary CT Angiography and Downstream Impaired Myocardial Flow Reserve by 13N-Ammonia Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Damini; Zamudio, Mariana Diaz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Orozco, Luis Eduardo Juarez; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Li, Debiao; Germano, Guido; Achenbach, Stephan; Berman, Daniel S.; Meave, Aloha; Alexanderson, Erick; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship of quantitative plaque features from coronary CT Angiography (CTA) and coronary vascular dysfunction by impaired myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by 13N-Ammonia Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Methods and Results Fifty-one patients (32 men, 62.4±9.5 years) underwent combined rest-stress 13N-ammonia PET and CTA scans by hybrid PET/CT. Regional MFR was measured from PET. From CTA, 153 arteries were evaluated by semi-automated software, computing arterial non-calcified plaque (NCP), low-density NCP (NCP<30 HU), calcified and total plaque volumes, and corresponding plaque burden (plaque volumex100%/vessel volume), stenosis, remodeling index, contrast density difference (maximum difference in luminal attenuation per unit area in the lesion), and plaque length. Quantitative stenosis, plaque burden and myocardial mass were combined by boosted ensemble machine-learning algorithm into a composite risk score to predict impaired MFR (MFR≤2.0) by PET, in each artery. Nineteen patients (37%) had impaired regional MFR in at least one territory, (41/153 vessels). Patients with impaired regional MFR had higher arterial NCP (32.4 vs.17.2 %), low-density NCP (7 vs 4 %) and total plaque burden (37 vs 19.3 %, p<0.02). In multivariable analysis with 10-fold cross-validation, NCP burden was the most significant predictor of impaired MFR (Odds Ratio 1.35, p=0.021). For prediction of impaired MFR with 10-fold cross-validation, receiver-operating-characteristics-area-under-the-curve for the composite score was 0.83 (95%CI:0.79–0.91), greater than for quantitative stenosis (0.66, 95%CI:0.57–0.76, p = 0.005). Conclusions Compared to stenosis, arterial NCP burden and a composite score combining quantitative stenosis and plaque burden from CTA significantly improves identification of downstream regional vascular dysfunction. PMID:26467104

  10. Advances in Support of the CMAQ Bidirectional Science Option for the Estimation of Ammonia Flux from Agricultural cropland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Session: Emissions Inventories, Models and processes: Last year a new CMAQ bidirectional option for the estimation of ammonia flux (emission and deposition) was released. This option essentially replaces NEI crop ammonia emissions with emissions calculated dynamically...

  11. Update on the development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA's AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) to include PM10 emission factors. This study develops emission factors from the PM10 emission factor data collected from ...

  12. Ammonia synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelik, B.G.; Cassata, J.R.; Katy, P.J.S.; Van Dijk, C.P.

    1986-02-04

    In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop in which fresh synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen and, lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a hydrogen enriched recycle gas to provide combined synthesis gas, the combined synthesis is introduced to and reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst under synthesis conditions to provide converted gas containing ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The ammonia is recovered from the converted gas to provide recycle gas, and a purge stream is removed from the synthesis loop. A hydrogen-rich gas is recovered from the purge stream, and the hydrogen-rich gas is combined with the recycle gas to provide the hydrogen enriched gas. The improvement described in this patent consists of (a) providing the fresh synthesis gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 1.7 and 2.5 and providing the hydrogen enriched recycle gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 0.5 and 1.7 to provide the combined synthesis gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 0.8 and 1.8. The volumetric flow rate ratio of the hydrogen enriched recycle gas to the fresh synthesis gas is between 2.2 and 3.7; and (b) introducing the combined synthesis gas from step (a) to an ammonia synthesis catalyst at a temperature between 315/sup 0/C. and 400/sup 0/C. and a pressure between 50 kg/cm/sup 2/ and 150 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  13. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P < 0.001; 23.2 vs. 45.0 g for the fattening pigs, P < 0.001) but the CH4 emissions were increased (41.5 vs. 21.0 g for gestating sows, P < 0.001; 37.9 vs. 27.2 g for fattening pigs, P < 0.001). The fibre content of the diet had not significant impact on N2O emissions (around 1.4 g for gestating sows and 2.1 g for fattening pigs, P > 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  14. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  15. Cotton harvesting emission factors based on source sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers in some states across the US cotton belt are facing increased regulatory pressure from state air pollution regulatory agencies. This increased pressure is due in part to inaccurate emission factors for many agricultural operations and poor regional air quality. The objective of this...

  16. Effect of in-house chicken litter composting on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions and pathogen reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhouse composting is a management practice to reduce pathogen in poultry litter. In between flocks, growers windrow the litter inside the broiler houses. This results in high temperatures that can reduce some pathogens in the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of NH3 and...

  17. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3(-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3(-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3(-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.

  18. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  19. Constraining isoprene emission factors using airborne flux measurements during CABERNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Jiang, X.; Avise, J. C.; Scott, K.; Jonsson, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    An aircraft flux study was conducted to assess biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from California ecosystems targeting oak woodlands and isoprene for most transects. The direct eddy covariance approach featured high speed proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry onboard a CIRPAS (Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies) Twin Otter aircraft during June 2011 as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) project. Isoprene fluxes were calculated using wavelet analysis and scaled to surface fluxes using a divergence term obtained by measuring fluxes at multiple altitudes over homogenous oak terrain. By normalization of fluxes to standard temperature and photosynthetically active radiation levels using standard BVOC modeling equations, the resulting emission factors could be directly compared with those used by MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) and BEIGIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory Geographic Information System) models which are the most commonly used BVOC emission models for California. As expected, oak woodlands were found to be the dominant source of isoprene in all areas surrounding and in the Central Valley of California. The airborne fluxes averaged to 2 km spatial resolution matched remarkably well with current oak woodland distributions driving the models and hence the correspondence of modeled and aircraft derived emission factors was also good, although quantitative differences were encountered depending on the region and driving variables used. Fluxes measured from aircraft proved to be useful for the improvement of the accuracy of modeled predictions for isoprene and other important ozone and aerosol precursor compounds. These are the first regional isoprene flux measurements using direct eddy covariance on aircraft.

