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Sample records for ammonia nitrite nitrate

  1. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  2. Utilization of urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate by crop plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Rains, D. W.; Qualset, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of nitrogen compounds by crop plants is studied. The selection of crop varieties for efficient production using urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, and the assimilation of mixed nitrogen sources by cereal leaves and roots are discussed.

  3. Ammonia Formation by the Reduction of Nitrite/Nitrate by FeS: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    FeS reduces nitrite to, ammonia at pHs lower than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+2. The reduction follows a reasonable first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest ammonia product yield measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate at higher pH interferes with the reaction. Bicarbonate interference is shown by comparing runs under N2 and CO2. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears as if nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species).

  4. [Spatial Variation of Ammonia-N, Nitrate-N and Nitrite-N in Groundwater of Dongshan Island].

    PubMed

    Wiu, Hai-yan; Fu, Shi-feng; Cai, Xiao-qiong; Tang, Kun-xian; Cao, Chao; Chen, Qing-hui; Liang, Xiu-yu

    2015-09-01

    In Dongshan Island, groundwater is the main resource of the local residents' drinking water, domestic water, agriculture irrigation and freshwater aquaculture. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution characteristic and its variation pattern of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N in groundwater, as well as its pollution source and influence factors. It is very important to understand the pollution level of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N in groundwater of Dongshan Island, the control and prevention of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N pollution, which is of great significance to the residents' health. In this study, the spatial variability characteristics of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N concentration in groundwater of Dongshan Island was analysed by geo- statistic method, the values of the non-observation points were determined by Kriging method, and the pollution characteristics of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N in groundwater of Dongshan Island was also analyzed. Our results showed that the ammonia-N and nitrite-N concentration in groundwater of Dongshan Island were at low levels, but their spatial variability were high, and their autocorrelation were poor; however, the nitrate-N concentration was general high, its spatial variability was moderate, and the autocorrelation was much good. The distribution characteristics of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N in groundwater of Dongshan Island were similar that the high concentration areas were all located in the coastal land. The domestic pollutants and human and animal wastes from towns and villages were the main sources of nitrogen pollution, which would be the first step to control the nitrogen pollution of Dongshan Island. Land use pattern, soil type, groundwater depth, pH, dissolved oxygen, season, and the existence of Fe2+, were the impact factors that influence the distribution and transformation of ammonia-N, nitrate-N and nitrite-N in groundwater, which could be the considerable

  5. Study on the diffusion coefficients for ammonia nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate in PVA gels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Guan, Qingkun

    2016-10-01

    In order to quantify the proliferation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gels in a matrix and optimize the performance of mass transfer, activated carbon (AC) and CaCO3 were selected as adding materials in this experiment. For the performance of mass transfer, the optimal conditions were analyzed using response surface method (RSM) considering the inter-correlated effects of the amount of AC and CaCO3. For RSM, 13 trials resulted in a partial cubic polynomial equation, which best predicted the amount of residual debris after homogenization. The results of the study show that the effective diffusion coefficient test device can analysis the diffusion rate nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate within the PVA gels quantitatively; adding appropriate amounts of AC and CaCO3 in the biological active filter can improve the performance of mass transfer effectively; the maximum effective diffusion coefficient of nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate in the packing were 1.3637 × 10(-9) and 1.0850 × 10(-9) and 1.0199 × 10(-9) m(2)/s, respectively, at optimal addition amount.

  6. Nitrates and Nitrites TNC Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Nitrates and Nitrites Presentation gives an overview of nitrates and nitrites in drinking water, why it is important to monitor them and what to do in cases where the results exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL).

  7. Physiology and interaction of nitrate and nitrite reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus reduces nitrate to ammonia in two steps. (i) Nitrate was taken up and reduced to nitrite, and nitrite was subsequently excreted. (ii) After depletion of nitrate, the accumulated nitrite was imported and reduced to ammonia, which again accumulated in the medium. The localization, energy gain, and induction of the nitrate and nitrite reductases in S. carnosus were characterized. Nitrate reductase seems to be a membrane-bound enzyme involved in respiratory energy conservation, whereas nitrite reductase seems to be a cytosolic enzyme involved in NADH reoxidation. Syntheses of both enzymes are inhibited by oxygen and induced to greater or lesser degrees by nitrate or nitrite, respectively. In whole cells, nitrite reduction is inhibited by nitrate and also by high concentrations of nitrite (> or = 10 mM). Nitrite did not influence nitrate reduction. Two possible mechanisms for the inhibition of nitrite reduction by nitrate that are not mutually exclusive are discussed. (i) Competition for NADH nitrate reductase is expected to oxidize the bulk of the NADH because of its higher specific activity. (ii) The high rate of nitrate reduction could lead to an internal accumulation of nitrite, possibly the result of a less efficient nitrite reduction or export. So far, we have no evidence for the presence of other dissimilatory or assimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductases in S. carnosus. PMID:8606176

  8. Physiology and interaction of nitrate and nitrite reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1996-04-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus reduces nitrate to ammonia in two steps. (i) Nitrate was taken up and reduced to nitrite, and nitrite was subsequently excreted. (ii) After depletion of nitrate, the accumulated nitrite was imported and reduced to ammonia, which again accumulated in the medium. The localization, energy gain, and induction of the nitrate and nitrite reductases in S. carnosus were characterized. Nitrate reductase seems to be a membrane-bound enzyme involved in respiratory energy conservation, whereas nitrite reductase seems to be a cytosolic enzyme involved in NADH reoxidation. Syntheses of both enzymes are inhibited by oxygen and induced to greater or lesser degrees by nitrate or nitrite, respectively. In whole cells, nitrite reduction is inhibited by nitrate and also by high concentrations of nitrite (> or = 10 mM). Nitrite did not influence nitrate reduction. Two possible mechanisms for the inhibition of nitrite reduction by nitrate that are not mutually exclusive are discussed. (i) Competition for NADH nitrate reductase is expected to oxidize the bulk of the NADH because of its higher specific activity. (ii) The high rate of nitrate reduction could lead to an internal accumulation of nitrite, possibly the result of a less efficient nitrite reduction or export. So far, we have no evidence for the presence of other dissimilatory or assimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductases in S. carnosus.

  9. [Characteristics and Transport Patterns of Ammonia, Nitrites, Nitrates and Inorganic Nitrogen Flux at Epikarst Springs and a Subterranean Stream in Nanshan, Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-zhu; He, Qiu-fang; Jiang, Yong-jun; Li, Yong

    2016-04-15

    In a karst groundwater system, it develops complex multiple flows because of its special geological structure and unique physical patterns of aquifers. In order to investigate the characteristics and transport patterns of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate in epikarst water and subterranean stream, the water samples were collected monthly in a fast-urbanizing karst region. The results showed distinctive characteristics of three forms of inorganic nitrogen. The concentration of inorganic nitrogen was stable in the epikarst water while it was fluctuant in the subterranean stream. Epikarst water was less affected by rainfall and sewage compared with subterranean stream. In epikarst water, the nitrate concentration was much higher than the ammonia concentration. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly from non-point source pollution related to agricultural activities, passed in and out of the epikarst water based on a series of physical; chemical and biological processes in the epikarst zone, such as ammonification, adsorption and nitrification. On the contrary, subterranean stream showed a result of NH₄⁺-N > NO₃⁻-N in dry seasons and NO₃⁻-N > NH₄⁺-N in rainy seasons. This can be due to the fact that sanitary and industrial sewage flowed into subterranean river through sinkholes, fissures and grikes in dry season. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen in subterranean river was mainly from the non-point source pollution in wet season. Non-point source pollutants entered into subterranean water by two transport ways, one by penetration along with vadose flow through fissures and grikes, and the other by conduit flow through sinkholes from the surface runoff, soil water flow and epikarst flow. The export flux of DIN was 56.05 kg · (hm² · a)⁻¹, and NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N accounted for 46.03% and 52.51%, respectively. The contributions of point-source pollution and non point-source pollution to the export flux of DIN were 25.08% and 74.92%, respectively, based on run

  10. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  11. Nitrates, Nitrites, and Health. Bulletin 750.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, Barbara S.; Sloan, Kenneth W.

    This review is intended to assess available literature in order to define the range of nitrate/nitrite effects on animals. Though the literature deals primarily with livestock and experimental animals, much of the contemporary research is concerned with human nitrite intoxication. Thus, the effects on man are discussed where appropriate. Some of…

  12. Ammonia stimulates growth and nitrite-oxidizing activity of Nitrobacter winogradskyi

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shouguang; Zhang, Demin; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yinong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium with high nitrite oxidation activity for controlling nitrite levels. A nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, ZS-1, was isolated from the water of a coastal Pseudosciaena crocea-rearing pond. The strain was identified as Nitrobacter winogradskyi based on the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene and nxrA sequence of ZS-1. Under aerobic condition, the nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 did not change considerably in the range of pH 7–9, but was strongly inhibited by lower (pH = 6) and higher (pH = 10) pH values. The optimum temperature range is 25–32 °C. Lower temperature made the adaptive phase of ZS-1 longer but did not affect its maximum nitrite oxidization rate. The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 started to be inhibited by ammonia and nitrate when the concentrations of ammonia and nitrate reached 25 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1, respectively. The inhibition was stronger with higher concentration of ammonia or nitrate. The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1, however, was not inhibited by high concentration of nitrite (500 mg L−1). The nitrite-oxidizing activity of ZS-1 was increased by low ammonia concentration (1 mg L−1 to 10 mg L−1). PMID:26019486

  13. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, a Possible Source of Nitrite for Growth of Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Belser, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Growth yields and other parameters characterizing the kinetics of growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are presented. These parameters were measured during laboratory enrichments of soil samples with added nitrite. They were then used to reanalyze data for nitrite oxidizer growth in a previously reported field study (M. G. Volz, L. W. Belser, M. S. Ardakani, and A. D. McLaren, J. Environ. Qual. 4:179-182, 1975), where nitrate, but not nitrite or ammonium, was added. In that report, analysis of the field data indicated that in unsaturated soils, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite may be a significant source of nitrite for the growth of nitrite oxidizers. A yield of 1.23 × 104 cells per μg of N was determined to be most appropriate for application to the field. It was determined that if nitrite came only from mineralized organic nitrogen via ammonium oxidation, 35 to 90% of the organic nitrogen would have had to have been mineralized to produce the growth observed. However, it is estimated that only about 2% of the organic nitrogen could have been mineralized during the growth period. Thus, it appears that another source of nitrite is required, the most likely being the reduction of nitrate to nitrite coupled to the oxidation of organic matter. PMID:921264

  14. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be...

  15. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be...

  16. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be...

  17. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be...

  18. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be...

  19. Nitrate Reductase Regulates Expression of Nitrite Uptake and Nitrite Reductase Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Aurora; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective at the structural locus for nitrate reductase (nit-1) or at loci for biosynthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (nit-3, nit-4, or nit-5 and nit-6), both nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were repressed in ammonium-grown cells and expressed at high amounts in nitrogen-free media or in media containing nitrate or nitrite. In contrast, wild-type cells required nitrate induction for expression of high levels of both activities. In mutants defective at the regulatory locus for nitrate reductase (nit-2), very low levels of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were expressed even in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Both restoration of nitrate reductase activity in mutants defective at nit-1, nit-3, and nit-4 by isolating diploid strains among them and transformation of a structural mutant upon integration of the wild-type nit-1 gene gave rise to the wild-type expression pattern for nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Conversely, inactivation of nitrate reductase by tungstate treatment in nitrate, nitrite, or nitrogen-free media made wild-type cells respond like nitrate reductase-deficient mutants with respect to the expression of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Our results indicate that nit-2 is a regulatory locus for both the nitrite uptake system and nitrite reductase, and that the nitrate reductase enzyme plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of both enzyme activities. PMID:16668656

  20. Sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth and the reaction of nitrite with ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth was conducted. Rates of formation and destruction, and steady state concentrations of both species were determined by steady state kinetics. The importance of the reaction of nitrite with ammonia on the feasibility of ammonia formation from nitrite was evaluated. The analysis considered conditions such as temperature, ferrous iron concentration, and pH. For sinks we considered the reduction of nitrite to ammonia, reaction between nitrite and ammonia, photochemical destruction of both species, and destruction at hydrothermal vents. Under most environmental conditions, the primary sink for nitrite is reduction to ammonia. The reaction between ammonia and nitrite is not an important sink for either nitrite or ammonia. Destruction at hydrothermal vents is important at acidic pH's and at low ferrous iron concentrations. Photochemical destruction, even in a worst case scenario, is unimportant under many conditions except possibly under acidic, low iron concentration, or low temperature conditions. The primary sink for ammonia is photochemical destruction in the atmosphere. Under acidic conditions, more of the ammonia is tied up as ammonium (reducing its vapor pressure and keeping it in solution) and hydrothermal destruction becomes more important.

  1. Simultaneous ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of nitrate and nitrite in water

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Huiru; Zhang Qing ); Jiang Meiyu )

    1991-02-01

    A rapid and accurate method for the direct simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite is proposed. The method is applied to the determination of nitrate and nitrite in rainwater and wastewater without preliminary separation. The determinations are performed by a CPA matrix method with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection. The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by conventional methods for the determination of nitrate and nitrite.

  2. Molecular Components of Nitrate and Nitrite Efflux in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; de la Rosa, Diego Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

  3. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite.

  4. Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. )

    1992-01-01

    The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

  5. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification plays a key role in the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, including in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hot spots for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Recent evidence suggests that nitrification links the source (remineralized organic matter) and sink (denitrification and anammox) of fixed N directly in the steep oxycline in the OMZs. We performed shipboard incubations with 15N tracers to characterize the depth distribution of nitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP). Additional experiments were conducted to investigate photoinhibition. Allylthiourea (ATU) was used to distinguish the contribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation. The abundance of archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation showed distinct subsurface maxima, with the latter slightly deeper than the former. The ammonia oxidation maximum coincided with the primary nitrite concentration maximum, archaeal amoA gene maximum, and the subsurface nitrous oxide maximum. Negligible rates of ammonia oxidation were found at anoxic depths, where high rates of nitrite oxidation were measured. Archaeal amoA gene abundance was generally 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than bacterial amoA gene abundance, and inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with 10 μM ATU did not affect ammonia oxidation rates, indicating the dominance of archaea in ammonia oxidation. These results depict highly dynamic activities of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the oxycline of the ETNP OMZ.

  6. Taxis response of various denitrifying bacteria to nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P

    2002-05-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds.

  7. Taxis Response of Various Denitrifying Bacteria to Nitrate and Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yun; Ramos, Adela; Macomber, Lee; Shapleigh, James P.

    2002-01-01

    The taxis response of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and 2.4.3, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nitrate and nitrite was evaluated by observing the macroscopic behavior of cells suspended in soft agar and incubated under various conditions. R. sphaeroides 2.4.3, which is capable of both nitrate and nitrite reduction, showed a taxis response to both nitrate and nitrite. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1, which contains nitrate reductase but not nitrite reductase, did not show a taxis response towards either nitrogen oxide. Insertional inactivation of the nitrite reductase structural gene or its transcriptional regulator, NnrR, in strain 2.4.3 caused a loss of a taxis response towards both nitrate and nitrite. An isolate of 2.4.1 carrying a copy of the nitrite reductase gene from 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to both nitrogen oxides. The taxis response of 2.4.3 was observed under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the taxis response was due to nitrate and nitrite respiration, not to inhibition of oxygen respiration by respiration of nitrogen oxides. Strain 2.4.3 showed a taxis response to nitrate and nitrite under photosynthetic and aerobic conditions. Changing the carbon source in the culture medium caused an unexpected subtle shift in the taxis response of 2.4.3 to nitrite. A taxis response to nitrogen oxides was also observed in R. palustris and A. tumefaciens. R. palustris exhibited a taxis response to nitrite but not to nitrate, while A. tumefaciens exhibited a response to both compounds. PMID:11976082

  8. Reduction of nitrite and nitrate to ammonium on pyrite.

    PubMed

    Singireddy, Soujanya; Gordon, Alexander D; Smirnov, Alexander; Vance, Michael A; Schoonen, Martin A A; Szilagyi, Robert K; Strongin, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    An important constraint on the formation of the building blocks of life in the Hadean is the availability of small, activated compounds such as ammonia (NH(3)) relative to its inert dinitrogen source. Iron-sulfur particles and/or mineral surfaces have been implicated to provide the catalytic active sites for the reduction of dinitrogen. Here we provide a combined kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational modeling study for an alternative source of ammonia from water soluble nitrogen oxide ions. The adsorption of aqueous nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) on pyrite (FeS(2)) and subsequent reduction chemistry to ammonia was investigated at 22°C, 70°C, and 120°C. Batch geochemical and in situ Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were used to determine the reduction kinetics to NH(3) and to elucidate the identity of the surface complexes, respectively, during the reaction chemistry of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations aided the interpretation of the vibrational data for a representative set of surface species. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we detected the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) intermediate on the pyrite surface. NH(3) production from NO(2)(-) occurred at 70 and 120°C and from NO(3)(-) occurred only at 120°C.

  9. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170... and Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are.... (b) Nitrites and/or nitrates, when packaged separately from flavoring and seasoning in...

  10. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170... and Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are.... (b) Nitrites and/or nitrates, when packaged separately from flavoring and seasoning in...

  11. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170... and Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are.... (b) Nitrites and/or nitrates, when packaged separately from flavoring and seasoning in...

  12. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60... Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food.... (b) Nitrites and/or nitrates, when packaged separately from flavoring and seasoning in...

  13. Dietary nitrite induces occludin nitration in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Correia, Mariana G; Fernandes, Rita C; Gonçalves, João S; Laranjinha, João

    2016-01-01

    The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected. Nitrated occludin was detected by immunoprecipitation in the gastric epithelium upon inorganic nitrite administration (p < .05) but was not observed in the case of inorganic nitrate or human saliva administration. This observation, along with differences in (•)NO production rates from inorganic and salivary nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, suggests that competing reactions at acidic pH determine the production of nitrating agents ((•)NO2) or other, more stable, oxides. Accordingly, it is shown in vitro that salivary nitrite yields higher steady state concentrations of (•)NO (0.37 ± 0.01 μM) than sodium nitrite (0.12 ± 0.03 μM). Dietary-dependent reactions involving the production of nitrogen oxides should be further investigated as, in the context of occludin nitration, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (with high nitrate content), if able to modulate gut barrier function, may have important implications in the context of leaky gut disorders.

  14. Human safety controversies surrounding nitrate and nitrite in the diet.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2012-05-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are part of the human diet as nutrients in many vegetables and part of food preservation systems. In the 1950s and 1960s the potential for formation of nitrosamines in food was discovered and it ignited a debate about the safety of ingested nitrite which ultimately focused on cured meats. Nitrate impurities in salt used in the drying of meat in ancient times resulted in improved protection from spoilage during storage. This evolved into their deliberate modern use as curing ingredient responsible for 'fixing' the characteristic color associated with cured meats, creating a unique flavor profile, controlling the oxidation of lipids, and serving as an effective antimicrobial. Several critical reports and comprehensive reviews reporting weak associations and equivocal evidence of nitrite human health safety have fostered concerns and debate among scientists, regulators, press, consumer groups, and consumers. Despite periodic controversy regarding human health concerns from nitrite consumption, a building base of scientific evidence about nitrate, nitrite, heme chemistry, and the overall metabolism of nitrogen oxides in humans has and continues to affirm the general safety of nitrate/nitrite in human health. As nitrite based therapeutics emerge, it is important to consider the past controversies and also understand the beneficial role in the human diet.

  15. Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arthur L

    2010-06-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

  16. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  17. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-08-29

    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  18. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers’ taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies. PMID:28282914

  19. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M.; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils. PMID:25784903

  20. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    PubMed

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M; Keuskamp, Joost A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  1. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis.

  2. Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Genes from Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Casciotti, Karen L.; Ward, Bess B.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene (nirK) was discovered in several isolates of β-subdivision ammonia-oxidizing bacteria using PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR primers Cunir3 and Cunir4 were designed based on published nirK sequences from denitrifying bacteria and used to amplify a 540-bp fragment of the nirK gene from Nitrosomonas marina and five additional isolates of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Amplification products of the expected size were cloned and sequenced. Alignment of the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid (AA) sequences shows significant similarity (62 to 75% DNA, 58 to 76% AA) between nitrite reductases present in these nitrifiers and the copper-containing nitrite reductase found in classic heterotrophic denitrifiers. While the presence of a nitrite reductase in Nitrosomonas europaea is known from early biochemical work, preliminary sequence data from its genome indicate a rather low similarity to the denitrifier nirKs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial nitrifier nirK sequences indicates that the topology of the nirK tree corresponds to the 16S rRNA and amoA trees. While the role of nitrite reduction in the metabolism of nitrifying bacteria is still uncertain, these data show that the nirK gene is present in closely related nitrifying isolates from many oceanographic regions and suggest that nirK sequences retrieved from the environment may include sequences from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:11319103

  3. Nitrates and nitrites in the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Nossaman, Vaughn E; Nossaman, Bobby D; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure since the birth of modern pharmacology. Their clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound. The major drawback is the development of tolerance with NTG, and the duration and route of administration with amyl of nitrite. Although the nitrites are no longer used in the treatment of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions, such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation, and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these 2 similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. Finally, the nitrite anion, either from sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provide support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrates and nitrites including the historical, current, and potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action.

  4. Nitrate, Nitrite, and nitroso compounds in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, J.H.; Cassens, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    The concern that human foods might contain nitroso compounds stems from the discovery in the early 1960s that domestic animals fed fish meal preserved with high levels of sodium nitrite were dying of liver failure. It has been known for many years that nitrite can combine with amines to form N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine was determined to be the cause of the liver failure. The nitrosamine resulted from the reaction between dimethylamine contained in the fish and the added nitrite. Because nitrite is an important and widely used human food additive, particularly in the curing of meats, poultry, and fish, research was undertaken by several groups around the world to investigate the occurrence of these compounds in human foods.

  5. The P aracoccus denitrificans NarK‐like nitrate and nitrite transporters—probing nitrate uptake and nitrate/nitrite exchange mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Alan D.; Bali, Shilpa; Mavridou, Despoina A.I.; Luque‐Almagro, Victor M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Dolores Roldán, M.; Newstead, Simon; Richardson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Nitrate and nitrite transport across biological membranes is often facilitated by protein transporters that are members of the major facilitator superfamily. Paracoccus denitrificans contains an unusual arrangement whereby two of these transporters, NarK1 and NarK2, are fused into a single protein, NarK, which delivers nitrate to the respiratory nitrate reductase and transfers the product, nitrite, to the periplasm. Our complementation studies, using a mutant lacking the nitrate/proton symporter NasA from the assimilatory nitrate reductase pathway, support that NarK1 functions as a nitrate/proton symporter while NarK2 is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. Through the same experimental system, we find that Escherichia coli NarK and NarU can complement deletions in both narK and nasA in P. denitrificans, suggesting that, while these proteins are most likely nitrate/nitrite antiporters, they can also act in the net uptake of nitrate. Finally, we argue that primary sequence analysis and structural modelling do not readily explain why NasA, NarK1 and NarK2, as well as other transporters from this protein family, have such different functions, ranging from net nitrate uptake to nitrate/nitrite exchange. PMID:27696579

  6. Nitrite reduction in paracoccus halodenitrificans: Evidence for the role of a cd-type cytochrome in ammonia formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free extracts prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia in the presence of dithionite and methyl viologen. Enzyme activity was located in the soluble fraction and was associated with a cytochrome whose spectral properties resembled those of a cd-type cytochrome. Unlike the sissimilatory cd-cytochrome nitrate reductase associated with the membrane fraction of P. halodenitrificans, this soluble cd-cytochrome did not reduce nitrite to nitrous oxide.

  7. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  8. 75 FR 29534 - Inorganic Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Nitrates-Nitrite, Carbon and Carbon Dioxide, and Sulfur Registration Review; Draft Ecological Risk... ecological risk assessment for the registration review of inorganic nitrates - nitrites, carbon and carbon... inorganic nitrates- nitrites, carbon and carbon dioxide uses, as well as gas cartridge uses of sulfur....

  9. Solubility of sodium tungstate in nitrate-nitrite melts

    SciTech Connect

    Yurkinskii, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskii, A.G.; Sazanova, O.B.

    1988-10-10

    Nitrate melts are employed as electrolytes for the electrochemical oxidation of tungsten. The authors studied the solubility of sodium tungstate in a number of nitrate-nitrite melts. The investigations were carried out in individual melts of NaNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 2/ and in LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ eutectic mixtures in the 440-690 K temperature range in an atmosphere of argon. The solubility of sodium tungstate increases slightly upon the transition from an LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt to an NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt. The solubility of Na/sub 2/WO/sub 4/ in sodium nitrite is considerably higher than that in sodium nitrate.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate using phosphomolybdenum blue complex.

    PubMed

    Zatar, N A; Abu-Eid, M A; Eid, A F

    1999-11-15

    A method for spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate is described. This method is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdic acid to phosphomolybdenum blue complex by sodium sulfide. The obtained phosphomolybdenum blue complex is oxidized by the addition of nitrite and this causes a reduction in intensity of the blue color. The absolute decrease in the absorbance of the blue color or the rate of its decrease is found to be directly proportional to the amount of nitrite added. The absorbance of the phosphomolybdenum blue complex is monitored spectrophotometrically at 814 nm and related to the concentration of nitrite present. The effect of different factors such as acidity, stability of the complex, time, temperature, phosphate concentration, molybdenum concentration, sodium sulfide concentration and the tolerance amount of other ions have been reported. Maximum absorbance is at 814 nm. The range of linearity using the conventional method is 0.5-2.0 ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). and a relative standard deviation of 2.6% for five measurements. The range of linearity using the reaction rate method is 0.2-3.6 ppm with a relative standard deviation of 2.4% for five measurements. The method is applied for determination of nitrite and nitrate in water, meat products and vegetables.

  11. Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

  12. Nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde levels in nasal polyp.

    PubMed

    Bugdayci, G; Kaymakci, M

    2008-10-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the pathophysiological role of NO (nitric oxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) in tissue in patients with nasal polyposis. We measured nitrite/nitrate (Nitrite/Nitrate; NO2-/NO3-) and MDA in tissue and plasma of NP patients (n=20) and controls (n=20). MDA level expressed as the concentration of substances reacting to thiobarbituric acid and production of NO (concentration of nitrite/nitrate in plasma) by the Griess reaction were determined. The level of NO2- and NO3- in tissue are higher than that of the normal tissue (p<0.05). The level of MDA in tissue are higher than that of the normal tissue (p<0.05). The level of NO2- and NO3- in plasma of two groups are similar (p>0.05). The level of MDA in plasma is higher than that in the normal controls (p<0.05). The change in NO2-/NO3- and MDA levels of nasal polyp patients was demonstrated. Further studies are required concerning the significance of changes in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in pathogenesis of nasal polyp.

  13. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170... nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when combined in curing... nitrates, when packaged separately from flavoring and seasoning in curing premixes, may continue to be...

  14. Nitrate metabolism in tobacco leaves overexpressing Arabidopsis nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Susie; Le Lay, Pascaline; Sanchez-Tamburrrino, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC:1.7.7.1) or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines. The impact of increasing the activity of AtNiR produced an increase in leaf protein and a stay-green phenotype in the primary transformed AtNiR population. Investigation of the T1 homozygous population demonstrated elevated nitrate reductase (NR) activity, reductions in leaf nitrite and nitrate and the amino acids proline, glutamine and glutamate. Chlorophyl content of the transgenic lines was increased, as evidenced by the stay-green phenotype. This reveals the importance of NiR in primary nitrogen assimilation and how modification of this key enzyme affects both the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of tobacco plants.

  15. Ammonia on the prebiotic Earth: Iron(II) reduction of nitrite. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Chang, Sherwood

    1994-01-01

    Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen. In the non-reducing atmosphere suggested by geochemical evidence, production in the atmosphere and survival of NH3 against photochemical destruction are problematic. Electric discharges and impact shocks would produce NO rather than HCN or NH3. Conversion of NO to nitrous and nitric acid (by way of HNO) and precipitation in acid rain would provide a source of fixed nitrogen to the early ocean. One solution to the NH3 problem may have been the reduction of nitrite/nitrate in the ocean with aqueous ferrous iron, Fe(2+): 6Fe(+2) + 7 H2O + NO2(-) yields 3Fe2O3 + 11 H(+) + NH3. We have measured the kinetics of this reaction as a function of temperature, pH, and concentrations of salts, Fe(+2), and NO2(-). Cations (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-)) increase the rate by factors of 4 to 8. Although a competing pathway yields N2, the efficiency of the conversion of nitrite to ammonia ranges from 25% to 85%. Nitrate reduction was not consistently reproducible; however, when it was observed, its rate was slower by at least 8X than that of nitrite reduction. If the prebiotic atmosphere contained 0.2 to 10 atmospheres CO2 as suggested by Walker (1985), the Fe(+2) concentration and the rate would have been limited by siderite (FeCO3) solubility.

  16. Determination of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria in Wastewater and Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Somilez Asya

    2014-01-01

    The process of water purification has many different physical, chemical, and biological processes. One part of the biological process is the task of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Both play critical roles in the treatment of wastewater by oxidizing toxic compounds. The broad term is nitrification, a naturally occurring process that is carried out by AOB and NOB by using oxidation to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. To monitor this biological activity, bacterial staining was performed on wastewater contained in inoculum tanks and biofilm samples from bioreactors. Using microscopy and qPCR, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if the population of AOB and NOB in wastewater and membrane bioreactors changed depending on temperature and hibernation conditions to determine the optimal parameters for AOB/NOB culture to effectively clean wastewater.

  17. Total salivary nitrates and nitrites in oral health and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Miozza, Valeria A; Delgado, Alejandra; Busch, Lucila

    2014-01-30

    It is well known that nitrites are increased in saliva from patients with periodontal disease. In the oral cavity, nitrites may derive partly from the reduction of nitrates by oral bacteria. Nitrates have been reported as a defence-related mechanism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the salivary levels of total nitrate and nitrite and their relationship, in unstimulated and stimulated saliva from periodontal healthy subjects, and from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Nitrates and nitrites were determined in saliva from thirty healthy subjects and forty-four patients with periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary nitrates and nitrites was observed. Nitrates and nitrites concentration was related to clinical attachment level (CAL). A positive and significant Pearson's correlation was found between salivary total nitrates and nitrites. Periodontal treatment induced clinical improvement and decreased nitrates and nitrites. It is concluded that salivary nitrates and nitrites increase, in patients with periodontal disease, could be related to defence mechanisms. The possibility that the salivary glands respond to oral infectious diseases by increasing nitrate secretion should be explored further.

  18. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Hord, Norman G; Tang, Yaoping; Bryan, Nathan S

    2009-07-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

  19. Self-powered denitration of landfill leachate through ammonia/nitrate coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Feng, Daolun; Liu, Zhanmeng; Wu, Zucheng

    2016-03-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of energy-free denitrifying N-rich wastewater, a self-powered device was uniquely assembled, in which ammonia/nitrate coupled redox fuel cell (CRFC) reactor was served as removing nitrogen and harvesting electric energy simultaneously. Ammonia is oxidized at anodic compartment and nitrate is reduced at cathodic compartment spontaneously by electrocatalysis. In 7.14 mM ammonia+0.2M KOH anolyte and 4.29 mM KNO3+0.1M H2SO4 catholyte, the nitrate removal efficiency was 46.9% after 18 h. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 170 mW m(-2) was achieved when applying Pd/C cathode. When NH4Cl/nitrate and ammonia/nitrite CRFCs were tested, 26.2% N-NH4Cl and 91.4% N-NO2(-) were removed respectively. Nitrogen removal efficiency for real leachate at the same initial NH3-N concentration is 22.9% and nitrification of ammonia in leachate can be used as nitrate source. This work demonstrated a new way for N-rich wastewater remediation with electricity generation.

  20. Independence of nitrate and nitrite inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and use of nitrite as a substrate for growth.

    PubMed

    Korte, Hannah L; Saini, Avneesh; Trotter, Valentine V; Butland, Gareth P; Arkin, Adam P; Wall, Judy D

    2015-01-20

    Sulfate-reducing microbes, such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, cause “souring” of petroleum reservoirs through produced sulfide and precipitate heavy metals, either as sulfides or by alteration of the metal reduction state. Thus, inhibitors of these microbes, including nitrate and nitrite ions, are studied in order to limit their impact. Nitrite is a potent inhibitor of sulfate reducers, and it has been suggested that nitrate does not inhibit these microbes directly but by reduction to nitrite, which serves as the ultimate inhibitor. Here we provide evidence that nitrate inhibition of D. vulgaris can be independent of nitrite production. We also show that D. vulgaris can use nitrite as a nitrogen source or terminal electron acceptor for growth. Moreover, we report that use of nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor requires nitrite reductase (nrfA) as a D. vulgaris nrfA mutant cannot respire nitrite but remains capable of utilizing nitrite as a nitrogen source. These results illuminate previously uncharacterized metabolic abilities of D. vulgaris that may allow niche expansion in low-sulfate environments. Understanding these abilities may lead to better control of sulfate-reducing bacteria in industrial settings and more accurate prediction of their interactions in the environment.

  1. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  2. Effects of nitrate addition to a diet on fermentation and microbial populations in the rumen of goats, with special reference to Selenomonas ruminantium having the ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yokoyama, Shota; Hino, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary nitrate addition on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. The involvement of Selenomonas ruminantium in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen was also examined. As the result of nitrate feeding, the total concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased, whereas the acetate : propionate ratio and the concentrations of ammonia and lactate increased. Populations of methanogens, protozoa and fungi, as estimated by real-time PCR, were greatly decreased as a result of nitrate inclusion in the diet. There was modest or little impact of nitrate on the populations of prevailing species or genus of bacteria in the rumen, whereas Streptococcus bovis and S. ruminantium significantly increased. Both the activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) per total mass of ruminal bacteria were increased by nitrate feeding. Quantification of the genes encoding NaR and NiR by real-time PCR with primers specific for S. ruminantium showed that these genes were increased by feeding nitrate, suggesting that the growth of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing S. ruminantium is stimulated by nitrate addition. Thus, S. ruminantium is likely to play a major role in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen.

  3. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  4. Effect of blood nitrite and nitrate levels on murine platelet function.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L; Noguchi, Constance T; Schechter, Alan N

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO₂⁻) and nitrate (NO₃⁻) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes.

  5. Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Patton, Charles J.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    The apparatus and methods used for the automatic, colorimetric determinations of dissolved nutrients (nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate) in natural waters are described. These techniques allow for the determination of nitrate plus nitrite for the concentration range 0.02 to 8 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as N (nitrogen); for nitrite, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as N; for ammonium, the range is 0.006 to 2.0 mg/L as N; and for orthophosphate, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as P (phosphorus). Data are presented that demonstrate the accuracy, precision and quality control of the methods.

  6. Effect of Nitrite/Nitrate concentrations on Corrosivity of Washed Precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-03-28

    Cyclic polarization scans were performed using A-537 carbon steel in simulated washed precipitate solutions of various nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The results of this study indicate that nitrate is an aggressive anion in washed precipitate. Furthermore, a quantitative linear log-log relationship between the minimum effective nitrite concentration and the nitrate concentration was established for washed precipitate with other ions at their average compositions.

  7. Anisole Nitration During Gamma-Irradiation of Aqueous Nitrite and Nitrate Solutions: Free Radical Versus Ionic Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas D. Cullen

    2010-04-01

    The nitration of aromatic compounds in the condensed phase is of interest to nuclear waste treatment applications. This chapter discusses our investigation of radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase toward understanding the nitration products created during nuclear fuel reprocessing. The nitration reactions of anisole, a model aromatic compound, were studied in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate, neutral nitrate, and neutral nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. Neutral nitrate anisole solutions were dominated by mixed nitrosonium/nitronium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, but with lower product yields. Irradiation of neutral nitrite anisole solution resulted in a statistical substitution pattern for nitroanisole products, suggesting non-electrophilic free radical reactions involving the •NO2 radical.