  20. Emission factors from small scale appliances burning wood and pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Senem; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Giugliano, Michele; Angelino, Elisabetta; Marongiu, Alessandro; Hugony, Francesca; Migliavacca, Gabriele; Morreale, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Four manually fed (6-11 kW) firewood burning and two automatic wood pellets (8.8-25 kW) residential heating appliances were tested under real-world operating conditions in order to determine emission factors (EFs) of macropollutants, i.e., carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), particulate matter (PM) and trace pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins. The results were examined for the influence of different factors (i.e., type of wood, appliance and combustion cycle). The experimental EFs were also compared with the values proposed by the European emission inventory guidebook used in the local inventory in order to evaluate their representativeness of real world emissions. The composite macropollutant EFs for manually fed appliances were: for CO 5858 g GJ-1, for NOx 122 g GJ-1, NMHC 542 g GJ-1, PM 254 g GJ-1, whereas emissions were much lower for automatic pellets appliances: CO 219 g GJ-1, for NOx 66 g GJ-1, NMHC 5 g GJ-1, PM 85 g GJ-1. The highest emissions were generally observed for the open fireplace, however traditional and advanced stoves have the highest overall CO EFs. Especially for the advanced stove real-world emissions are far worse than those measured under cycles used for type testing of residential solid fuel appliances. No great difference is observed for different firewood types in batch working appliances, diversely the quality of the pellets is observed to influence directly the emission performance of the automatic appliances. Benzo(b)fluoranthene is the PAH with the highest contribution (110 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 2 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (77 mg GJ-1 for manual appliances and 0.8 mg GJ-1 for automatic devices).

  1. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MICROFACPM: A MICROSCALE MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper entitled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Re...

  2. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  3. The effect of high and low dietary crude protein and inulin supplementation on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, intestinal microflora and manure ammonia emissions from finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M B; Sweeney, T; Callan B Flynn, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2007-09-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was performed to investigate the interaction between a high- and low-crude-protein (CP) diet (200 v. 140 g/kg) and inulin supplementation (0 v. 12.5 g/kg) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) excretion, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and manure ammonia emissions from 24 boars (n = 6, 74.0 kg live weight). The diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of digestible energy and lysine. Pigs offered the high-CP diets had a higher excretion of urinary N (P < 0.001), faecal N (P < 0.01) and total N (P < 0.001) than the pigs offered the low-CP diets. Inulin supplementation increased faecal N excretion (P < 0.05) and decreased the urine N : faeces N ratio (P < 0.05) compared with the inulin-free diets. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on N retention. There was an interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary CP concentration and inulin supplementation on caecal Enterobacteria spp. Pigs offered the diet containing 200 g/kg of CP plus inulin decreased the population of Enterobacteria spp. compared to those with the inulin-supplemented 140 g/kg CP diet. However, CP level had no significant effect on the population of Enterobacteria spp. in the unsupplemented diets. Inulin supplementation increased caecal Bifidobacteria (P < 0.01) compared with the inulin-free diets. There was no effect of inulin supplementation on VFA concentration or intestinal pH (P > 0.05). Pigs offered the 200 g/kg CP diets had higher (P < 0.05) manure ammonia emissions from 0 to 240 h of storage than pigs offered the 140 g/kg CP. In conclusion, inulin supplementation resulted in an increase in Bifidobacteria concentration and a reduction in Enterobacteria spp. at the high CP level indicating that inulin has the ability to beneficially manipulate gut microflora in a proteolytic environment.

  4. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A brief description of TES is listed below. TES is a spectrometer that measures the infrared-light energy (radiance) emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in Earth's atmosphere. Every substance warmer than absolute zero emits infrared radiation at certain signature wavelengths. Spectrometers measure this radiation as a means of identifying the substances.TES has very high spectral resolution, which gives it the ability to pinpoint the wavelengths at which the substances are emitting. This enables precise identification of the substances, and also provides information about their location in the atmosphere. Emission wavelengths can vary with temperature and pressure, so seeing the emissions with great precision enables scientists to infer the temperature and pressure of the chemicals from which they came. This, in turn, implies that the chemicals being observed are at a certain altitude where those temperatures and pressures apply. The ability to determine the altitude of the observed chemicals enables TES to distinguish radiation from the upper and lower atmosphere, and focus on the lower layer - the troposphere.Since it observes light in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, similar to night-vision goggles, TES can observe both day and night. Its spectral range overlaps t

  5. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models.

  6. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  7. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  8. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  9. Emission factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, B.M.; Jones, A.D.; Turn, S.Q.; Williams, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    Emission factors for 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured during wind tunnel simulations of open burning for agricultural and forest biomass fuels including cereal grasses, agricultural tree prunings, and fir and pine wood (slash). Yields of total PAH varied from 5 to 683 mg kg{sup -1} depending principally on burning conditions and to a lesser extent on fuel type. Barley straw and wheat straw loaded at 400-500 g m{sup -2} emitted much higher levels of PAH, including benzo[a]pyrene, than other cereal and wood fuel types burning under more robust conditions. As anticipated, total PAH emission rates increased with increasing particulate matter emission rates and with declining combustion efficiency. 20 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Ambient ammonia in terrestrial ecosystems: a comparative study in the Tennessee Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ridwaana; Myles, LaToya; Heuer, Mark W

    2011-06-15

    Atmospheric ammonia has been shown to degrade regional air quality and affect environmental health. In-situ measurements of ammonia are needed to determine how ambient concentrations vary in different ecosystems and the extent to which emission sources contribute to those levels. The objective of this study was to measure and compare ammonia concentrations in two Tennessee Valley (USA) ecosystems: a forested rural area and a metropolitan site adjacent to a main transportation route. Integrated samples of atmospheric ammonia were collected with annular denuder systems for ~4 weeks during the summer of 2009 in both ecosystems. Ancillary measurements of meteorological variables, such as wind direction and precipitation, were also conducted to determine any relationships with ammonia concentration. Measurements in the two ecosystems revealed ammonia concentrations that were mostly representative of background levels. Arithmetic means were 1.57±0.68 μg m(-3) at the metropolitan site and 1.60±0.77 μg m(-3) in the forest. The geometric mean concentrations for both sites were ~1.46 μg m(-3). Wind direction, and to a lesser extent air temperature and precipitation, did influence measured concentrations. At the metropolitan site, ammonia concentrations were slightly higher in winds emanating from the direction of the interstate highway. Meteorological variables, such as wind direction, and physical factors, such as topography, can affect measurement of ambient ammonia concentrations, especially in ecosystems distant from strong emission sources. The 12-h integrated sampling method used in this study was unable to measure frequent changes in ambient ammonia concentrations and illustrates the need for measurements with higher temporal resolution, at least ~1-2h, in a variety of diverse ecosystems to determine the behavior of atmospheric ammonia and its environmental effects.

  11. Smoke emission factors from medium scale fires: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Dod, R.L.; Brown, N.J.; Mowrer, F.W.; Novakov, T.; Williamson, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    Smoke emmission factors, (i.e., the mass of smoke per mass of fuel burned), were measured in eleven separate experiments. The size distribution of the smoke particles was determined using a cascade impactor. The percentages of ''black'' carbon (also called ''graphitic'' or ''elemental'' carbon) and organic carbon have been determined for all the experiments as a function of particle aerodynamic diameter. Values in the range of .1 to .2% are reported for the smoke particle emission factors for Douglas fire whole wood and plywood burning under well ventilated conditions. Approximately 65% of the particles have aerodynamic diameters less than 1 ..mu..m. Douglas fir whole wood gave smoke emission factors in the range of 2 to 3.5% when burned under poorly ventilated conditions representative of a building fire that is limited by air entrainment. For this case the size distribution was much broader, with substantial quantities of particles up to 5 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. For all experiments, the black carbon content represented between 50 and 75% of the total mass of the smoke particles. The smoke emission factor for burning asphalt roofing shingles is reported as 12.1% with black carbon content greater than 70%. Over half of the mass consisted of particles of less than 1 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter.

  12. Predicting odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants by means of odour emission factors.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Céntola, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the results of odour concentration measurements on different wastewater treatment plants are presented and used in order to estimate the odour emission factors relevant to single odour sources. An odour emission factor is a representative value that relates the quantity of odour released to the atmosphere to a specific activity index, which in this case was the plant treatment capacity, resulting in an odour emission factor expressed in odour units per cubic metre of treated sewage. The results show that the major odour source of a wastewater treatment plant is represented by the primary sedimentation (with an OEF equal to 1.9 x 10(5)ou(E) m(-3)). In general, the highest OEFs are observed in correspondence of the first steps of the wastewater depuration cycle (OEF between 1.1 x 10(4)ou(E) m(-3) and 1.9 x 10(5)ou(E) m(-3)) and tend to decrease along the depuration process (OEF between 7.4 x 10(3)ou(E) m(-3) and 4.3 x 10(4)ou(E) m(-3)). In general, the OEFs calculated according to this approach represent a model for a rough prediction of odour emissions independently from the specific characteristics of the different plants.

  13. A prediction model of ammonia emission from a fattening pig room based on the indoor concentration using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-03-05

    Ammonia (NH3) is considered one of the significant pollutions contributor to indoor air quality and odor gas emission from swine house because of the negative impact on the health of pigs, the workers and local environment. Prediction models could provide a reasonable way for pig industries and environment regulatory to determine environment control strategies and give an effective method to evaluate the air quality. The adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) simulates human's vague thinking manner to solve the ambiguity and nonlinear problems which are difficult to be processed by conventional mathematics. Five kinds of membership functions were used to build a well fitted ANFIS prediction model. It was shown that the prediction model with "Gbell" membership function had the best capabilities among those five kinds of membership functions, and it had the best performances compared with backpropagation (BP) neuro network model and multiple linear regression model (MLRM) both in wintertime and summertime, the smallest value of mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and standard deviation (SD) are 0.002 and 0.0047, 31.1599 and 23.6816, 0.0564 and 0.0802, respectively, and the largest coefficients of determination (R(2)) are 0.6351 and 0.6483, repectively. The ANFIS prediction model could be served as a beneficial strategy for the environment control system that has input parameters with highly fluctuating, complexity, and non-linear relationship.

  14. Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water

  15. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  16. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  17. VOC emission rates and emission factors for a sheetfed offset printing shop.

    PubMed

    Wadden, R A; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E; Conroy, L M; Javor, M; Keil, C B; Milz, S A

    1995-04-01

    Emission rates were determined during production for a sheetfed offset printing shop by combining the measured concentrations and ventilation rates with mass balance models that characterized the printing space. Air samples were collected simultaneously on charcoal tubes for 12 separate 1-hour periods at 6 locations. Air samples and cleaning solvents were analyzed by gas chromatography for total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 13 hydrocarbons. The average VOC emission rate was 470 g/hr with a range of 160-1100 g/hr. These values were in good agreement with the amounts of VOC, hexane, toluene, and aromatic C9s determined from estimated solvent usage and measured solvent compositions. Comparison of the emission rates with source activities indicated an emission factor of 30-51 g VOC/press cleaning. Based on the test observations it was estimated that this typical small printing facility was likely to release 1-2 T VOC/year. The methodology also may be useful for the surface coating industry, as emission rates in this study were determined without recourse to a temporary total enclosure and without interfering with worker activities, increasing worker exposure, or increasing safety and explosion hazards.

  18. Zero Emission Building And Conversion Factors Between Electricity Consumption And Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases In A Long Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Bakken, Bjørn Harald; Feilberg, Nicolai

    2014-12-01

    The CO2 emissions from a building's power system will change over the life time of the building, and this need to be taken into account to verify whether a building is Zero Emission (ZEB) or not. This paper describes how conversion factors between electricity demand and emissions can be calculated for the European power system in a long term perspective through the application of a large scale electricity market model (EMPS). Examples of two types of factors are given: a conversion factor for average emissions per kWh for the whole European power system as well as a marginal factor for a specific region.

  19. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First

  20. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  1. Renal ammonia metabolism and transport.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I David; Verlander, Jill W

    2013-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4(+) and 2 HCO3(-) for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3(-)-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4(+) trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4(+)-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K(+), and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis.

  2. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    SciTech Connect

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  3. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  4. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  5. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  7. Development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA’s AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. All current PM10 cotton gin emission factors received quality ratings of D or lower. In an effort to improve these ratin...

  8. Development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA’S AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. AP-42 currently contains no PM2.5 cotton gin emission factors. In an effort to develop science-based data for regulating...

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke: mutagenic emission rates and their relationship to other emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.; Williams, K.; Lofroth, G.; Hammond, K.; Leaderer, B.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission rates and exposure concentrations of mutagens, nicotine, and particles from cigarettes. Studies were conducted under controlled laboratory and chamber conditions as well as in personal residences. The mutagenicity of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was evaluated in three bioassays using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA98 was used in the standard plate-incorporation and microsuspension histidine reversion assays; and strain TM677 in a microsuspension forward mutation assay. The mutagenicity, expressed either per Ug particle or per Ug nicotine, appeared to be a relatively constant factor that did not vary significantly between various cigarette brands. These data are being used to model the emissions of mutagens to predict mutagenic exposure concentrations under various conditions.