  8. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gary D; Marsh, Anthony P; Dove, Robin W; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.

  9. A novel control method for nitritation: The domination of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by high concentrations of inorganic carbon in an airlift-fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Tokutomi, Takaaki; Shibayama, Chizu; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-07-01

    A novel nitritation method based on the addition of inorganic carbon (IC) was verified using an airlift-fluidized bed reactor packed with sponge cubes. A continuous-treatment experiment demonstrated that the type of nitrification-nitrite or nitrate accumulation-could be controlled by the addition of different alkalinity sources (NaHCO(3) or NaOH, respectively). The maximum rate of ammonia oxidation at 30 degrees C was 2.47kg-N/(m(3) d), with nitrate formation of less than 0.5% of the converted ammonia. Nitrite accumulation of over 90% was maintained stably over 250 days at 30 degrees C and was achieved even at 19 degrees C. Qualitative and quantitative shifts of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm were monitored by real-time PCR and T-RFLP analysis. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were dominant but nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were eliminated in the reactor when NaHCO(3) was used as the alkalinity source. From the kinetic data, we inferred that high IC concentrations drive stable nitritation by promoting a higher growth rate for AOB than for NOB.

  10. Anisole nitration during gamma-irradiation of aqueous nitrite and nitrate solutions: Free radical versus ionic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas Cullen

    2010-04-01

    Radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase are ubiquitous, and especially of interest in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, water treatment by advanced oxidation technologies, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. Here, the radiolytically-induced nitration reactions of anisole, the simplest aryl alkyl ether, were investigated in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate solution, and in neutral nitrate and nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distribution was the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed as a result of irradiation. This suggests that the mechanism of nitration in acidic solution is nitronium ion- induced electrophilic aromatic substitution. The rate of production of nitrated products in neutral nitrate solution was much lower, although the distribution of isomers was similar to that expected for nitronium ion electrophilic nitration. In contrast, the product distribution in neutral nitrite solution approached a statistically random substitution pattern, suggesting a non-electrophilic free radical reaction involving •NO2 radical. When hydroxyl radical (•OH) was scavenged by varying the initial nitrite concentration, the concentration of nitrated products increased with increasing nitrite, indicating that the reaction was probably one of direct •NO2 radical addition. However, this latter mechanism will not be important in acidic solutions, such as those often encountered in atmospheric aerosols or ?-irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing solutions, due to low amounts of produced •NO2 radical and the low reaction rate constants for the •NO2 radical with aromatic compounds.

  11. Therapeutic effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Omar, S A; Webb, A J; Lundberg, J O; Weitzberg, E

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated endogenously by NO synthases to regulate a number of physiological processes including cardiovascular and metabolic functions. A decrease in the production and bioavailability of NO is a hallmark of many major chronic diseases including hypertension, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This NO deficiency is mainly caused by dysfunctional NO synthases and increased scavenging of NO by the formation of reactive oxygen species. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite are emerging as substrates for in vivo NO synthase-independent formation of NO bioactivity. These anions are oxidation products of endogenous NO generation and are also present in the diet, with green leafy vegetables having a high nitrate content. The effects of nitrate and nitrite are diverse and include vasodilatation, improved endothelial function, enhanced mitochondrial efficiency and reduced generation of reactive oxygen species. Administration of nitrate or nitrite in animal models of cardiovascular disease shows promising results, and clinical trials are currently ongoing to investigate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction. In addition, the nutritional aspects of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway are interesting as diets suggested to protect against cardiovascular disease, such as the Mediterranean diet, are especially high in nitrate. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic opportunities for nitrate and nitrite in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  12. Prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its effect on edible bird nest's color.

    PubMed

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Kadir, Noraniza Abd; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2013-12-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents.

  13. Determining Nitrate and Nitrite Content in Beverages, Fruits, Vegetables, and Stews Marketed in Arak, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammad; Fani, Ali; Moini, A. Latif; Mirzajani, Parisa; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Presence of excessive nitrite and nitrate in foodstuff can have toxic and carcinogenic effects on humans. This study is aimed at measuring nitrate and nitrite in different foodstuffs available in Arak city market, Iran, in 2013. Methods. Totally 323 samples including stew (102 samples), beverage (116 samples), fruit (55 samples), and vegetables (50 samples) were randomly collected and analyzed according to official AOAC method 973 and ISO 6635 through spectrophotometric method. Results. Average concentration of nitrate and nitrite in the samples was 6.58–136.76, 1.52–38.22 mg kg−1 or liter, respectively. Presence of nitrate and nitrite was confirmed in all samples. High levels of nitrate and nitrite were observed in celery and ghormeh stew; and lower level of nitrate and nitrite was found in traditionally produced vinegar, verjuice, and tomato. Conclusions. It was found that the mean values for nitrite in investigated products were higher than ADI levels of WHO. PMID:27379270

  14. Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...

  15. Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during...

  16. Effect of Lycopene on Serum Nitrite-Nitrate Levels in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yegın, Sevım Ç; Yur, Fatmagül; Çetın, S; Güder, A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of lycopene on serum nitrate-nitrite levels was investigated in diabetic rats. In this investigation, 28 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, each of seven rats. These groups were control group, diabetes group, diabetes-lycopene group and lycopene group. The concentration of nitrite and nitrate was detected at high levels in diabetes group, diabetes-lycopene group and lycopene group as compared with the control group (P<0.05). Especially, the increase in the levels of nitrate in diabetes group and lycopene group was statistically significant when compared with diabetes-lycopene group and control group (P<0.05). In addition, we also determined the proportion of nitrite/nitrate for nitric oxide radical formation. Therefore, it is important to investigate the recovery and stability of nitrite and nitrate in samples. As a result of this study, it was observed that the amounts of nitrate and nitrite increased due to oxidative stress in diabetes and also application of antioxidant lycopene caused an increase in the amounts of nitrate and nitrite levels.

  17. Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations and Metabolism in Breast Milk, Infant Formula, and Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jesica A.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T. Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ∼64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. PMID:23894175

  18. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P < .01). Nitrate concentrations averaged 13.6 ± 3.7 μM and 12.7 ± 4.9 μM, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in infant formulas varied from undetectable to many-fold more than breast milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite.

  19. Method 353.4 Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Gas Segmented Continuous Flow Colorimetric Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in estuarine and coastal waters. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by cadmium,1-3 and the resulting nitrite determined by formation of an azo dye.4-6

  20. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  1. Oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Norimichi; Daimon, Tohru; Sato, Keiichi

    1996-12-31

    Nitrite is known to be oxidized to nitrate by freezing much more rapidly than in solution. Furthermore, the oxidation efficiency of nitrite to nitrate by freezing is varied by pH or kinds and concentration of coexistences. We report here the oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples. The field rain samples were collected at Mt. Ikoma, which is located at about 20 km east of Osaka city, and Osaka Prefecture University. Concentration of nitrite was usually sub to a few {mu}mol/L order in rain and {mu}mol/L order in fog and less than 1 {mu}mol/L in snow. The highest value of nitrite concentration was 43 {mu}mol/L in rain and 620 {mu}mol/L in fog. Nitrite was oxidized immediately to nitrate by freezing at pH lower than 5.2, even when the sample droplet (about 1 mm diameter) was frozen very quickly in liquid nitrogen (77K). The oxidation efficiency was higher at lower pH. However, the efficiency varied from sample to sample. This is probably due to that kinds and concentration of coexistences were difference between samples. The effect of solutes will be also reported. Freezing of rain droplets are observed in freezing of super cooled droplets, growing of graupel and hail, growing of cumulonimbus, and so on. Ratio of nitrate to nitrite was higher in snow than that in rain or fog.

  2. Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, A.; Quilchano, C.; Blaustein, A.R.

    1999-12-01

    In static experiments, the authors studied the effects of nitrate and nitrate solutions on newly hatched larvae of five species of amphibians, namely Rana pretiosa, Rana aurora, Bufo boreas, Hyla regilla, and Ambystoma gracile. When nitrate or nitrite ions were added to the water, some larvae of some species reduced feeding activity, swam less vigorously, showed disequilibrium and paralysis, suffered abnormalities and edemas, and eventually died. The observed effects increased with both concentration and time, and there were significant differences in sensitivity among species. Ambrystoma gracile displayed the highest acute effect in water with nitrate and nitrite. The three ranid species had acute effects in water with nitrite. In chronic exposures, R. pretiosa was the most sensitive species to nitrates and nitrites. All species showed 15-d LC50s lower than 2 mg N-NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}}/L. For both N ions, B. boreas was the least sensitive amphibian. All species showed a high morality at the US Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limits of nitrite for warm-water fishes and a significant larval mortality at the recommended limits of nitrite concentration for drinking water. The recommended levels of nitrate for warm-water fishes were highly toxic for R. pretiosa and A. gracile larvae.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of serum nitrite and nitrate by copper-cadmium alloy.

    PubMed

    Sastry, K V H; Moudgal, R P; Mohan, J; Tyagi, J S; Rao, G S

    2002-07-01

    A macro and micro assay for the spectrophotometric determination of serum nitrite and nitrate was developed. Nitrite/nitrate in biological samples can be estimated in a single step by this method. The principle of the assay is the reduction of nitrate by copper-cadmium alloy, followed by color development with Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-naphthylethylenediamine) in acidic medium. This assay is sensitive to 1 microM nitrate and is suitable for different biological fluids, including sera with a high lipid concentration. The copper-cadmium alloy used in the present method is easy to prepare and can completely reduce nitrate to nitrite in an hour. The present method provides a simple, cost-effective assay for the estimation of stable oxidation products of nitric oxide in biological samples.

  4. Added value of total serum nitrate/nitrite for prediction of cardiovascular disease in middle east caucasian residents in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Asgari, Samaneh; Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza; Jeddi, Sajad; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-04-01

    Data on the association between serum nitrate/nitrite and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial; the aim of this study was to examine the potential utility of serum nitrate/nitrite in prediction of CVD. A total of 2443 adult participants, free from CVD at baseline were included. The probability of developing CVD was estimated by incorporating traditional CVD risk factors into a logistic regression model in the presence of serum nitrate/nitrite. The probability of CVD was calculated using Ln-transformed CVD risk factors as a covariate in the presence of Ln-transformed nitrate/nitrite in the final model. The added value of nitrate/nitrite was estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves and the net reclassification index (NRI). During follow-up, 169 events occurred. The multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for each 1 unit of increase in the Ln-transformed traditional risk factors and Ln-transformed nitrate/nitrite, were 3.20 (2.67-3.84) and 1.35 (1.01-1.80) for incident CVD, respectively. The areas under the curves of discrimination for models with and without nitrate/nitrite were not significantly different; however, incorporating nitrate/nitrite to the traditional CVD risk model can help appropriately reclassify over 6% of individuals at risk. In conclusion, serum nitrate/nitrite levels were independently associated with incident CVD. Measurement of serum nitrate/nitrite provided information beyond individual data on risk factors and improved prediction of CVD.

  5. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO3- and NO2-. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  6. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  7. Pharmacology and therapeutic role of inorganic nitrite and nitrate in vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J C; Feelisch, M; Horowitz, J D; Frenneaux, M P; Madhani, M

    2014-12-01

    Nitrite has emerged as an important bioactive molecule that can be biotransformed to nitric oxide (NO) related metabolites in normoxia and reduced to NO under hypoxic and acidic conditions to exert vasodilatory effects and confer a variety of other benefits to the cardiovascular system. Abundant research is currently underway to understand the mechanisms involved and define the role of nitrite in health and disease. In this review we discuss the impact of nitrite and dietary nitrate on vascular function and the potential therapeutic role of nitrite in acute heart failure.

  8. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Galván-Portillo, Marcia V.; Ward, Mary H.; Agudo, Antonio; González, Carlos A.; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F.; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    N-Nitroso compounds (NOC) are potent animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The primary source of exposure for most individuals may be endogenous formation, a process that can be inhibited by dietary polyphenols. To estimate the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to the individual and combined consumption of polyphenols and NOC precursors (nitrate and nitrite), a population-based case–control study was carried out in Mexico City from 2004 to 2005 including 257 histologically confirmed GC cases and 478 controls. Intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. High intakes of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol were associated with an ~50% reduction in GC risk. A high intake of total nitrite as well as nitrate and nitrite from animal sources doubled the GC risk. Odds ratios around 2-fold were observed among individuals with both low intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol or coumestrol and high intake of animal-derived nitrate or nitrite, compared to high intake of the polyphenols and low animal nitrate or nitrite intake, respectively. Results were similar for both the intestinal and diffuse types of GC. Our results show, for the first time, a protective effect for GC because of higher intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, and suggest that these polyphenols reduce GC risk through inhibition of endogenous nitrosation. The main sources of these polyphenols were pears, mangos and beans for cinnamic acids; beans, carrots and squash for secoisolariciresinol and legumes for coumestrol. PMID:19449378

  9. Inorganic nitrite and nitrate: evidence to support consideration as dietary nutrients.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nathan S; Ivy, John L

    2015-08-01

    There are now indisputable health benefits of nitrite and nitrate derived from food sources or when administered in a clinical setting for specific diseases. Most of the published reports identify the production of nitric oxide (NO) as the mechanism of action for nitrite and nitrate. Basic science as well as clinical studies demonstrates that nitrite and/or nitrate can restore NO homeostasis as an endothelium-independent source of NO that may be a redundant system for endogenous NO production. Nitrate must first be reduced to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria and then nitrite must be further reduced to NO along the physiological oxygen gradient. The purpose of this review is to define their role as indispensable nutrients needed for maintaining NO homeostasis and describe the daily intake required to achieve a threshold of activation as well as define the upper tolerable limits based on published literature in PubMed databases. Optimal ranges of intake will be discussed to maximize the benefits while mitigating any potential risks of overexposure to these naturally occurring anions. This information will allow for future research using safe and effective doses of nitrite and nitrate in long-term clinical trials to effectively test their roles in disease prevention or treatment.

  10. [Evaluation of nitrites and nitrates food intake in the students' group].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Pankowska, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the intake of nitrites and nitrates in daily food rations of the students' group in 2008 using 3-day dietary food records method and literature mean values of nitrates and nitrites in food products. Intakes of these compounds were calculated and compared to acceptable daily intake (ADI). The average intake of nitrites was 1.7 mg NaNO2/per person/day (28.0% of ADI), nitrates 77.3 mg NaNO3/per person/day that means 25.4% of ADI. The largest nitrites food intake was noticed for meat products supplied 56.5% of nitrites and cereals (20%). Whereas vegetables and their products supplied 76.1% of nitrates: potatoes 17.1%, cabbage 15.5%, beetroots 13.7%. Calculated nitrites intake for men was 2.4 higher than for women. There were no significant differences of nitrates intake between men and women groups.

  11. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    PubMed

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented.

  12. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  13. Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The role of NO3- and NO2- in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2-/gram fresh weight x hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2- and NO3- induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2- and NO3- over a 24 hour period). In NO3(-)-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3- concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating in NO3(-)-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2(-)-fed leaves was not seen until NO3- was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3-, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3- to NO2- was inhibited by WO4(2-), the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves in NiR is induced by NO3- directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2-, and that absorbed NO2- induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3- within the leaf.

  14. Proton affinity of methyl nitrite and methyl peroxynitrite: implications for measuring branching ratios of alkyl nitrates and nitrites.

    PubMed

    Ravelo, Rose M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2008-08-20

    Geometry optimizations for methyl nitrite and methyl peroxynitrite, along with various protonated isomers for each, have been investigated using ab initio and density functional methods. The lowest energy structure for protonated methyl nitrite is a complex between CH3OH and NO(+). For methyl peroxynitrite, the lowest energy protonated structure is a complex between CH3OOH and NO(+). Their respective proton affinities are estimated to be 195.2 and 195.8 kcal/mol at the QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. The results, compared with past studies, suggest an alternative method for directly measuring branching ratios for production of alkyl nitrates and nitrites.

  15. Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai women's health study.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Ward, Mary H

    2013-02-15

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40-70 years enrolled in 1996-2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk [RR(Q4) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-2.07; p for trend = 0.40]. Compared to the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a twofold risk of thyroid cancer (RR(Q4) = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20-3.51), but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend = 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RR(Q4) = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28-2.99; p for trend < 0.01). Although we did not observe an association for nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer.

  16. Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, S.G.

    1998-06-11

    This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

  17. Levels of Nitrates and Nitrites in Chili Pepper and Ventricina Salami

    PubMed Central

    Piccirilli, Michele; Iafigliola, Luigi; Amadoro, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Ventricina is a traditional sausage made from pork meat produced in the Abruzzi and Molise regions. The aim of this study was to detect the content of nitrates and nitrites in local cultivars of chilli pepper, and their concentration in ventricina samples spiced with the same chilli pepper. Furthermore, it was examined whether, in the samples of ventricina with nitrate addition, the spicing with chilli pepper could exceed the maximum added dose. The concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the organic chilli pepper was 531.0±94.6 mg/kg and less than 5.0 mg, respectively, in the traditional chilli pepper it was 394.0±39.6 and less than 5.0 mg, while in the commercial it was 325.0±115.0 and less than 5.0 mg. The determination of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by high performance ion chromatography. In ventricina samples produced without added sodium nitrate, nitrates and nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at the case-filling time (t0) and after 50 days of aging (t50). In the samples of ventricina with added sodium nitrate, nitrate concentration values were 134.0±20.9 mg/kg at t0 and 129.0±15.4 mg/kg at t50, while the nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at t0 and 28.8±15.8 mg/kg at t50. Although in ventricina the amount of chilli pepper is quite relevant, it did not lead to a detectable concentration of nitrates. The maximum allowed amount was never exceeded. PMID:27800331

  18. Evidence of parallel denitrification and nitrite oxidation in the ODZ of the Arabian Sea from paired stable isotopes of nitrate and nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaye, Birgit; Nagel, Birgit; Dähnke, Kirstin; Rixen, Tim; Emeis, Kay-Christian

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian Sea is a major oceanic nitrogen sink, and its oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) extends from 150 m to 1200 m water depth. To identify the dominant transformation processes of reactive nitrogen and to quantify the amounts of nitrogen turned over in the different reactions of the nitrogen cycle, we use paired data on stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite measured at four near-coastal and five open ocean stations in the Arabian Sea. We find significant nitrate reduction and denitrification between 100 m and 400 m in the open Arabian Sea, which are most intense in the eastern and northern part of the basin, and estimate that about 50% of initial nitrate is being reduced either to dinitrogen gas (denitrification) or to nitrite (nitrate reduction) in the core zone of denitrification. Nitrite accumulates in concentrations above 4 µM in the water column of the eastern and northern Arabian Sea. Large differences in isotopic ratios of nitrate and nitrite and a decoupling of their stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes can be explained by the reoxidation of nitrite. The observed decoupling of the paired isotopes may be due to the exchange of oxygen of nitrite with oxygen from ambient water. In agreement with model estimates from the literature, about 25% of the nitrate initially reduced to nitrite is returned to the nitrate pool by nitrification in the upper and lower denitrification layer while 40% is denitrified.

  19. Simultaneous removal of ammonia nitrogen and manganese from wastewater using nitrite by electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Qiu, Jiang; Chen, Hongliang; Tao, Changyuan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nitrite was developed to simultaneously remove manganese and ammonia nitrogen from wastewater by the electrochemical method. The characteristics of electrolytic reaction were observed via cyclic voltammograms. Moreover, the mole ratio of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen, voltage, and initial pH value, which affected the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and manganese, were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in wastewater could be reduced from 120.2 to 6.0 mg L(-1), and manganese could be simultaneously removed from 302.4 to 1.5 mg L(-1) at initial pH of 8.0, the mole ratios of nitrite and ammonia nitrogen of 1.5:1, and voltage of 20 V direct current electrolysis for 4.0 h. XRD analysis showed that manganese dioxide was deposited on the anode, and manganese was mainly removed in the form of manganese hydroxide precipitation in the cathode chamber.

  20. Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M−1·s−1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide. PMID:16336215

  1. Diversity and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeal Nitrite Reductase (nirK) Genes in Estuarine Sediments of San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reji, L.; Lee, J. A.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrification, the microbially-mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an integral component of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation, is carried out by two distinct microbial groups: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Molecular ecological studies targeting the amoA gene have revealed the abundance and ubiquity of AOA in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. In addition to the ammonia oxidation machinery that includes the amoA gene, AOA also encode a gene for copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK). The distribution patterns and functional role of nirK in AOA remain mostly unknown; proposed functions include the indirect involvement in ammonia oxidation through the production of nitric oxide during nitrite reduction, and (2) nitrite detoxification. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing approaches. In sediment samples collected from the San Francisco Bay estuary, two archaeal nirK variants (AnirKa and AnirKb) were amplified using specific primer sets. Overall, AnirKa was observed to be significantly more abundant than AnirKb in the sediment samples, with variation in relative abundance spanning two to three orders of magnitude between sampling sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a number of unique archaeal nirK sequence types, as well as many that clustered with sequences from previous estuarine studies and cultured AOA isolates, such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus. This study yielded new insights into the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments, and highlights the importance of further investigating the physiological role of this gene in AOA, as well as its suitability as a marker gene for studying AOA in the environment.

  2. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochrome c550 in nitrite and nitrate respiration.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Emilio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Richardson, David J; Delgado, María J

    2008-02-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochrome c(550), encoded by cycA, has been previously suggested to play a role in denitrification, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen. However, the exact role of this cytochrome in the denitrification process is unknown. This study shows that cytochrome c(550) is involved in electron transfer to the copper-containing nitrite reductase of B. japonicum, as revealed by the inability of a cycA mutant strain to consume nitrite and, consequently, to grow under denitrifying conditions with nitrite as the electron acceptor. Mutation of cycA had no apparent effect on methylviologen-dependent nitrite reductase activity. However, succinate-dependent nitrite reduction was largely inhibited, suggesting that c(550) is the in vivo electron donor to copper-containing nitrite reductase. In addition, this study demonstrates that a cytochrome c(550) mutation has a negative effect on expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase. This phenotype can be rescued by extending the growth period of the cells. A model is proposed whereby a mutation in cycA reduces expression of the cbb(3)-type oxidase, affecting oxygen consumption rate by the cells and consequently preventing maximal expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase during the first days of the growth period.

  3. Serum nitrite and nitrate levels in epileptic children using valproic acid or carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Karabiber, Hamza; Yakinci, Cengiz; Durmaz, Yasar; Temel, Ismail; Mehmet, Nihayet

    2004-01-01

    In experimental epilepsy studies, nitric oxide was found to act as both proconvulsant and anticonvulsant. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of valproic acid and carbamazepine on serum levels of nitrite and nitrate, which are the metabolites of nitric oxide. To achieve this goal, serum nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in active epileptic 34 children using valproic acid and 23 children using carbamazepine and in non-active epileptic 38 children (control group) not using any antiepileptic drug. In the valproic acid group serum nitrite and nitrate levels were 2.66 +/- 2.11 micromol/l and 69.35 +/- 23.20 micromol/l, 1.89 +/- 1.01 micromol/l and 49.39 +/- 10.61 micromol/l in the carbamazepine group, and 1.22 +/- 0.55 micromol/l, 29.53 +/- 10.05 micromol in the control group, respectively. Nitrite and nitrate levels were significantly high in both valproic acid and carbamazepine groups compared to the control group (P < 0.01). When valproic acid and carbamazepine groups were compared to each other, level of nitrate was found statistically higher in the valproic acid group in relation to the carbamazepine group (P < 0.01), however, there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of nitrite (P > 0.05). No relation could be found between serum drug levels and nitrite and nitrate levels. According to these results, it can be suggested that valproic acid and carbamazepine might have antiepileptic effects through nitric oxide.

  4. Comparative Behaviour of Nitrite and Nitrate for the Protection of Rebar Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Kumar, Anil

    2016-10-01

    Corrosion of rebar steel due to environmental causes has been studied through various approaches, and among the protection techniques use of inhibitors has gained encouragement. Nitrites and nitrates of sodium have gained sufficient scientific coverage. Recently, nitrites and nitrates of calcium have been verified in some studies, which, however, needs further experimentation through different angles. Simple polarization technique has been utilized in the present study to compare inhibitive efficiency of these salts of sodium and calcium, which indicate that calcium salts are more efficient.

  5. Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of nitrate/nitrite antiport by NarK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Takeda, Hironori; Kato, Hideaki E.; Doki, Shintaro; Ito, Koichi; Maturana, Andrés D.; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    NarK belongs to the nitrate/nitrite porter (NNP) family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and plays a central role in nitrate uptake across the membrane in diverse organisms, including archaea, bacteria, fungi and plants. Although previous studies provided insight into the overall structure and the substrate recognition of NarK, its molecular mechanism, including the driving force for nitrate transport, remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that NarK is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter, using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of NarK from Escherichia coli in the nitrate-bound occluded, nitrate-bound inward-open and apo inward-open states. The integrated structural, functional and computational analyses reveal the nitrate/nitrite antiport mechanism of NarK, in which substrate recognition is coupled to the transport cycle by the concomitant movement of the transmembrane helices and the key tyrosine and arginine residues in the substrate-binding site.

  6. Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of nitrate/nitrite antiport by NarK

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Takeda, Hironori; Kato, Hideaki E.; Doki, Shintaro; Ito, Koichi; Maturana, Andrés D.; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    NarK belongs to the nitrate/nitrite porter (NNP) family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and plays a central role in nitrate uptake across the membrane in diverse organisms, including archaea, bacteria, fungi and plants. Although previous studies provided insight into the overall structure and the substrate recognition of NarK, its molecular mechanism, including the driving force for nitrate transport, remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that NarK is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter, using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of NarK from Escherichia coli in the nitrate-bound occluded, nitrate-bound inward-open and apo inward-open states. The integrated structural, functional and computational analyses reveal the nitrate/nitrite antiport mechanism of NarK, in which substrate recognition is coupled to the transport cycle by the concomitant movement of the transmembrane helices and the key tyrosine and arginine residues in the substrate-binding site. PMID:25959928

  7. Effect of high oral doses of nitrate on salivary recirculation of nitrates and nitrites and on bacterial diversity in the saliva of young pigs.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, P; Casini, L; Nisi, I; Messori, S; Bosi, P

    2011-04-01

    Ingested nitrate is absorbed in the small intestine, recirculated into the saliva and reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In pigs receiving a moderate dietary addition of nitrate, the recirculation into the saliva is modest, so we aimed to assess the effect of higher nitrate doses to find out how the animal reacts to this new situation and to evaluate if a higher nitrate level could enhance the nitrate reduction process, improving the nitrite production Trial 1. Six piglets received 100 g of a commercial diet with 2.45% KNO(3) . In relation to baseline values, nitrate in blood serum and saliva increased 15 times, and declined after 6 h vs. 2 h. Salivary nitrite increased seven times after the addition and declined after 6 h vs. 2 h. Trial 2. Six piglets were fed a diet with or without 1.22% KNO(3) for 2 weeks. Salivary nitrate and nitrite increased with the addition of KNO3: nitrate increased from d0 to the end of the trial, nitrite increased 15 times after 1 week, but decreased after 2 weeks to 4.5-fold the control. After 2 weeks, nitrate reduced Shan diversity index of salivary microbiota. The present results indicate that the long exposure to high quantities of nitrates impairs the oral reduction of nitrate to nitrite and engenders a reduction of the mouth's microbiota diversity.

  8. Denitrification of nitrate and nitrite by 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' clade IC.

    PubMed

    Saad, Sondos A; Welles, Laurens; Abbas, Ben; Lopez-Vazquez, Carlos M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2016-11-15

    Phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) are assumed to use nitrate as external electron acceptor, allowing an efficient integration of simultaneous nitrogen and phosphate removal with minimal organic carbon (COD) requirements. However, contradicting findings appear in literature regarding the denitrification capacities of PAO due to the lack of clade specific highly enriched PAO cultures. Whereas some studies suggest that only PAO clade I may be capable of using nitrate as external electron acceptor for anoxic P-uptake, other studies indicate that PAO clade II may be responsible for anoxic P-removal. In the present study, a highly enriched PAO clade IC culture (>99% according to FISH) was cultivated in an SBR operated under Anaerobic/Oxic conditions and subsequently exposed to Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic conditions using nitrate as electron acceptor. Before and after acclimatization to the presence of nitrate, the aerobic and anoxic (nitrate and nitrite) activities of the PAO I culture were assessed through the execution of batch tests using either acetate or propionate as electron donor. In the presence of nitrate, significant P-uptake by PAO I was not observed before or after acclimatization. Using nitrite as electron acceptor, limited nitrite removal rates were observed before acclimatization with lower rates in the acetate fed reactor without P-uptake and slightly higher in the propionate fed reactor with a marginal anoxic P-uptake. Only after acclimatization to nitrate, simultaneous P and nitrite removal was observed. This study suggests that PAO clade IC is not capable of using nitrate as external electron acceptor for anoxic P-removal. The elucidation of the metabolic capacities for individual PAO clades helps in better understanding and optimization of the relation between microbial ecology and process performance in enhanced biological phosphate removal processes.

  9. Performance and microbial ecology of a nitritation sequencing batch reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjing; Dai, Xiaohu; Cao, Dawen; Wang, Sha; Hu, Xiaona; Liu, Wenru; Yang, Dianhai

    2016-01-01

    The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m3/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94.12% and 83.54%, respectively, indicating that the syntrophic inhibition of FA and low dissolved oxygen contributed substantially to the stable nitrite accumulation. The results of the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that Nitrospira, the only nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the system, were successively inhibited and eliminated, and the SBR reactor was dominated finally by Nitrosomonas, the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which had a relative abundance of 83%, indicating that the Nitrosomonas played the primary roles on the establishment and maintaining of nitritation. Followed by Nitrosomonas, Anaerolineae (7.02%) and Saprospira (1.86%) were the other mainly genera in the biomass. PMID:27762325

  10. Nitrate/Nitrite as Critical Mediators to Limit Oxidative Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Waltz, Paul; Escobar, Daniel; Botero, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical signaling molecule marked by complex chemistry and varied biological responses depending on the context of the redox environment. In the setting of inflammation, NO can not only contribute to tissue injury and be causative of oxidative damage but can also signal as an adaptive molecule to limit inflammatory signaling in multiple cell types and tissues. Recent Advances: An advance in our understanding of NO biology was the recognition of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis, whereby nitrate (predominantly from dietary sources) could be converted to nitrite and nitrite could be reduced to NO. Critical Issues: Intriguingly, the recognition of multiple enzymes that serve as nitrite reductases in the setting of hypoxia or ischemia established the concept of nitrite as a circulating endocrine reservoir of NO, with the selective release of NO at sites that were primed for this reaction. This review highlights the anti-inflammatory roles of nitrite in numerous clinical conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion, transplant, cardiac arrest, and vascular injury, and in gastrointestinal inflammation. Future Directions: These preclinical and clinical investigations set up further clinical trials and studies that elucidate the endogenous role this pathway plays in protection against inflammatory signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 328–339. PMID:26140517

  11. Qualitative and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate with ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    Reactions of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite often yield nitrite and nitrate as stable end products. The simultaneous detection of these two ions by anion chromatography with conductivity detection is described. The chromatographic system used is similar to conventional isocratic or gradient high-performance liquid chromatography equipment. The columns are packed with ion-exchanging resins instead of silica-derived adsorbents. Conductivity, though inherently nonspecific, has the advantage of covering a linear dynamic signal range of five orders of magnitude, which is far better than spectroscopic techniques; these are generally limited to two orders of magnitude. Typical run times per chromatogram are 15-30 min, and sample and standard concentrations can be between 100 nM and 10 mM. Injection volumes vary from 5 to 200 microl. Unlike with the Griess method, which determines only nitrite, a true mass balance from independent signals can be obtained if nitrate and nitrite are the only products.

  12. A Crp-Dependent Two-Component System Regulates Nitrate and Nitrite Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yangyang; Wang, Jixuan; Fu, Huihui; Zhou, Guangqi; Shi, Miaomiao; Gao, Haichun

    2012-01-01

    We have previously illustrated the nitrate/nitrite respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis, which is renowned for its remarkable versatility in respiration. Here we investigated the systems regulating the pathway with a reliable approach which enables characterization of mutants impaired in nitrate/nitrite respiration by guaranteeing biomass. The S. oneidensis genome encodes an Escherichia coli NarQ/NarX homolog SO3981 and two E. coli NarP/NarL homologs SO1860 and SO3982. Results of physiological characterization and mutational analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis possesses a single two-component system (TCS) for regulation of nitrate/nitrite respiration, consisting of the sensor kinase SO3981(NarQ) and the response regulator SO3982(NarP). The TCS directly controls the transcription of nap and nrfA (genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases, respectively) but regulates the former less tightly than the latter. Additionally, phosphorylation at residue 57 of SO3982 is essential for its DNA-binding capacity. At the global control level, Crp is found to regulate expression of narQP as well as nap and nrfA. In contrast to NarP-NarQ, Crp is more essential for nap rather than nrfA. PMID:23240049

  13. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI = 1.22-3.38, ptrend  = 0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR = 1.53, CI = 0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was nitrate was inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk (ptrend  = 0.02); whereas, dietary nitrite from processed meats was positively associated with the risk (ptrend  = 0.04). Our findings indicate that high nitrate levels in public drinking water and private well use may increase ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

  14. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cerhan, James R.; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman’s duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI=1.22–3.38, ptrend=0.003) in the highest quartile (≥2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (≤0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3-N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR=1.53, CI=0.93–2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was nitrate was inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk (ptrend=0.02); whereas, dietary nitrite from processed meats was positively associated with the risk (ptrend=0.04). Our findings indicate that high nitrate levels in public drinking water and private well use may increase ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  15. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-01-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. PMID:26633477

  16. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-12-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies-19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13-1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings.

  17. Flow injection analysis of nitrate and nitrite in commercial baby foods.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra

    2016-04-15

    Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation.

  18. Colorimetric determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water by enzymatic reduction, automated discrete analyzer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to operational details and performance benchmarks for these new DA-AtNaR2 nitrate + nitrite assays, this report also provides results of interference studies for common inorganic and organic matrix constituents at 1, 10, and 100 times their median concentrations in surface-water and groundwater samples submitted annually to the NWQL for nitrate + nitrite analyses. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank statistical analyses of results determined by CFA-CdR methods and DA-AtNaR2 methods indicate that nitrate concentration differences between population means or sign ranks were either statistically equivalent to zero at the 95 percent confidence level (p ≥ 0.05) or analytically equivalent to zero-that is, when p < 0.05, concentration differences between population means or medians were less than MDLs.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation study: Formation of ammonia from nitrate and nitrate in hydrogen generating systems

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Departrnent of Energy (DOE) to immobilize pretreated highly radioactive wastes in glass for permanent disposal in the HWVP, formic acid is added to the waste before vitrification to adjust glass redox and melter feed rheology. The operation of the glass melter and durability of the glass are affected by the glass oxidation state. Formation of a conductive metallic sludge in an over-reduced melt can result in a shortened melter lifetime. An over-oxidized melt may lead to foaming and loss of ruthenium as volatile RuO{sub 4}. Historically, foaming in the joule heated ceramic melter has been attributed to gas generation in the melt which is controlled by instruction of a reductant such as formic acid into the melter feed. Formic acid is also found to decrease the melter feed viscosity thereby facilitating pumping. This technical report discusses the noble metal catalyzed formic acid reduction of nitrite and/or nitrate to ammonia, a problem of considerable concern because of the generation of a potential ammonium nitrate explosion hazard in the plant ventilation system.