  10. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Daniel; Hess, Peter; Mahowald, Natalie; Massad, Raia; Holland, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run off during rain events or form plant-useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial land model, the Community Land Model (CLM). In this first model version the parameterization emphasizes an explicit climate-dependent approach while using highly simplified representations of agricultural practices, including manure management and fertilizer application. The climate-dependent approach explicitly simulates the relationship between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and runoff of Nr following manure or synthetic fertilizer application. For the year 2000, approximately 125 Tg N yr-1 is applied as manure and 62 Tg N yr-1 is applied as synthetic fertilizer. We estimate the resulting global NH3 emissions are 21 Tg N yr-1 from manure (17 % of manure production) and 12 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer (19 % of fertilizer application); reactive nitrogen runoff during rain events is calculated as 11 Tg N yr-1 from manure and 5 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer. The remaining nitrogen from manure (93 Tg N yr-1) and synthetic fertilizer (45 Tg N yr-1) is captured by the canopy or transferred to the soil nitrogen pools. The parameterization was implemented in the CLM from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from

  11. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K. F.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2013-08-01

    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO + NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial trends in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region, but are more variable than published biome specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) v3. Satellite based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30 % lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average a factor of 2 higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5-2.0 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion from large diameter

  12. Source of Nitrous Oxide Emissions during the Cow Manure Composting Process as Revealed by Isotopomer Analysis of and amoA Abundance in Betaproteobacterial Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Shimojima, Ryosuke; Osada, Takashi; Hanajima, Dai; Morioka, Riki; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2010-01-01

    A molecular analysis of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers and a N2O isotopomer analysis were conducted to study the sources of N2O emissions during the cow manure composting process. Much NO2−-N and NO3−-N and the Nitrosomonas europaea-like amoA gene were detected at the surface, especially at the top of the composting pile, suggesting that these ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) significantly contribute to the nitrification which occurs at the surface layer of compost piles. However, the 15N site preference within the asymmetric N2O molecule (SP = δ15Nα − δ15Nβ, where 15Nα and 15Nβ represent the 15N/14N ratios at the center and end sites of the nitrogen atoms, respectively) indicated that the source of N2O emissions just after the compost was turned originated mainly from the denitrification process. Based on these results, the reduction of accumulated NO2−-N or NO3−-N after turning was identified as the main source of N2O emissions. The site preference and bulk δ15N results also indicate that the rate of N2O reduction was relatively low, and an increased value for the site preference indicates that the nitrification which occurred mainly in the surface layer of the pile partially contributed to N2O emissions between the turnings. PMID:20048060

  13. Particle number emission factors for an urban highway tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Jessica L.; Padró-Martínez, Luz T.; Durant, John L.

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been linked to increased risks of cardiopulmonary disease, asthma, and reduced lung function. Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm), one component of traffic exhaust, may contribute to these risks. This paper describes the development of UFP emission factors, an important input parameter for dispersion models used for exposure assessment. Measurements of particle number concentration (PNC), a proxy for UFP, were performed in the Central Artery Tunnel on Interstate-93 in Boston (MA, USA). The tunnel system consists of two, unidirectional bores, which each carry ˜9 × 104 vehicles per day (diesel vehicles comprise 2-5% of the fleet in the southbound tunnel and 1-3% in the northbound tunnel). A tunnel was chosen for study because it provided an enclosed environment where the effects of lateral and vertical dispersion by ambient air and photochemical reactions would be minimized. Data were collected using a mobile platform equipped with rapid-response instruments for measuring PNC (4-3000 nm) as well as NOx. Because Boston is located in a temperate region (latitude 42° N), we were interested in studying seasonal and diurnal differences in emission factors. To characterize seasonal differences, mobile monitoring was performed on 36 days spaced at 7-14 day intervals over one year (Sept. 2010-Sept. 2011); to characterize diurnal differences intensive mobile monitoring (n = 90 total trips through the tunnels) was performed over the course of two consecutive days in January 2012. All data collected during congested traffic conditions (˜7% of total data set) were removed from the analysis. The median PNC inside the two tunnels for all trips during the 12-month campaign was 3-4-fold higher than on I-93 immediately outside the tunnel and 7-10-fold higher than on I-93 4 km from the tunnel. The median particle number emission factors (EFPN) (±median absolute deviation) for the southbound and northbound tunnels

  14. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F.; van der Werf, G.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO+NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial trends in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region, but are more variable than published biome specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) v3. Satellite based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30% lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average 80% higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5-2.0 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005. Our results support the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion from large diameter fuels to total

  15. Development of emission factors and emission inventories for motorcycles and light duty vehicles in the urban region in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tung, H D; Tong, H Y; Hung, W T; Anh, N T N

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports on a 2-year emissions monitoring program launched by the Centre for Environmental Monitoring of the Vietnam Environment Administration which aimed at determining emission factors and emission inventories for two typical types of vehicle in Hanoi, Vietnam. The program involves four major activities. A database for motorcycles and light duty vehicles (LDV) in Hanoi was first compiled through a questionnaire survey. Then, two typical driving cycles were developed for the first time for motorcycles and LDVs in Hanoi. Based on this database and the developed driving cycles for Hanoi, a sample of 12 representative test vehicles were selected to determine vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission factors (CO, HC, NOx and CO(2)). This set of emission factors were developed for the first time in Hanoi with due considerations of local driving characteristics. In particular, it was found that the emission factors derived from Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles and adopted in some previous studies were generally overestimated. Eventually, emission inventories for motorcycles and LDVs were derived by combining the vehicle population data, the developed vehicle specific emission factors and vehicle kilometre travelled (VKT) information from the survey. The inventory suggested that motorcycles contributed most to CO, HC and NOx emissions while LDVs appeared to be more fuel consuming.

  16. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, D. A.; Williams, A. E.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Marr, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for 97% of mobile source emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95-97% of aromatics, 72-85% of carbonyls, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction. Nevertheless, the fuel-based inventory suggests that mobile source emissions of CO and NOx are overstated in the official inventory while

  17. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  18. Development of correction factors for landfill gas emission model suiting Indian condition to predict methane emission from landfills.

    PubMed

    Sil, Avick; Kumar, Sunil; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Methane emission from landfill gas emission (LandGEM) model was validated through the results of laboratory scale biochemical methane potential assay. Results showed that LandGEM model over estimates methane (CH4) emissions; and the true CH4 potential of waste depends on the level of segregation. Based on these findings, correction factors were developed to estimate CH4 emission using LandGEM model especially where the level of segregation is negligible or does not exist. The correction factors obtained from the study were 0.94, 0.13 and 0.74 for food waste, mixed un-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and vegetable wastes, respectively.

  19. Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Dixon, S. D.; Artz, R. R. E.; Smith, T. E. L.; Evans, C. D.; Owen, H. J. F.; Archer, E.; Renou-Wilson, F.

    2015-09-01

    Drained peatlands are significant hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and may also be more vulnerable to fire with its associated gaseous emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands managed for extraction are reported on an annual basis. However, the Tier 1 (default) emission factors (EFs) provided in the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement for this land use category may not be representative in all cases and countries are encouraged to move to higher-tier reporting levels with reduced uncertainty levels based on country- or regional-specific data. In this study, we quantified (1) CO2-C emissions from nine peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were initially disaggregated by land use type (industrial versus domestic peat extraction), and (2) a range of GHGs that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Drainage-related methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as CO2-C emissions associated with the off-site decomposition of horticultural peat were not included here. Our results show that net CO2-C emissions were strongly controlled by soil temperature at the industrial sites (bare peat) and by soil temperature and leaf area index at the vegetated domestic sites. Our derived EFs of 1.70 (±0.47) and 1.64 (±0.44) t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1 for the industrial and domestic sites respectively are considerably lower than the Tier 1 EF (2.8 ± 1.7 t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) provided in the Wetlands Supplement. We propose that the difference between our derived values and the Wetlands Supplement value is due to differences in peat quality and, consequently, decomposition rates. Emissions from burning of the peat (g kg-1 dry fuel burned) were estimated to be approximately 1346 CO2, 8.35 methane (CH4), 218 carbon monoxide (CO), 1.53 ethane (C2H6), 1.74 ethylene (C2H4), 0.60 methanol (CH3OH), 2.21 hydrogen

  20. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    PubMed

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  1. Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, K. F.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2014-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO+NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome-specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial patterns in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region but are more variable than published biome-specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom-up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Satellite-based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30% lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average a factor of 1.8 higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires, early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5-2 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005, supporting the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion from large-diameter fuels

  2. On-road remote sensing of petrol vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.; Leung, C. W.; Cheung, C. S.; Hung, W. T.; Dong, G.

    In the present study, the real world on-road petrol vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured petrol vehicle emission data was also used to estimate the on-road petrol vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the petrol vehicle model years, engine sizes and driving patterns have a strong correlation on their emission factors. A comparison of average petrol vehicle emission factors in different engine sizes and European vehicle emission standards was also presented. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate petrol vehicle reflects on the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of petrol vehicle emission factors on different model years and engine sizes for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

  3. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B.; Safriet, D.

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  4. The effect of ammonia on the O-linked glycosylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produced by chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, D.C.; Goochee, C.F.

    1995-07-05

    Ammonium ion concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mM are shown to significantly reduce the sialylation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells. Specifically, the degree of completion of the final reaction in the O-linked glycosylation pathway, the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine, is reduced by NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations of as low as 2 mM. The effect of ammonia on sialylation is rapid, sustained, and does not affect the secretion rate of G-CSF. Additionally, the effect can be mimicked using the weak base chloroquine, suggesting that the effect is related to the weak base characteristics of ammonia. In support of this hypothesis, experiments using brefeldin A suggest that the addition of sialic acid in an {alpha}(2,6) linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine occurs in the trans-Golgi compartment prior to the trans-Golgi network, which would be expected under normal conditions to have a slightly acidic pH in the range from 6.5 to 6.75. Ammonium ion concentrations of 10mM would be expected to reduce significantly the differences in pH between acidic intracellular compartments and the cytoplasm. The pH-activity profile for the CHO O-linked {alpha}(2,6)sialytransferase using monosialylated G-CSF as a substrate reveals a twofold decrease in enzymatic activity across the pH range from 6.75 to 7.0. Mathematical modeling of this sialylation reaction supports the hypothesis that this twofold decrease in sialyltransferase activity resulting from an ammonia-induced increase in trans-Golgi pH could produce the observed decrease in G-CSF sialylation.

  5. Application of positive matrix factorization to on-road measurements for source apportionment of diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicle emissions in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, D. A.; Williams, A. E.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Marr, L. C.

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify diesel- and gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using on-road measurements captured by a mobile laboratory combined with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modeling. During the MCMA-2006 ground-based component of the MILAGRO field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) measured many gaseous and particulate pollutants, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), benzene, toluene, alkylated aromatics, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, ammonia, particle number, fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC). These serve as inputs to the receptor model, which is able to resolve three factors corresponding to gasoline engine exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, and the urban background. Using the source profiles, we calculate fuel-based emission factors for each type of exhaust. The MCMA's gasoline-powered vehicles are considerably dirtier, on average, than those in the US with respect to CO and aldehydes. Its diesel-powered vehicles have similar emission factors of NOx and higher emission factors of aldehydes, particle number, and BC. In the fleet sampled during AML driving, gasoline-powered vehicles are found to be responsible for 97% of total vehicular emissions of CO, 22% of NOx, 95-97% of each aromatic species, 72-85% of each carbonyl species, 74% of ammonia, negligible amounts of particle number, 26% of PM2.5, and 2% of BC; diesel-powered vehicles account for the balance. Because the mobile lab spent 17% of its time waiting at stoplights, the results may overemphasize idling conditions, possibly resulting in an underestimate of NOx and overestimate of CO emissions. On the other hand, estimates of the inventory that do not correctly account for emissions during idling are likely to produce bias in the opposite direction.The resulting fuel-based estimates of emissions are lower than in the official inventory for CO and NOx

  6. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for US wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In the US wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and Regional Haze Regulations. Wildland fire emission inventories (EI) provide critical inputs for atmospheric chemical transport models used by air regulatory agencies to understand and to predict the impact of fires on air quality. Fire emission factors (EF), which quantify the amount of pollutants released per mass of biomass burned, are essential input for the emission models used to develop EI. Over the past decade substantial progress has been realized in characterizing the composition of fresh biomass burning (BB) smoke and in quantifying BB EF. However, most BB studies of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in the temperate forests of the conterminous US. Current emission estimates for US wildfires rely largely on EF measurements from prescribed burns and it is unknown if these fires are a reasonable proxy for wildfires. Over 8 days in August of 2011 we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions from 3 wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg-1, 135 g kg-1, 7.30 g kg-1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in similar forest types, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. An examination of our study and 47 temperate forest prescribed fires from previously published studies shows a clear trend in MCE across US region/fire type: southeast (MCE = 0.933) > southwest (MCE = 0.922) > northwest (MCE = 0

  7. Comparative Study of Emission Factors and Mutagenicity of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wildfire events produce massive amounts of smoke and thus play an important role in local and regional air quality as well as public health. It is not well understood however if the impacts of wildfire smoke are influenced by fuel types or combustion conditions. Here we developed a novel combustion and sample-collection system that features an automated tube furnace to control combustion conditions and a multistage cryotrap system to efficiently collection particulate and semi-volatile phases of smoke emissions. The furnace sustained stable flaming and smoldering biomass (red oak and peat) burning conditions consistently for ~60 min. The multi-stage cryo-trap system (-10°C followed by -47°C, and ending in -70°C sequential impingers) collected up to 90% (by mass) of the smoke. Condensates were extracted and assessed for mutagenicity (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)- and nitroarene-type activity) in Salmonella strains TA100 and TA98+/-S9. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) concentrations monitored continuously during the combustion process were used to calculate modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and emission factors (EFs). We found that the MCE during smoldering conditions was 74% and 71% and during flaming conditions was 99% and 96% for red oak and peat, respectively. Red oak smoldering EFs for CO and PM were 209 g/kg and 147 g/kg, whereas flaming EFs were 16 g/kg and 0.6 g/kg, respectively. Peat smoldering EF