  20. In-situ restoration of one-stage partial nitritation-anammox process deteriorated by nitrate build-up via elevated substrate levels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    The one-stage partial nitritation and anammox process (PN/A) has been a promising microbial process to remove ammonia from wastewater especially with low carbon/nitrogen ratio. The main breakdown was the deterioration caused by overgrowth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) resulting effluent nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. This study presented an in-situ restoring strategy for suppressing NOB activity in a one-stage granular PN/A system deteriorated over 2 months, using elevated concentrations of substrates (ammonia and nitrite) under limited dissolved oxygen level. The results showed that the NOB activity was successfully suppressed after 56 days of restoration, and finally the ratio of produced nitrate/consumed ammonium was reduced from 36.8% to 7%. On day 66 the nitrogen removal rate obtained as 1.2 kg N/(m3·d). The high FA level (5–40 mg/L) and low dissolved oxygen (<0.13 mg/L) were responsible for NOB suppression. From quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, after this restoration, anammox bacteria had a widely growth, and AOB stay stable, but Nitrospira increase and Nitrobacter declined. High amount of NOB was still persistent in the granules, which was not easy to wash-out and threaten the deammonification performance. PMID:27881860

  1. In-situ restoration of one-stage partial nitritation-anammox process deteriorated by nitrate build-up via elevated substrate levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2016-11-01

    The one-stage partial nitritation and anammox process (PN/A) has been a promising microbial process to remove ammonia from wastewater especially with low carbon/nitrogen ratio. The main breakdown was the deterioration caused by overgrowth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) resulting effluent nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. This study presented an in-situ restoring strategy for suppressing NOB activity in a one-stage granular PN/A system deteriorated over 2 months, using elevated concentrations of substrates (ammonia and nitrite) under limited dissolved oxygen level. The results showed that the NOB activity was successfully suppressed after 56 days of restoration, and finally the ratio of produced nitrate/consumed ammonium was reduced from 36.8% to 7%. On day 66 the nitrogen removal rate obtained as 1.2 kg N/(m3·d). The high FA level (5–40 mg/L) and low dissolved oxygen (<0.13 mg/L) were responsible for NOB suppression. From quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis, after this restoration, anammox bacteria had a widely growth, and AOB stay stable, but Nitrospira increase and Nitrobacter declined. High amount of NOB was still persistent in the granules, which was not easy to wash-out and threaten the deammonification performance.

  2. Nutritional epidemiology in the context of nitric oxide biology: a risk-benefit evaluation for dietary nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Milkowski, Andrew; Garg, Harsha K; Coughlin, James R; Bryan, Nathan S

    2010-02-15

    The discovery of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the 1980s represented a critical advance in understanding cardiovascular disease, and today a number of human diseases are characterized by NO insufficiency. In the interim, recent biomedical research has demonstrated that NO can be modulated by the diet independent of its enzymatic synthesis from l-arginine, e.g., the consumption of nitrite- and nitrate-rich foods such as fruits, leafy vegetables, and cured meats along with antioxidants. Regular intake of nitrate-containing food such as green leafy vegetables may ensure that blood and tissue levels of nitrite and NO pools are maintained at a level sufficient to compensate for any disturbances in endogenous NO synthesis. However, some in the public perceive that dietary sources of nitrite and nitrate are harmful, and some epidemiological studies reveal a weak association between foods that contain nitrite and nitrate, namely cured and processed meats, and cancer. This paradigm needs revisiting in the face of undisputed health benefits of nitrite- and nitrate-enriched diets. This review will address and interpret the epidemiological data and discuss the risk-benefit evaluation of dietary nitrite and nitrate in the context of nitric oxide biology. The weak and inconclusive data on the cancer risk of nitrite, nitrate and processed meats are far outweighed by the health benefits of restoring NO homeostasis via dietary nitrite and nitrate. This risk/benefit balance should be a strong consideration before there are any suggestions for new regulatory or public health guidelines for dietary nitrite and nitrate exposures.

  3. Nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure and the risk of type 1 diabetes: A review of current data.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-10-15

    The potential toxic effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine on pancreatic β cell have remained a controversial issue over the past two decades. In this study, we reviewed epidemiological studies investigated the associations between nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure, from both diet and drinking water to ascertain whether these compounds may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes. To identify relevant studies, a systematic search strategy of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct was conducted using queries including the key words "nitrate", "nitrite", "nitrosamine" with "type 1 diabetes" or "insulin dependent diabetes mellitus". All searches were limited to studies published in English. Ecologic surveys, case-control and cohort studies have indicated conflicting results in relation to nitrate-nitrite exposure from drinking water and the risk of type 1 diabetes. A null, sometimes even negative association has been mainly reported in regions with a mean nitrate levels < 25 mg/L in drinking water, while increased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in those with a maximum nitrate levels > 40-80 mg/L. Limited data are available regarding the potential diabetogenic effect of nitrite from drinking water, although there is evidence indicating dietary nitrite could be a risk factor for development of type 1 diabetes, an effect however that seems to be significant in a higher range of acceptable limit for nitrate/nitrite. Current data regarding dietary exposure of nitrosamine and development of type 1 diabetes is also inconsistent. Considering to an increasing trend of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) along with an elevated nitrate-nitrite exposure, additional research is critical to clarify potential harmful effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine exposure on β-cell autoimmunity and the risk of T1DM.

  4. Determination of nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate anions in meat, milk and their products consumed in Hatay region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Atan, Muhammet Meriç

    2013-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites added to food can cause formation of cancerous N-nitroso compounds, whereas exposure to perchlorate is especially emphasised as an important risk factor for newborns' health. In this study, nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate concentrations in meat and milk products consumed in the Hatay region of Turkey were determined. Nitrate and nitrite were analysed with a spectrophotometric method, and perchlorate analysed via ion chromatography. The detected sodium nitrate and nitrite amounts in meat consumed in the Hatay region are less than the maximum levels as declared in the Turkish Food Codex. The amount of perchlorate was considered not to pose a threat as well. However, in 50% of the cheese samples, sodium nitrate amounts were found to be more than the maximum acceptable level in the Turkish Food Codex.

  5. It is rocket science - why dietary nitrate is hard to 'beet'! Part I: twists and turns in the realization of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Jibran; Mills, Charlotte Elizabeth; Maskell, Perry; Odongerel, Chimed; Webb, Andrew James

    2017-01-01

    Dietary nitrate (found in green leafy vegetables, such as rocket, and in beetroot) is now recognized to be an important source of nitric oxide (NO), via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Dietary nitrate confers several cardiovascular beneficial effects on blood pressure, platelets, endothelial function, mitochondrial efficiency and exercise. While this pathway may now seem obvious, its realization followed a rather tortuous course over two decades. Early steps included the discovery that nitrite was a source of NO in the ischaemic heart but this appeared to have deleterious effects. In addition, nitrate-derived nitrite provided a gastric source of NO. However, residual nitrite was not thought to be absorbed systemically. Nitrite was also considered to be physiologically inert but potentially carcinogenic, through N-nitrosamine formation. In Part 1 of a two-part Review on the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway we describe key twists and turns in the elucidation of the pathway and the underlying mechanisms. This provides the critical foundation for the more recent developments in the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway which are covered in Part 2.

  6. Synthesis of nano-structured polypyrrole/copper electrodes for nitrate and nitrite electroreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Thoa Nguyen, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Viet; Nguyen Bui, Nhat; Do, Duong Kim Bao; Pham, Anh Minh

    2010-09-01

    Nanostructured polypyrrole film was synthesized onto a copper electrode in solutions of oxalic and salicylic acids and their buffers. The electrooxidation of pyrrole to form polypyrrole film and the electroreduction of nitrate and nitrite ions at synthesized Ppy modified copper electrodes (Ppy/Cu) in potassium chloride aqueous solutions were studied using chronoamperometry. The nanoporous structure of the synthesized Ppy films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nitrate and nitrite reduction were performed by an electrochemical method under potentiostatic conditions. The Ppy/Cu electrodes prepared in the oxalate buffer and salicylic acid solutions perform more stable catalytic activity for nitrate reduction; their service life is about ten times longer than that for the electrodes prepared in oxalic acid solution. After 20 h of electrolysis, the nitrite was reduced completely with 100% efficiency and the nitrate was reduced with 35% efficiency. Report submitted to the 5th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN, Hanoi, 9-12 November 2010.

  7. Inorganic nitrate promotes the browning of white adipose tissue through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach, we mechanistically defined that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious comorbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Because resulting beige/brite cells exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Inorganic Nitrate Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end-product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach we mechanistically define that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown-adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious co-morbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Since resulting beige/brite cells exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

  9. Bioelectrode-based approach for enhancing nitrate and nitrite removal and electricity generation from eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate and nitrite contamination of surface waters (e.g. lakes) has become a severe environmental and health problem, especially in developing countries. The recent demonstration of nitrate reduction at the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides an opportunity to develop a new technology for nitrogen removal from surface waters. In this study, a sediment-type MFC based on two pieces of bioelectrodes was employed as a novel in situ applicable approach for nitrogen removal, as well as electricity production from eutrophic lakes. Maximum power density of 42 and 36 mW/m(2) was produced respectively from nitrate- and nitrite-rich synthetic lake waters at initial concentration of 10 mg-N/L. Along with the electricity production a total nitrogen removal of 62% and 77% was accomplished, for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. The nitrogen removal was almost 4 times higher under close-circuit condition with biocathode, compared to either the open-circuit operation or with abiotic cathode. The mass balance on nitrogen indicates that most of the removed nitrate and nitrite (84.7 ± 0.1% and 81.8 ± 0.1%, respectively) was reduced to nitrogen gas. The nitrogen removal and power generation was limited by the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the water and acetate level injected to the sediment. Excessive oxygen resulted in dramatically decrease of nitrogen removal efficiency and only 7.8% removal was obtained at DO level of 7.8 mg/l. The power generation and nitrogen removal increased with acetate level and was nearly saturated at 0.84 mg/g-sediment. This bioelectrode-based in situ approach is attractive not only due to the electricity production, but also due to no need of extra reactor construction, which may broaden the application possibilities of sediment MFC technology.

  10. Comparison of endogenous metabolism during long-term anaerobic starvation of nitrite/nitrate cultivated denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Hong; Ye, Liu; Qin, Jian; Lin, Ximao

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) by denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) is a promising approach for reducing energy and carbon usage. However, influent fluctuations or interruptions frequently expose the DPAOs biomass to starvation conditions, reducing biomass activity and amount, and ultimately degrading the performance of DPR. Therefore, a better understanding of the endogenous metabolism and recovery ability of DPAOs is urgently required. In the present study, anaerobic starvation (12 days) and recovery were investigated in nitrite- and nitrate-cultivated DPAOs at 20 ± 1 °C. The cell decay rates in nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were 0.008 day⁻¹ and 0.007 day⁻¹, respectively, being 64% and 68% lower than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Nitrite-DPAOs sludges also recovered more rapidly than nitrate-DPAOs sludge after 12 days of starvation. The maintenance energy of nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were approximately 31% and 34% lower, respectively, than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Glycogen and polyphosphate (poly-P) sequentially served as the main maintenance energy sources in both nitrite-and nitrate-DPAOs sludges. However, the transformation pathway of the intracellular polymers during starvation differed between them. Nitrate-DPAOs sludge used extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (mainly polysaccharides) as an additional maintenance energy source during the first 3 days of starvation. During this phase, EPS appeared to contribute to 19-27% of the ATP production in nitrate-DPAOs, but considerably less to the cell maintenance of nitrite-DPAOs. The high resistance of nitrite-DPAOs to starvation might be attributable to frequent short-term starvation and exposure to toxic substances such as nitrite/free nitrous acids in the parent nitrite-fed reactor. The strong resistance of nitrite-DPAOs sludge to anaerobic starvation may be exploited in P removal

  11. Industrial use of molten nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect

    Carling, R.W.; Mar, R.W.

    1981-12-01

    Nitrate salts have been used for years as a high-temperature heat transfer medium in the chemical and metal industries. This experience is often cited as an argument for the use of these salts in large-scale solar energy systems. However, this industrial experience has not been well documented and a study was carried out to provide such information to the solar community and to determine the applicability of this data base. Seven different industrial plants were visited and the plant operators were interviewed with regard to operating history and experience. In all cases the molten salt systems operate without problems. However, it is not possible to apply the base of industrial experience directly to solar thermal energy applications because of differences in operating temperature, salt composition, alloys used, and thermal/mechanical conditions.

  12. Nitrate and Nitrite Determination in Gunshot Residue Samples by Capillary Electrophoresis in Acidic Run Buffer().

    PubMed

    Erol, Özge Ö; Erdoğan, Behice Y; Onar, Atiye N

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in gunshot residue has been conducted by capillary electrophoresis using an acidic run buffer (pH 3.5). In previously developed capillary electrophoretic methods, alkaline pH separation buffers were used where nitrite and nitrate possess similar electrophoretic mobility. In this study, the electroosmotic flow has been reversed by using low pH running buffer without any additives. As a result of reversing the electroosmotic flow, very fast analysis has been actualized, well-defined and separated ion peaks emerge in less than 4 min. Besides, the limit of detection was improved by employing large volume sample stacking. Limit of detection values were 6.7 and 4.3 μM for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. In traditional procedure, mechanical agitation is employed for extraction, while in this work the extraction efficiency of ultrasound mixing for 30 min was found sufficient. The proposed method was successfully applied to authentic gunshot residue samples.

  13. Nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure and the risk of type 1 diabetes: A review of current data

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Ghasemi, Asghar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    The potential toxic effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine on pancreatic β cell have remained a controversial issue over the past two decades. In this study, we reviewed epidemiological studies investigated the associations between nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure, from both diet and drinking water to ascertain whether these compounds may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes. To identify relevant studies, a systematic search strategy of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct was conducted using queries including the key words “nitrate”, “nitrite”, “nitrosamine” with “type 1 diabetes” or “insulin dependent diabetes mellitus”. All searches were limited to studies published in English. Ecologic surveys, case-control and cohort studies have indicated conflicting results in relation to nitrate-nitrite exposure from drinking water and the risk of type 1 diabetes. A null, sometimes even negative association has been mainly reported in regions with a mean nitrate levels < 25 mg/L in drinking water, while increased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in those with a maximum nitrate levels > 40-80 mg/L. Limited data are available regarding the potential diabetogenic effect of nitrite from drinking water, although there is evidence indicating dietary nitrite could be a risk factor for development of type 1 diabetes, an effect however that seems to be significant in a higher range of acceptable limit for nitrate/nitrite. Current data regarding dietary exposure of nitrosamine and development of type 1 diabetes is also inconsistent. Considering to an increasing trend of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) along with an elevated nitrate-nitrite exposure, additional research is critical to clarify potential harmful effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine exposure on β-cell autoimmunity and the risk of T1DM. PMID:27795817

  14. Simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal in an airlift reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yun-Jie; Deng, Ya-Le; Guo, Xi-Shan; Timmons, Michael B; Lu, Hui-Feng; Han, Zhi-Ying; Ye, Zhang-Ying; Shi, Ming-Ming; Zhu, Song-Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an airlift inner-loop sequencing batch reactor using poly(butylene succinate) as the biofilm carrier and carbon source was operated under an alternant aerobic/anoxic strategy for nitrogen removal in recirculating aquaculture system. The average TAN and nitrate removal rates of 47.35±15.62gNH4-Nm(-3)d(-1) and 0.64±0.14kgNO3-Nm(-3)d(-1) were achieved with no obvious nitrite accumulation (0.70±0.76mg/L) and the dissolved organic carbon in effluents was maintained at 148.38±39.06mg/L. Besides, the activities of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and sulfate reduction activities were successfully inhibited. The proteome KEGG analysis illustrated that ammonia might be removed through heterotrophic nitrification, while the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases were enhanced through aeration treatment. The microbial community analysis revealed that denitrifiers of Azoarcus and Simplicispira occupied the dominate abundance which accounted for the high nitrate removal performance. Overall, this study broadened our understanding of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification using biodegradable material as biofilm carrier.

  15. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite.

  16. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  17. Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism.

  18. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Frankenberg, Nicole; Marino, Marco; Jahn, Dieter

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrification products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor. The anaerobic expression of the discovered nitrite reductase activity was dependent on the regulatory system encoded by resDE. Mutation of the gene encoding the regulatory Fnr had no negative effect on dissimilatory nitrite reductase formation. PMID:9422613

  19. Larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate-reducing bacteria in megaesophagus of Chagas' disease than in controls.

    PubMed

    Pajecki, D; Zilberstein, B; Cecconello, I; Dos Santos, M A A; Yagi, O K; Gama-Rodrigues, J J

    2007-02-01

    In the megaesophagus of Chagas' disease, chronic esophagitis is caused by stasis of swallowed food and saliva. In this environment, the overgrowth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, is observed. The reduction of nitrate into nitrite by the action of these bacteria has been associated with the formation of volatile nitrosamines in different situations of gastric bacterial overgrowth. We have hypothesized that this phenomenon could occur in the esophageal lumen of patients with megaesophagus. To evaluate the concentration of nitrite, the presence of volatile nitrosamines and the concentration of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the esophageal lumen of patients with non-advanced megaesophagus of Chagas' disease and in a group of patients without esophageal disease. Fifteen patients with non-advanced megaesophagus [megaesophagus group (MG)] and 15 patients without any esophageal disease [control group (CG)] were studied. Saliva samples were taken for nitrate and nitrite quantitative determination and esophageal stasis liquid samples were taken for nitrate and nitrite quantitative determination, volatile nitrosamines qualitative determination and reductive bacteria quantitative determination. MG and CG were equivalent in nitrate and nitrite saliva concentration and in nitrate esophageal concentration. Significant difference was found in nitrite (p = 0.003) and reductive bacteria concentration (p < 0.0001), both higher in MG. Volatile nitrosamines were identified in three MG patients and in none of the CG patients, but this was not significant (p = 0.113). There is a higher concentration of reductive bacteria in MG, responsible for the rise in nitrite concentration at the esophageal lumen and, eventually, for the formation of volatile nitrosamines.

  20. Chemical reactivity of nitrates and nitrites towards TBP and potassium nickel ferrocyanide between 30 and 300 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertin, D.; Chartier, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C.

    2007-07-01

    Since the late sixties, bitumen has been widely used by the nuclear industry as a matrix for the immobilization of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste originating mainly from the nuclear activities: precipitation or evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, incinerator ashes, and filter materials. Depending on bitumen and operating conditions, bituminization of radioactive waste can be operated between 130 and 180 deg. C, so chemical reaction can be induced with nitrate or nitrite towards elements contained in waste (TPB, potassium nickel ferrocyanide and cobalt compound) and bitumen. These reactions are mainly exothermic this is the reason why the enthalpy reaction and their temperature of initiation have to be determined independently of their concentration in waste. In this work, we have studied by Calvet Calorimetry at 0.1 deg. C/min heating rates, the behaviour of chemical elements especially oxido-reduction couples that can react at a temperature range 100- 300 deg. C (Nitrate/PPFeNi, Nitrite/PPFeNi, Nitrate/TBP, Nitrite/TBP, Nitrate/bitumen and Nitrite/bitumen). The initial temperature reaction of nitrates or nitrites towards potassium nickel ferrocyanide (PPFeNi) has been studied and is equal respectively to 225 deg. C and 175 deg. C. Because of the large scale temperature reaction of nitrate and PPFeNi, enthalpy reaction can not be calculated, although enthalpy reaction of nitrite and PPFeNi is equal to 270 kJ/mol of nitrite. Sodium Nitrate and TBP behaviour has been investigated, and an exothermic reaction at 135 deg. C until 250 deg. C is evidenced. The exothermic energy reaction is a function of TBP concentration and the enthalpy reaction has been determined. (authors)

  1. Modulation of the stress response in wild fish is associated with variation in dissolved nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, Tom G

    2017-03-15

    Disruption of non-reproductive endocrine systems in wildlife by chemicals has received little attention but represents a potentially significant problem. Nitrate is a major anthropogenic contaminant in the freshwater aquatic environment and has been identified as a potential disrupter of endocrine function in aquatic animals. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the function of the neuroendocrine stress axis in fish and inorganic N loading along reaches of rivers receiving cumulative point source and diffuse chemical inputs. To accomplish this, the responsiveness of the stress axis, quantified as the rate of release of cortisol to water across the gills during exposure to a standardised stressor, was measured in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) resident at three sites on each of four rivers in north-west England. The magnitude of the stress response in fish captured at the sites furthest downstream on all rivers was more than twice that of fish captured at upstream sites. Site-specific variation in stress axis reactivity was better explained by between-site variation in concentrations of dissolved nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia than by the concentration of wastewater treatment works effluent. An increase in the magnitude of the stress response was seen among sticklebacks at sites where long-term averaged concentrations of NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N exceeded 0.6, 4.0 and 0.1 mg/L respectively. These data suggest that either (i) inorganic N is a better surrogate than wastewater effluent concentration for an unknown factor or factors affecting stress axis function in fish, or (ii) dissolved inorganic N directly exerts a disruptive influence on the function of the neuroendocrine stress axis in fish, supporting concerns that nitrate is an endocrine-modulating chemical.

  2. Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N2O production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venterea, R. T.; Sadowsky, M.; Breuillin-Sessoms, F.; Wang, P.; Clough, T. J.; Coulter, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N2O) production in urine-impacted 'hot spots' and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N2O, and genes associated with nitrification in two soils ('L' and 'W') having similar texture, pH, C, and C/N ratio. Solution-phase ammonia (slNH3) was also calculated accounting for non-linear ammonium (NH4+) sorption capacities (ASC). Soil W displayed greater nitrification rates and nitrate (NO3-) levels than soil L, but was more resistant to nitrite (NO2-) accumulation and produced two to ten times less N2O than soil L. Genes associated with NO2- oxidation (nxrA) increased substantially in soil W but remained static in soil L. Soil NO2- was strongly correlated with N2O production, and cumulative (c-) slNH3 explained 87% of the variance in c-NO2-. Differences between soils were explained by greater slNH3 in soil L which inhibited NO2- oxidization leading to greater NO2- levels and N2O production. This is the first study to correlate the dynamics of soil slNH3, NO2-, N2O and nitrifier genes, and the first to show how ASC can regulate NO2- levels and N2O production.

  3. Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N2O production.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Clough, Timothy J; Coulter, Jeffrey A; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence; Wang, Ping; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-07-16

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N2O) production in urine-impacted 'hot spots' and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N2O, and genes associated with nitrification in two soils ('L' and 'W') having similar texture, pH, C, and C/N ratio. Solution-phase ammonia (slNH3) was also calculated accounting for non-linear ammonium (NH4(+)) sorption capacities (ASC). Soil W displayed greater nitrification rates and nitrate (NO3(-)) levels than soil L, but was more resistant to nitrite (NO2(-)) accumulation and produced two to ten times less N2O than soil L. Genes associated with NO2(-) oxidation (nxrA) increased substantially in soil W but remained static in soil L. Soil NO2(-) was strongly correlated with N2O production, and cumulative (c-) slNH3 explained 87% of the variance in c-NO2(-). Differences between soils were explained by greater slNH3 in soil L which inhibited NO2(-) oxidization leading to greater NO2(-) levels and N2O production. This is the first study to correlate the dynamics of soil slNH3, NO2(-), N2O and nitrifier genes, and the first to show how ASC can regulate NO2(-) levels and N2O production.

  4. Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N2O production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venterea, Rodney T.; Clough, Timothy J.; Coulter, Jeffrey A.; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence

    2015-07-01

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N2O) production in urine-impacted ‘hot spots’ and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N2O, and genes associated with nitrification in two soils (‘L’ and ‘W’) having similar texture, pH, C, and C/N ratio. Solution-phase ammonia (slNH3) was also calculated accounting for non-linear ammonium (NH4+) sorption capacities (ASC). Soil W displayed greater nitrification rates and nitrate (NO3-) levels than soil L, but was more resistant to nitrite (NO2-) accumulation and produced two to ten times less N2O than soil L. Genes associated with NO2- oxidation (nxrA) increased substantially in soil W but remained static in soil L. Soil NO2- was strongly correlated with N2O production, and cumulative (c-) slNH3 explained 87% of the variance in c-NO2-. Differences between soils were explained by greater slNH3 in soil L which inhibited NO2- oxidization leading to greater NO2- levels and N2O production. This is the first study to correlate the dynamics of soil slNH3, NO2-, N2O and nitrifier genes, and the first to show how ASC can regulate NO2- levels and N2O production.

  5. Endogenous levels of nitrites and nitrates in wide consumption foodstuffs: Results of five years of official controls and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2013-10-15

    The massive introduction of nitrogen fertilisers, necessary to maximise the global food production, has brought about an increase of the residual amounts of nitrites and nitrates in the products. Notoriously, these compounds may exercise toxic effects. In this work the results obtained from 5years of official controls and monitoring focused on tracing quantifiable amounts of nitrites and nitrates in 1785 samples of meat, dairy, fish products and leafy vegetables are reported. A widespread presence of nitrates at low concentrations in foodstuffs was verified. High concentrations of nitrates were registered in some leafy vegetables and mussels samples, while high nitrites concentrations were registered in some spinach samples. The results confirmed the necessity to develop most controls and suggest the introduction of new legal limits related to some combinations contaminant/matrix. Such new limits may fill legislative gaps that may cause wrong interpretations of the results obtained during official controls.

  6. The Nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and its implications for Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Zamani, Payman

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is likely multifactorial. In addition to cardiac abnormalities (diastolic dysfunction, abnormal contractile reserve, chronotropic incompetence), several peripheral abnormalities are likely to be involved. These include abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics, abnormal arterial vasodilatory responses to exercise, and abnormal peripheral O2 delivery, extraction and utilization. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as a potential target to modify key physiologic abnormalities, including late systolic LV load from arterial wave reflections (which has deleterious short- and long-term consequences for the LV), arterial vasodilatory reserve, muscle O2 delivery, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. In a recently completed randomized trial, the administration of a single dose of exogenous inorganic nitrate has been shown exert various salutary arterial hemodynamic effects, ultimately leading to enhanced aerobic capacity in patients with HFpEF. These effects have the potential for both immediate improvements in exercise tolerance and for long-term “disease-modifying” effects. In this review, we provide an overview of key mechanistic contributors to exercise intolerance in HFpEF, and of the potential therapeutic role of drugs that target the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. PMID:26792295

  7. Nitrite

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrite ; CASRN 14797 - 65 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  8. Dynamics of corrosion rates associated with nitrite or nitrate mediated control of souring under biological conditions simulating an oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rempel, C L; Evitts, R W; Nemati, M

    2006-10-01

    Representative microbial cultures from an oil reservoir and electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic scan and linear polarization were used to investigate the time dependent corrosion rate associated with control of biogenic sulphide production through addition of nitrite, nitrate and a combination of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and nitrate. The addition of nitrate alone did not prevent the biogenic production of sulphide but the produced sulphide was eventually oxidized and removed from the system. The addition of nitrate and NR-SOB had a similar effect on oxidation and removal of sulphide present in the system. However, as the addition of nitrate and NR-SOB was performed towards the end of sulphide production phase, the assessment of immediate impact was not possible. The addition of nitrite inhibited the biogenic production of sulphide immediately and led to removal of sulphide through nitrite mediated chemical oxidation of sulphide. The real time corrosion rate measurement revealed that in all three cases an acceleration in the corrosion rate occurred during the oxidation and removal of sulphide. Amendments of nitrate and NR-SOB or nitrate alone both gave rise to localized corrosion in the form of pits, with the maximum observed corrosion rates of 0.72 and 1.4 mm year(-1), respectively. The addition of nitrite also accelerated the corrosion rate but the maximum corrosion rate observed following nitrite addition was 0.3 mm year(-1). Furthermore, in the presence of nitrite the extent of pitting was not as high as those observed with other control methods.

  9. The Nitrite-Scavenging Properties of Catechol, Resorcinol, and Hydroquinone: A Comparative Study on Their Nitration and Nitrosation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunhao; Dong, Yanzuo; Li, Xueli; He, Qiang

    2016-10-14

    The nitration and nitrosation reactions of catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone (0.05 mmol/L) with sodium nitrite (0.05 mmol/L) at pH 3 and 37 °C were studied by using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and atom charge analysis, which was aimed to provide chemical insight into the nitrite-scavenging behavior of polyphenols. The 3 benzenediols showed different mechanisms to scavenge nitrite due to their differences in hydroxyl position. Catechol was nitrated with 1 NO2 group at the hydroxyl oxygen, and resorcinol was nitrosated with 2 NO groups at the C2 and C4 (or C6 ) positions of the benzene ring. Hydroquinone could scavenge nitrite through both nitration and nitrosation mechanisms. The nitrated hydroquinone had 1 NO2 group at the hydroxyl oxygen in the molecule, while the nitrosated 1 containing 2 NO groups at the benzene ring might have 3 structure probabilities. The results may provide a structure-activity understanding on the nitrite-scavenging property of polyphenols, so as to promote their application in the food industry for the removal of possibly toxic nitrites found in many vegetables and often in processed meat products.

  10. Z-Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts: Comparison of Nitrate and Nitrite X-type Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pribisko, Melanie A.; Ahmed, Tonia S.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Two new Ru-based metathesis catalysts, 3 and 4, have been synthesized for the purpose of comparing their catalytic properties to those of their cis-selective nitrate analogues, 1 and 2. Although catalysts 3 and 4 exhibited slower initiation rates than 1 and 2, they maintained high cis-selectivity in homodimerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization reactions. Furthermore, the nitrite catalysts displayed higher cis-selectivity than 2 for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations, and 4 delivered higher yields of polymer. PMID:25484484

  11. Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Ward, Mary H.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40–70 years enrolled in 1996–2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relatives risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk (RRQ4 = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.42–2.07; p for trend = 0.40). Compared with the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a two-fold risk of thyroid cancer (RRQ4 = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20–3.51;) but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend= 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RRQ4 = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28–2.99; p for trend <0.01). Although we did not observe an association for nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer. PMID:22674227

  12. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  13. Nitrite- and Nitrate-Dependent Methanotrophs - Environmental Detection and Relevance in Freshwater Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettwig, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Humans continue to have an enormous impact on global C and N cycles. While a clear stimulation of methane emissions through human activities is evident, the role of also increasingly released nitrogenous compounds as electron acceptors for microbial methane oxidation is not well constrained. We have developed diverse methods for environmental detection of nitrate(NO3-)- and - predominantly - nitrite(NO2-)-dependent methanotrophs, which have been applied to several freshwater environments. In contrast to most metabolically flexible heterotrophic denitrifiers, the microorganisms responsible for methane-dependent nitrate/nitrite reduction seem to be specialized to use methane only, grow slowly and employ pathways different from each other and from model organisms, which necessitate new approaches for the assessment of their environmental relevance. Nitrite-dependent methane oxidation is carried out by bacteria of the NC10 phylum, whereas nitrate-dependent methane oxidizers are close relatives of methanogenic archaea and sulfate-dependent anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME-2). Laboratory enrichment cultures of the nitrite-reducing methanotroph Methylomirabilis oxyfera (NC10 phylum) have formed the basis for its genetic and physiological characterization and the development of several independent methods for its sensitive detection. M. oxyfera differs from all known microorganisms by encoding an incomplete denitrification pathway, in which the last 2 steps, the reduction of NO via N2O to N2, apparently is replaced by the dismutation of NO to N2 and O2. The intracellularly produced O2 is used for methane oxidation via a methane monooxygenase, analogously to the phylogenetically unrelated proteobacterial methanotrophs. But unlike in proteobacteria, C is not assimilated from methane, but rather CO2, with important consequences for the interpretation of environmental isotope labelling studies. In addition, M. oxyfera is characterized by a distinct PLFA profile, including

  14. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of nitrate and nitrite ions using a copper electrode pretreated by dissolution/redeposition.

    PubMed

    Shariar, Shovon Mohammad; Hinoue, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite ions were found to be successfully electroreduced at an in situ electrochemically pretreated copper electrode in acidic media, and their reduction peaks of a cyclic voltammogram were found at two distinct electrode potentials. Cyclic voltammetric experiments revealed a highly sensitive behavior of the pretreated copper electrode upon the electroreduction of nitrate and nitrite ions, and showed that a simultaneous voltammetric determination of the ions was achievable. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was applied to the simultaneous determination. As a result, the detection limits were 0.26 and 0.17 µmol dm(-3) for nitrate and nitrite ions, respectively. Simultaneous determinations for real samples (river water) were carried out by DPV at the pretreated copper electrode and spectrophotometry (the Griess method). The determination values obtained by both methods were in a good agreement with each other.

  15. Serum nitrite/nitrate and arginase levels in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Unal, Murat; Eskandari, Hatice Gulçin; Erçetin, Neslihan; Doğruer, Zeynep Nil; Pata, Yavuz Selim

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of upper respiratory function. Patients with untreated allergic rhinitis (AR) have an increased level of NO in the nasal cavity compared to normal individuals. We aimed to investigate serum levels of arginase and NO metabolites nitrite/nitrate in patients with AR during the symptomatic period. The patient and control groups consisted of 14 males and 12 females (mean age: 29, range: 20-40 years), and 10 males and 10 females (mean age: 27, range: 22-38 years), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate levels were 0.98 +/- 0.33 ng/ml in the patients with AR, and 0.78 +/- 0.26 ng/ml in the control group (p = 0.03). Arginase levels were 28.8 +/- 14.1 ng/ml in the patients with AR, and 20.8 +/- 13.5 ng/ml in the control group. The difference between the groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.24). Our results support the view that NO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AR, and NO metabolites may be used as a marker for monitoring the disease activity and therapy.

  16. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate Concentrations on the Performance of AFB-MFC Enriched with High-Strength Synthetic Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Guo, Yong; Lai, Bo; Wang, Ye; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate on the performance of microbial fuel cell, a system combining an anaerobic fluidized bed (AFB) and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was employed for high-strength nitrogen-containing synthetic wastewater treatment. Before this study, the AFB-MFC had been used to treat high-strength organic wastewater for about one year in a continuous flow mode. The results showed that when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased from 1700 mg/L to 4045 mg/L and 545 mg/L to 1427 mg/L, respectively, the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen removal efficiencies were both above 99%; the COD removal efficiency went up from 60.00% to 88.95%; the voltage was about 375 ± 15 mV while the power density was at 70 ± 5 mW/m2. However, when the concentrations of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were above 4045 mg/L and 1427 mg/L, respectively, the removal of nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, COD, voltage, and power density were decreased to be 86%, 88%, 77%, 180 mV, and 17 mW/m2 when nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were increased to 4265 mg/L and 1661 mg/L. In addition, the composition of biogas generated in the anode chamber was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon dioxide were obtained. The results indicated that denitrification happened in anode chamber. PMID:26495144

  17. High-resolution microanalysis of nitrite and nitrate in neuronal tissues by capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Boudko, Dmitri Y; Cooper, Brian Y; Harvey, William R; Moroz, Leonid L

    2002-07-05

    Nitrites and nitrates are widely used reporters of endogenous activity of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), an important group of enzymes producing the gaseous signal molecule nitric oxide (NO). However, due to the great chemical heterogeneity of neuronal tissues, standard analytical protocols for evaluation of neuronal nitrite/nitrate concentrations are inefficient. We optimized a high-performance capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) technique to analyze nitrite/nitrate concentrations in submicroliter samples from mammalian neuronal tissues. The measurements were made using a PrinCE 476 computerized capillary electrophoresis system with a Crystal 1000 contact conductivity detector. Isotachophoretic stacking injection of 1000- to 10000-fold diluted samples, which had been pretreated with a custom-designed solid-phase microextraction (SPME) cartridge, was employed to assay micromolar and nanomolar nitrite and nitrate levels in the presence of the high millimolar chloride concentrations characteristic of many biological samples. In the presented technique, a 10-microl volume of diluted ganglionic sample was used for chloride removal and sample cleanup. The method yields high analytical performance, including good reproducibility, resolution, and accuracy. The limits of detection relative to undiluted sample matrix were 8.9 nM (0.41 ppb) and 3.54 nM (0.22 ppb) for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. In addition, this technique resolves other anions that are present in neuronal tissues at sub-nanomolar concentrations and can be broadly applied for high-throughput anionic profiling. In rat dorsal root ganglia, endogenous levels of nitrate (231+/-29 microM; n=6) and nitrite (24-96 microM) were found. These concentrations exceeded those previously found in neuronal tissue homogenates using different techniques.

  18. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  19. Nitrate reductase and nitrite as additional components of defense system in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) against Helicoverpa armigera herbivory.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rimaljeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Taggar, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Amylase inhibitors serve as attractive candidates of defense mechanisms against insect attack. Therefore, the impediment of Helicoverpa armigera digestion can be the effective way of controlling this pest population. Nitrite was found to be a potent mixed non-competitive competitive inhibitor of partially purified α-amylase of H. armigera gut. This observation impelled us to determine the response of nitrite and nitrate reductase (NR) towards H. armigera infestation in nine pigeonpea genotypes (four moderately resistant, three intermediate and two moderately susceptible). The significant upregulation of NR in moderately resistant genotypes after pod borer infestation suggested NR as one of the factors that determine their resistance status against insect attack. The pod borer attack caused greater reduction of nitrate and significant accumulation of nitrite in moderately resistant genotypes. The activity of nitrite reductase (NiR) was also enhanced more in moderately resistant genotypes than moderately susceptible genotypes on account of H. armigera herbivory. Expression of resistance to H. armigera was further revealed when significant negative association between NR, NiR, nitrite and percent pod damage was observed. This is the first report that suggests nitrite to be a potent inhibitor of H. armigera α-amylase and also the involvement of nitrite and NR in providing resistance against H. armigera herbivory.

  20. Role of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Induction of Nitrite Reductase in Leaves of Barley Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Huffaker, Ray C.

    1989-01-01

    The role of NO3− and NO2− in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2−/gram fresh weight × hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2− and NO3− induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2− and NO3− over a 24 hour period). In NO3−-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3− concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2− until the ambient NO2− concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2−-fed leaves. The amount of NO3− accumulating in NO2−-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3− accumulating in NO3−-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2−-fed leaves was not seen until NO3− was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3−, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3− to NO2− was inhibited by WO42−, the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves NiR is induced by NO3− directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2−, and that absorbed NO2− induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3− within the leaf. PMID:11537455

  1. Gastric S-nitrosothiol formation drives the antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite and nitrate in a rat model of renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Portella, Rafael L; Ceron, Carla S; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Toledo, Jose Carlos; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Many effects of nitrite and nitrate are attributed to increased circulating concentrations of nitrite, ultimately converted into nitric oxide (NO(•)) in the circulation or in tissues by mechanisms associated with nitrite reductase activity. However, nitrite generates NO(•) , nitrous anhydride, and other nitrosating species at low pH, and these reactions promote S-nitrosothiol formation when nitrites are in the stomach. We hypothesized that the antihypertensive effects of orally administered nitrite or nitrate involve the formation of S-nitrosothiols, and that those effects depend on gastric pH. The chronic effects of oral nitrite or nitrate were studied in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats treated with omeprazole (or vehicle). Oral nitrite lowered blood pressure and increased plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations independently of circulating nitrite levels. Increasing gastric pH with omeprazole did not affect the increases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels found after treatment with nitrite. However, treatment with omeprazole severely attenuated the increases in plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations and completely blunted the antihypertensive effects of nitrite. Confirming these findings, very similar results were found with oral nitrate. To further confirm the role of gastric S-nitrosothiol formation, we studied the effects of oral nitrite in hypertensive rats treated with the glutathione synthase inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to induce partial thiol depletion. BSO treatment attenuated the increases in S-nitrosothiol concentrations and antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite. These data show that gastric S-nitrosothiol formation drives the antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite or nitrate and has major implications, particularly to patients taking proton pump inhibitors.

  2. The contribution of bacteroidal nitrate and nitrite reduction to the formation of nitrosylleghaemoglobin complexes in soybean root nodules.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Georgina E; Bueno, Emilio; Jepson, Brian; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Richardson, David J; Delgado, María J

    2007-02-01

    It is becoming recognized that leghaemoglobin constitutes an important buffer for the cytotoxic nitric oxide radical (NO(*)) in root nodules, although the sources of this NO(*) within nodules are unclear. In Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids, NO(*) can be produced through the denitrification process, during which nitrate is reduced to nitrite by the periplasmic nitrate reductase Nap, and nitrite is reduced to NO(*) by the respiratory nitrite reductase NirK. To assess the contribution of bacteroidal denitrification to the NO(*) within nitrate-treated soybean nodules, electron paramagnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to study the presence of nitrosylleghaemoglobin (LbNO) within nodules from plants inoculated with wild-type, napA or nirK B. japonicum strains. Since it has been found that hypoxia induces NO(*) production in plant root tissue, and that plant roots can be subjected to hypoxic stress during drought and flooding, the effect of hypoxic stress on the formation of LbNO complexes within nodules was also investigated. Maximal levels of LbNO were observed in nodules from plants treated with nitrate and subjected to hypoxic conditions. It is shown that, in the presence of nitrate, all of the LbNO within normoxic nodules arises from nitrate reduction by the bacteroidal periplasmic nitrate reductase, whereas Nap activity is only responsible for half of the LbNO within hypoxic nodules. In contrast to Nap, NirK is not essential for LbNO formation under any condition tested.

  3. Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghasemi, Asghar; Kabir, Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2015-05-01

    The potential effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite on global health are a much debated issue. In addition to possible methemoglobinemia and carcinogenic properties, anti-thyroid effects of nitrate/nitrite have been suggested. Considering the growing significance of nitrate/nitrite and since there is no comprehensive review in data available, clarifying the effect of nitrate/nitrite on thyroid disorder outcomes is essential. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review of experimental and clinical studies, and a meta-analysis of relevant cohort and cross-sectional studies investigating the association of nitrate/nitrite exposure and thyroid function. Most animal studies show that high exposure (~10-600 times of acceptable daily intake) to nitrate/nitrite induces anti-thyroid effects, including decreased serum level of thyroid hormones and histomorphological changes in thyroid gland; however no similar observations have been documented in humans. Based on our meta-analysis, no significant association was observed between nitrate exposure and the risk of thyroid cancer, hyper- and hypothyroidism; findings from three cohort studies however showed a significant association between higher exposure to nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer (risk = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.02, P = 0.012). Additional research is needed to clarify the association between nitrate/nitrite exposures and both thyroid function and cancer.

  4. Urinary nitrite/nitrate ratio measured by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS as a tool to screen for urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chao, Mu-Rong; Shih, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chang, Yuan-Jhe; Lin, Bo-Huei; Hu, Chiung-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infection. Traditionally, the presence of white blood cells and microorganisms in the urine provides objective evidence for UTI diagnosis. Here, we describe the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure the nitrite and nitrate levels in urine and investigate the potential of this method for UTI diagnosis. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed in positive electrospray ionization mode. After adding (15)N-labeled internal standards and derivatizing with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), the urinary nitrite content was directly analyzed by LC-MS/MS, whereas the urinary nitrate was first reduced to nitrite before derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis. The derivatization of nitrite and enzymatic reduction of nitrate were optimized. This method was then applied to 241 healthy subjects and 73 UTI patients. Optimization tests revealed that 1 mL of crude urine required at least 6.25 μmol of DAN to completely derivatize nitrite and 2.5 U of nitrate reductase to completely reduce nitrate to nitrite. Urinary analysis showed that the urinary concentration of nitrite and the nitrite/nitrate ratio were higher in UTI patients than in healthy subjects. Compared with the dipstick-based urinary nitrite test and using LC-MS/MS to determine the nitrite concentration (sensitivity: 23-25%), the nitrite/nitrate ratio was significantly more sensitive (95%) and exhibited a satisfactory specificity (91%) in the screening of UTIs. Taken together, the nitrite/nitrate ratio, which reflects the reducing ability of pathogenic bacteria, could be a better method for the diagnosis of UTIs that is not subject to variations in urine specimen quality.

  5. Development of a cost-effective method for nitrate and nitrite determination in leafy plants and nitrate and nitrite contents of some green leafy vegetables grown in the Aegean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozdestan, Ozgül; Uren, Ali

    2010-05-12

    An accurate, fast, easily applicable, and cost-effective method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite was developed. This method was much more reliable than the cadmium column reduction method, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure and not easily applicable. The principle of the method was reduction of nitrate to nitrite with cadmium acetate solution and zinc powder and then treatment with Griess reagent. Recovery of the method changed from 92.9 to 102.8%, and detection limit was found as 31.4 mg/kg. Coefficient of variation was 3.16% for intraday precision. Nitrate and nitrite contents of 10 types of leafy vegetables native to the Aegean region of Turkey were determined. Wild radish, chicory, fennel, blessed thistle, blue mallow, and chard were analyzed for the first time. Nitrate contents were found between 354.8 mg/kg for iceberg lettuce and 4653 mg/kg for wild radish. Tested vegetables contained <26.33 mg/kg nitrite.

  6. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  7. Ammonium sorption and ammonia inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria explain contrasting soil N2O production

    PubMed Central

    Venterea, Rodney T.; Clough, Timothy J.; Coulter, Jeffrey A.; Breuillin-Sessoms, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding of process controls over nitrous oxide (N2O) production in urine-impacted ‘hot spots’ and fertilizer bands is needed to improve mitigation strategies and emission models. Following amendment with bovine (Bos taurus) urine (Bu) or urea (Ur), we measured inorganic N, pH, N2O, and genes associated with nitrification in two soils (‘L’ and ‘W’) having similar texture, pH, C, and C/N ratio. Solution-phase ammonia (slNH3) was also calculated accounting for non-linear ammonium (NH4+) sorption capacities (ASC). Soil W displayed greater nitrification rates and nitrate (NO3−) levels than soil L, but was more resistant to nitrite (NO2−) accumulation and produced two to ten times less N2O than soil L. Genes associated with NO2− oxidation (nxrA) increased substantially in soil W but remained static in soil L. Soil NO2− was strongly correlated with N2O production, and cumulative (c-) slNH3 explained 87% of the variance in c-NO2−. Differences between soils were explained by greater slNH3 in soil L which inhibited NO2− oxidization leading to greater NO2− levels and N2O production. This is the first study to correlate the dynamics of soil slNH3, NO2−, N2O and nitrifier genes, and the first to show how ASC can regulate NO2− levels and N2O production. PMID:26179972

  8. It is rocket science - why dietary nitrate is hard to 'beet'! Part II: further mechanisms and therapeutic potential of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte Elizabeth; Khatri, Jibran; Maskell, Perry; Odongerel, Chimed; Webb, Andrew James

    2017-01-01

    Dietary nitrate (found in green leafy vegetables such as rocket and in beetroot) is now recognized to be an important source of nitric oxide, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Dietary nitrate confers several cardiovascular beneficial effects on blood pressure, platelets, endothelial function, mitochondrial efficiency and exercise. Having described key twists and turns in the elucidation of the pathway and the underlying mechanisms in Part I, we explore the more recent developments which have served to confirm mechanisms, extend our understanding, and discover new properties and potential therapeutic uses of the pathway in Part II. Even the established dependency on low oxygen states for bioactivation of nitrite has recently been challenged. Dietary nitrate appears to be an important component of 'healthy diets', such as the DASH diet to lower blood pressure and the Mediterranean diet, with its potential to lower cardiovascular risk, possibly through beneficial interactions with a range of other constituents. The World Cancer Research Foundation report strong evidence for vegetables including spinach and lettuce (high nitrate-containing) decreasing cancer risk (mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and stomach), summarized in a 'Nitrate-Cancer Risk Veg-Table'. The European Space Agency recommends that beetroot, lettuce, spinach and rocket (high-nitrate vegetables) are grown to provide food for long-term space missions. Nitrate, an ancient component of rocket fuel, could support sustainable crops for healthy humans.

  9. Role of nitrite reductase in the ammonia-oxidizing pathway of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Cantera, J Jason L; Stein, Lisa Y

    2007-10-01

    Metabolism of ammonia (NH(3)) and hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) by wild-type and a nitrite reductase (nirK) deficient mutant of Nitrosomonas europaea was investigated to clarify the role of NirK in the NH(3) oxidation pathway. NirK-deficient N. europaea grew more slowly, consumed less NH(3), had a lower rate of nitrite (NO(2) (-)) production, and a significantly higher rate of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) production than the wild-type when incubated with NH(3) under high O(2) tension. In incubations with NH(3) under low O(2) tension, NirK-deficient N. europaea grew more slowly, but had only modest differences in NH(3) oxidation and product formation rates relative to the wild-type. In contrast, the nirK mutant oxidized NH(2)OH to NO(2) (-) at consistently slower rates than the wild-type, especially under low O(2) tension, and lost a significant pool of NH(2)OH-N to products other than NO(2) (-) and N(2)O. The rate of N(2)O production by the nirK mutant was ca. three times higher than the wild-type during hydrazine-dependent NO(2) (-) reduction under both high and low O(2) tension. Together, the results indicate that NirK activity supports growth of N. europaea by supporting the oxidation of NH(3) to NO(2) (-) via NH(2)OH, and stimulation of hydrazine-dependent NO(2) (-) reduction by NirK-deficient N. europaea indicated the presence of an alternative, enzymatic pathway for N(2)O production.

  10. Ion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate by post-column indirect fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Stalikas, Constantine D; Konidari, Constantina N; Nanos, Christos G

    2003-06-20

    This short paper highlights the suitability of ion chromatography with post-column indirect fluorescence detection to determine simultaneously nitrite and nitrate based on the quenching of tryptophan native fluorescence. The method uses an enhanced fluorescence mobile phase containing tryptophan and detects the suppression of fluorescence of the mobile phase due to the elution of the target ions. The phenomenon of fluorescence quenching of tryptophan is highly induced by the presence of phosphate ions. The quenched fluorescence intensity exhibits concentration dependence in the range 1-25 mg/l and 3-65 mg/l for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. The relative standard deviation for five replicates of a standard solution containing a mixture of 5 mg/l of nitrite and 10 mg/l of nitrate lies around 2.8%. This simple coupling technique results in a relatively sensitive, fast, and accurate method, allowing for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of nitrite and nitrate. The method can easily be implemented to real samples such as foodstuffs, fertilizers and soils and is proven to be precise and accurate when compared with reference methods.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of Staphylococcus xylosus in the presence of nitrate and nitrite in meat reveals its response to nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Vermassen, Aurore; de la Foye, Anne; Loux, Valentin; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation because of its crucial role in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite which contributes to color and flavor development. Despite longstanding use of these additives, their impact on the physiology of S. xylosus has not yet been explored. We present the first in situ global gene expression profile of S. xylosus in meat supplemented with nitrate and nitrite at the levels used in the meat industry. More than 600 genes of S. xylosus were differentially expressed at 24 or 72 h of incubation. They represent more than 20% of the total genes and let us to suppose that addition of nitrate and nitrite to meat leads to a global change in gene expression. This profile revealed that S. xylosus is subject to nitrosative stress caused by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated from nitrate and nitrite. To overcome this stress, S. xylosus has developed several oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, such as modulation of the expression of several genes involved in iron homeostasis and in antioxidant defense. Most of which belong to the Fur and PerR regulons, respectively. S. xylosus has also counteracted this stress by developing DNA and protein repair. Furthermore, it has adapted its metabolic response—carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy production and cell wall biogenesis—to the alterations produced by nitrosative stress. PMID:25566208

  12. Determination of hydroxyl radicals with salicylic acid in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Zhan, Man-jun; Kong, Ling-ren; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analyses of reactive oxygen species are essential to determine their steady-state concentration and related reaction mechanisms in environmental aquatic systems. In this study, salicylic acid was employed as an innovative molecular probe of hydroxyl radical(OH) generated in aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions through photochemical reactions. Kinetic studies showed that the steady-state concentrations of OH in aqueous NO3- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) and NO2- (10 mmol/L, pH = 5) solutions under ultraviolet irradiation were at a same magnitude, 10(-15) mol/L. Apparent quantum yields of OH at 313 nm were measured as 0.011 and 0.07 for NO3- and NO2- respectively, all comparable to the results of previous studies.

  13. Formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX in Parma-like ham without nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Uemura, Juichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Hioki, Shoji; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) is a characteristic red pigment in meat products that are manufactured without the addition of a curing agent such as nitrate or nitrite. To examine the effects of impurities such as mineral components in sea salt on the formation of ZPP, we manufactured Parmatype dry-cured hams that were salted with refined salt or sea salt and examined the involvement of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the formation of ZPP. The content of ZPP was increased drastically after 40 weeks. Microscopic observation showed strong fluorescence caused by ZPP muscle fiber after 40 weeks. Conversely, heme content varied considerably during processing. ORP increased during processing. However, there was no obvious difference between ham salted with refined salt and that salted with sea salt. Therefore, it was concluded that impurities in sea salt were not involved in the formation of ZPP.

  14. Successful application of nitritation/anammox to wastewater with elevated organic carbon to ammonia ratios.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Sarina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2014-02-01

    The nitritation/anammox process has been mainly applied to high-strength nitrogenous wastewaters with very low biodegradable organic carbon content (<0.5 g COD∙g N(-1)). However, several wastewaters have biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratios between 0.5 and 1.7 g COD∙g N(-1) and thus, contain elevated amounts of organic carbon but not enough for heterotrophic denitrification. In this study, the influence of elevated COD/N ratios was studied on a nitritation/anammox process with suspended sludge. In a step-wise manner, the influent COD/N ratio was increased to 1.4 g COD∙g N(-1) by supplementing digester supernatant with acetate. The increasing availability of COD led to an increase of the nitrogen removal efficiency from around 85% with pure digester supernatant to >95% with added acetate while the nitrogen elimination rate stayed constant (275 ± 40 mg N∙L(-1)∙d(-1)). Anammox activity and abundance of anammox bacteria (AMX) were strongly correlated, and with increasing influent COD/N ratio both decreased steadily. At the same time, heterotrophic denitrification with nitrite and the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) gradually increased. Simultaneously, the sludge retention time (SRT) decreased significantly with increasing COD loading to about 15 d and reached critical values for the slowly growing AMX. When the SRT was increased by reducing biomass loss with the effluent, AMX activity and abundance started to rise again, while the AOB activity remained unaltered. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that the initial AMX community shifted within only 40 d from a mixed AMX community to "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" as the dominant AMX type with an influent COD/N ratio of 0.8 g COD∙g N(-1) and higher. "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" is known to oxidise acetate, and its ability to outcompete other types of AMX indicates that AMX participated in acetate oxidation. In a later phase, glucose was added to the influent

  15. Comparative induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate and nitrite in barley leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Rosichan, J. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    The comparative induction of nitrate reductase (NR) by ambient NO3- and NO2- as a function of influx, reduction (as NR was induced) and accumulation in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was determined. The dynamic interaction of NO3- influx, reduction and accumulation on NR induction was shown. The activity of NR, as it was induced, influenced its further induction by affecting the internal concentration of NO3-. As the ambient concentration of NO3- increased, the relative influences imposed by influx and reduction on NO3- accumulation changed with influx becoming a more predominant regulant. Significant levels of NO3- accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. When the leaves were supplied cycloheximide or tungstate along with NO2-, about 60% more NO3- accumulated in the leaves than in the absence of the inhibitors. In NO3(-)-supplied leaves NR induction was observed at an ambient concentration of as low as 0.02 mM. No NR induction occurred in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 mM. In fact, NR induction from NO2- solutions was not seen until NO3- was detected in the leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating from NO3(-)-fed leaves. In all cases the internal concentration of NO3-, but not NO2-, was highly correlated with the amount of NR induced. The evidence indicated that NO3- was a more likely inducer of NR than was NO2-.

  16. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 μg/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes. PMID:19348679

  17. Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Regan, John M.; Harrington, Gregory W.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammonia oxidizers, 16S rDNA-targeted T-RFLP indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas in each of the distribution systems, with a considerably smaller peak attributable to Nitrosospira-like AOB. Sequences of AOB amplification products aligned within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster and were closely related to N. oligotropha and Nitrosomonas ureae. The nitrite-oxidizing communities were comprised primarily of Nitrospira, although Nitrobacter was detected in some samples. These results suggest a possible selection of AOB related to N. oligotropha and N. ureae in chloraminated systems and demonstrate the presence of NOB, indicating a biological mechanism for nitrite loss that contributes to a reduction in nitrite-associated chloramine decay. PMID:11772611

  18. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and nitrate reductase coimmobilized bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Balamurugan, Murugesan; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2014-02-15

    This work presents a novel bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) ions using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and nitrate reductase (NaR) coimmobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified platinum electrode. Morphological changes of the PPy and CNT modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the bienzymatic electrode (NaR-SOD1-CNT-PPy-Pt) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry exhibiting quasi-reversible redox peak at +0.06 V and reversible redox peaks at -0.76 and -0.62V vs. Ag/AgCl, for the immobilized SOD1 and NaR respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of SOD1 towards NO2(-) oxidation observed at +0.8 V was linear from 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 50 nM and sensitivity of 98.5 ± 1.7 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Similarly, the coimmobilized NaR showed its electrocatalytic activity towards NO3(-) reduction at -0.76 V exhibiting linear response from 500 nM to 10mM NO3(-) with a detection limit of 200 nM and sensitivity of 84.5 ± 1.56 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Further, the present bienzymatic biosensor coated with cellulose acetate membrane for the removal of non-specific proteins was used for the sensitive and selective determinations of NO2(-) and NO3(-) present in human plasma, whole blood and saliva samples.

  19. Determination of low level nitrite and nitrate in biological, food and environmental samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

    2009-08-15

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) methods have been proposed for the determination of low level nitrite and nitrate in biological, food and environmental samples. The methods include derivatization of aqueous nitrite with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN), enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite, extraction with toluene and chromatographic analyses of highly fluorescent 2,3-naphthotriazole (NAT) derivative of nitrite by using GC-MS in selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode and LC-FL. Nitrite and nitrate ions in solid samples were extracted with 0.5M aqueous NaOH by sonication. The recoveries of nitrite and nitrate ions based on GC-MS and LC-FL results were 98.40% and 98.10% and the precision of these methods, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.00% for nitrite and 1.20% for nitrate, respectively. The limits of detection of the GC-MS in SIM mode and LC-FL methods based on S/N=3 were 0.02 and 0.29 pg/ml for nitrite and 0.03 and 0.30 pg/ml for nitrate, respectively.

  20. Nitrite and nitrate-dependent generation of anti-inflammatory fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Delmastro-Greenwood, Meghan; Hughan, Kara S; Vitturi, Dario A; Salvatore, Sonia R; Grimes, George; Potti, Gopal; Shiva, Sruti; Schopfer, Francisco J; Gladwin, Mark T; Freeman, Bruce A; Gelhaus Wendell, Stacy

    2015-12-01

    A gap in our understanding of the beneficial systemic responses to dietary constituents nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrite (NO2(-)) and conjugated linoleic acid (cLA) is the identification of the downstream metabolites that mediate their actions. To examine these reactions in a clinical context, investigational drug preparations of (15)N-labeled NO3(-) and NO2(-) were orally administered to healthy humans with and without cLA. Mass spectrometry analysis of plasma and urine indicated that the nitrating species nitrogen dioxide was formed and reacted with the olefinic carbons of unsaturated fatty acids to yield the electrophilic fatty acid, nitro-cLA (NO2-cLA). These species mediate the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins via reversible Michael addition with nucleophilic amino acids. The PTM of critical target proteins by electrophilic lipids has been described as a sensing mechanism that regulates adaptive cellular responses, but little is known about the endogenous generation of fatty acid nitroalkenes and their metabolites. We report that healthy humans consuming (15)N-labeled NO3(-) or NO2(-), with and without cLA supplementation, produce (15)NO2-cLA and corresponding metabolites that are detected in plasma and urine. These data support that the dietary constituents NO3(-), NO2(-) and cLA promote the further generation of secondary electrophilic lipid products that are absorbed into the circulation at concentrations sufficient to exert systemic effects before being catabolized or excreted.

  1. Characterisation and expression analysis of a nitrate transporter and nitrite reductase genes, two members of a gene cluster for nitrate assimilation from the symbiotic basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum.

    PubMed

    Jargeat, Patricia; Rekangalt, David; Verner, Marie-Christine; Gay, Gilles; Debaud, Jean-Claude; Marmeisse, Roland; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence

    2003-06-01

    Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute to the nitrogen nutrition of their host-plants but little information is available on the molecular control of their nitrogen metabolism. We cloned and characterised genes encoding a nitrite reductase and a nitrate transporter in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum. These two genes are divergently transcribed and linked to a previously cloned nitrate reductase gene, thus demonstrating that nitrate assimilation gene clusters occur in homobasidiomycetes. The nitrate transporter polypeptide (NRT2) is characterised by 12 transmembrane domains and presents both a long putative intracellular loop and a short C-terminal tail, two structural features which distinguish fungal high-affinity transporters from their plant homologues. In different wild-type genetic backgrounds, transcription of the two genes was repressed by ammonium and was strongly stimulated not only in the presence of nitrate but also in the presence of organic nitrogen sources or under nitrogen deficiency.

  2. The combined nitrate reductase and nitrite-dependent route of NO synthesis in potato immunity to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Izbiańska, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    In contrast to the in-depth knowledge concerning nitric oxide (NO) function, our understanding of NO synthesis in plants is still very limited. In view of the above, this paper provides a step by step presentation of the reductive pathway for endogenous NO generation involving nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite implication in potato defense to Phytophthora infestans. A biphasic character of NO emission, peaking mainly at 3 and then at 24 hpi, was detected during the hypersensitive response (HR). In avr P. infestans potato leaves enhanced NR gene and protein expression was tuned with the depletion of nitrate contents and the increase in nitrite supply at 3 hpi. In the same time period a temporary down-regulation of nitrite reductase (NiR) and activity was found. The study for the link between NO signaling and HR revealed an up-regulation of used markers of effective defense, i.e. Nonexpressor of PR genes (NPR1), thioredoxins (Thx) and PR1, at early time-points (1-3 hpi) upon inoculation. In contrast to the resistant response, in the susceptible one a late overexpression (24-48 hpi) of NPR1 and PR1 mRNA levels was observed. Presented data confirmed the importance of nitrite processed by NR in NO generation in inoculated potato leaves. However, based on the pharmacological approach the potential formation of NO from nitrite bypassing the NR activity during HR response to P. infestans has also been discussed.

  3. Induction of the Nitrate Assimilation nirA Operon and Protein-Protein Interactions in the Maturation of Nitrate and Nitrite Reductases in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frías, José E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate is widely used as a nitrogen source by cyanobacteria, in which the nitrate assimilation structural genes frequently constitute the so-called nirA operon. This operon contains the genes encoding nitrite reductase (nirA), a nitrate/nitrite transporter (frequently an ABC-type transporter; nrtABCD), and nitrate reductase (narB). In the model filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, which can fix N2 in specialized cells termed heterocysts, the nirA operon is expressed at high levels only in media containing nitrate or nitrite and lacking ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source. Here we examined the genes downstream of the nirA operon in Anabaena and found that a small open reading frame of unknown function, alr0613, can be cotranscribed with the operon. The next gene in the genome, alr0614 (narM), showed an expression pattern similar to that of the nirA operon, implying correlated expression of narM and the operon. A mutant of narM with an insertion mutation failed to produce nitrate reductase activity, consistent with the idea that NarM is required for the maturation of NarB. Both narM and narB mutants were impaired in the nitrate-dependent induction of the nirA operon, suggesting that nitrite is an inducer of the operon in Anabaena. It has previously been shown that the nitrite reductase protein NirA requires NirB, a protein likely involved in protein-protein interactions, to attain maximum activity. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis confirmed possible NirA-NirB and NarB-NarM interactions, suggesting that the development of both nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activities in cyanobacteria involves physical interaction of the corresponding enzymes with their cognate partners, NirB and NarM, respectively. IMPORTANCE Nitrate is an important source of nitrogen for many microorganisms that is utilized through the nitrate assimilation system, which includes nitrate/nitrite membrane transporters and the nitrate and nitrite reductases. Many

  4. A study on the toxigenesis by Clostridium botulinum in nitrate and nitrite-reduced dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Hospital, Xavier F; Hierro, Eva; Stringer, Sandra; Fernández, Manuela

    2016-02-02

    Nitrite has been traditionally used to control Clostridium botulinum in cured meat products. However, in the case of dry fermented sausages, environmental factors such as pH, aw and the competitive microbiota may exert a more relevant role than nitrite in the inhibition of the growth and toxin production by C. botulinum. In this challenge test study, two varieties of Mediterranean dry sausages (salchichón and fuet) were inoculated with spores of C. botulinum Group I (proteolytic) and C. botulinum Group II (nonproteolytic). Sausages were prepared with 150 mg/kg of NaNO3 and 150 mg/kg of NaNO2 (maximum ingoing amounts allowed by the European Union regulation), with a 25% and 50% reduction, and without nitrate/nitrite. The initial pH in both products was 5.6, and decreased to values below 5.0 in salchichón and to 5.2 in fuet. Lactic acid bacteria counts reached 8-9 log cfu/g after fermentation. The aw decreased from initial values of 0.96 to about 0.88-0.90 at the end of ripening. Botulinum neurotoxin was not detected in any of the sausages, including those manufactured without nitrate and nitrite. Despite the environmental conditions were within the range for germination and growth of C. botulinum Group I during the first 8 days of the ripening process in fuet and 10-12 days in salchichón, acidity, aw and incubation temperature combined to inhibit the production of toxin, independently of the concentration of curing agents. Although decreasing or even removing nitrate/nitrite from the formula did not compromise safety regarding C. botulinum in the conditions tested in this study, their antimicrobial role should not be underestimated in the case that other hurdles could fail or other ripening conditions were used, and also considering the effect of nitrite on other pathogens.

  5. UPTAKE OF NITRATE AND NITRITE BY DITYLUM BRIGHTWELLII-KINETICS AND MECHANISMS(1) (2).

    PubMed

    Eppley, R W; Coatsworth, J L

    1968-06-01

    Ditylum brightwellii grown on NO2 - as a nitrogen source took up and assimilated NO2 - only in the light, apparently via a photosynthetic nitrite reductase. Assimilation was inhibited by dichlorophenyldimethylurea (DCMU), KCN, partially by 2,4 dinitrophenol, and by NO3 -. Kinetics of inhibition of NO2 - assimilation by NO3 - appeared to be "competitive." D. brightwellii cells grown on NO2 - took up NO3 - in both light and dark and in both cases the uptake was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, but not by DCMU, KCN, or by NO2 -. Most of the NO3 - taken up in the dark was recovered unchanged from the cells. However only 40% of NO3 - taken up in light was recovered from the cells and no NO2 - was found. This suggests that a photosynthetic nitrate reduction mechanism was active in these cells. DCMU inhibited the light-induced NO3 - reduction. This mechanism of NO3 - reduction is distinct from that involving NADH nitrate reductase in D. brightwellii since the concentration of the latter enzyme is very low in cells grown on NO2 -. Saturation kinetics were observed for NO2 - and NO3 - uptake. Half-saturation concentrations (Ks values) were 4 and 2 μM, respectively. These values are compared with those obtained for NO2 - and NO3 - assimilation by other unicellular algae. The comparisons show lower Ks values in oceanic species compared with tide-pool or freshwater algae and they support the idea that Ks values for NO3 - assimilation may provide a key to understanding species succession when this is due to declining: nitrate concentrations in the sea.

  6. Nitrate denitrification with nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products: Stoichiometry, kinetics and dynamics of stable isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, V A; Rytov, S V

    2015-09-01

    A kinetic analysis of nitrate denitrification by a single or two species of denitrifying bacteria with glucose or ethanol as a carbon source and nitrite or nitrous oxide as intermediate products was performed using experimental data published earlier (Menyailo and Hungate, 2006; Vidal-Gavilan et al., 2013). Modified Monod kinetics was used in the dynamic biological model. The special equations were added to the common dynamic biological model to describe how isotopic fractionation between N species changes. In contrast to the generally assumed first-order kinetics, in this paper, the traditional Rayleigh equation describing stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation in nitrate was derived from the dynamic isotopic equations for any type of kinetics. In accordance with the model, in Vidal-Gavilan's experiments, the maximum specific rate of nitrate reduction was proved to be less for ethanol compared to glucose. Conversely, the maximum specific rate of nitrite reduction was proved to be much less for glucose compared to ethanol. Thus, the intermediate nitrite concentration was negligible for the ethanol experiment, while it was significant for the glucose experiment. In Menyailo's and Hungate's experiments, the low value of maximum specific rate of nitrous oxide reduction gives high intermediate value of nitrous oxide concentration. The model showed that the dynamics of nitrogen and oxygen isotope signatures are responding to the biological dynamics. Two microbial species instead of single denitrifying bacteria are proved to be more adequate to describe the total process of nitrate denitrification to dinitrogen.

  7. Coupling Between and Among Ammonia Oxidizers and Nitrite Oxidizers in Grassland Mesocosms Submitted to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Supply.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Marie; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck; Lerondelle, Catherine; Hungate, Bruce A; Nunan, Naoise; Niboyet, Audrey

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have assessed the responses of soil microbial functional groups to increases in atmospheric CO2 or N deposition alone and more rarely in combination. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and N on the (de)coupling between different microbial functional groups (e.g., different groups of nitrifiers) have been barely studied, despite potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigated the short-term combined effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on the abundances of the four main microbial groups involved in soil nitrification: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (belonging to the genera Nitrobacter and Nitrospira) in grassland mesocosms. AOB and AOA abundances responded differently to the treatments: N addition increased AOB abundance, but did not alter AOA abundance. Nitrobacter and Nitrospira abundances also showed contrasted responses to the treatments: N addition increased Nitrobacter abundance, but decreased Nitrospira abundance. Our results support the idea of a niche differentiation between AOB and AOA, and between Nitrobacter and Nitrospira. AOB and Nitrobacter were both promoted at high N and C conditions (and low soil water content for Nitrobacter), while AOA and Nitrospira were favored at low N and C conditions (and high soil water content for Nitrospira). In addition, Nitrobacter abundance was positively correlated to AOB abundance and Nitrospira abundance to AOA abundance. Our results suggest that the couplings between ammonia and nitrite oxidizers are influenced by soil N availability. Multiple environmental changes may thus elicit rapid and contrasted responses between and among the soil ammonia and nitrite oxidizers due to their different ecological requirements.

  8. Long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate fed to dairy cows on enteric methane emission and nitrate and nitrite residuals in milk.

    PubMed

    Guyader, J; Doreau, M; Morgavi, D P; Gérard, C; Loncke, C; Martin, C

    2016-07-01

    A previous study showed the additive methane (CH4)-mitigating effect of nitrate and linseed fed to non-lactating cows. Before practical application, the use of this new strategy in dairy cows requires further investigation in terms of persistency of methanogenesis reduction and absence of residuals in milk products. The objective of this experiment was to study the long-term effect of linseed plus nitrate on enteric CH4 emission and performance in dairy cows. We also assessed the effect of this feeding strategy on the presence of nitrate residuals in milk products, total tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and rumen fermentation. A total of 16 lactating Holstein cows were allocated to two groups in a randomised design conducted in parallel for 17 weeks. Diets were on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) control (54% maize silage, 6% hay and 40% concentrate; CON) or (2) control plus 3.5% added fat from linseed and 1.8% nitrate (LIN+NIT). Diets were equivalent in terms of CP (16%), starch (28%) and NDF (33%), and were offered twice daily. Cows were fed ad libitum, except during weeks 5, 16 and 17 in which feed was restricted to 95% of dry matter intake (DMI) to ensure complete consumption of meals during measurement periods. Milk production and DMI were measured weekly. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in milk and milk products were determined monthly. Daily CH4 emission was quantified in open circuit respiration chambers (weeks 5 and 16). Total tract apparent digestibility, N balance and rumen fermentation parameters were determined in week 17. Daily DMI tended to be lower with LIN+NIT from week 4 to 16 (-5.1 kg/day on average). The LIN+NIT diet decreased milk production during 6 non-consecutive weeks (-2.5 kg/day on average). Nitrate or nitrite residuals were not detected in milk and associated products. The LIN+NIT diet reduced CH4 emission to a similar extent at the beginning and end of the trial (-47%, g/day; -30%, g/kg DMI; -33%, g/kg fat- and protein

  9. Formation of vascular S-nitrosothiols and plasma nitrates/nitrites following inhalation of diesel emissions.

    PubMed

    Knuckles, Travis L; Buntz, Jennifer G; Paffett, Michael; Channell, Meghan; Harmon, Molly; Cherng, Tom; Lucas, Selita N; McDonald, Jacob D; Kanagy, Nancy L; Campen, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated traffic-related airborne pollution with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a common component of fresh diesel and gasoline engine emissions that rapidly transforms both in the atmosphere and once inhaled. Because of this rapid transformation, limited information is available in terms of potential human exposures and adverse health effects. Young rats were exposed to whole diesel emissions (DE) adjusted to 300 μg/m(3) of particulate matter (containing 3.5 ppm NO) or 0, 3, or 10 ppm NO as a positive control. Animals were also pre-injected (ip) with either saline or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione. Predictably, pure NO exposures led to a concentration-dependent increase in plasma nitrates compared to controls, which lasted for roughly 4 h postexposure. Whole DE exposure for 1 h also led to a doubling of plasma NOx. NAC injection increased the levels of plasma nitrates and nitrites (NOx) in the DE exposure group. Inhibition of nitric oxide symthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) did not block the rise in plasma NOx, demonstrating that the increase was entirely due to exogenous sources. Both DE and pure NO exposures paradoxically led to elevated eNOS expression in aortic tissue. Furthermore, coronary arterioles from NO-exposed animals exhibited greater constriction to endothelin-1 compared to controls, consistent with a derangement of the NOS system. Thus, NO may be an important contributor to traffic-related cardiovascular morbidity, although further research is necessary for proper hazard identification.