  8. N2O emission characteristics and its affecting factors in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liwei; Wang, Cheng; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, hui

    2016-12-01

    Representing an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from cultivated land is a hot topic in current climate change research. This study examined the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil moisture on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene copy numbers and N2O emission characteristics. The experimental observation of N2O fluxes was based on the static chamber-gas chromatographic method. The ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers in different periods were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that rain-fed potato field was a N2O source, and the average annual N2O emission was approximately 0.46 ± 0.06 kgN2O-N/ha/year. N2O emissions increased significantly with increase in fertilisation, temperatures below 19.6 °C and soil volumetric water content under 15%. Crop rotation appreciably decreases N2O emissions by 34.4 to 52.4% compared to continuous cropping in rain-fed potato fields. The significant correlation between N2O fluxes and AOB copy numbers implied that N2O emissions were primarily controlled by AOB in rain-fed potato fields. The research has important theoretical and practical value for understanding N2O emissions from rain-fed dry farmland fields.

  9. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  10. On-road remote sensing of diesel vehicle emissions measurement and emission factors estimation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. L.; Ning, Z.

    In the present study, the real world on-road diesel vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO) were investigated at nine sites in Hong Kong. A regression analysis approach based on the measured vehicle emission data was used to estimate the on-road diesel vehicle emission factors of CO, HC and NO with respect to the effects of instantaneous vehicle speed and acceleration/deceleration profiles for local urban driving patterns. The results show that the diesel vehicle model years, engine sizes, vehicle types and driving patterns have a strong correlation with their emission factors. A comparison was made between the average diesel and petrol vehicle emissions factors in Hong Kong. The deviation of the average emission factors of aggregate diesel vehicles reflects the variability of local road condition, vehicle traffic fleet and volume, driving pattern, fuel composition and ambient condition etc. Finally, a unique database of the correlation of diesel vehicle emission factors (i.e., g km -1 and g l -1) on different model years and vehicle types for urban driving patterns in Hong Kong was established.

  11. Intercomparison of real-time tailpipe ammonia measurements from vehicles tested over the new world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle (WLTC).

    PubMed

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Zardini, Alessandro A; Lilova, Velizara; Meyer, Daniel; Nakatani, Shigeru; Hibel, Frank; Ewers, Jens; Clairotte, Michael; Hill, Leslie; Astorga, Covadonga

    2015-05-01

    Four light-duty vehicles (two diesel, one flex-fuel, and one gasoline vehicle) were tested as part of an intercomparison exercise of the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) aiming at measuring real-time ammonia emissions from the vehicles' raw exhaust at the tailpipe. The tests were conducted in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), Ispra, Italy. HORIBA, CGS, and the Sustainable Transport Unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) took part in the measurement and analysis of the four vehicles' exhaust emissions over the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle class 3, version 5.3 using a HORIBA MEXA 1400 QL-NX, a CGS BLAQ-Sys, and the JRC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The measured ammonia concentrations and the emission profiles revealed that these three instruments are suitable to measure ammonia from the vehicles' raw exhaust, presenting no significant differences. Furthermore, results showed that measurement of ammonia from the vehicle exhaust using online systems can be performed guaranteeing the reproducibility and repeatability of the results. While no ammonia was detected for any of the two diesel vehicles (even though, one was equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system), we report average ammonia emission factors 8-10 mg/km (average concentrations 20-23 ppm) and 10-12 mg/km (average concentrations 22-24 ppm) for the flex-fuel and gasoline vehicles, respectively.

  12. Use of portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for the development and validation of passenger car emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousoulidou, Marina; Fontaras, Georgios; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Bonnel, Pierre; Samaras, Zissis; Dilara, Panagiota

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and validation of passenger car emission factors, using real world operation data. In total, six passenger cars of different technologies were studied. The tested vehicles were operated under various driving conditions and over two different routes in the region of Lombardia, Italy. These routes were specifically defined in order to provide a range of driving conditions, including urban, rural and highway driving. Tailpipe emissions and exhaust gas flows were measured on-board the vehicle, using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). In addition, all vehicles were tested over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) with the same PEMS equipment. The testing of gasoline vehicles showed that emissions are well below the emission standards and do not raise any concern. However, the testing of diesel vehicles both under real-world driving conditions and over the NEDC brought to the surface important concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern diesel vehicles, since they seem to comply with the corresponding emission standard over the type-approval cycle, but they constantly exceed the specified limit when tested under real-world driving conditions. Results from real-world operation revealed that there is a significant deviation from the NOx emission standard limit (especially for the newly introduced Euro 5 technology). These observations raise concerns regarding the actual NOx emissions of modern vehicles and their impact on urban air-quality. The emission factors originally measured on the road are also compared to the corresponding COPERT average speed emission factors. In general, emissions of CO2, THC and CO correlate fairly well with COPERT, for all vehicles. In the case of NOx emissions, emission levels of the two tested Euro 5 diesel passenger cars are consistently higher in urban, rural, and highway driving compared to the corresponding COPERT emission factor. Thus, leading to the conclusion that

  13. Ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes from a novel swine housing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission and subsequent deposition can be a major source of pollution, causing nitrogen enrichment, acidification of soils and surface waters, and aerosol formation. In livestock production housing, ammonia emissions can also adversely affect the health, performance, and welfare of both ani...

  14. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  15. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  16. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  17. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  18. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  19. Update on the development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA's AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) to include PM2.5 emission factors. This study develops emission factors from the PM2.5 emission factor data collected fro...

  20. Estimating end-use emissions factors for policy analysis: the case of space cooling and heating.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Grant D

    2014-06-17

    This paper provides the first estimates of end-use specific emissions factors, which are estimates of the amount of a pollutant that is emitted when a unit of electricity is generated to meet demand from a specific end-use. In particular, this paper provides estimates of emissions factors for space cooling and heating, which are two of the most significant end-uses. The analysis is based on a novel two-stage regression framework that estimates emissions factors that are specific to cooling or heating by exploiting variation in cooling and heating demand induced by weather variation. Heating is associated with similar or greater CO2 emissions factor than cooling in all regions. The difference is greatest in the Midwest and Northeast, where the estimated CO2 emissions factor for heating is more than 20% larger than the emissions factor for cooling. The minor differences in emissions factors in other regions, combined with the substantial difference in the demand pattern for cooling and heating, suggests that the use of overall regional emissions factors is reasonable for policy evaluations in certain locations. Accurately quantifying the emissions factors associated with different end-uses across regions will aid in designing improved energy and environmental policies.