  10. Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kilfoy, Briseis A; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H

    2011-07-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 490,194 men and women, ages 50-71 years in 1995-1996. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During an average of 7 years of follow-up we identified 370 incident thyroid cancer cases (170 men, 200 women) with complete dietary information. Among men, increasing nitrate intake was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] for the highest quintile versus lowest quintile RR = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-4.041; p-trend <0.001); however, we observed no trend with intake among women (p-trend = 0.61). Nitrite intake was not associated with risk of thyroid cancer for either men or women. We evaluated risk for the two main types of thyroid cancer. We found positive associations for nitrate intake and both papillary (RR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.09-4.05; p-trend = 0.05) and follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.03-11.4; p-trend = 0.01) among men. Nitrite intake was associated with increased risk of follicular thyroid cancer (RR = 2.74; 95%CI: 0.86-8.77; p-trend = 0.04) among men. Our results support a role of nitrate in thyroid cancer risk and suggest that further studies to investigate these exposures are warranted.

  11. A parallel-plate electrochemical reactor model for the destruction of nitrate and nitrite in alkaline waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, D.H.; White, R.E.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-04-01

    The electrochemical treatment of nuclear waste is the subject of much current interest. After radioactive decontamination, the liquid waste from nuclear fuel processing still contains many hazardous substances, among them nitrate and nitrite. A parallel-plate electrochemical reactor model with multiple reactions at both electrodes and anolyte and catholyte recirculation tanks was modeled for the electrochemical destruction of nitrate and nitrite species in an alkaline solution. The model can be used to predict electrochemical reaction current efficiencies and outlet concentrations of species from the reactor, given inlet feed conditions and cell operating conditions. Also, predictions are made for off-gas composition and liquid-phase composition in the recirculation tanks. The results of case studies at different applied potentials are shown here. At lower applied potentials, the model predictions show that the destruction process is more energy efficient, but the time required to destroy a given amount of waste is increased.

  12. Response of nitrite accumulation and microbial community to free ammonia and dissolved oxygen treatment of high ammonium wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Liu, Chong; Zhang, Junya; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of free ammonia (FA) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on nitrite accumulation in the treatment of high ammonium wastewater and on the evolution of the microbial community were investigated. Under high DO conditions (3.75 ± 0.49 mg/L), FA as high as 10.61 ± 2.89 mg NH3/L maintained stable nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) of 84 % with NH4 (+)-N load of 2.05 kg N/(m(3) day) at sludge retention time (SRT) of 15-18 days. After 56 days of operation, Proteobacteria and Nitrosomonas were the dominant phylum and genus, respectively; Nitrosomonas increased from 21.14 to 54.57 %. By contrast, under relative low DO and low FA, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were nearly eliminated (NOB/AOB of 0; ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)), and NAR of 94 % was achieved with lower NH4 (+)-N load of 0.48 kg N/(m(3) day). DO correlated with AOB and NOB abundance, and FA decreased NOB activity and the NOB/AOB ratio. In conclusion, high FA and high DO conditions are optimal for efficient nitrite accumulation.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of nitrate and nitrite in a microfluidic device with a Cu-complex-modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2006-11-01

    A CE microsystem coupled with a microchip and a copper-(3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (Cu-MPS) complex-modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of nitrite and nitrate. The method is based on the electrocatalytic reduction of both analytes with the modified electrode. The Cu-MPS complex was characterized by voltammetric, XPS, and FT-IR analyses. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of the modified electrode were assessed and optimized. The best separation was achieved in a 60 mm separation channel filled with a 20 mM acetate buffer of pH 5.0 containing 3.0 mM CTAB at separation field strength of -250 V/cm within 90 s. The detection potential for the simultaneous analysis of nitrite and nitrate was found to be -225 mV versus Ag/AgCl. A reproducible response (RSD of 3.2% (nitrite) and 2.8% (nitrate), n = 8) for repetitive sample injections reflected the negligible electrode fouling at the modified CPE. The interference effect was examined for other inorganic ions and biological compounds. A wide hydrodynamic range between 0.25 and 120 microM was observed for analyzing nitrite and nitrate with the sensitivities of 0.069 +/- 0.003 and 0.065 +/- 0.002 nA/microM, and the detection limits, based on S/N = 3, were found to be 0.09 +/- 0.007 and 0.08 +/- 0.009 microM, respectively. The applicability of the method to water and urine samples analyses was demonstrated.

  14. Elimination of Matrix-Based Interferences to a Fluorescent Nitrite/Nitrate Assay by a Simple Filtration Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-15

    reaction is with O2 and water to form nitrite/nitrates (detectable by the DAN assay). Nitric oxide can also react with proteins, such as he- moglobin ...W., and Currie, M. (1993) Anal. Biochem. 214, 11–16. 2. Sonoda, M., Kobayashi, J., Takezawa, M., Miyazaki, T., Naka- jima, T., Shimomura, H ., Koike...K., Satomi, A., and Ogino, H . (1996) Anal. Biochem. 247, 417–427. 3. Griess, P. (1879) Chem. Ber. 12, 426. 4. Johnson, A., and Burleson, D. (1995

  15. Nitrate and nitrite content of well water in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, Innocent S I; Echebiri, Vitalis C

    2003-09-01

    Water samples from 20 artesian wells, chosen by the multistage sampling procedure from 5 zones in the city of Enugu, Southeast Nigeria, were analyzed by the disulfonic acid method in duplicate for the presence of nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2). The zonal mean values for NO3 were 0.45 mmol/l, 0.46 mmol/l, 0.55 mmol/l, 0.59 mmol/l, and 0.65 mmol/l (mean = 0.54 mmol/l), and for NO2 the values were 0.34 mmol/l, 0.32 mmol/l, 0.21 mmol/l, 0.14 mmol/l, and 0.20 mmol/l (mean = 0.24 mmol/l), respectively. The mean values were reciprocally related (r = -.7356, p = 0.0002), indicating fecal contamination of well water. There were no significant differences between the mean values and the sum of the NO3 and NO2 values of the samples (p > 0.05), indicating uniform nitrogen content in the region. The mean value for NO3 (0.54 mmol/l) was below the guideline values set by the World Health Organization, but the mean NO2 concentration of 0.24 mmol/l was much higher (290%) than what is considered safe for humans.

  16. Comparative bioavailability of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and urea to typically harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Zhang, Jibiao; Huang, Wei; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue; Xi, Min; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-15

    Phosphorus is generally considered as the prime limiting nutrient responsible for cyanobacterial blooms. However, recent research is drawing attention to the importance of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in freshwater eutrophication. This study investigated the bioavailability of NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and Urea-N under different concentrations of 1.2, 3.6 and 6.0mgL(-1) to Microcystis aeruginosa. Overall, Urea-N ranked the first in promoting M. aeruginosa growth, followed by NO3(-)-N and NO2(-)-N. However, the algal growth cultured in NH4(+)-N was depressed under test N levels. The bioavailability of N to M. aeruginosa was seriously influenced by both N forms and N concentrations (p<0.01). Total N concentrations in Urea-N treatment decreased the fastest, which were corresponding with the μ values of M. aeruginosa. The high enzymic activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase indicated that the decomposition process for urea is effective, which contributed in N assimilation and utilization in M. aeruginosa cells.

  17. Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

  18. Simultaneous GC-ECNICI-MS measurement of nitrite, nitrate and creatinine in human urine and plasma in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Hanff, Erik; Lützow, Moritz; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Finkel, Armin; Maassen, Mirja; Yanchev, Georgi Radoslavov; Haghikia, Arash; Bavendiek, Udo; Buck, Anna; Lücke, Thomas; Maassen, Norbert; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    Creatinine in urine is a useful biochemical parameter to correct the urinary excretion rate of endogenous and exogenous substances. Nitrite (ONO(-)) and nitrate (ONO2(-)) are metabolites of nitric oxide (NO), a signalling molecule with multiple biological functions. Under certain and standardized conditions, the concentration of nitrate in the urine is a suitable measure of whole body NO synthesis. The urinary nitrate-to-nitrite molar ratio (UNOxR) may indicate nitrite-dependent renal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. In clinical studies, urine is commonly collected by spontaneous micturition. In those cases the nitrate and nitrite excretion must be corrected for creatinine excretion. Pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) is a useful derivatization reagent of numerous inorganic and organic compounds, including urinary nitrite, nitrate and creatinine, for highly sensitive and specific quantitation by GC-MS. Here, we report on the simultaneous PFB-Br derivatization (60min, 50°C) of ONO(-), O(15)NO(-), ONO2(-), O(15)NO2(-), creatinine (do-Crea) and [methylo-(2)H3]creatinine (d3-Crea) in acetonic dilutions of native human urine and plasma samples (4:1, v/v) and their simultaneous quantification by GC-MS as PFBNO2, PFB(15)NO2, PFBONO2, PFBO(15)NO2, do-Crea-PFB and d3-Crea-PFB, respectively. Electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) of these derivatives generates anions due to [M-PFB](-), i.e., the starting analytes. Quantification is performed by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) of m/z 46 (ONO(-)), m/z 47 (O(15)NO(-)), m/z 62 (ONO2(-)), m/z 63 (O(15)NO2(-)), m/z 112 (do-Crea), and m/z 115 (d3-Crea). Retention times were 2.97min for PFB-ONO2/PFB-O(15)NO2, 3.1min for PFB-NO2/PFB-(15)NO2, and 6.7min for do-Crea-PFB/d3-Crea-PFB. We used this method to investigate the effects of long-term oral NaNO3 or NaCl (serving as placebo) supplementation (each 0.1mmol/kg body weight per day for 3 weeks) on creatinine excretion and UNOxR in 17 healthy young men

  19. The Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Urine and Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Cloud-Point Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling; Lu, Yunhui

    2015-08-01

    A simple efficient and practical separation/preconcentration coupled with HPLC method for the determination nitrate and low concentrations of nitrite in human urine and blood was investigated. The method is based on precolumn derivatization using the Griess reaction and cloud-point extraction (CPE) of nitrite anion and direct determination of nitrate using its UV absorbance by ion-pair HPLC. The chromatographic process with detection at two wavelengths (510 and 220 nm) allows the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Decolorization and protein precipitation of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of nitrite from 10 to 1,000 ng/mL and nitrate from 0.1 to 10 µg/mL. Product recoveries ranged from 92.4 to 99.9%. The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL and 0.1 µg/mL for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Therefore, the technique was simple and reliable, with potential application in biological sample analysis of nitrate and nitrite.

  20. Nitrate and ammonia as nitrogen sources for deep subsurface microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Kutvonen, Heini; Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the N-utilizing bacterial community in anoxic brackish groundwater of the low and intermediate level nuclear waste repository cave in Olkiluoto, Finland, at 100 m depth using 15N-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and enrichment with 14∕15N-ammonium or 14∕15N-nitrate complemented with methane. Twenty-eight days of incubation at 12°C increased the concentration of bacterial 16S rRNA and nitrate reductase (narG) gene copies in the substrate amended microcosms simultaneously with a radical drop in the overall bacterial diversity and OTU richness. Hydrogenophaga/Malikia were enriched in all substrate amended microcosms and Methylobacter in the ammonium and ammonium+methane supplemented microcosms. Sulfuricurvum was especially abundant in the nitrate+methane treatment and the unamended incubation control. Membrane-bound nitrate reductase genes (narG) from Polarimonas sp. were detected in the original groundwater, while Burkholderia, Methylibium, and Pseudomonas narG genes were enriched due to substrate supplements. Identified amoA genes belonged to Nitrosomonas sp. 15N-SIP revealed that Burkholderiales and Rhizobiales clades belonging to the minority groups in the original groundwater used 15N from ammonium and nitrate as N source indicating an important ecological function of these bacteria, despite their low number, in the groundwater N cycle in Olkiluoto bedrock system. PMID:26528251

  1. Calorimetry Studies of Ammonia, Nitric Acid, and Ammonium Nitrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    block nmmber) Calorimetry Heat of reaction Ammonium nitrate Heat capacity Nitric acid Heat of solution • Amonia 20. ABSTRACT r(Cmrtfe m,.re a N "no•a.•r sd...identical to the literature spectrum of W NO3. Anhydrous nitric acid was prepared by distillation of 90% HNO 3 from fuming sulfuric acid (oxides of nitrogen

  2. Precursor/product studies of macrophage synthesis of nitrite, nitrate and N-nitrosamines

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, R.; Marletta, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    Previous experiments showed that nitrite, nitrate and N-nitrosamine synthesis was carried out by both stimulated macrophages (M phi) and a number of M phi cell lines. Here the authors report the precursor to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and the source of the nitrosating agent. Previous kinetic studies established a time lag for NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis during which protein synthesis required for product formation occurred. Medium change after the protein synthesis phase showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for the synthesis. Other precursors were homoarginine, arginine methyl ester, arginine infinity-hydroxamate, argininamide and the peptide arginine-aspartate. Glutamine, citrulline, ornithine, hydroxylamine and D-arginine were among some of the non-precursors. Canavanine though not a precursor inhibited arginine-derived NO/sub 2/-/NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis while D-arginine had no effect. When /sup 15/N-arginine (guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/, 95%) was used, GC/MS results showed that all the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesized was derived exclusively from these two guanido nitrogens. Similar labeling experiments carried out in the presence of morpholine showed that the isotopic enrichment of N-nitrosomorpholine was the same as that of NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesized, suggesting that the nitrosating agent is a common intermediate. In conclusion, NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ and N-nitrosomorpholine synthesis by stimulated macrophages is derived specifically from the two guanido nitrogens of arginine.

  3. Survival of Listeria innocua in dry fermented sausages and changes in the typical microbiota and volatile profile as affected by the concentration of nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hospital, Xavier F; Hierro, Eva; Fernández, Manuela

    2012-02-15

    The involvement of nitrate and nitrite in the formation of N-nitrosamines in foods is a matter of great concern. This situation has led to revise the real amount of nitrate and nitrite needed in meat products to exert proper technological and safety activities, and also to extensive research to find alternatives to their use. The present study addresses the possibility of reducing the ingoing amounts of these additives below the legal limits established by the current European regulations. Different concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were tested on Spanish salchichón-type dry fermented sausages concerning their role in the microbiota and volatile profile. Sausages were manufactured with the maximum ingoing amounts established by the EU regulations (150 ppm NaNO(3) and 150 ppm NaNO(2)), a 25% reduction and a 50% reduction; control sausages with no nitrate/nitrite addition were also prepared. The mixtures were inoculated with 5 log cfu/g of Listeria innocua as a surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes. L. innocua numbers in the final product were approximately 1.5 log cfu/g lower in the batch with the maximum nitrate/nitrite concentration when compared to 25 and 50% reduced batches, and about 2 log cfu/g in comparison to the control sausages. The final numbers of catalase-positive cocci were 1 log cfu/g higher in the 50% nitrate/nitrite reduced batch and 2 log cfu/g higher in the control sausages, compared to products manufactured with the maximum nitrate/nitrite concentration. This increase was related to a higher amount of volatile compounds derived from carbohydrate fermentation and amino acid degradation. Sausages with no addition of nitrate/nitrite showed higher amount of volatiles from lipid oxidation. Enterobacteriaceae counts reached detectable values (1-2 log cfu/g) in both nitrate/nitrite reduced sausages and in the control batch, while these organisms were not detected in the batch with the maximum ingoing amount. Nitrate and nitrite exerted a significant

  4. Automated determination of nitrate plus nitrite in aqueous samples with flow injection analysis using vanadium (III) chloride as reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Lin, Kunning; Chen, Nengwang; Yuan, Dongxing; Ma, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Determination of nitrate in aqueous samples is an important analytical objective for environmental monitoring and assessment. Here we report the first automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) of nitrate (plus nitrite) using VCl3 as reductant instead of the well-known but toxic cadmium column for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The reduced nitrate plus the nitrite originally present in the sample react with the Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-1-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) under acidic condition. The resulting pink azo dye can be detected at 540 nm. The Griess reagent and VCl3 are used as a single mixed reagent solution to simplify the system. The various parameters of the FIA procedure including reagent composition, temperature, volume of the injection loop, and flow rate were carefully investigated and optimized via univariate experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range and detection limit of this method are 0-100 µM (R(2)=0.9995) and 0.1 µM, respectively. The targeted analytical range can be easily extended to higher concentrations by selecting alternative detection wavelengths or increasing flow rate. The FIA system provides a sample throughput of 20 h(-1), which is much higher than that of previously reported manual methods based on the same chemistry. National reference solutions and different kinds of aqueous samples were analyzed with our method as well as the cadmium column reduction method. The results from our method agree well with both the certified value and the results from the cadmium column reduction method (no significant difference with P=0.95). The spiked recovery varies from 89% to 108% for samples with different matrices, showing insignificant matrix interference in this method.

  5. Oxidation of Fe(II)-EDTA by nitrite and by two nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax strains.

    PubMed

    Klueglein, N; Picardal, F; Zedda, M; Zwiener, C; Kappler, A

    2015-03-01

    The enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) by nitrate-reducing bacteria was first suggested about two decades ago. It has since been found that most strains are mixotrophic and need an additional organic co-substrate for complete and prolonged Fe(II) oxidation. Research during the last few years has tried to determine to what extent the observed Fe(II) oxidation is driven enzymatically, or abiotically by nitrite produced during heterotrophic denitrification. A recent study reported that nitrite was not able to oxidize Fe(II)-EDTA abiotically, but the addition of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer, Acidovorax sp. strain 2AN, led to Fe(II) oxidation (Chakraborty & Picardal, 2013). This, along with other results of that study, was used to argue that Fe(II) oxidation in strain 2AN was enzymatically catalyzed. However, the absence of abiotic Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation by nitrite reported in that study contrasts with previously published data. We have repeated the abiotic and biotic experiments and observed rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe(II)-EDTA by nitrite, resulting in the formation of Fe(III)-EDTA and the green Fe(II)-EDTA-NO complex. Additionally, we found that cultivating the Acidovorax strains BoFeN1 and 2AN with 10 mM nitrate, 5 mm acetate, and approximately 10 mM Fe(II)-EDTA resulted only in incomplete Fe(II)-EDTA oxidation of 47-71%. Cultures of strain BoFeN1 turned green (due to the presence of Fe(II)-EDTA-NO) and the green color persisted over the course of the experiments, whereas strain 2AN was able to further oxidize the Fe(II)-EDTA-NO complex. Our work shows that the two used Acidovorax strains behave very differently in their ability to deal with toxic effects of Fe-EDTA species and the further reduction of the Fe(II)-EDTA-NO nitrosyl complex. Although the enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) cannot be ruled out, this study underlines the importance of nitrite in nitrate-reducing Fe(II)- and Fe(II)-EDTA-oxidizing cultures and demonstrates that Fe(II)-EDTA cannot

  6. Intracellular Conversion of Environmental Nitrate and Nitrite to Nitric Oxide with Resulting Developmental Toxicity to the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Das, Parikshit C.; Li, Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NOx) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NOx undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes. Methodology/Principal Findings These experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2) and whole organisms Daphnia magna. We first evaluated the ability of cells to convert nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) to nitric oxide using amperometric real-time nitric oxide detection. Both NO3− and NO2− were converted to nitric oxide in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Further, nitric oxide trapping and fluorescent visualization studies revealed that perinatal daphnids readily convert NO2− to nitric oxide. Next, daphnids were continuously exposed to concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside (positive control) and to concentrations of NO3− and NO2−. All three compounds interfered with normal embryo development and reduced daphnid fecundity. Developmental abnormalities were characteristic of those elicited by compounds that interfere with ecdysteroid signaling. However, no compelling evidence was generated to indicate that nitric oxide reduced ecdysteroid titers. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that nitrite elicits developmental and reproductive toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations due likely to its intracellular conversion to nitric oxide. PMID:20805993

  7. Spatial Interaction of Archaeal Ammonia-Oxidizers and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in an Unfertilized Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Stempfhuber, Barbara; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Regan, Kathleen M.; Kölbl, Angelika; Wüst, Pia K.; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Friedrich, Michael W.; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interrelated successive transformation steps of nitrification are performed by distinct microbial groups – the ammonia-oxidizers, comprising ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira, which are the dominant genera in the investigated soils. Hence, not only their presence and activity in the investigated habitat is required for nitrification, but also their temporal and spatial interactions. To demonstrate the interdependence of both groups and to address factors promoting putative niche differentiation within each group, temporal and spatial changes in nitrifying organisms were monitored in an unfertilized grassland site over an entire vegetation period at the plot scale of 10 m2. Nitrifying organisms were assessed by measuring the abundance of marker genes (amoA for AOA and AOB, nxrA for Nitrobacter, 16S rRNA gene for Nitrospira) selected for the respective sub-processes. A positive correlation between numerically dominant AOA and Nitrospira, and their co-occurrence at the same spatial scale in August and October, suggests that the nitrification process is predominantly performed by these groups and is restricted to a limited timeframe. Amongst nitrite-oxidizers, niche differentiation was evident in observed seasonally varying patterns of co-occurrence and spatial separation. While their distributions were most likely driven by substrate concentrations, oxygen availability may also have played a role under substrate-limited conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed temporal shifts in Nitrospira community composition with an increasing relative abundance of OTU03 assigned to sublineage V from August onward, indicating its important role in nitrite oxidation. PMID:26834718

  8. Expression, and Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Cu-Containing Nitrite Reductase from a Marine Ammonia-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) remove intracellular nitrite to prevent its toxicity by a nitrifier denitrification pathway involving two denitrifying enzymes, nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase. Here, a Cu-containing nitrite reductase from Nitrosococcus oceani strain NS58, a gammaproteobacterial marine AOB, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the nitrite reductase from N. oceani was phylogenetically closer to its counterparts from denitrifying bacteria than that of the betaproteobacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. The recombinant enzyme was a homotrimer of a 32 kDa subunit molecule. The enzyme was green in the oxidized state with absorption peaks at 455 nm and 575 nm. EPR spectroscopy indicated the presence of type 2 Cu. Molecular activities and the affinity constant for the nitrite were determined to be 1.6×103 s−1 and 52 μM, respectively. PMID:22641151

  9. [Characterization of labor conditions and state of health among ammonia nitrate producing workers].

    PubMed

    Tsimakuridze, M P

    2005-01-01

    A complicated inquiry of worker's working conditions at enterprises that are producing ammonia nitrate has been conducted. It was determined that during the production process hazardous chemical compounds were used. It was found that labor conditions of studied industry are in unfavorable state. The most important problem is air pollution with toxic gazes. The atmosphere at the enterprises producing ammonia nitrate is significantly polluted by ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrogenous gazes. Concentration of toxic substances depends on the character of the technological process. High air temperature has bad effects on health during warm periods of the year. Noise factor and general industrial vibration exceed acceptable level in the majority of working area. The figures for sickness rate of workers with temporary loss of ability for work during three years have been analyzed. It has been stated that general rate of morbidity is not high, but this index in basic group 3.6-5.1 times exceeds the analogous figure in the control group. In the structure of morbidity diseases of respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, neural, kidney and digestive systems are frequent and they amount to 76% of the whole cases. The clinical examination of the workers with basic professions of the production of ammonia nitrate shows the frequent cases of chronic bronchitis and radiculoneuropathy. The results of function study show the damage of airways and the myocardiodystrophy. This confirms the major role of occupational- professional factors in the etiology of these pathological conditions.

  10. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  11. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  12. Reflectance spectroscopy of low atomic weight and Na-rich minerals: Borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured reflectance spectra (0.35-20 μm) of a suite of minerals and synthetic compounds that contain low-Z (⩽Na) elements as the major cation and/or the major anion in oxides/oxyhydroxides, and are relevant to planetary geology and astrobiology. The suite comprises Na-borates, Na-, K-, Ca-hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides. Na-borate spectra exhibit B-O fundamental vibrations between 7 and 14 μm, and overtones/combinations of these bands in the 1.55, 1.75, 2.15, and 2.25 μm regions. Na-, K-, and Ca-hydroxide reflectance spectra are characterized by OH and metal-OH fundamental vibrations near 3, 8, and 18 μm, and a number of overtone and combination absorption bands at shorter wavelengths, and a characteristic metal-OH band near 2.35 μm. The nitrate and nitrite spectra exhibit fundamental N-O vibrations in the 7-14 μm region and numerous combinations and overtones that are still detectable to as low as ∼1.8 μm. Na-peroxide is largely spectrally featureless below 24 μm, making its detection problematic, while H-peroxide has many OH-related absorption features below 2.5 μm that differ in position from those of H2O ice and liquid. The results of this study indicate that the borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide can all be uniquely identified using characteristic absorption features that are present below 2.5 μm. However, some of these features are weak, and their detectability will depend on the types and abundances of any accessory phases that may be present.

  13. Dissecting the role of NtrC and RpoN in the expression of assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases in Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens.

    PubMed

    López, María F; Cabrera, Juan J; Salas, Ana; Delgado, María J; López-García, Silvina L

    2017-04-01

    Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens, a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of soybeans, is a model strain for studying rhizobial denitrification. This bacterium can also use nitrate as the sole nitrogen (N) source during aerobic growth by inducing an assimilatory nitrate reductase encoded by nasC located within the narK-bjgb-flp-nasC operon along with a nitrite reductase encoded by nirA at a different chromosomal locus. The global nitrogen two-component regulatory system NtrBC has been reported to coordinate the expression of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism in several bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that disruption of ntrC caused a growth defect in B. diazoefficiens cells in the presence of nitrate or nitrite as the sole N source and a decreased activity of the nitrate and nitrite reductase enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of narK-lacZ or nirA-lacZ transcriptional fusions was significantly reduced in the ntrC mutant after incubation under nitrate assimilation conditions. A B. diazoefficiens rpoN 1/2 mutant, lacking both copies of the gene encoding the alternative sigma factor σ(54), was also defective in aerobic growth with nitrate as the N source as well as in nitrate and nitrite reductase expression. These results demonstrate that the NtrC regulator is required for expression of the B. diazoefficiens nasC and nirA genes and that the sigma factor RpoN is also involved in this regulation.

  14. Estimation of the daily intake of nitrates and nitrites which children one to six years old, who attend State Nurseries in the City of Havanna, may consume.

    PubMed

    García Roché, M O; Bécquer, A; Arcia, J

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of the amounts of nitrates and nitrites consumed by the child population is of great importance due to three fundamental aspects: Reduction of nitrates to nitrites. Relation of these to methemoglobinemia. Carcinogenicity of the N-nitroso compounds, of which nitrites are the precursors. In the present article information is given as to the estimated amounts of nitrates and nitrites, which about 10 000 children between one and six years of age, who attend State Nurseries in the City of Havanna, may consume through the daily intake of food, milk and water offered by the Centralized Kitchen "Cuba-Finland Friendship". The method of analysis used to determine nitrates and nitrites is that reported by the Mixed Committee FAO/OMS in 1976, using a reducing column containing cadmium described by FOLLET et al. in 1963. The statistical method employed is the t-Test of the comparison of media. Estimated quantities of nitrates and nitrites, which these children may consume according to the offer of food, milk and water they receive, are: 25.6 mg of NaNO3 and 1.04 mg of NaNO2 for children one to three years of age, and 36.1 mg of NaNO3 and 1.48 mg of NaNO2 for children four to six. These values lie under those recommended as admissible daily intake reported by the Mixed Committee FAO/OMS. Therefore, there does not seem to exist a risk to health through consumption of nitrates and nitrites by the population under investigation.

  15. Nitrite accumulation from simultaneous free-ammonia and free-nitrous-acid inhibition and oxygen limitation in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjun; Chung, Jinwook; Rittmann, Bruce E; Bae, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition in the nitrifying biofilm. We used the multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) to identify conditions that should or should not lead to nitrite accumulation, and evaluated the effectiveness of those conditions with experiments in continuous flow biofilm reactors (CFBRs). CFBR experiments were organized into four sets with these expected outcomes based on the MSNBM as follows: (i) Control, giving full nitrification; (ii) oxygen limitation, giving modest long-term nitrite build up; (iii) FA inhibition, giving no long-term nitrite accumulation; and (iv) FA inhibition plus oxygen limitation, giving major long-term nitrite accumulation. Consistent with MSNBM predictions, the experimental results showed that nitrite accumulated in sets 2-4 in the short term, but long-term nitrite accumulation was maintained only in sets 2 and 4, which involved oxygen limitation. Furthermore, nitrite accumulation was substantially greater in set 4, which also included FA inhibition. However, FA inhibition (and accompanying FNA inhibition) alone in set 3 did not maintained long-term nitrite accumulation. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity batch tests confirmed that little NOB or only a small fraction of NOB were present in the biofilms for sets 4 and 2, respectively. The experimental data supported the previous modeling results that nitrite accumulation could be achieved with a lower ammonium concentration than had been required for a suspended-growth process. Additional findings were that the biofilm exposed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and FA inhibition was substantially denser and probably had a lower detachment rate.

  16. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  17. The role of natural organic matter in nitrite formation by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment of nitrate-rich water.

    PubMed

    Semitsoglou-Tsiapou, Sofia; Mous, Astrid; Templeton, Michael R; Graham, Nigel J D; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Kruithof, Joop C

    2016-12-01

    The role of natural organic matter (NOM) on nitrite formation from nitrate photolysis by low pressure ultraviolet lamp (LP-UV) photolysis and LP-UV/H2O2 treatment was investigated. Nitrate levels up to the WHO guideline maximum of 50 mg NO3(-)/L were used in tests. The presence of 4 mg/L Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) led to increased nitrite yields compared to NOM-free controls. This was caused partly by NOM scavenging of OH radicals, preserving the produced NO2(-) as well as the ONOO(-) that leads to NO2(-) formation, but also via the production of radical species ((1)O2, O2- and OH) by the photolysis of NOM. In addition, solvated electrons formed by NOM photolysis may reduce nitrate directly to nitrite. For comparison, Nordic Lake NOM, representative of aquatic NOM, as well as Pony Lake NOM, which had a greater nitrogen content (6.51% w/w) than the other two types of NOM, were investigated, yielding similar nitrite levels as Suwannee River NOM. The results suggest that neither the type nor the nitrogen content of the NOM have an effect on the nitrite yields obtained over the range of UV/H2O2 doses applied (UV fluences of 500-2100 mJ/cm(2) and hydrogen peroxide doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/L). The findings indicate that for UV fluences above 1500 mJ/cm(2) the resulting nitrite concentration can exceed the 0.1 mg/L EU regulatory limit for nitrite, suggesting that nitrite formation by LP-UV advanced oxidation of nitrate-rich waters is important to consider.

  18. Engineering of Nitrosomonas europaea to express Vitreoscilla hemoglobin enhances oxygen uptake and conversion of ammonia to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Stephanie A; Pagilla, Krishna R; Stark, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea was transformed with a recombinant plasmid bearing the gene (vgb) encoding the hemoglobin (VHb) from the bacterium Vitreoscilla under control of the N. europaea amoC P1 promoter. Vgb was maintained stably and appeared to be expressed in the transformants at VHb levels of about 0.75 nmol/g wet weight. Expression of VHb in the N. europaea transformants was correlated with an approximately 2 fold increase in oxygen uptake rate by whole cells at oxygen concentrations in the range of 75-100% saturation, but no change in oxygen uptake rate at oxygen concentrations below 25% saturation. VHb expression was also correlated with an increase of as much as about 30% in conversion of ammonia to nitrite by growing cells. The results suggest that engineering of key aerobic wastewater bacteria to express bacterial hemoglobins may be a useful strategy to produce species with enhanced respiratory abilities.

  19. Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe; Wypych, Fernando; Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel

    2010-10-15

    A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

  20. The Impact of Environmental Factors on the Amount of Nitrates and Nitrites in Different Types of Soils and Ways of Their Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachvarova, Darina; Rafi, Renay; Doichinov, Aleksandar

    2017-03-01

    Despite the last decade considerable advances in the study of nitrate and nitrite pollution of soil, there are still some gaps in research related to neglecting or ignoring the role of soil in the food chain and its effects on upper trophic units. The article presents the results of a study on the impact of air and soil humidity and temperature, as well as soil type and utilization on the amount of nitrates and nitrites in the soil solution at the end of vegetation period. It was proved that statistically significant impact on the amounts of residual nitrate and nitrite ions was caused by the temperature and moisture of soil, its type, and the specific properties of the crops grown.

  1. Analysis of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with a nanolatex-coated capillary column.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhao; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yaxiao; Li, Haibin; Yu, Ajuan; Deng, Zhifen; Sun, Barry Baoguo; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-04-16

    In this work, a new open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) method with the nanolatex-coated column was proposed for the determination of nitrites and nitrates in foodstuffs. The method was simple and repeatable as a result of avoiding the introduction of an electroosmotic flow reverse additive (such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) in electrophoretic buffer. The limits of quantitation were 0.89 and 1.05 mg kg⁻¹ for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, whereas the overall recoveries ranged from 94 to 103%. The developed OT-CEC method was successfully applied for 12 samples, and the residue profiles of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages were obtained and evaluated.

  2. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: an efficient adsorbent for the separation and removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of magnetic nanosorbent, hydroxyapatite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles was synthesized and used for the adsorption and removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from environmental samples. The properties of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. After the adsorption process, the separation of γ-Fe2O3@hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field. The effects of different variables on the adsorption efficiency were studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest were amount of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, adsorption time, and temperature. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption efficiencies of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbents toward NO3(-) and NO2(-) ions (100 mg/L) were in the range of 93-101%. The results revealed that the magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbent could be used as a simple, efficient, and cost-effective material for the removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental water and soil samples.

  3. Estimation and correlative study of salivary nitrate and nitrite in tobacco related oral squamous carcinoma and submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Vaishali; Biviji, AT; Akarte, N

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the ten leading cancers of the world. In India, it is one of the common cancers and is an important public health problem. Tobacco plays significant role in etiology of oral squamous carcinoma. Tobacco which is chewed or smoked contains many alkaloids which are known carcinogens. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disease of the Indian subcontinent, which through immigration has a worldwide distribution. Betel nut chewing plays significant role in etiology of OSMF. The nut alkaloids have been shown experimentally to result in stimulation of collagen synthesis by fibroblasts in vitro, which can induce precancerous conditions. Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect nitrate and nitrite factor in saliva of cases with oral carcinoma, OSMF and normal individuals without any habits and to determine whether increased salivary nitrate and nitrite level is significant in oral carcinoma and submucous fibrosis using biochemical parameters. Conclusion: We conclude that the major inducer of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is exposure to tobacco. Recent studies have demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress contributes to the development of oral carcinogenesis through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Salivary composition of OSCC patients is substantially altered with respect to free radical-involved mechanisms. PMID:24574656

  4. Inhaled NO therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Yomna I.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Deming, Douglas D.; Zhang, Amy X.; Herring, Jason L.; Sowers, Lawrence C.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity following inhaled NO therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. Study design In this single center study five sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during and after therapy with iNO (n=17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n=16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n=12). Results After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite increased about two-fold within two hours (P<0.01). Whole blood nitrate increased to four-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20ppm iNO (P<0.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<0.01) whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total Hb-bound NO-species compounds did not change. Conclusion Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in nitrite, nitrate, and SNO-Hb in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart and other organs. PMID:21907348

  5. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p < .001). Furthermore, well depth and hydrogeological setting might have some impacts on nitrogen contamination and the major sources of inorganic nitrogen contamination may be nitrogenous chemical fertilizer. Therefore, PWSWs built for all families are the best way to ensure the drinking water safety in villages. For DTWs it is necessary to use seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

  6. Ammonia from iron(II) reduction of nitrite and the Strecker synthesis: do iron(II) and cyanide interfere with each other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.; Lerner, N.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, effect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The reduction of nitrite and the Strecker can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, to yield glycine from a mixture of nitrite, Fe+2, formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  7. Increased reproductive toxicity of landfill leachate after degradation was caused by nitrite.

    PubMed

    Dave, Göran; Nilsson, Eva

    2005-06-01

    Leachate from the landfill Lindbodarna was suspected to cause reproductive effects on fish in a Swedish lake, called Molnbyggen. The acute toxicity of this landfill leachate is caused by ammonia. In the present study the acute and chronic toxicity of the leachate from the landfill was tested with Ceriodaphnia dubia before and after treatment, either with (inoculated) or without addition of microorganisms from activated sludge, in both 2000 and 2001. On both occasions, the acute toxicity decreased after treatment, more rapidly with inoculum than without, and the cause of the decrease was mainly explained by decreasing concentrations of ammonia. However, the chronic toxicity decreased after treatment with inoculum but increased after treatment without inoculum. Therefore, we performed a series of acute and reproductive tests with ammonia, nitrite and nitrate on C. dubia, and the 24-h EC50s were 1.0, 2.7 and 59 mM, respectively, which are consistent with literature data. However, the chronic toxicity of these compounds gave quite a different picture with 8-day EC50s for reproduction of 3.0 mM for ammonia, 0.016 mM for nitrite and 1.5 mM for nitrate. Thus, the acute-chronic ratios for these compounds were 0.33 for ammonia, 170 for nitrite and 39 for nitrate. These findings show that reproduction is more sensitive than survival for both nitrite and nitrate, and that nitrite is the more hazardous of the two. This implies that the chronic and reproductive toxicity of nitrite and nitrate on zooplankton may in fact increase effects of eutrophication. In this study the toxicity of the fresh leachate was dominated by ammonia, but after treatment the contribution of nitrite increased, and especially the chronic toxicity of the treated landfill leachate was dominated by nitrite toxicity.

  8. [Nitrates and nitrites content in the samples taken from the dug and drilled wells from the area of Podkarpacie region as a methemoglobinemia risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bilek, Maciej; Rybakowa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the nitrates and nitrites content in water samples taken from fourteen dug and drilled wells from the area of Podkarpacie, as well as a summary of the previously performed analysis. Private water intakes are not under the supervision of the State Sanitary Inspection. So in the case of exceeding the standards provided by the Regulation of the Minister of Health, regulating the requirements for drinking water, private water intakes can be a serious threat to the health of consumers. Particularly at risk are infants, in whom nitrates and especially nitrites can cause, among others, methemoglobinemia. The analysis was performed by ion chromatography method, making it possible to simultaneously determining the concentrations of nitrates and nitrites. As it turned out there was no presence of nitrites in the water of the tested wells. In five samples taken from the dug wells nitrates concentration exceeding the norm of 50 mg/L have been reported. In two cases, exceeding the nitrate concentrations were significant: 96.53 mg L and 204.65 mg/L.

  9. Monitoring of nitrite, nitrate, chloride and sulfate in environmental samples using electrophoresis microchips coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Camilla Benevides; Moreira, Roger Cardoso; de Oliveira Tavares, Maria Gizelda; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2016-01-15

    This report describes the development of an analytical methodology on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices coupled with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) to monitor inorganic anions in environmental samples. The buffer composition as well as detection operating parameters were optimized to achieve the best separation selectivity and detector sensitivity, respectively. Electrophoretic separations of Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO2(-) were successfully performed within 60s using a running buffer composed of 30mmol L(-1) latic acid and 15mmol L(-1)l-histidine (His). The best detectability levels were found applying a sinusoidal wave with 1100-kHz-frequency and 60-Vpp amplitude. Quantitative analyzes of inorganic anions were carried out in the presence of Cr2O7(2-) ion as internal standard (IS), which ensured great repeatability in terms of migration times (<1%) and peak areas (6.2-7.6%) for thirty consecutive injections. The analytical performance revealed a linear behavior for concentration ranges between 0-120μmol L(-1) (Cl(-), NO2(-) and NO3(-)) and 0-60μmol L(-1) (SO4(2-)) and limits of detection (LODs) varying from 2.0 to 4.9μmol L(-1). The concentration levels of anionic species were determined in aquarium, river and biofertilizer samples with recovery values between 91% and 105%. The nitrification steps associated with conversion of ammonium to nitrite followed by the conversion of nitrite to nitrate were successfully monitored in a simulated environment without fishes during a period of twelve weeks. Lastly, the monitoring of anionic species was carried out during eight weeks in an aquarium environment containing ten fishes from Danio rerio (Ciprynidae). The recorded data revealed the absence of nitrite and a gradual increase on the ammonium and nitrate concentration levels during eight weeks, thus suggesting the direct conversion of ammonium to nitrate. Based on the data herein reported, the proposed analytical methodology

  10. Functional roles of CymA and NapC in reduction of nitrate and nitrite by Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1

    SciTech Connect

    Beliav, Alex; Qiu, Dongru; Fredrickson, James K.; Wei, Hehong; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Xia, Ming; Zhou, Jizhong; Dai, Jingcheng; Shi, Liang; Tiedje, James M.; Romine, Margaret F.

    2016-06-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 harbours two periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) gene clusters, NapC-associated nap-alpha (napEDABC) and CymA-dependent nap-beta (napDAGHB), for dissimilatory nitrate respiration. CymA is a member of the NapC/NirT quinol dehydrogenase family and acts as a hub to support different respiratory pathways, including those on iron [Fe(III)] and manganese [Mn(III, IV)] (hydr)oxide, nitrate, nitrite, fumarate and arsenate in Shewanella strains. However, in our analysis it was shown that another NapC/NirT family protein, NapC, was only involved in nitrate reduction, although both CymA and NapC can transfer quinol-derived electrons to a periplasmic terminal reductase or an electron acceptor. Furthermore, our results showed that NapC could only interact specifically with the Nap-alpha nitrate reductase while CymA could interact promiscuously with Nap-alpha, Nap-beta and the NrfA nitrite reductase for nitrate and nitrite reduction. To further explore the difference in specificity, site-directed mutagenesis on both CymA and NapC was conducted and the phenotypic changes in nitrate and nitrite reduction were tested. Our analyses demonstrated that the Lys-91 residue played a key role in nitrate reduction for quinol oxidation and the Asp-166 residue might influence the maturation of CymA. The Asp-97 residue might be one of the key factors that influence the interaction of CymA with the cytochromes NapB and NrfA.

  11. Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Hyde, Embriette; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A.; Viirre, Erik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrates, such as cardiac therapeutics and food additives, are common headache triggers, with nitric oxide playing an important role. Facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity may contribute migraine-triggering levels of nitric oxide through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, we detected observable and significantly higher abundances of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide reductase genes in migraineurs versus nonmigraineurs in samples collected from the oral cavity and a slight but significant difference in fecal samples. IMPORTANCE Recent work has demonstrated a potentially symbiotic relationship between oral commensal bacteria and humans through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway (C. Duncan et al., Nat Med 1:546–551, 1995, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0695-546). Oral nitrate-reducing bacteria contribute physiologically relevant levels of nitrite and nitric oxide to the human host that may have positive downstream effects on cardiovascular health (V. Kapil et al., Free Radic Biol Med 55:93–100, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.11.013). In the work presented here, we used 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing to determine whether a connection exists between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, nitrates for cardiovascular disease, and migraines, which are a common side effect of nitrate medications (U. Thadani and T. Rodgers, Expert Opin Drug Saf 5:667–674, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.5.5.667). PMID:27822557

  12. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  13. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  14. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  15. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  16. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  17. Enzyme-level interconversion of nitrate and nitrite in the fall mixed layer of the Antarctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemeny, P. C.; Weigand, M. A.; Zhang, R.; Carter, B. R.; Karsh, K. L.; Fawcett, S. E.; Sigman, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    In the Southern Ocean, the nitrogen (N) isotopes of organic matter and the N and oxygen (O) isotopes of nitrate (NO3-) have been used to investigate NO3- assimilation and N cycling in the summertime period of phytoplankton growth, both today and in the past. However, recent studies indicate the significance of processes in other seasons for producing the annual cycle of N isotope changes. This study explores the impact of fall conditions on the 15N/14N (δ15N) and 18O/16O (δ18O) of NO3- and nitrite (NO2-) in the Pacific Antarctic Zone using depth profiles from late summer/fall of 2014. In the mixed layer, the δ15N and δ18O of NO3- + NO2- increase roughly equally, as expected for NO3- assimilation; however, the δ15N of NO3--only (measured after NO2- removal) increases more than does NO3--only δ18O. Differencing indicates that NO2- has an extremely low δ15N, often < -70‰ versus air. These observations are consistent with the expression of an equilibrium N isotope effect between NO3- and NO2-, likely due to enzymatic NO3--NO2- interconversion. Specifically, we propose reversibility of the nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR) enzyme of nitrite oxidizers that, having been entrained from the subsurface during late summer mixed layer deepening, are inhibited by light. Our interpretation suggests a role for NO3--NO2- interconversion where nitrifiers are transported into environments that discourage NO2- oxidation. This may apply to surface regions with upwelling, such as the summertime Antarctic. It may also apply to oxygen-deficient zones, where NXR-catalyzed interconversion may explain previously reported evidence of NO2- oxidation.

  18. Simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater using reverse flow injection analysis coupled with a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sichao; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong

    2013-12-15

    A reverse flow injection analysis (rFIA) method coupled with 1m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection for simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater was developed. The design of two analytical channels sharing the same detection system in the proposed method allowed the analysis of both nitrite and nitrate with single sample injection. Different strategies of reagent injection were investigated to obtain a higher sensitivity and a better peak shape. A dual-wavelength detection mode was chosen to eliminate the light source shifting and sample matrix interference. Experimental parameters were optimized based on a univariate experimental design and the matrix effect from seawater was preliminarily investigated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with detection limit of 0.6 nmol L(-1) for both nitrite and nitrate. The linearity was 2-500 nmol L(-1) for both analytes, and the upper limit could be extended by choosing a lower sensitivity detection wavelength. The analytical results of 26 surface seawater samples obtained with the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference method operated using an automated segmented flow analyzer. The proposed method could greatly minimize the trouble introduced by bubbles in the segmented flow analyzer. It also had the advantages of high precision and high sample throughput (nitrite and nitrate detected in triplicate; 5 h(-1)). Compared to normal flow injection analysis, the rFIA method is superior due to its lower reagent consumption, less dispersion of sample, as well as higher sensitivity.

  19. Occurrence of herbicides, nitrite plus nitrate, and selected trace elements in ground water from northwestern and northeastern Missouri, July 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Maley, Randall D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri Department of Health collected water samples for analysis of nitrite plus nitrate and herbicides from rural domestic wells in northwestern and northeastern Missouri in 1991 and 1992. In July 1991, samples were collected from 130 wells in Caldwell, Clinton, Daviess, Gentry, and Nodaway Counties in northwestern Missouri. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations as nitrogen ranged from less than 0.05 to 63 milligrams per liter. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations exceeded the State drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter in water samples from 28 wells. One or more of the herbicides--alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine; metribuzin, metolachlor, and trifluralin--were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 0.05 micrograms per liter in 19 samples. Atrazine was detected in water samples from 16 wells. In July 1992, water samples were collected from 147 wells in Audrain, Clark, Lewis, Monroe, Scotland, and Shelby Counties in northeastern Missouri. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in samples ranged from less than 0.05 to 60 milligrams per liter and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in samples from 28 wells. One or more of the herbicides-alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor-were detected at concentrations greater than 0.10 microgram per liter in water samples from 19 of the wells sampled. Atrazine was detected in water from 18 wells.

  20. Evaluation of total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples of companies producing their own feed in Edincik and Bandırma province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Eseceli, Hüseyin; Demir, Ergün; Sentürklü, Songül

    2012-01-01

    Feed contamination by fungi can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food can be harmful to both people and animals. The aim of this study was to determine total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples from companies producing their own feed in Edincik and Bandırma provinces in Turkey and to discuss the potential risk to animal health. The results of the analyses indicated that mean total aflatoxin (AFT) ranged from 0.4 to 36.8 µg kg(-1) and from 0.45 to 47.0 µg kg(-1) in the year 2007 and the year 2008 samples, respectively. It was determined that nitrate levels were 2.4-10 and 1.7-13 µg kg(-1) and that nitrite levels were 0-2.4 µg kg(-1) and 0-2.6 µg kg(-1) in these years, respectively. The levels of total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite in the layer samples could not be considered a risk to poultry health and productivity.

  1. Selection of Crop Varieties for Efficient Production Using Urea, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate in Celss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of NO2(-) in the external solution increased the overall efficiency of the mixed N sources by cereal leaves. The NH4(+) in the substrate solution decreased the efficiency of NO3(-) reduction, while NO3(-) in the substrate solution increased the efficiency of NH4(+) assimilation.

  2. A sub-minute CZE method to determine nitrate and nitrite in meat products: An alternative for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Della Betta, Fabiana; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Fett, Roseane; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    A sub-minute capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was optimized and a simple sample preparation procedure based on the extraction of the analytes with water and sodium tetraborate was developed for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite levels in meat products. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 20mmolL(-1) perchloric acid and 65mmolL(-1) β-alanine at pH3.83. Thiocyanate was used as the internal standard. The proposed method was validated and the uncertainty estimated according to Eurachem guidelines. The run time was only 30s, allowing analyzing more than 25samples/h, the good analytical performance confirms the suitability of the method for the analysis of meat products. One sample presented residual nitrite levels above the limit established by MERCOSUL legislation (150mgkg(-1)). The use of a fast method in association with a simple sample preparation step means that this procedure represents a possible alternative to fulfill the demand for high throughput in routine laboratory analysis.

  3. Development and validation of an ionic chromatography method for the determination of nitrate, nitrite and chloride in meat.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Moreno, Cristina; Perez, Isabel Viera; Urbano, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the validation of a method for the analysis of certain preservatives in meat and to obtain a suitable Certified Reference Material (CRM) to achieve this task. The preservatives studied were NO3(-), NO2(-) and Cl(-) as they serve as important antimicrobial agents in meat to inhibit the growth of bacteria spoilage. The meat samples were prepared using a treatment that allowed the production of a known CRM concentration that is highly homogeneous and stable in time. The matrix effects were also studied to evaluate the influence on the analytical signal for the ions of interest, showing that the matrix influence does not affect the final result. An assessment of the signal variation in time was carried out for the ions. In this regard, although the chloride and nitrate signal remained stable for the duration of the study, the nitrite signal decreased appreciably with time. A mathematical treatment of the data gave a stable nitrite signal, obtaining a method suitable for the validation of these anions in meat. A statistical study was needed for the validation of the method, where the precision, accuracy, uncertainty and other mathematical parameters were evaluated obtaining satisfactory results.

  4. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  5. Ammonia from Iron(II) Reduction of Nitrite and the Strecker Synthesis: Do Iron(II) and Cyanide Interfere with Each Other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  6. Fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. Role of acetyl CoA synthetase in anaerobic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kazuto; Shoun, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takeo, Kanji; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2004-03-26

    Fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP (Zhou, Z., Takaya, N., Nakamura, A., Yamaguchi, M., Takeo, K., and Shoun, H. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1892-1896). We identified the Aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. The results showed that assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases (the gene products of niaD and niiA) were essential for reducing nitrate and for anaerobic cell growth during ammonia fermentation. We also found that ethanol oxidation is coupled with nitrate reduction and catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs). This is similar to the mechanism suggested in F. oxysporum except A. nidulans uses Acs to produce ATP instead of the ADP-dependent acetate kinase of F. oxysporum. The production of Acs requires a functional facA gene that encodes Acs and that is involved in ethanol assimilation and other metabolic processes. We purified the gene product of facA (FacA) from the fungus to show that the fungus acetylates FacA on its lysine residue(s) specifically under conditions of ammonia fermentation to regulate its substrate affinity. Acetylated FacA had higher affinity for acetyl-CoA than for acetate, whereas non-acetylated FacA had more affinity for acetate. Thus, the acetylated variant of the FacA protein is responsible for ATP synthesis during fungal ammonia fermentation. These results showed that the fungus ferments ammonium via coupled dissimilatory and assimilatory mechanisms.

  7. Effects of Waterborne Copper, Cyanide, Ammonia, and Nitrite on Stress Parameters and Changes in Susceptibility to Saprolegniosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, M.; Munoz, M. J.; Cuellar, M.; Tarazona, J. V.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of toxic exposures on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to saprolegniosis were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/liter), cyanide (0.07 mg/liter), ammonia (0.5 mg/liter), and nitrite (0.24 mg/liter) for 24 h. After exposure, the fish were challenged by Saprolegnia parasitica (3.6 x 10(sup6) zoospores per liter) for 10 min. Cortisol and cholesterol were used to indicate stress response. Similar increases of cortisol were found for the four tested chemicals. All fish with cortisol levels higher than 370 ng/ml developed the disease, while only 24% of the fish with cortisol levels lower than 370 ng/ml were infected. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged after toxic exposure. Increased susceptibilities to the pathogen were observed for ammonia (71%), copper (57%), nitrite (50%), and cyanide (33%). The increases in susceptibility as a result of cyanide and nitrite exposure could be explained by the stress response. For copper and ammonia, the combination of two different effects, the stress response and specific impairments of the defense mechanism of trout against saprolegniosis, should be considered. PMID:16535039

  8. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase reveals adaption and potential of Bacillus megaterium NCT-2 in secondary salinization soil.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaohua; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Daxin; Zhi, Yuee; Zhou, Pei

    2017-04-04

    Large accumulation of nitrate in soil has resulted in "salt stress" and soil secondary salinization. Bacillus megaterium NCT-2 which was isolated from secondary salinization soil showed high capability of nitrate reduction. The genes encoding assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase from NCT-2 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimum co-expression condition was obtained with E. coli BL21 (DE3) and 0.1mM IPTG for 10h when expression was carried out at 20°C and 120rpm in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The molecular mass of nitrate reductase was 87.3kDa and 80.5kDa for electron transfer and catalytic subunit, respectively. The large and small subunit of nitrite reductase was 88kDa and 11.7kDa, respectively. The purified recombinant enzymes showed broad activity range of temperature and pH. The maximum activities were obtained at 35°C and 30°C, pH 6.2 and 6.5, which was similar to the condition of greenhouse soils. Maximum stimulation of the enzymes occurred with addition of Fe(3+), while Cu(2+) caused the maximum inhibition. The optimum electron donor was MV+Na2S2O4+EDTA and MV+Na2S2O4, respectively. Kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax were determined to be 670μM and 58U/mg for nitrate reductase, and 3100μM and 5.2U/mg for nitrite reductase. Results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the maximum expression levels of nitrate and nitrite reductase were obtained at 50mM nitrate for 8h and 12h, respectively. These results provided information on novel assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase and their properties presumably revealed adaption of B. megaterium NCT-2 to secondary salinization condition. This study also shed light on the role played by the nitrate assimilatory pathway in B. megaterium NCT-2.

  9. Measurement of concentrations and dry surface fluxes of atmospheric nitrates in the presence of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Huebert, B.J.; Luke, W.T.; Delany, A.C.; Brost, R.A.

    1988-06-20

    We measured vertical gradients of nitric acid vapor and nitrate aerosol near the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower, 20 km north of Dever, Colorado. This site was usually downwind of two large ammonia sources, a cattle feedlot and a chicken farm . The gradients we observed were very different from measurements at other sites: the aerosol gradient was in many cases steeper than that of the vapor, even though both experience and theory predict that aerosol dry deposition should be much slower (with a correspondingly flatter gradient) than that for nitric acid vapor. In some cases we even saw an apparent emission of nitric acid vapor, with the highest concentrations near the surface. These results are consistent with the predictions of a model which couples the evaporation of ammonium nitrate aerosol to the rapid dry deposition of nitric acid vapor. As deposition depletes the vapor near the surface, evaporation of the aerosol resupplies it. This produces a steep arerosol concentration gradient, even though the aerosol itself is not the form which is transported to the the receiving surfaces. One result of this coupling is that the traditional application of deposition velocities and measured concentrations to estimate dry nitric acid deposition may cause significant errors, since the individual species fluxes are not conserved (and may even have different signs under some conditions). The total nitrate flux is conserved, however, and may be the most predictable of the fluxes. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  10. Chemical assessment of lead, cadmium, nitrate, and nitrite intakes with daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages in Krakow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Kopeć, Aneta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0.15 to 22.59 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/week. The average cadmium intake by children and adolescents ranged between 3.09 ± 0.21 and 20.36 ± 2.21 μg/kg bw/week and, for all orphanages, exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) level. Daily intake of nitrates and nitrites ranged respectively from 27 to 289 % and from 9 to 99 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The youngest children, with lower body mass, were particularly sensitive to the excessive intakes of cadmium and nitrates.

  11. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  12. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zaros, Pedro R; Pires, Carla EM Romero; Bacci, Mauricio; Moraes, Camila; Zanesco, Angelina

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET) on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx-) in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve). Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM). Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl), whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg/dl). Conclusion Our study

  13. Purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Shaila, M S; Rao, G R

    1996-07-01

    Nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) and nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1). They catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. The nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, Candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. Purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kDa. The native enzyme exhibits a molecular mass of 126 kDa as analysed by gel filtration. The identify of the two subunits of nitrite reductase was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibody for Cucurbita pepo leaf nitrite reductase. The presence of two different sized transcripts coding for the two subunits was confirmed by (a) in vitro translation of mRNA from nitrate-induced C. utilis followed by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translated products with heterologous nitrite reductase antibody and (b) Northern-blot analysis. The 66 kDa subunit is acidic in nature which is probably due to its phosphorylated status. The enzyme is stable over a range of temperatures. Both subunits can catalyse nitrite reduction, and the reconstituted enzyme, at a higher protein concentration, shows an activity similar to that of the purified enzyme. Each of these subunits has been shown to contain a few unique peptides in addition to a large number of common peptides. Reduced Methyl Viologen has been found to be as effective an electron donor as NADPH in the catalytic process, a phenomenon not commonly seen for nitrite reductases from other systems.

  14. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  15. Effects of dietary protein concentration on ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching, and plant nitrogen uptake from dairy manure applied to lysimeters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This lysimeter experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on nitrate-N (NO3-N) and ammonia (NH3) losses from dairy manure applied to soil and manure N use for plant growth. Lactating dairy cows were fed diets with 16.7 (HighCP) or 14.8% (LowCP) cru...

  16. Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R.; Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F.

    2011-01-15

    A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

  17. Nitrite in organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

  18. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  19. Serum nitric oxide metabolite as a biomarker of visceral fat accumulation: Clinical significance of measurement for nitrate/nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Koji; Wada, Koichiro; Nozaki, Yuichi; Yoneda, Masato; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Inamori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background A visceral fat area of more than 100 cm2 as measured by computed tomography (CT) at the umbilical level has been included as a criterion for obesity in all the proposed criteria for metabolic syndrome. However, CT cannot be used frequently because of radiation exposure. We evaluated the usefulness of measurement of the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), instead of CT and the waist circumference, as a marker of abdominal visceral fat accumulation. Material/Methods The study was carried out in 80 subjects. The serum levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) were measured using the Griess reagent. Results Simple and multiple regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of NO metabolites showed the greatest degree of correlation with the visceral fat area (r=0.743, p<0.0001), and corresponded to a visceral fat area of 100 cm2, as determined using the ROC curve, was 21.0 μmol/ml (sensitivity 88%, specificity 82%); this method was more sensitive than the waist circumference for evaluation of the visceral fat accumulation. Conclusions Measurement of the serum levels of NO metabolites may be a simple, safe, convenient and reliable method for the evaluation of visceral fat accumulation in clinical diagnostic screening. PMID:21358598

  20. Frequencies, Timing, and Spatial Patterns of Co-Suppression of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Palauqui, J. C.; Elmayan, T.; De Borne, F. D.; Crete, P.; Charles, C.; Vaucheret, H.

    1996-01-01

    Frequencies, timing, and spatial patterns of co-suppression of the nitrate (Nia) and nitrite (Nii) genes were analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants carrying either Nia or Nii cDNAs under the control of the 35S promoter, or a Nii gene with its own regulatory signals (promoter, introns, and terminator) cloned downstream of two copies of the enhancer of the 35S promoter. We show that (a) the frequencies of transgenic lines affected by co- suppression are similar for the three constructs, ranging from 19 to 25%; (b) Nia and Nii co-suppression are triggered stochastically during a phenocritical period of 2 weeks between germination and flowering; (c) the timing of co-suppression (i.e. the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression reported as a function of the number of days of culture) differs from one transgenic line to another; (d) the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression is increased by growing the plants in vitro prior to their transfer to the greenhouse and to the field; and (e) at the end of the culture period, plants are either unaffected, completely co-suppressed, or variegated. Suppressed and nonsuppressed parts of these variegated plants are separated by a vertical plane through the stem in Nia co-suppression, and separated by a horizontal plane in Nii co-suppression. PMID:12226457

  1. Fluidic Automation of Nitrate and Nitrite Bioassays in Whole Blood by Dissolvable-Film Based Centrifugo-Pneumatic Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

  2. Nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase expression and activity in response to different nitrogen sources in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Balotf, Sadegh; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Kholdebarin, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activity of nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.7.1.1), nitrite reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.2.2), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) in response to potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, and ammonium nitrate in nitrogen-starved wheat seedlings. Plants were grown in standard nutrient solution for 17 days and then subjected to nitrogen starvation for 7 days. The starved plants were supplied with potassium nitrate ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride (50 mM) for 4 days and the leaves were harvested. The relative expression of NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT as well as the enzyme activities were investigated. Nitrogen starvation caused a significant decrease both in transcript levels and in NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities. Potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate treatments restored NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT expressions and activities. Ammonium chloride increased only the expressions and activities of GS and GOGAT in a dose-dependent manner. The results of our study highlight the differential effects between the type and the amount of nitrogen salts on NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities in wheat seedlings while potassium nitrate being more effective.

  3. Low-disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate loss.

    PubMed

    Dell, Curtis J; Kleinman, Peter J A; Schmidt, John P; Beegle, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    Low-disturbance manure application methods can provide the benefits of manure incorporation, including reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions, in production systems where tillage is not possible. However, incorporation can exacerbate nitrate (NO3⁻) leaching. We sought to assess the trade-offs in NH3 and NO3⁻ losses caused by alternative manure application methods. Dairy slurry (2006-2007) and liquid swine manure (2008-2009) were applied to no-till corn by (i) shallow (<10 cm) disk injection, (ii) surface banding with soil aeration, (iii) broadcasting, and (iv) broadcasting with tillage incorporation. Ammonia emissions were monitored for 72 h after application using ventilated chambers and passive diffusion samplers, and NO3⁻ leaching to 80 cm was monitored with buried column lysimeters. The greatest NH3 emissions occurred with broadcasting (35-63 kg NH3-N ha⁻), and the lowest emissions were from unamended soil (<1 kg NH-N ha⁻¹). Injection decreased NH-N emissions by 91 to 99% compared with broadcasting and resulted in lower emissions than tillage incorporation 1 h after broadcasting. Ammonia-nitrogen emissions from banding manure with aeration were inconsistent between years, averaging 0 to 71% that of broadcasting. Annual NO3⁻ leaching losses were small (<25 kg NO3-N ha⁻¹) and similar between treatments, except for the first winter when NO3⁻ leaching was fivefold greater with injection. Because NO3⁻ leaching with injection was substantially lower over subsequent seasons, we hypothesize that the elevated losses during the first winter were through preferential flow paths inadvertently created during lysimeter installation. Overall, shallow disk injection yielded the lowest NH3 emissions without consistently increasing NO3⁻ leaching, whereas manure banding with soil aeration conserved inconsistent amounts of N.

  4. Involvement of NarK1 and NarK2 Proteins in Transport of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vandana; Noriega, Chris E.; Rowe, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Two transmembrane proteins were tentatively classified as NarK1 and NarK2 in the Pseudomonas genome project and hypothesized to play an important physiological role in nitrate/nitrite transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The narK1 and narK2 genes are located in a cluster along with the structural genes for the nitrate reductase complex. Our studies indicate that the transcription of all these genes is initiated from a single promoter and that the gene complex narK1K2GHJI constitutes an operon. Utilizing an isogenic narK1 mutant, a narK2 mutant, and a narK1K2 double mutant, we explored their effect on growth under denitrifying conditions. While the ΔnarK1::Gm mutant was only slightly affected in its ability to grow under denitrification conditions, both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants were found to be severely restricted in nitrate-dependent, anaerobic growth. All three strains demonstrated wild-type levels of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate uptake by whole-cell suspensions demonstrated both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants to have very low yet different nitrate uptake rates, while the ΔnarK1::Gm mutant exhibited wild-type levels of nitrate uptake. Finally, Escherichia coli narK rescued both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants with respect to anaerobic respiratory growth. Our results indicate that only the NarK2 protein is required as a nitrate/nitrite transporter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrifying conditions. PMID:16391109

  5. Inhabitancy of active Nitrosopumilus-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the sponge Theonella swinhoei

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guofang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrification directly contributes to the ammonia removal in sponges, and it plays an indispensable role in sponge-mediated nitrogen cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated genomic evidences of nitrifying lineages in the sponge Theonella swinhoei. However, little is known about the transcriptional activity of nitrifying community in this sponge. In this study, combined DNA- and transcript-based analyses were performed to reveal the composition and transcriptional activity of the nitrifiers in T. swinhoei from the South China Sea. Transcriptional activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in this sponge were confirmed by targeting their nitrifying genes,16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with RDP rRNA classification indicated that archaeal 16S rRNA genes, amoA (the subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrosopumilus-like AOA; whereas nitrifying bacterial 16S rRNA genes, nxrB (the subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrospira NOB. Quantitative assessment demonstrated relative higher abundances of nitrifying genes and transcripts of Nitrosopumilus-like AOA than those of Nitrospira NOB in this sponge. This study illustrated the transcriptional potentials of Nitrosopumilus-like archaea and Nitrospira bacteria that would predominantly contribute to the nitrification functionality in the South China Sea T. swinhoei. PMID:27113140

  6. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide reductases: from the last universal common ancestor to modern bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical gradient that ensues from the enzymatic activity of cytochromes such as nitrate reductase, nitric oxide reductase, and quinol oxidase contributes to the bioenergetics of the bacterial cell. Reduction of nitrogen oxides by bacterial pathogens can, however, be uncoupled from proton translocation and biosynthesis of ATP or NH4(+), but still linked to quinol and NADH oxidation. Ancestral nitric oxide reductases, as well as cytochrome c oxidases and quinol bo oxidases evolved from the former, are capable of binding and detoxifying nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. The NO-metabolizing activity associated with these cytochromes can be a sizable source of antinitrosative defense in bacteria during their associations with host cells. Nitrosylation of terminal cytochromes arrests respiration, reprograms bacterial metabolism, stimulates antioxidant defenses and alters antibiotic cytotoxicity. Collectively, the bioenergetics and regulation of redox homeostasis that accompanies the utilization of nitrogen oxides and detoxification of nitric oxide by cytochromes of the electron transport chain increases fitness of many Gram-positive and -negative pathogens during their associations with invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.

  7. Effects of nitrate supplementation in trained and untrained muscle are modest with initial high plasma nitrite levels.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P M; Petersen, N K; Friis, S N; Weitzberg, E; Nybo, L

    2017-02-06

    Nitrate (NO3-) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2-) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance-trained individuals. To test whether physiologic effects of NO3- supplementation depend on local muscular training status or cardiovascular fitness, male endurance-trained cyclists (CYC, n=9, VO2 -max: 64±3 mL/min/kg; mean±SD) and recreational active subjects serving as a control group (CON, n=8, 46±3 mL/min/kg), acutely consumed nitrate-rich beetroot juice ([NO3-] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm-cranking exercise (ARM-ex). NIT increased (P<.001) resting plasma NO3- by ~1200% relative to PLA. Plasma NO2- increased ~25% (P<.01) with a significant change only in CYC. LEG-ex VO2 (~2.60 L/min), ARM-ex VO2 (~1.14 L/min), and resting MAP (~87 mm Hg) remained unchanged for CYC, and similarly for CON, no changes were observed for LEG-ex VO2 (~2.03 L/min), ARM-ex VO2 (~1.06 L/min), or resting MAP (~85 mm Hg). VO2 -max was not affected by supplementation, but incremental test peak power was higher (P<.05) in LEG-ex for CYC in NIT relative to PLA (418±47 vs 407±46 W). In both CYC and CON, high initial baseline values and small increases in plasma NO2- after NIT may have lowered the effect of the intervention implying that muscular and cardiovascular training status is likely not the only factors that influence the physiologic effects of NO3- supplementation.

  8. Depletion of oxygen, nitrate and nitrite in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone cause an imbalance of benthic nitrogen fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, S.; Gier, J.; Treude, T.; Lomnitz, U.; Dengler, M.; Cardich, J.; Dale, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) are key regions for fixed nitrogen loss in both the sediments and the water column. During this study, the benthic contribution to N cycling was investigated at ten sites along a depth transect (74-989 m) across the Peruvian OMZ at 12°S. O2 levels were below detection limit down to ~500 m. Benthic fluxes of N2, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, H2S and O2 were measured using benthic landers. Flux measurements on the shelf were made under extreme geochemical conditions consisting of a lack of O2, NO3- and NO2- in the bottom water and elevated seafloor sulphide release. These particular conditions were associated with a large imbalance in the benthic nitrogen cycle. The sediments on the shelf were densely covered by filamentous sulphur bacteria Thioploca, and were identified as major recycling sites for DIN releasing high amounts of NH4+up to 21.2 mmol m-2 d-1 that were far in excess of NH4+ release by ammonification. This difference was attributed to dissimilatory nitrate (or nitrite) reduction to ammonium (DNRA) that was partly being sustained by NO3- stored within the sulphur oxidizing bacteria. Sediments within the core of the OMZ (ca. 200-400 m) also displayed an excess flux of N of 3.5 mmol m-2 d-1 mainly as N2. Benthic nitrogen and sulphur cycling in the Peruvian OMZ appears to be particularly susceptible to bottom water fluctuations in O2, NO3- and NO2-, and may accelerate the onset of pelagic euxinia when NO3- and NO2- become depleted.

  9. A survey of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in conventional and organic-labeled raw vegetables at retail.