  1. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

    1996-08-01

    There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

  2. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of MicroFacPM: a microscale motor vehicle emission factor model for particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh B; Huber, Alan H; Braddock, James N

    2007-04-01

    A microscale emission factor model (MicroFacPM) for predicting real-time site-specific motor vehicle particulate matter emissions was presented in the companion paper titled "Development of a Microscale Emission Factor Model for Particulate Matter (MicroFacPM) for Predicting Real-Time Motor Vehicle Emissions". The emission rates discussed are in mass per unit distance with the model providing estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter. This paper complements the companion paper by presenting a sensitivity analysis of the model to input variables and evaluation model outputs using data from limited field studies. The sensitivity analysis has shown that MicroFacPM emission estimates are very sensitive to vehicle fleet composition, speed, and the percentage of high-emitting vehicles. The vehicle fleet composition can affect fleet emission rates from 8 mg/mi to 1215 mg/mi; an increase of 5% in the smoking (high-emitting) current average U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet (compared with 0%) increased PM2.5 emission rates by -272% for 2000; and for the current U.S. fleet, PM2.5 emission rates are reduced by a factor of -0.64 for speeds >50 miles per hour (mph) relative to a speed of 10 mph. MicroFacPM can also be applied to examine the contribution of emission rates per vehicle class, model year, and sources of PM. The model evaluation is presented for the Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel, Pennsylvania Turnpike, PA, and some limited evaluations at two locations: Sepulveda Tunnel, Los Angeles, CA, and Van Nuys Tunnel, Van Nuys, CA. In general, the performance of MicroFacPM has shown very encouraging results.

  3. USDA-EPA Collaborative Ammonia Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2014, a work group was formed between USDA and EPA to facilitate information exchange on ammonia emissions from agriculture, air quality impacts and emission mitigation options and to identify opportunities for collaboration. This document provides background on the work grou...

  4. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  5. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  6. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. E. L.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Maier, S. W.; Russell-Smith, J.; Wooster, M. J.; Yates, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    . Therefore, the selection of emission factors for emissions modelling purposes need not necessarily require detailed fuel type information, if data on MCE (e.g. from future spaceborne total column measurements) or a correlated variable were available. From measurements at 21 fires, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian tropical savanna fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned), which are our mean measured values: 1674 ± 56 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 87 ± 33 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 2.1 ± 1.2 g kg-1 of methane; 0.11 ± 0.04 g kg-1 of acetylene; 0.49 ± 0.22 g kg-1 of ethylene; 0.08 ± 0.05 g kg-1 of ethane; 1.57 ± 0.44 g kg-1 of formaldehyde; 1.06 ± 0.87 g kg-1 of methanol; 1.54 ± 0.64 g kg-1 of acetic acid; 0.16 ± 0.07 g kg-1 of formic acid; 0.53 ± 0.31 g kg-1 of hydrogen cyanide; and 0.70 ± 0.36 g kg-1 of ammonia. In a companion paper, similar techniques are used to characterise the emissions from Australian temperate forest fires.

  7. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Particulate Matter Emission Factor Model for European Motor Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh B; Colls, Jeremy J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 um, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM25, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict the

  8. Development and preliminary evaluation of a particulate matter emission factor model for European motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Colls, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although modeling of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles is now quite advanced, prediction of particulate emissions is still at an unsophisticated stage. Emission factors for gasoline vehicles are not reliably available, since gasoline vehicles are not included in the European Union (EU) emission test procedure. Regarding diesel vehicles, emission factors are available for different driving cycles but give little information about change of emissions with speed or engine load. We have developed size-specific speed-dependent emission factors for gasoline and diesel vehicles. Other vehicle-generated emission factors are also considered and the empirical equation for re-entrained road dust is modified to include humidity effects. A methodology is proposed to calculate modal (accelerating, cruising, or idling) emission factors. The emission factors cover particle size ranges up to 10 microns, either from published data or from user-defined size distributions. A particulate matter emission factor model (PMFAC), which incorporates virtually all the available information on particulate emissions for European motor vehicles, has been developed. PMFAC calculates the emission factors for five particle size ranges [i.e., total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, PM5, PM2.5, and PM1] from both vehicle exhaust and nonexhaust emissions, such as tire wear, brake wear, and re-entrained road dust. The model can be used for an unlimited number of roads and lanes, and to calculate emission factors near an intersection in user-defined elements of the lane. PMFAC can be used for a variety of fleet structures. Hot emission factors at the user-defined speed can be calculated for individual vehicles, along with relative cold-to-hot emission factors. The model accounts for the proportions of distance driven with cold engines as a function of ambient temperature and road type (i.e., urban, rural, or motorway). A preliminary evaluation of PMFAC with an available dispersion model to predict

  9. Empowering a mesophilic inoculum for thermophilic nitrification: Growth mode and temperature pattern as critical proliferation factors for archaeal ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vandekerckhove, Tom; Prat, Delphine; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-04-01

    Cost-efficient biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters requires the development of thermophilic nitrogen removal processes. Only one thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor was described so far, achieving 200 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after more than 300 days of enrichment from compost samples. From the practical point of view in which existing plants would be upgraded, however, a more time-efficient development strategy based on mesophilic nitrifying sludge is preferred. This study evaluated the adaptive capacities of mesophilic nitrifying sludge for two linear temperature increase patterns (non-oscillating vs. oscillating), two different slopes (0.25 vs. 0.08 °C d(-1)) and two different reactor types (floc vs. biofilm growth). The oscillating temperature pattern (0.25 °C d(-1)) and the moving bed biofilm reactor (0.08 °C d(-1)) could not reach nitrification at temperatures higher than 46 °C. However, nitrification rates up to 800 mg N L(-1) d(-1) and 150 mg N g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1) were achieved at a temperature as high as 49 °C by imposing the slowest linear temperature increase to floccular sludge. Microbial community analysis revealed that this successful transition was related with a shift in ammonium oxidizing archaea dominating ammonia oxidizing bacteria, while for nitrite oxidation Nitrospira spp. was constantly more abundant than Nitrobacter spp.. This observation was accompanied with an increase in observed sludge yield and a shift in maximal optimum temperature, determined with ex-situ temperature sensitivity measurements, predicting an upcoming reactor failure at higher temperature. Overall, this study achieved nitrification at 49 °C within 150 days by gradual adaptation of mesophilic sludge, and showed that ex-situ temperature sensitivity screening can be used to monitor and steer the transition process.