    PubMed

    Nuñez de González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2015-05-01

    A national survey of the nitrate ( NO3(-)) and nitrite ( NO2(-)) concentrations in raw and highly consumed vegetables available at retail in the United States was conducted. A total of 194 samples of fresh broccoli, cabbage, celery, lettuce, and spinach categorized as conventional or organic by label were collected from 5 major cities in different geographic regions of the United States and analyzed to determine NO3(-) and NO2(-) concentrations. There were no differences in the mean NO2(-) values of conventional compared with organic vegetables taken from the 5 metropolitan areas. However, significant differences in mean pairwise comparisons between some conventional and organic vegetables for NO3(-) content were observed. The mean NO2(-) concentration of both conventional and organic vegetables ranged between 0.1 and 1.2 mg/kg of fresh weight (FW) with the exception of conventional spinach that contained 8.0 mg/kg FW. Mean NO3(-) contents of conventional broccoli, cabbage, celery, lettuce, and spinach were 394, 418, 1496, 851, and 2797 mg/kg FW, respectively, while their organic-labeled counterparts averaged 204, 552, 912, 844, and 1318 mg/kg FW. In most cases, organic vegetables were numerically lower in NO3(-) content than their conventional counterparts. Based on survey results, the finding that low NO3(-) levels were observed in some organic vegetables in different cities may warrant further study to determine if true differences exist, due to production practices, seasonal differences, and the magnitudes of those differences. Furthermore, the geographic differences in NO3(-) content of vegetables may flaw estimates of daily NO2(-) and NO3(-) exposure.

  10. Paired N and O isotopic analysis of nitrate and nitrite in the Arabian Sea oxygen deficient zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. S.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    The Arabian Sea is home to one of the three main oceanic oxygen deficient zones (ODZs). We present paired nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope measurements of nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) from the central Arabian Sea in order to understand the effects of N biogeochemistry on the distribution of these species in the low oxygen waters. Within the ODZ, NO2- accumulated in a secondary NO2- maximum (SNM), though the shape and magnitude of the SNM, along with the isotopic composition of NO3- and NO2-, were highly dependent on the location within the ODZ. We also explored water mass mixing within the Arabian Sea as an explanatory factor in the distribution of NO2- in the SNM. The intrusion of Persian Gulf Water at depth may influence the shape of the NO2- peak by introducing small amounts of dissolved oxygen (O2), favoring NO2- oxidation. There was also evidence that vertical mixing may play a role in shaping the top of the SNM peak. Finally, we present evidence for NO2- oxidation and NO2- reduction co-occurring within the ODZ, as has been previously suggested in the Arabian Sea, as well as in other ODZs. The decoupling of the N and O isotopes of NO3-, deviating from the expected 1:1 ratio for dissimilatory NO3- reduction, indicates that NO2- oxidation has a significant influence on the isotopic composition of NO3-. Additionally, the N isotopes of NO2- were generally fit well by Rayleigh curves for NO2- oxidation. However, the removal of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) within the domain reflects the importance of NO2- reduction to N2.

  11. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO{sub 3}/h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting.

  12. Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Krista M; Grigoriyan, Alexander; Jenneman, Gary; Jennneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-05-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H(2)S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58 degrees C with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in NS-tSRB2. Nitrate (10 mM) had no effect on H(2)S production by mid-log phase cultures of NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, whereas nitrite (0.25 mM or higher) inhibited sulfate reduction. NS-tSRB1 did not recover from inhibition, whereas sulfate reduction activity of NS-tSRB2 recovered after 500 h. Nitrite was also effective in souring inhibition and H(2)S removal in upflow bioreactors, whereas nitrate was similarly ineffective. Hence, nitrite may be preferable for souring prevention in some high-temperature oil fields because it reacts directly with sulfide and provides long-lasting inhibition of sulfate reduction.

  13. Ammonia sources and ammonium nitrate formation in the California South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Holloway, J. S.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; McKeen, S. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2011-12-01

    The South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California is designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as being in non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for both PM2.5 and PM10. Formation of fine aerosol nitrates (e.g., ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)) from gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3) accounts for a significant fraction of the PM2.5 mass. Quantifying the sources of NH3 in the SoCAB is important for developing aerosol control strategies. Fast-time resolution observations of NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+), and carbon monoxide (CO) made aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the CalNex 2010 campaign are used to quantify and compare the major NH3 sources to the SoCAB atmosphere: automobiles and dairy farms. From the automobile NH3:CO emission ratio inferred from the WP-3D observations and CO inventory data the NH3 automobile emissions in the SoCAB are estimated at 38 ± 15 metric tons day-1. Atmospheric mass fluxes are calculated for observed NH3 plumes from dairy farms to estimate the NH3 dairy farm emissions at 27 ± 14 to 120 ± 60 metric tons day-1. Comparison with two emission inventories show good agreement for the automobile NH3:CO emission ratio, however, both inventories under predict NH3 emissions from the dairy farms. The observations suggest that automobiles and dairy farms contributed similar amounts of NH3 to the SoCAB in May 2010. However, observed particle mass was greater downwind from dairy farms, where high NH3 mixing ratios from more concentrated sources shift the NH4NO3 equilibrium toward favorable thermodynamic conditions for the condensation of NH4NO3 onto particles.

  14. Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater.

  15. Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a partial nitrification sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high strength ammonia wastewater and its greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Zhang, Keyi; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Wang, Siyu; Li, Jibin; Han, Fei; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2017-04-01

    In present study, the feasibility of partial nitrification (PN) process achievement and its greenhouse gas emission were evaluated in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR). After 90days' operation, the average effluent NH4(+)-N removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of PN-SBBR were high of 98.2% and 87.6%, respectively. Both polysaccharide and protein contents were reduced in loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) during the achievement of PN-biofilm. Excitation-emission matrix spectra implied that aromatic protein-like, tryptophan protein-like and humic acid-like substances were the main compositions of both kinds of EPS in seed sludge and PN-biofilm. According to typical cycle, the emission rate of CO2 had a much higher value than that of N2O, and their total amounts per cycle were 67.7 and 16.5mg, respectively. Free ammonia (FA) played a significant role on the inhibition activity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and the occurrence of nitrite accumulation.

  16. Ammonia sources in the California South Coast Air Basin and their impact on ammonium nitrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during CalNex in May and June 2010 are used to quantify ammonia (NH3) emissions from automobiles and dairy facilities in the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and assess their impact on particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) formation. These airborne measurements in the SoCAB are used to estimate automobile NH3 emissions, 62 ± 24 metric tons day-1, and dairy facility NH3 emissions, 33 ± 16 to 176 ± 88 metric tons day-1. Emission inventories agree with the observed automobile NH3:CO emission ratio, but substantially underpredict dairy facility NH3 emissions. Conditions observed downwind of the dairy facilities were always thermodynamically favorable for NH4NO3 formation due to high NH3 mixing ratios from the concentrated sources. Although automobile emissions generated lower NH3 mixing ratios, they also can thermodynamically favor NH4NO3 formation. As an aerosol control strategy, addressing the dairy NH3 source would have the larger impact on reducing SoCAB NH4NO3 formation.

  17. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  18. An experimental investigation of the thermal/fluid properties of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) product slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Lagos, L.; Yang, G.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.W.; Hunt, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, a new immobilization technique for LLW, the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, has been developed. Instead of mixing the liquid waste form directly with the cement to make concrete blocks, the NAC process eliminates the nitrate from the LLW by converting it to ammonia gas. Aluminum particles are used as a reductant to complete this conversion. The final product of the NAC process is gibbsite, which can be further sintered to a ceramic waste form. Experimental tests are conducted to measure the apparent viscosity, the pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient of the pipe flow of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process product slurry. The tests indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The pressure drop in the pipe flow is a function of the Reynolds number and the slurry temperature. The results also indicate that at a low slurry temperature, the slurry is uniformly heated peripherally. At a high slurry temperature, however, the slurry may be thermally stratified. In a straight pipe, the Nusselt number is reduced as the slurry temperature increases.

  19. A simple automated method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formula and milk powder using sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Mariela; Mollo, Alicia; Knochen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient automated method using a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system, based on the Griess, reaction was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formulas and milk powder. The system enables to mix a measured amount of sample (previously constituted in the liquid form and deproteinized) with the chromogenic reagent to produce a colored substance whose absorbance was recorded. For nitrate determination, an on-line prereduction step was added by passing the sample through a Cd minicolumn. The system was controlled from a PC by means of a user-friendly program. Figures of merit include linearity (r(2) > 0.999 for both analytes), limits of detection (0.32 mg kg(-1) NO(3)-N, and 0.05 mg kg(-1) NO(2)-N), and precision (s(r)%) 0.8-3.0. Results were statistically in good agreement with those obtained with the reference ISO-IDF method. The sampling frequency was 30 hour(-1) (nitrate) and 80 hour(-1) (nitrite) when performed separately.

  20. Development of a new generation low cost treatment of ammonia for livestock effluents using anammox and nitritation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess ammonia in livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological nitrogen (N) removal methods is expensive. We developed a new generation, low cost treatment system suitable for high ammonia livestock effluents that is based on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anam...

  1. Intracellular Isotope Localization in Ammonia sp. (Foraminifera) of Oxygen-Depleted Environments: Results of Nitrate and Sulfate Labeling Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Nomaki, Hidetaka; Bernhard, Joan M.; Ishida, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Kitahashi, Tomo; Takahata, Naoto; Sano, Yuji; Toyofuku, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Some benthic foraminiferal species are reportedly capable of nitrate storage and denitrification, however, little is known about nitrate incorporation and subsequent utilization of nitrate within their cell. In this study, we investigated where and how much 15N or 34S were assimilated into foraminiferal cells or possible endobionts after incubation with isotopically labeled nitrate and sulfate in dysoxic or anoxic conditions. After 2 weeks of incubation, foraminiferal specimens were fixed and prepared for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and correlative nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. TEM observations revealed that there were characteristic ultrastructural features typically near the cell periphery in the youngest two or three chambers of the foraminifera exposed to anoxic conditions. These structures, which are electron dense and ~200–500 nm in diameter and co-occurred with possible endobionts, were labeled with 15N originated from 15N-labeled nitrate under anoxia and were labeled with both 15N and 34S under dysoxia. The labeling with 15N was more apparent in specimens from the dysoxic incubation, suggesting higher foraminiferal activity or increased availability of the label during exposure to oxygen depletion than to anoxia. Our results suggest that the electron dense bodies in Ammonia sp. play a significant role in nitrate incorporation and/or subsequent nitrogen assimilation during exposure to dysoxic to anoxic conditions. PMID:26925038

  2. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

  3. Nitrification gene ratio and free ammonia explain nitrite and nitrous oxide production in urea-amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial efforts have been made to characterize soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions following N fertilizer addition. While nitrite (NO2-) is a central regulator of N2O production, NO2- and N2O responses to nitrogen (N) fertilizer amendments still cannot be readily predicted. Our objective was to...

  4. The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Liu, Xiaojing; Ajmal Khan, M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-06-01

    Suaeda salsa, a leaf succulent shrub in the family Chenopodiaceae, is one of the most important halophytes in China. Suaeda salsa produces dimorphic seeds (soft brown seeds and hard black seeds). Seeds of S. salsa were collected from the coastal salt flats near Huanghua City, China. Experiments were conducted to determine the salinity-alleviating effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of S. salsa. Brown seeds had a higher germination rate than black seeds in all experiments. Black seeds were more sensitive to salt in the absence of light in comparison to brown seeds. Brown seeds absorbed water more quickly in comparison to black seeds and were found to be more tolerant of salt stress. Our results showed that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, the immediate precursor of ethylene), nitrite, GA(4) and BA improved seed germination in the presence of salt. However, nitrate, GA(1), GA(3) failed to alleviate salt stress. ABA inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Possible mechanisms involved in the alleviation of salt stress in S. salsa seeds and the ecological adaptation of the seeds to the environment are discussed.

  5. The effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels, and on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in kainic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Yasemin Delen; Yalcin, Ayfer; Sozmen, Eser Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) initiates neuronal injury and death by inducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide release from various regions of the brain. It was recently shown that melatonin has free radical-scavenging action and may protect against kainate-induced toxicity. In order to assess the possible supportive effect of melatonin treatment in KA-induced injury in the rat brain cortex, we determined malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of lipid peroxidation, and assessed the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of nitrite/nitrate 35 male rats were divided into five groups, each receiving a different intraperitoneal treatment: saline solution (0.2 ml), kainic acid (15 mg/kg), melatonin (20 mg/kg), KA then melatonin (each as above, 15 min apart), or melatonin then KA (each as above, 30 min apart). Administration of KA caused an about five-fold increase in the catalase activity and an increase in the SOD activity in the cortex relative to the activities for the controls. Treatment with melatonin 15 min after KA injection kept malondialdehyde levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at the normal levels, and led to an increase in the levels of nitrite/nitrate. Our data suggests that melatonin treatment following KA administration has a protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and thus supports the role of melatonin and oxidative stress in the regulation of antioxidative enzyme activity.

  6. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems.

  7. Survey of residual nitrite and nitrate in conventional and organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured meats available at retail in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nuñez De González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2012-04-18

    A survey of residual nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in cured meats available at retail was conducted to verify concentrations in conventional (C) products and establish a baseline for organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured (ONC) products. In this study, 470 cured meat products representing six major categories were taken from retail outlets in five major metropolitan cities across the United States. Random samples representing both C and ONC type products were analyzed for NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) content (ppm) using an ENO-20 high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a reverse phase column. Generally, there were no differences in NO(2)(-) concentrations between C and ONC meat categories, but a few ONC products surveyed in certain cities were lower in NO(3)(-) content. Pairwise comparisons between cities indicated that NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) contents of all C type products were not appreciably different, and the same was true for most ONC products. Numerical NO(2)(-) values were less variable than NO(3)(-) concentrations within each meat product category. NO(2)(-) concentrations were similar to those previously reported by Cassens ( Cassens , R. G. Residual nitrite in cured meat . Food Technol. 1997a , 51 , 53 - 55 ) in 1997. Residual NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) values in this study were numerically lower than those reported by NAS ( National Academy of Sciences . The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds ; National Academy Press : Washington, DC , 1981 ) in 1981. Data from this survey provide a benchmark of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations for ONC products available at retail.

  8. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  9. Effect of pH and HNO2 concentration on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a partial nitritation reactor.

    PubMed

    Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Aguado, D; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Serralta, J

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are very sensitive to environmental conditions and wastewater treatment plant operational parameters. One of the most important factors affecting their activity is pH. Its effect is associated with: NH3/NH4(+) and HNO2/NO2(-) chemical equilibriums and biological reaction rates. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the effect of pH and free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration on the activity of AOB present in a lab-scale partial nitritation reactor. For this purpose, two sets of batch experiments were carried out using biomass from this reactor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that Nitrosomona eutropha and Nitrosomona europaea species were dominant in the partial nitritation reactor (>94%). The experimental results showed that FNA inhibits the AOB activity. This inhibition was properly modelled by the non-competitive inhibition function and the half inhibition constant value was determined as 1.32 mg HNO2-N L(-1). The optimal pH for these AOB was found to be in the range 7.4-7.8. The pH inhibitory effect was stronger at high pH values than at low pH values. Therefore, an asymmetric inhibition function was proposed to represent the pH effect on these bacteria. A combination of two sigmoidal functions was able to reproduce the experimental results obtained.

  10. Nitrite consumption and associated isotope changes during a river flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Juliane; Sanders, Tina; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2016-10-01

    In oceans, estuaries, and rivers, nitrification is an important nitrate source, and stable isotopes of nitrate are often used to investigate recycling processes (e.g. remineralisation, nitrification) in the water column. Nitrification is a two-step process, where ammonia is oxidised via nitrite to nitrate. Nitrite usually does not accumulate in natural environments, which makes it difficult to study the single isotope effect of ammonia oxidation or nitrite oxidation in natural systems. However, during an exceptional flood in the Elbe River in June 2013, we found a unique co-occurrence of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate in the water column, returning towards normal summer conditions within 1 week. Over the course of the flood, we analysed the evolution of δ15N-NH4+ and δ15N-NO2- in the Elbe River. In concert with changes in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and δ15N SPM, as well as nitrate concentration, δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-, we calculated apparent isotope effects during net nitrite and nitrate consumption. During the flood event, > 97 % of total reactive nitrogen was nitrate, which was leached from the catchment area and appeared to be subject to assimilation. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations increased to 3.4 and 4.4 µmol L-1, respectively, likely due to remineralisation, nitrification, and denitrification in the water column. δ15N-NH4+ values increased up to 12 ‰, and δ15N-NO2- ranged from -8.0 to -14.2 ‰. Based on this, we calculated an apparent isotope effect 15ɛ of -10.0 ± 0.1 ‰ during net nitrite consumption, as well as an isotope effect 15ɛ of -4.0 ± 0.1 ‰ and 18ɛ of -5.3 ± 0.1 ‰ during net nitrate consumption. On the basis of the observed nitrite isotope changes, we evaluated different nitrite uptake processes in a simple box model. We found that a regime of combined riparian denitrification and 22 to 36 % nitrification fits best with measured data for the nitrite concentration decrease and isotope increase.

  11. Effects on inorganic nitrogen compounds release of contaminated sediment treatment with in situ calcium nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzhou; Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Huacai; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Notable releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia are often observed in contaminated sediment treatment works implementing in situ calcium nitrate injection. In order to provide extended information for making best decision of employing this in situ sediment remediation technology, in this study the releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the sediment after the calcium nitrate addition operation was investigated in column setups designed to simulate the scenarios of a stagnant water (e.g., a pound or small lake) and a tidal-influenced water (e.g., a river mouth), respectively. Comparison with published aquatic toxicity data or authorized criteria was conducted to assess if there is any toxic effect that might be induced. Along with the vigorous N2 emission due to the denitrification reactions which occurred in the treated sediment, external loaded nitrate, intermediately produced nitrite, and indigenous ammonia in the sediment showed being mobilized and released out. Their promoted release and fast buildup in the overlying water to an excessive level probably cause toxic effects to sensitive freshwater living species. Among them, the potential ecological risk induced by the promoted sediment ammonia release is the greatest, and cautions shall be raised for applying the calcium nitrate injection in ammonia-rich sediments. The caused impacts shall be less violent in a tidal-influenced water body, and comparatively, the continuous and fast accumulation of the released inorganic nitrogen compounds in a stagnant water body might impose severer influences to the ecosystem until being further transferred to less harmful forms.

  12. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

  13. Kinetic and analytical study of the photo-induced degradation of monuron by nitrates and nitrites under irradiation or in the dark.

    PubMed

    Boucheloukh, Hadjira; Sehili, Tahar; Kouachi, Nadia; Djebbar, Kamel

    2012-08-01

    The photo-induced transformation of monuron (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1 dimethylurea) was investigated in an aqueous solution containing nitrates and nitrites at 310 nm and 365 nm, respectively. In both NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-) conditions, the degradation of monuron followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The intermediate products were identified by GC-MS, and the nitration, hydroxylation and coupling reactions were determined. In addition, the oxidation of the N-terminus group, the substitution of chlorine by ˙OH and the nitration by ˙NO(2) radical onto the phenyl ring were observed. The photo-induced transformation of monuron was studied under variable conditions of pH, inducer concentration, substrate concentration, humic acids, oxygen content and salts used as hydroxyl radical scavengers. The photodegradation rates were strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The degradation of monuron was also studied in the dark and in the presence of NO(2)(-) as well as in an aqueous solution with the addition of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D.; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics. PMID:26161958

  15. Effects of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel on resistance exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Alleman, Rick J; Cantrell, Greg S; Farney, Tyler M; Schilling, Brian K

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide dietary supplements are popular within the sport community. Our recent work involving the oral intake of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate demonstrated an approximately 6.7% increase in circulating nitrate/nitrite. However, no measures of exercise performance were obtained. The present study used a topical form of this molecule to determine the impact on exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite. Fourteen resistance trained men (24 ± 1 years old) reported to the laboratory on 2 occasions to undergo exercise testing, which consisted of arm curl isometric force and muscular endurance (3 sets to fatigue using 80, 65, and 50% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: total of 9 sets). The gel (2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate; mixed in tea tree oil) or placebo (tea tree oil) was applied topically by the subjects for 7 days before each test day, with 7-10 days separating the randomly ordered conditions. Blood samples, arm circumference, and perceived "muscle pump" were taken before and immediately after exercise on both test days. The heart rate and perceived exertion were measured after each set. No statistically significant differences were noted between conditions for performance variables (p > 0.05). However, when using a load of 50% of 1RM, 6.2% more repetitions were performed when using the gel as compared with when using the placebo; 19.9% more repetitions were performed by 8 subjects noted to be "responders" to gel treatment. Blood lactate and muscle pump significantly increased with exercise (p < 0.0001) but were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Minimal change was noted in nitrate/nitrite, and the heart rate and perceived exertion were nearly identical between conditions (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel has a modest (6.2%), nonstatistically significant effect on exercise performance, in particular when using a load of 50% 1RM-with greater benefit noted in selected

  16. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1 μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics.

  17. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hungate, Bruce A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2011-08-01

    Many thermophiles catalyse free energy-yielding redox reactions involving nitrogenous compounds; however, little is known about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in source water and sediments of two ≈ 80°C springs in the US Great Basin. Ammonia oxidation and denitrification occurred mainly in sediments. Ammonia oxidation rates measured using (15)N-NO(3)(-) pool dilution ranged from 5.5 ± 0.8 to 8.6 ± 0.9 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were unaffected or only mildly stimulated by amendment with NH(4) Cl. Denitrification rates measured using acetylene block ranged from 15.8 ± 0.7 to 51 ± 12 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were stimulated by amendment with NO(3)(-) and complex organic compounds. The DNRA rate in one spring sediment measured using an (15)N-NO(3)(-) tracer was 315 ± 48 nmol N g(-1) h(-1). Both springs harboured distinct planktonic and sediment microbial communities. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that 'Ca. N. yellowstonii'amoA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 3.5-3.9 × 10(8) and 6.4-9.0 × 10(8) copies g(-1) sediment. Potential denitrifiers included members of the Aquificales and Thermales. Thermus spp. comprised <1% of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags in both sediments and qPCR for T. thermophilus narG revealed sediment populations of 1.3-1.7 × 10(6) copies g(-1) sediment. These data indicate a highly active nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) in these springs and suggest that ammonia oxidation may be a major source of energy fuelling primary production.

  18. Ammonia

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonia ; CASRN 7664 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  19. Growth of Campylobacter jejuni on nitrate and nitrite: electron transport to NapA and NrfA via NrfH and distinct roles for NrfA and the globin Cgb in protection against nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Marc S; Elvers, Karen T; Lee, Lucy; Jones, Michael A; Poole, Robert K; Park, Simon F; Kelly, David J

    2007-01-01

    Pathways of electron transport to periplasmic nitrate (NapA) and nitrite (NrfA) reductases have been investigated in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic food-borne pathogen. The nap operon is unusual in lacking napC (encoding a tetra-haem c-type cytochrome) and napF, but contains a novel gene of unknown function, napL. The iron-sulphur protein NapG has a major role in electron transfer to the NapAB complex, but we show that slow nitrate-dependent growth of a napG mutant can be sustained by electron transfer from NrfH, the electron donor to the nitrite reductase NrfA. A napL mutant possessed approximately 50% lower NapA activity than the wild type but showed normal growth with nitrate as the electron acceptor. NrfA was constitutive and was shown to play a role in protection against nitrosative stress in addition to the previously identified NO-inducible single domain globin, Cgb. However, nitrite also induced cgb expression in an NssR-dependent manner, suggesting that growth of C. jejuni with nitrite causes nitrosative stress. This was confirmed by lack of growth of cgb and nssR mutants, and slow growth of the nrfA mutant, in media containing nitrite. Thus, NrfA and Cgb together provide C. jejuni with constitutive and inducible components of a robust defence against nitrosative stress.

  20. Diversity and abundance of nitrate reductase genes (narG and napA), nitrite reductase genes (nirS and nrfA), and their transcripts in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cindy J; Nedwell, David B; Dong, Liang F; Osborn, A Mark

    2007-06-01

    Estuarine systems are the major conduits for the transfer of nitrate from agricultural and other terrestrial-anthropogenic sources into marine ecosystems. Within estuarine sediments some microbially driven processes (denitrification and anammox) result in the net removal of nitrogen from the environment, while others (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) do not. In this study, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the diversity, abundance, and activity of the nitrate-reducing communities in sediments from the hypernutrified Colne estuary, United Kingdom, via analysis of nitrate and nitrite reductase genes and transcripts. Sequence analysis of cloned PCR-amplified narG, napA, and nrfA gene sequences showed the indigenous nitrate-reducing communities to be both phylogenetically diverse and also divergent from previously characterized nitrate reduction sequences in soils and offshore marine sediments and from cultured nitrate reducers. In both the narG and nrfA libraries, the majority of clones (48% and 50%, respectively) were related to corresponding sequences from delta-proteobacteria. A suite of quantitative PCR primers and TaqMan probes was then developed to quantify phylotype-specific nitrate (narG and napA) and nitrite reductase (nirS and nrfA) gene and transcript numbers in sediments from three sites along the estuarine nitrate gradient. In general, both nitrate and nitrite reductase gene copy numbers were found to decline significantly (P < 0.05) from the estuary head towards the estuary mouth. The development and application, for the first time, of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays to quantify mRNA sequences in sediments revealed that transcript numbers for three of the five phylotypes quantified were greatest at the estuary head.

  1. Composite of Cu metal nanoparticles-multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide as a novel and high performance platform of the electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hasan; Hajian, Ali; Rezaei, Mosayeb; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2017-02-15

    In the present research, we aimed to fabricate a novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu metal nanoparticles on the multiwall carbon nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Cu/MWCNT/RGO) for individual and simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate ions. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposite on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was characterized using various methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimal experimental conditions, the modified GCE showed excellent catalytic activity toward the electro-reduction of nitrite and nitrate ions (pH=3.0) with a significant increase in cathodic peak currents in comparison with the unmodified GCE. By square wave voltammetry (SWV) the fabricated sensor demonstrated wide dynamic concentration ranges from 0.1 to 75μM with detection limits (3Sb/m) of 30nM and 20nM method for nitrite and nitrate ions, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions in the tap and mineral waters, sausages, salami, and cheese samples.

  2. The levels of glutathione and nitrite-nitrate and the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in ovariectomized rats treated by raloxifene against kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Guliz; Kanit, Lutfiye; Terek, Cosan M; Sozmen, Eser Y; Yalcin, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are compounds that activate the estrogen receptors with different estrogenic and antiestrogenic tissue-specific effects. The similar effects of SERMs on estrogen encourage the efforts in the research of neuroprotective effects of SERMs. In our study, the potential neuroprotective effects of raloxifene were investigated on the brain cortex of ovariectomized rats after kainic acid-induced oxidative stress. To show the neuroprotective effect of raloxifene against a neurodegenerative agent, kainic acid, expression of Bcl-2, total glutathione (GSH), and nitrite-nitrate levels were investigated in the rat brain cortex. Our results demostrate that raloxifene treatment against oxidative stress significantly increases the expression of Bcl-2 and the level of GSH in the brain cortex.

  3. The combined effect of dissolved oxygen and nitrite on N2O production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria in an enriched nitrifying sludge.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Ni, Bing-Jie; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-04-15

    Both nitrite [Formula: see text] and dissolved oxygen (DO) play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, few studies focused on the combined effect of them on N2O production by AOB as well as the corresponding mechanisms. In this study, N2O production by an enriched nitrifying sludge, consisting of both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), was investigated under various [Formula: see text] and DO concentrations. At each investigated DO level, both the biomass specific N2O production rate and the N2O emission factor (the ratio between N2O nitrogen emitted and the ammonium nitrogen converted) increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased from 3 mg N/L to 50 mg N/L. However, at each investigated [Formula: see text] level, the maximum biomass specific N2O production rate occurred at DO of 0.85 mg O2/L, while the N2O emission factor decreased as DO increased from 0.35 to 3.5 mg O2/L. The analysis of the process data using a mathematical N2O model incorporating both the AOB denitrification and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidation pathways indicated that the contribution of AOB denitrification pathway increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased, but decreased as DO concentration increased, accompanied by a corresponding change in the contribution of NH2OH oxidation pathway to N2O production. The AOB denitrification pathway was predominant in most cases, with the NH2OH oxidation pathway making a comparable contribution only at high DO level (e.g. 3.5 mg O2/L).

  4. Abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea under long-term maize cropping systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification involves the oxidation of ammonium and is an important component of the overall N cycle. Nitrification occurs in two steps; first by oxidizing ammonium to nitrite, and then to nitrate. The first step is often the rate limiting step. Until recently ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were though...

  5. Assessment of Nitrification in Distribution Systems of Waters with Elevated Ammonia Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to monitor ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in drinking water from the distribution systems of four drinking water utilities in Illinois. A monthly drinking water distribution system water quality monitoring protocol for each water utility in Illinois h...

  6. Boosting the Quantitative Inorganic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing to the Limit: The Case of Nitrite/Nitrate Detection.

    PubMed

    Correa-Duarte, Miguel A; Pazos Perez, Nicolas; Guerrini, Luca; Giannini, Vincenzo; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2015-03-05

    A high-performance ionic-sensing platform has been developed by an interdisciplinary approach, combining the classical colorimetric Griess reaction and new concepts of nanotechnology, such as plasmonic coupling of nanoparticles and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. This approach exploits the advantages of combined SERS/surface-enhanced resonant Raman Scattering (SERRS) by inducing the formation of homogeneous hot spots and a colored complex in resonance with the laser line, to yield detection limits for nitrite down to the subpicomolar level. The performance of this new method was compared with the classical Griess reaction and ionic chromatography showing detection limits about 6 and 3 orders of magnitude lower, respectively.

  7. The nitritation performance of biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater under high dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Zebing; Ma, Jing; Du, Jia; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nitritation performance in a biofilm reactor for treating domestic wastewater. The reactor was operated in continuous feed mode from phases 1 to 3. The dissolved oxygen (DO) was controlled at 3.5-7 mg/L throughout the experiment. The biofilm reactor showed excellent nitritation performance after the inoculation of nitrifying sludge, with the hydraulic retention time being reduced from 24 to 7 hr. Above 90% nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) was maintained in phase 1. Afterwards, nitratation occurred with the low NH4(+)-N concentration in the reactor. The improvement of NH4(+)-N concentration to 20-35 mg/L had a limited effect on the recovery of nitritation. However, nitritation recovered rapidly when sequencing batch feed mode was adopted in phase 4, with the effluent NH4(+)-N concentration above 7 mg/L. The improvement of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity and the combined inhibition effect of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) on the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were two key factors for the rapid recovery of nitritation. Sludge activity was obtained in batch tests. The results of batch tests had a good relationship with the long term operation performance of the biofilm reactor.

  8. Corn yield and nitrate loss in subsurface drainage affected by timing of anhydrous ammonia application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surprisingly little research has examined the corn yield, N use efficiency, and water quality implications of N fertilizer timing. We applied anhydrous ammonia either in the fall after harvest (F) at 196 kg ha-1, or in the spring before planting (PP) or as an early sidedress (SD) at rates of 168 kg ...

  9. Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in two Qinghai-Tibetan saline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Hou, Weiguo; Sun, Yongjuan; Lai, Zhongping; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-12-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are two groups of microorganisms involved in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In order to test whether the n-damo and anammox bacteria co-occur in natural saline environments, the DNA and cDNA samples obtained from the surficial sediments of two saline lakes (with salinity of 32 and 84 g/L, respectively) on the Tibetan Plateau were PCR-amplified with the use of anammox- and n-damo-specific primer sets, followed by clone library construction and phylogenetic analysis. DNA and cDNA-based clones affiliated with n-damo and anammox bacteria were successfully retrieved from the two samples, indicating that these two groups of bacteria can co-occur in natural saline environments with salinity as high as 84 g/L. Our finding has great implications for our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle in nature.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of ammonia, ammonium and nitrate on phosphatase activity and carbon fluxes from decomposing litter in peatland.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Moore, Lucy; Green, Samuel; Leith, Ian D; Sheppard, Lucy J

    2010-10-01

    Here we investigate the response of soils and litter to 5 years of experimental additions of ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and ammonia (NH3) to an ombrotrophic peatland. We test the importance of direct (via soil) and indirect (via litter) effects on phosphatase activity and efflux of CO2. We also determined how species representing different functional types responded to the nitrogen treatments. Our results demonstrate that additions of NO3, NH4 and NH3 all stimulated phosphatase activity but the effects were dependent on species of litter and mechanism (direct or indirect). Deposition of NH3 had no effect on efflux of CO2 from Calluna vulgaris litter, despite it showing signs of stress in the field, whereas both NO3 and NH4 reduced CO2 fluxes. Our results show that the collective impacts on peatlands of the three principal forms of nitrogen in atmospheric deposition are a result of differential effects and mechanisms on individual components.

  11. Convective heat transfer behavior of the product slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the heat transfer properties of the NAC product slurry. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The heat transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper.

  12. Physiological and biochemical responses resulting from nitrite accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1).

    PubMed

    Ezzine, Monia; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-10-01

    The sensitivity of hydroponically cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1) submitted to nitrite treatments (0.25-10mM KNO(2)) for 7d was studied. Increasing nitrite levels in the culture medium led to several disruptions of tomato plants, reflected by reductions of both dry matter per plant, chlorophyll concentrations and the appearance of chlorosis symptoms at the leaf surface. This behaviour was accompanied by stimulation of nitrite, nitrate and ammonia ion accumulation, mainly in roots and old leaves. Higher proteolytic and gaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC. 1.11.1.7) activities and malonyldialdehyde content were also noted. Protein content of the different plant organs was decreased by nitrite treatment. These physiological and biochemical parameters were chosen as they are stress indicators. Taken together, our data partly explain the harmful effects of nitrite ions, when excessive in the culture medium.

  13. Novel process of bio-chemical ammonia removal from air streams using a water reflux system and zeolite as filter media.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Sebastian; Charles, Wipa; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    A novel biofilter that removes ammonia from air streams and converts it to nitrogen gas has been developed and operated continuously for 300 days. The ammonia from the incoming up-flow air stream is first absorbed into water and the carrier material, zeolite. A continuous gravity reflux of condensed water from the exit of the biofilter provides moisture for nitrifying bacteria to develop and convert dissolved ammonia (ammonium) to nitrite/nitrate. The down-flow of the condensed water reflux washes down nitrite/nitrate preventing ammonium and nitrite/nitrate accumulation at the top region of the biofilter. The evaporation caused by the inflow air leads to the accumulation of nitrite to extremely high concentrations in the bottom of the biofilter. The high nitrite concentrations favour the spontaneous chemical oxidation of ammonium by nitrite to nitrogen (N2). Tests showed that this chemical reaction was catalysed by the zeolite filter medium and allowed it to take place at room temperature. This study shows that ammonia can be removed from air streams and converted to N2 in a fully aerated single step biofilter. The process also overcomes the problem of microorganism-inhibition and resulted in zero leachate production.