  10. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jeffrey C

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO(2) emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO(2) emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97, 91.97, 88.20, and 98.91 kg CO(2)/GJ(gross), respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO(2) emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal.

  11. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P < 0.003) compared with those offered barley-based diets. Oat-based diets increased populations of Bifidobacterium spp. (7.26 vs. 6.38 log cfu/g of digesta; SEM 0.201; P = 0.005) and Lactobacillus spp. (6.99 vs. 6.18 log cfu/g of digesta; SEM 0.234; P = 0.022) in the proximal colon and decreased manure odor emissions [2,179.6 vs. 4,984.6 Ou(E)/m(3) (where Ou(E) refers to European odor units); SEM 653.7; P < 0.011] compared with barley-based diets. There was an interaction between cereal type and enzyme inclusion on manure ammonia emissions from 0 to 96 h (P = 0.050). Pigs offered barley-based diets containing an enzyme supplement had increased manure ammonia emissions compared with those offered unsupplemented barley-based diets. However, there was no effect of enzyme inclusion on

  13. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. E. L.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Maier, S. W.; Russell-Smith, J.; Wooster, M. J.; Yates, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    combustion efficiencies. Therefore, the selection of emission factors for emissions modelling purposes need not necessarily require detailed fuel type information, if data on MCE (e.g. from future spaceborne total column measurements) or a correlated variable were available. From measurements at twenty-one fires, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian tropical savanna fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned) which are our mean measured values: 1674 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 87 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 2.1 g kg-1 of methane; 0.11 g kg-1 of acetylene; 0.49 g kg-1 of ethylene; 0.08 g kg-1 of ethane; 1.57 g kg-1 of formaldehyde; 1.06 g kg-1 of methanol; 1.54 g kg-1 of acetic acid; 0.16 g kg-1 of formic acid; 0.53 g kg-1 of hydrogen cyanide; and 0.70 g kg-1 of ammonia.

  14. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve 1.19 Pump Seal...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  16. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES: CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  17. 40 CFR Table O-1 to Subpart O of... - Emission Factors for Equipment Leaks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission Factors for Equipment Leaks O Table O-1 to Subpart O of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 98, Subpt. O, Table O-1 Table O-1 to Subpart O of Part 98—Emission Factors for Equipment...

  18. Key factors, Soil N Processes, and nitrite accumulation affecting nitrous oxide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of the key factors affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and potential mitigation strategies is essential for sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study was to examine the important factors affecting N2O emissions, soil processes involved, and potential mitigation s...

  19. A comparison of state-level estimation techniques for utility atmospheric emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, D.; Baechler, M.

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric emission factors provide a link between the electricity saved in buildings and the associated decrease in fossil fuel use in the electric supply sector. Understanding this link is important to meet the requirements of Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy act of 1992, which established the voluntary program for reporting reductions in greenhouse gases. As part of the development process for Section 1605(b), several national workshops were held by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Workshop participants expressed the need for DOE to supply default atmospheric emission facets. Based upon the response from the workshop participants, it was decided that emission factors would be aggregated to the state level (e.g., California, Connecticut, etc.). Emission factors for electricity generation are generally quantified as a quantity of impact to an amount of fuel used to produce the emission. In the electric supply sector, factors are often expressed in units of pounds or tons of emission per megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity produced. In this paper, the authors examine and compare the estimates from three methodologies for developing state-level emission facets. In addition, they compare the results to those obtained using emissions data calculated by the EIA. Although the examples presented in this paper depict the development of state-level factors, the same methodologies can be applied by an individual utility to generate utility-specific atmospheric emission factors.

  20. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulles, Tinus; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Appelman, Wilfred; Verheul, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However, estimates of the emissions of these metals from road vehicles as reported in national emission inventories show a very high variability in emission factors used. This paper provides high quality data on concentrations of heavy metals in fuels and derives default emission factors from these. The paper discusses these values against the emission estimates presently reported by the Parties to the LRTAP Convention. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in petrol and diesel fuel show a high variability between different samples taken at gas stations throughout Europe. Metal concentrations in road transport fuels vary over two orders of magnitude, but all remain in the ppb region (a few tenths of a ppb to a few hundred ppb for all metals). The frequency distributions of the measurements could be approximated by lognormal distributions. The emission factors, including 95 percent confidence intervals were derived from a statistical analysis of the survey data. We could not detect a significant difference between samples from different countries. The fuel based emission factors as derived in this study are complemented with those related to unintentional lubricant oil combustion. This allowed an estimation of total exhaust heavy metal emissions for UNECE Europe, indicating that As, Hg and Se exhaust emissions were dominated by fuel combustion while Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhaust emissions were dominated by lubricant oil combustion. The proposed emission factors were generally lower than previously published emission factors. National emissions of heavy metals from vehicle exhaust, estimated in this study are in many cases considerably lower than those reported by the countries for this source.

  1. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauberger, Günther; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Bundy, Dwaine S.; Haymore, Barry L.; Diehl, Claude A.; Duggirala, Ravi K.; Heber, Albert J.

    2013-02-01

    Odor emission from swine housing is influenced by the herd characteristics and building environment. The following three specific factors were identified as inputs to a swine house odor emission model: indoor temperature, barn ventilation rate, and pig activity. Model input parameters were determined based on tests of four, identical, 1000-head, mechanically-ventilated swine finishing houses. Each building had two sidewall curtains, a curtain on the west end wall, five exhaust fans on the east end wall, four pit ventilation fans, and long-term manure storage beneath a fully slatted floor. Odor concentrations of 112 odor samples were determined using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry with four to six trained panelists. The emission model showed that the standard live mass specific odor emission factor was 48 OU s-1 per 500 kg live mass or animal unit (AU), and it corresponded to an indoor temperature of T0 = 20 °C, a ventilation rate of V0 = 200 m3 h-1 (55.6 × 10-3 m3 s-1) per pig (maximum capacity for summer time), and the daily mean animal activity. The rate of odor emission from a swine finishing house can be calculated based on these parameters coupled with the number of animals, the mean live mass, and the standard live mass specific odor emission factor. Using this process-based odor emission model, the odor emission estimation and therefore the input for odor dispersion models can be improved to obtain more reliable estimates of separation distance for siting future pig farms.

  2. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 1: Methods and Australian temperate forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Smith, T. E. L.; Young, E. L.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guérette, É.-A.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning releases trace gases and aerosol particles that significantly affect the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere. Australia contributes approximately 8% of gross global carbon emissions from biomass burning, yet there are few previous measurements of emissions from Australian forest fires available in the literature. This paper describes the results of field measurements of trace gases emitted during hazard reduction burns in Australian temperate forests using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a companion paper, similar techniques are used to characterise the emiss