  14. GC-ECNICI-MS analysis of S-nitrosothiols and nitroprusside after treatment with aqueous sulphide (S(2-)) and derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide: Evidence of S-transnitrosylation and formation of nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Schmidt, Mario; Hanff, Erik; Böhmer, Anke

    2017-02-01

    A GC-MS method is reported for the quantitative analysis of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) derived from endogenous low- and high-molecular mass thiols (RSH) including hemoglobin, cysteine, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and the exogenous N-acetylcysteine ethyl ester. The method is based on the conversion of RSNO to nitrite by aqueous Na2S (S(2-)). (15)N-Labelled analogs (RS(15)NO) or (15)N-labelled nitrite and nitrate were used as internal standards. The nitrite ((14)NO2(-) and (15)NO2(-)) and nitrate (O(14)NO2(-) and O(15)NO2(-) anions were derivatised by pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br) in aqueous acetone and their PFB derivatives were separated by gas chromatography. After electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization, the anions were separated by mass spectrometry and detected by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 46 for (14)NO2(-), m/z 47 for (15)NO2(-), m/z 62 for O(14)NO2(-), and m/z 63 for O(15)NO2(-). The expected thionitrites ((-)S(14)NO and (-)S(15)NO) were not detected, suggesting that they are intermediates and rapidly exchange their S by O from water, presumably prior to PFB-Br derivatization. The reaction of S(2-) with RSNO and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) resulted in the formation of nitrite and nitrate as the major and minor reaction products, respectively. The novel Na2S procedure was compared with established procedures based on the use of aqueous HgCl2 or cysteine/Cu(2+) reagents to convert the S-nitroso group to nitrite. Our results provide evidence for an equilibrium S-transnitrosylation reaction between S(2-) with RSNO in buffered solutions of neutral pH. Use of Na2S in molar excess over RSNO shifts this reaction to the right, thus allowing almost complete conversion of RSNO to nitrite and nitrate. The Na2S procedure should be useful for the quantitative determination of RSNO as nitrite and nitrate after PFB-Br derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The Na2S procedure may also contribute to explore the complex reactions of S(2-) with RSNO, SNP and

  15. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  16. A mixture of nitrite-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms affects the δ18O of dissolved nitrate during anaerobic microbial denitrification depending on the δ18O of ambient water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Einsiedl, Florian

    2013-10-01

    The stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O of nitrate are frequently used to determine sources of nitrate and to assess denitrification processes in the environment. Nitrate isotope ratios are thought to be conservative unless involved in (bio-) chemical conversion processes. Thus, stable isotopes are considered to be a reliable tool to determine sources of nitrate in aquatic habitats even after transport and dilution has occurred. Denitrification is known to shift both isotope ratios towards higher δ-values. A fixed ratio of 0.5 for Δδ18O/Δδ15N has been proposed and has been widely used to detect denitrification in terrestrial environments, predominantly in aquifers. However, it is observed in environmental and laboratory studies that this ratio actually varies between less than 0.5 and 1 for uncertain reasons with laboratory studies usually describing a ratio close to 1. Here we report results of anoxic incubation experiments with natural populations of nitrate-reducing microorganisms using sediments from three different environments. In our experiments we used water with a δ18O in excess of 500‰ and found a microbially mediated influence of the oxygen isotopic composition of ambient water on the isotopic composition of the residual dissolved nitrate. We found up to 5.7 ± 2.3% of the oxygen-atoms in the residual dissolved nitrate was exchanged by oxygen-atoms from ambient water within the limited timeframe of the experiments. The fastest incorporation of oxygen-atoms from water into dissolved nitrate correlated with the highest intermittent nitrite concentrations observed in our experiments. In a second series of batch experiments we also found that pure cultures of the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter vulgaris promoted the incorporation of oxygen atoms from ambient water into dissolved nitrate under anoxic conditions. Presumably this happens via a reoxidation of intermediary formed nitrite by the enzyme "nitrite oxidoreductase" (NXR) in concurrence

  17. Oxygen isotopes in nitrite: Analysis, calibration, and equilibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casciotti, K.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; McIlvin, M.R.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is a central intermediate in the nitrogen cycle and can persist in significant concentrations in ocean waters, sediment pore waters, and terrestrial groundwaters. To fully interpret the effect of microbial processes on nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), and nitrous oxide (N2O) cycling in these systems, the nitrite pool must be accessible to isotopic analysis. Furthermore, because nitrite interferes with most methods of nitrate isotopic analysis, accurate isotopic analysis of nitrite is essential for correct measurement of nitrate isotopes in a sample that contains nitrite. In this study, nitrite salts with varying oxygen isotopic compositions were prepared and calibrated and then used to test the denitrifier method for nitrite oxygen isotopic analysis. The oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrite reduction to N2O by Pseudomonas aureofaciens was lower than for nitrate conversion to N2O, while oxygen isotopic exchange between nitrite and water during the reaction was similar. These results enable the extension of the denitrifier method to oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite (in the absence of nitrate) and correction of nitrate isotopes for the presence of nitrite in "mixed" samples. We tested storage conditions for seawater and freshwater samples that contain nitrite and provide recommendations for accurate oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite by any method. Finally, we report preliminary results on the equilibrium isotope effect between nitrite and water, which can play an important role in determining the oxygen isotopic value of nitrite where equilibration with water is significant. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  18. Isotopic analysis of N and O in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is an important intermediate species in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, but its role in natural aquatic systems is poorly understood. Isotopic data can be used to study the sources and transformations of NO 2- in the environment, but methods for independent isotopic analyses of NO2- in the presence of other N species are still new and evolving. This study demonstrates that isotopic analyses of N and O in NO2- can be done by treating whole freshwater or saltwater samples with the denitrifying bacterium Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, which selectively reduces NO2- to N 2O for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. When calibrated with solutions containing NO2- with known isotopic compositions determined independently, reproducible ??15N and ??18O values were obtained at both natural-abundance levels (??0.2-0.5??? for ??15N and ?? 0.4-1.0%o for ??18O) and moderately enriched 15N tracer levels (??20-50%o for ??15N near 5000???) for 5-20 nmol of NO2- (1-20 ??mol/L in 1-5 mL aliquots). This method is highly selective for NO2- and was used for mixed samples containing both NO2- and NO3- with little or no measurable cross-contamination. In addition, mixed samples that were analyzed with S. nitritireducens were treated subsequently with Pseudomonas aureofaciens to reduce the NO3- in the absence of NO 2-, providing isotopic analyses of NO2- and NO3- separately in the same aliquot. Sequential bacterial reduction methods like this one should be useful for a variety of isotopic studies aimed at understanding nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments. A test of these methods in an agricultural watershed in Indiana provides isotopic evidence for both nitrification and denitrification as sources of NO2- in a small stream.

  19. Enhanced activity and selectivity of carbon nanofiber supported Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment.

  20. Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface

  1. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, G.; Sievering, H.

    2001-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70ngNm-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200ngNm-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20ngNm-3. Large deposition velocities (>2cms-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70 ng N m-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200 ng N m-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to

  3. Overestimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in water samples due to the presence of nitroglycerin or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Lévesque, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Marois, André

    2012-08-24

    A large number of laboratory studies have reported nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to be among the most common degradation products of the high explosives nitroglycerin (NG) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Additionally, several field studies have reported the presence of RDX or NG along with NO(3)(-) in groundwater near production plants. Most studies, however, did not specify whether their NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) analyses were performed on samples which also contained RDX or NG. Inconsistent NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) results obtained in our laboratory suggested that the presence of RDX or NG in water samples caused an overestimation of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations when using two of the most common analytical methods, namely ionic chromatography and automated colorimetry. This could have important implications for mass balance calculations and for environmental decisions. This paper focused on quantifying the overestimation of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) due to the presence of RDX and NG, and finding a method for extracting RDX and NG from water samples without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Results showed that the overestimation can be predicted using regression coefficients; however the margin of error at the 95% confidence level was between 5 and 15%. Alternatively, a cartridge was found which retains both RDX and NG without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The cartridge can be used for concentrating the RDX or NG in dilute environmental samples, while removing RDX/NG from solution to allow the interference-free analysis of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Additionally, if recovery of RDX/NG from the cartridges is not desired, the cartridges could be used for the extraction of more than one sample, thus reducing the costs.

  4. Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghasemi, Asghar; Carlström, Mattias; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO3− and NO2− on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO3− and NO2− were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO3− and NO2− intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results: Dietary intake of NO3− had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO2− was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33–0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO2− was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24–0.89, p for trend = 0.07). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO2− might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:28009811

  5. Diagnostic significance of nitrates and nitrites and L-arginine, in development of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with end stage alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nickovic, Vanja; Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Goran; Pavlovic, Radmila; Stojanovic, Ivana; Katanic, Radoslav; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Djindjic, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) represents a complication of the end-stage liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze concentrations of nitrates and nitrites (NO2 + NO3) and L-arginine in patients with liver cirrhosis and HRS as a possible predictive marker for the development of HRS. The research was performed in a group of 28 patients with cirrhosis and HRS, a group of 22 patients suffering from cirrhosis without HRS and a control group comprised of 42 healthy voluntary blood donors. In patients with end-stage alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with HRS, the concentrations of NO2 + NO3 increased and correlated with the degree of cirrhosis progression, compared to patients without HRS and significantly higher compared to the control group. The level of NO2 + NO3 was in a positive correlation with the degree of liver damage de Ritis coefficient (HRS = 0.72; cirrhosis: = 0.55; control = -0.10). Significant positive correlation was found between NO2 + NO3 concentration and inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (HRSC = 0.75; cirrhosis = 0.70, control = -0.25). The correlation between NO2 + NO3 concentration and creatinine concentration in patients with HRS was significantly higher compared to patients without HRS (HRS = 0.82; cirrhosis = 0.32; control = -0.25). By using binary regression analysis, on the basis of clinical criteria of HRS diagnosis, the strongest independent positive predictor for HRS development was NO2 + NO3, associated with 45.02 times higher incidence of HRS, compared to arginine (12.7 times higher incidence), creatinine (13.1 times higher incidence), and AST/ALT ratio (10.55 higher incidence of HRS). Since the determination of NO2 + NO3 represents a reliable and easily applicable method, it may be used as an early predictive marker for HRS development.

  6. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  7. Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato.

    PubMed

    Becker, T W; Foyer, C; Caboche, M

    1992-08-01

    The phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The red-light response of the NR and NiR genes was reduced in etiolated aurea seedlings when compared to isogenic wild-type cotyledons. The relative levels of NR mRNA and NiR transcripts and their diurnal fluctuations were identical in mature white-light-grown leaves of the wild-type and of the aurea mutant. The transcript levels for cab and RbcS (genes for the chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein of PSII and the small subunit of the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, respectively) in aurea leaves grown in white light were indistinguishable from the respective transcript levels in the leaves of the wildtype grown under the same conditions. Despite a severe reduction in the chlorophyll content, the rate of net CO2 uptake by leaves of the aurea mutant was only slightly reduced when compared to the rate of net photosynthesis of wild-type leaves. This difference in the photosynthetic performances of wild-type and aurea mutant plants disappeared during aging of the plants. The increase in zeaxanthin and the concomitant decrease in violaxanthin in leaves of the aurea mutant compared with the same pigment levels in leaves of the wild-type indicate that the activity of the xanthophyll cycle is increased in aurea leaves as a consequence of the reduced CO2-fixation capacity of the mutant leaves.

  8. Impact of biodegradation of organic matters on ammonia oxidation in compost.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yang; De Guardia, Amaury; Ziebal, Christine; De Macedo, Flávia Junqueira; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Nitrification plays an important role in nitrogen turnover in composting process. It has been believed that nitrification occurs mainly during the maturation phase due to the elevated temperature during the active phase of composting. In this work, the intense biodegradation of organic matters is demonstrated to be another negative impact on the ammonia oxidation, the first step of nitrification. We investigated the ammonia oxidation in compost following organic matters addition at intermediate temperature. Different indicators of ammonia oxidation were studied, respectively. The accumulation of nitrite and nitrate was 10(2)-10(3) lower in composts with organic matters addition. The nitrous oxide emissions were absent or 40-fold inferior in these composts. The nitrogen mass balance indicated a less amount of oxidized ammonia after the addition. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria declined following the organic matters addition. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing archaea were supported by the organic matters. Possible mechanisms of this impact were also discussed.

  9. REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 “Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,” employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

  10. Nitrogen removal via ammonia volatilization in maturation ponds.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

    2007-01-01

    A simple apparatus was designed to collect ammonia gas coming out from waste stabilization ponds (WSP). The apparatus has a capture chamber and an absorption system, which were optimized under laboratory conditions prior to being used to assess ammonia volatilization rates in a pilot-scale maturation pond during summer 2005. Under laboratory conditions (water temperature = 17.1 degrees C and pH = 10.1), the average ammonia volatilization rate was 2,517 g NH3-N/ha d and the apparatus absorbed 79% of volatilized ammonia. On site, the mean ammonia volatilization rate was 15 g N/ha d, which corresponds to 3% of the total nitrogen removed (531 g N/ha d) in the maturation pond studied. A net nitrogen mass balance showed that ammonia volatilization was not the most important mechanism involved in either total nitrogen or ammonia removal. Nitrogen fractions (suspended organic nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate) from the M1 influent and effluent showed that ammonia is removed by biological (mainly algal) uptake and total nitrogen removal by sedimentation of dead algal biomass.

  11. Could nitrite/free nitrous acid favour GAOs over PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems?

    PubMed

    Pijuan, M; Ye, L; Yuan, Z

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) normally occurs together with nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In recent years, efforts have been devoted to remove nitrogen via the nitrite pathway (oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and reduction of nitrite to nitrogen gas without going through nitrate), reducing the requirement for carbon and oxygen in the plant. However nitrite and free nitrous acid (FNA), the protonated species of nitrite, have been shown to cause EBPR deterioration under certain concentrations. This study provides a direct comparison between the different levels of FNA inhibition in the aerobic processes of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) by reviewing the studies published in this area. Also, new data is presented assessing the FNA effect on the anaerobic metabolism of these two groups of bacteria. Overall, FNA has shown inhibitory effects on most of the processes involved in the metabolism of PAOs and GAOs. However, the inhibition-initiation levels are different between different processes and, even more importantly between the two groups. In general, PAOs appear to be more affected than GAOs at the same level of FNA, thus giving GAOs competitive advantage over PAOs in EBPR systems when nitrite is present.

  12. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  13. Microbial Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nitrate by Three Nitrate Respiring Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chovanec, Peter; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Zhang, Ning; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of toxic metals is the co-occurrence of nitrate, as it can inhibit metal transformation. Geobacter metallireducens, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and Sulfurospirillum barnesii are three soil bacteria that can reduce chromate [Cr(VI)] and nitrate, and may be beneficial for developing bioremediation strategies. All three organisms respire through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), employing different nitrate reductases but similar nitrite reductase (Nrf). G. metallireducens reduces nitrate to nitrite via the membrane bound nitrate reductase (Nar), while S. barnesii and D. desulfuricans strain 27774 have slightly different forms of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap). We investigated the effect of DNRA growth in the presence of Cr(VI) in these three organisms and the ability of each to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and found that each organisms responded differently. Growth of G. metallireducens on nitrate was completely inhibited by Cr(VI). Cultures of D. desulfuricans on nitrate media was initially delayed (48 h) in the presence of Cr(VI), but ultimately reached comparable cell yields to the non-treated control. This prolonged lag phase accompanied the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Viable G. metallireducens cells could reduce Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by D. desulfuricans during growth, was mediated by a filterable and heat stable extracellular metabolite. S. barnesii growth on nitrate was not affected by Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III). However, Cr(VI) reduction activity in S. barnesii, was detected in both the cell free spent medium and cells, indicating both extracellular and cell associated mechanisms. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that Cr(VI) affects DNRA in the three organisms differently, and that each have a unique mechanism for Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:23251135

  14. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-08-01

    Vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus have been identified as necessary ingredients for the manufacture of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products with quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation time (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of ham over a 90-d storage period, compare residual nitrate and nitrite content, and determine if differences exist in sensory properties of finished products. Four ham treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b*, and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) for combined TRTs and C revealed little change over time while the C had less (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation than TRTs 2 and 4 for combined days. No differences (P > 0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory panel intensity ratings for ham and vegetable aroma, and flavor, color, and firmness showed that a high concentration (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor. Treatment combinations with a low concentration (0.20%) of VJP were comparable to the C for all sensory attributes.

  15. Short-term effects of a high nitrate diet on nitrate metabolism in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-03-12

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake.

  16. Abiotic nitrogen fixation on terrestrial planets: reduction of NO to ammonia by FeS.

    PubMed

    Summers, David P; Basa, Ranor C B; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen and how such fixation can be a supply of prebiotic nitrogen is critical for understanding both the planetary evolution of, and the potential origin of life on, terrestrial planets. As nitrogen is a biochemically essential element, sources of biochemically accessible nitrogen, especially reduced nitrogen, are critical to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. Loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in loss of the ability to sustain liquid water on a planetary surface, which would impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. It is known that NO can be photochemically converted through a chain of reactions to form nitrate and nitrite, which can be subsequently reduced to ammonia. Here, we show that NO can also be directly reduced, by FeS, to ammonia. In addition to removing nitrogen from the atmosphere, this reaction is particularly important as a source of reduced nitrogen on an early terrestrial planet. By converting NO directly to ammonia in a single step, ammonia is formed with a higher product yield (~50%) than would be possible through the formation of nitrate/nitrite and subsequent conversion to ammonia. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface that converts NO to NO₂ and N₂O. The NO₂ is then converted to ammonia, while the N₂O is released back in the gas phase, which provides an abiotic source of nitrous oxide.

  17. The history of aerobic ammonia oxidizers: from the first discoveries to today.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria; Séneca, Joana; Magalhães, Catarina

    2014-07-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, has long been considered a central biological process in the global nitrogen cycle, with its first description dated 133 years ago. Until 2005, bacteria were considered the only organisms capable of nitrification. However, the recent discovery of a chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, changed our concept of the range of organisms involved in nitrification, highlighting the importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as potential players in global biogeochemical nitrogen transformations. The uniqueness of these archaea justified the creation of a novel archaeal phylum, Thaumarchaeota. These recent discoveries increased the global scientific interest within the microbial ecology society and have triggered an analysis of the importance of bacterial vs archaeal ammonia oxidation in a wide range of natural ecosystems. In this mini review we provide a chronological perspective of the current knowledge on the ammonia oxidation pathway of nitrification, based on the main physiological, ecological and genomic discoveries.

  18. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  19. Effects of nitrate adaptation by rumen inocula donors and substrate fiber proportion on in vitro nitrate disappearance, methanogenesis, and rumen fermentation acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Schaefer, D M; Zhao, G Q; Meng, Q X

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the main effects of dietary nitrate adaptation by cattle and alfalfa cell wall to starch ratio in in vitro substrates on nitrate disappearance and nitrite and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as well as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) accumulations. Rumen fluid from steers fed diets containing urea or nitrate was added into in vitro incubations containing sodium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and 20 cell wall : 80 starch or 80 cell wall : 20 starch as the carbohydrate source. The results showed that during 24 h incubation, rumen fluid inoculums from steers adapted to dietary nitrate resulted in more rapid nitrate disappearance by 6 h of incubation (P < 0.01), no significant effect on nitrite concentration and diminished CH4 accumulation (P < 0.05). Cell wall to starch ratio did not affect nitrate disappearance, CH4 accumulation and total VFA concentration. The higher cell wall ratio had the lower total gas production and H2 concentration (P < 0.05). Ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration increased because of adaptation of donors to nitrate feeding (P < 0.05). Nitrate adaptation did not alter total VFA concentration, but increased acetate, and decreased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01).

  20. A new type of environment-friendly material and its removal efficiency for nitrate contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Guo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, nitrate contaminated groundwater problem is a growing concern for scholars both at home and abroad. This study developed a new type of environment-friendly material which has the ability to remove nitrate from contaminated groundwater. The material has a certain degree of mechanical strength and uniform sphericity, with waste wood and straw as raw material, to achieve the purpose of using waste treat waste. In this study, the material and fine sand are mixed and filled in glass column, which is wrapped by black tape in order to avoid light, to test the removal ability toward nitrate nitrogen with influent nitrate nitrogen concentration of 50 mg N/L. The material surface is porous, which could facilitate the reaction between the active sites in the material and nitrate in polluted groundwater, and facilitate microbes implanting on the surface. After running for two months, the nitrate nitrogen removal rate is greater than 90%, and the nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen of effluent are lower than the EPA prescribed maximum limit concentration of nitrate in drinking water(N03--N<10mg N/L, NO2--N<1mg N/L), while the ammonia nitrogen in the effluent is less than 1 mg N/L, lower than the maximum limit concentration of ammonia nitrogen in drinking water made by WHO(NH4+-N<1.5mg N/L), indicating its effective removal rate for nitrate and the absence of serious nitrite and ammonia accumulation. The developed material will have a good prospect in removing nitrate from polluted groundwater.

  1. [Nitrate removal by a strain of nitrate-dependent Fe (II) -oxidizing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yu; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Qian; Ji, Bin; Chen, Dan; Sun, Yu-Chong; Tian, Jun

    2014-04-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterial strain, named W5, was isolated from the sediment of the East Lake in Wuhan. Strain W5 was studied for its characteristics of denitrification and nitrogen removal. According to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain W5 was identified as Microbacterium sp. The optimal denitrification performance can be obtained under conditions of NO3(-) -N 40 mg x L(-1), Fe2+ 500 mg x L(-1) and pH 6.8-7.0. After one week of cultivation under optimal conditions, nitrate removal percentage reached 87.0%. During the process of the culture, the nitrite nitrogen concentration was no more than 0.31 mg x L(-1) and there was no ammonia nitrogen production. It was indicated that the nitrate was mostly converted into N2. The consumption rate of Fe2+ was 95.2%.

  2. Use of a hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1996-10-01

    Processes are being evaluated to separate the high-level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contains species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid analyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate is demonstrated. A mixed Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} anolyte is shown to favor nitrate cell performance and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell.

  3. Leghemoglobin is nitrated in functional legume nodules in a tyrosine residue within the heme cavity by a nitrite/peroxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Martha; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Abián, Joaquín; Staudinger, Christiana; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael; Becana, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Protein tyrosine (Tyr) nitration is a post-translational modification yielding 3-nitrotyrosine (NO2 -Tyr). Formation of NO2 -Tyr is generally considered as a marker of nitro-oxidative stress and is involved in some human pathophysiological disorders, but has been poorly studied in plants. Leghemoglobin (Lb) is an abundant hemeprotein of legume nodules that plays an essential role as an O2 transporter. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for a targeted search and quantification of NO2 -Tyr in Lb. For all Lbs examined, Tyr30, located in the distal heme pocket, is the major target of nitration. Lower amounts were found for NO2 -Tyr25 and NO2 -Tyr133. Nitrated Lb and other as yet unidentified nitrated proteins were also detected in nodules of plants not receiving NO3- and were found to decrease during senescence. This demonstrates formation of nitric oxide (˙NO) and NO2- by alternative means to nitrate reductase, probably via a ˙NO synthase-like enzyme, and strongly suggests that nitrated proteins perform biological functions and are not merely metabolic byproducts. In vitro assays with purified Lb revealed that Tyr nitration requires NO2- + H2 O2 and that peroxynitrite is not an efficient inducer of nitration, probably because Lb isomerizes it to NO3-. Nitrated Lb is formed via oxoferryl Lb, which generates nitrogen dioxide and tyrosyl radicals. This mechanism is distinctly different from that involved in heme nitration. Formation of NO2 -Tyr in Lb is a consequence of active metabolism in functional nodules, where Lb may act as a sink of toxic peroxynitrite and may play a protective role in the symbiosis.

  4. Leghemoglobin is nitrated in functional legume nodules in a tyrosine residue within the heme cavity by a nitrite/peroxide-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Martha; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Pérez-Rontomé, Carmen; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Abián, Joaquín; Staudinger, Christiana; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael; Becana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein Tyr nitration is a post-translational modification yielding 3-nitrotyrosine (NO2-Tyr). Formation of NO2-Tyr is generally considered as a marker of nitroxidative stress and is involved in some human pathophysiological disorders, but it has been poorly studied in plants. Leghemoglobin (Lb) is an abundant hemeprotein of legume nodules that plays an essential role as O2 transporter. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for a targeted search and quantification of NO2-Tyr in Lbs. For all Lbs examined, Tyr30, located in the distal heme pocket, is the major target of nitration. Lower amounts were found for NO2-Tyr25 and NO2-Tyr133. Nitrated Lb and other as yet unidentified nitrated proteins were also detected in nodules of plants not receiving NO3− and were found to decrease during senescence. This demonstrates formation of nitric oxide (•NO) and NO2− by alternative means to nitrate reductase, probably via a NO synthase-like enzyme, and strongly suggests that nitrated proteins perform biological functions and are not merely metabolic byproducts. In vitro assays with purified Lbs revealed that Tyr nitration requires NO2− + H2O2 and that peroxynitrite is not an efficient inducer of nitration, possibly by isomerizing it to NO3−. Nitrated Lb is formed via oxoferryl Lb, which generates nitrogen dioxide and tyrosyl radicals. This mechanism is distinctly different from that involved in heme nitration. Formation of NO2-Tyr in Lbs is a consequence of active metabolism in functional nodules, where Lbs may act as a sink of toxic peroxynitrite and may play a protective role in the symbiosis. PMID:25603991

  5. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  6. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  7. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  8. Nitrate photochemistry in NaY zeolite: product formation and product stability under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-03-14

    In the atmosphere, mineral dust particles are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides (N2O5, HNO3, NO3, and NO2). Nitrate ions associated with mineral dust particles can undergo further reactions including those initiated by solar radiation. Although nitrate photochemistry in aqueous media is fairly well studied, much less is known about the photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on mineral dust particles. In this study, the photochemistry of nitrate from HNO3 adsorption in NaY zeolite under different environmental conditions has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. NaY zeolite is used as a model zeolite for studying reactions that can occur in confined space such as those found in porous materials including naturally occurring zeolites and clays. Upon nitrate photolysis under dry conditions (relative humidity, RH, < 1%), surface nitrite is formed as the major adsorbed product. Although nitrite has been proposed as a product in the photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on metal oxide particle surfaces, such as on alumina, it has not been previously detected. The stability of adsorbed nitrite in NaY is attributed to the confined three-dimensional structure of the porous zeolite, which contains a charge compensating cation that can stabilize the nitrite ion product. Besides adsorbed nitrite, small amounts of gas phase nitrogen-containing products are observed as well including NO2, NO, and N2O at long irradiation times. The amount of nitrite formed via nitrate photochemistry decreases with increasing relative humidity, whereas gas phase NO and N2O become the only detectable products. Gas-phase NO2 does not observe at RH > 1%. In the presence of gas phase ammonia, ammonium nitrate is formed in NaY zeolite. Photochemistry of ammonium nitrate yields gas phase N2O as the sole gas phase product. Evidence for an NH2 intermediate in the formation of N2O is identified with FTIR spectroscopy for HNO3 adsorption and

  9. Insights on Alterations to the Rumen Ecosystem by Nitrate and Nitrocompounds

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Robin C.; Pinchak, William E.; Nisbet, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate and certain short chain nitrocompounds and nitro-oxy compounds are being investigated as dietary supplements to reduce economic and environmental costs associated with ruminal methane emissions. Thermodynamically, nitrate is a preferred electron acceptor in the rumen that consumes electrons at the expense of methanogenesis during dissimilatory reduction to an intermediate, nitrite, which is primarily reduced to ammonia although small quantities of nitrous oxide may also be produced. Short chain nitrocompounds act as direct inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria although certain of these compounds may also consume electrons at the expense of methanogenesis and are effective inhibitors of important foodborne pathogens. Microbial and nutritional consequences of incorporating nitrate into ruminant diets typically results in increased acetate production. Unlike most other methane-inhibiting supplements, nitrate decreases or has no effect on propionate production. The type of nitrate salt added influences rates of nitrate reduction, rates of nitrite accumulation and efficacy of methane reduction, with sodium and potassium salts being more potent than calcium nitrate salts. Digestive consequences of adding nitrocompounds to ruminant diets are more variable and may in some cases increase propionate production. Concerns about the toxicity of nitrate's intermediate product, nitrite, to ruminants necessitate management, as animal poisoning may occur via methemoglobinemia. Certain of the naturally occurring nitrocompounds, such as 3-nitro-1-propionate or 3-nitro-1-propanol also cause poisoning but via inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. Typical risk management procedures to avoid nitrite toxicity involve gradually adapting the animals to higher concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, which could possibly be used with the nitrocompounds as well. A number of organisms responsible for nitrate metabolism in the rumen have been characterized. To date a single rumen bacterium

  10. Effects of Bacterial Community Members on the Proteome of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. Strain Is79

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Susanne; Greis, Kenneth D.; Haffey, Wendy D.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ticak, Tomislav; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2016-01-01

    nitrite. In their natural environment, they coexist and interact with nitrite oxidizers, which convert nitrite to nitrate, and with heterotrophic microorganisms. The presence of nitrite oxidizers and heterotrophic bacteria has a positive influence on the growth of the ammonia oxidizers. Here, we present a study investigating the effect of nitrite oxidizers and heterotrophic bacteria on the proteome of a selected ammonia oxidizer in a defined culture to elucidate how these two groups improve the performance of the ammonia oxidizer. The results show that the presence of a nitrite oxidizer and heterotrophic bacteria reduced the stress for the ammonia oxidizer and resulted in more efficient energy generation. This study contributes to our understanding of microbe-microbe interactions, in particular between ammonia oxidizers and their neighboring microbial community. PMID:27235442

  11. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( < 0.001) with feeding EN, and urinary urea concentration tended to be lower ( = 0.078) for EN versus Control. The hourly emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation.

  12. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.M. Jr.; Morris, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms in 24 h) to the 96-h LC50 has a median value of 2.0 and is fairly uniform across species; toxicity tests of differing duration can therefore be standardized to a common duration. In general, chronic effects are difficult to detect at concentrations below one-fifth of the 96-h LC50. Most fish concentrate nitrite in fresh water; chloride in the external environment offsets the toxicity of nitrite by competing with nitrite for uptake through the chloride cells of the gills. Bicarbonate also reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but it is less than 1% as effective as chloride. Calcium reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but much less than chloride; the effects of other metal cations have not been studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the medium has not been shown to have a discrete effect on the toxicity of nitrite except at extreme concentrations uncharacteristic of the environments in which fish ordinarily live. Nitrite toxicity is exacerbated by low oxygen concentrations because nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Very small fish seem less sensitive to nitrite than fish of intermediate or large size. Present evidence suggests that salmonids are among the fishes most sensitive to nitrite. The least-sensitive species tested thus far are the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; the largemouth bass does not concentrate nitrite.

  13. Hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E.

    1996-02-10

    Large quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes have been generated from nuclear materials production during the past fifty years. Processes are under evaluation to separate the high level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The schemes proposed will separate the high level radioactive components, cesium-137 and strontium-90, into a small volume for incorporation into a glass wasteform. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contain species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. Electrochemical destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before permanent storage has been proposed. Not only will the electrochemical processing destroy these species, the volume of the waste could also be reduced. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid anolyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate was demonstrated. A mixed Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} anolyte was shown to favor the nitrate cell performance, and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell.

  14. Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

  15. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat

    PubMed Central

    Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on the physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat and pork fat. Antioxidant interactions between acid whey and cranberry compounds were also explored. Methods Four formulations of fermented venison sausage were prepared: F1 (control), F2 (with 5% liquid acid whey), F3 (with 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries), and F4 (with 5% liquid acid whey and 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries). Each sample was analyzed for pH, water activity (aw), heme iron content, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value and conjugated dienes at the end of the manufacturing process and at 30 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Fatty acid composition was measured once at the end of the manufacturing process. Results At the end of ripening, all samples presented statistically different values for a pH range of 4.47 to pH 4.59. The sum of the unsaturated fatty acids was higher, while the conjugated diene and the TBARS values were lower in sausages with freeze-dried cranberries as compared to the control sausage. The highest content of heme iron (21.52 mg/kg) at day 90 was found in the sausage formulation with the addition of freeze-dried cranberries, which suggests that the addition of cranberries stabilized the porphyrin ring of the heme molecule during storage and thereby reduced the release of iron. The use of liquid acid whey in combination with cranberries appears to not be justified in view of the oxidative stability of the obtained products. Conclusion The results suggest that the application of freeze-dried cranberries can lower the intensity of oxidative changes during the storage of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat. PMID:27165018

  16. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in horizontal flow biofilm reactors treating ammonia-contaminated air at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Seán; Clifford, Eoghan; Kennelly, Colm; Collins, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of novel, Horizontal Flow Biofilm Reactor (HFBR) technology for the treatment of ammonia (NH3)-contaminated airstreams. Three laboratory-scale HFBRs were used for remediation of an NH3-containing airstream at 10 °C during a 90-d trial to test the efficacy of low-temperature treatment. Average ammonia removal efficiencies of 99.7 % were achieved at maximum loading rates of 4.8 g NH3 m(3) h(-1). Biological nitrification of ammonia to nitrite (NO2 (-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) was mediated by nitrifying bacterial and archaeal biofilm populations. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) vertically at each of seven sampling zones along the vertical HFBRs. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira, were the two most dominant bacterial genera detected in the HFBRs, while an uncultured archaeal clone dominated the AOA community. The bacterial community composition across the three HFBRs was highly conserved, although variations occurred between HFBR zones and were driven by physicochemical variables. The study demonstrates the feasibility of HFBRs for the treatment of ammonia-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures; identifies key nitrifying microorganisms driving the removal process; and provides insights for process optimisation and control. The findings are significant for industrial applications of gas oxidation technology in temperate climates.

  17. Influence of Nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this laboratory study is to determine the influence of nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) barrier longevity. There is a wide spread groundwater plume of 60 mg/L nitrate upgradient of the ISRM barrier with lower nitrate concentrations downgradient, suggestive of nitrate reduction occurring. Batch and 1-D column experiments showed that nitrate is being slowly reduced to nitrite and ammonia. These nitrate reduction reactions are predominantly abiotic, as experiments with and without bactericides present showed no difference in nitrate degradation rates. Nitrogen species transformation rates determined in experiments covered a range of ferrous iron/nitrate ratios such that the data can be used to predict rates in field scale conditions. Field scale reaction rate estimates for 100% reduced sediment (16 C) are: (a) nitrate degradation = 202 {+-} 50 h (half-life), (b) nitrite production = 850 {+-} 300 h, and (c) ammonia production = 650 {+-} 300 h. Calculation of the influence of nitrate reduction on the 100D Area reductive capacity requires consideration of mass balance and reaction rate effects. While dissolved oxygen and chromate reduction rates are rapid and essentially at equilibrium in the aquifer, nitrate transformation reactions are slow (100s of hours). In the limited (20-40 day) residence time in the ISRM barrier, only a portion of the nitrate will be reduced, whereas dissolved oxygen and chromate are reduced to completion. Assuming a groundwater flow rate of 1 ft/day, it is estimated that the ISRM barrier reductive capacity is 160 pore volumes (with no nitrate), and 85 pore volumes if 60 mg/L nitrate is present (i.e., a 47% decrease in the ISRM barrier longevity). Zones with more rapid groundwater flow will be less influenced by nitrate reduction. For example, a zone with a groundwater flow rate of 3 ft/day and 60 mg/L nitrate will have a reductive capacity of 130 pore volumes. Finally, long-term column experiments

  18. The impact of influent total ammonium nitrogen concentration on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria inhibition in moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Vojtech; Catrysse, Michael; Stryjova, Hana; Jonatova, Ivana; Volcke, Eveline I P; Svehla, Pavel; Bartacek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The application of nitrification-denitrification over nitrite (nitritation-denitritation) with municipal (i.e. diluted and cold (or low-temperature)) wastewater can substantially improve the energy balance of municipal wastewater treatment plants. For the accumulation of nitrite, it is crucial to inhibit nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) with simultaneous proliferation of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The present study describes the effect of the influent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration on AOB and NOB activity in two moving bed biofilm reactors operated as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at 15 °C (SBR I) and 21 °C (SBR II). The reactors were fed with diluted reject water containing 600, 300, 150 and 75 mg TAN L(-1). The only factor limiting NOB activity in these reactors was the high concentrations of free ammonia and/or free nitrous acid (FNA) during the SBR cycles. Nitrite accumulation was observed with influents containing 600, 300 and 150 mg TAN L(-1) in SBR I and 600 and 300 in SBR II. Once nitrate production established in the reactors, the increase of influent TAN concentration up to the original 600 mg TAN L(-1) did not limit NOB activity. This was due to the massive development of NOB clusters throughout the biofilm that were able to cope with faster formation of FNA. The results of the fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis preliminarily showed the stratification of bacteria in the biofilm.

  19. Achievement of high nitrite accumulation via endogenous partial denitrification (EPD).

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiantao; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Bo; Wang, Shuying

    2017-01-01

    This study proposed a novel strategy for achievement of partial denitrification driven by endogenous carbon sources in an anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic activated sludge system. Results showed that in the steady-stage, the nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio (NTR) was kept at around 87% without nitrate in the effluent. During the anaerobic period, exogenous carbon sources was completely taken up, accompanied by the consumption of glycogen and production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). During the anoxic period, nitrate was reduced to nitrite by using PHAs as carbon sources, followed by the replenishment of glycogen. Thus, the phenotype of denitrifying GAOs was clearly observed and endogenous partial denitrification (EPD) occurred. Furthermore, results showed the nitrate reduction was prior to the nitrite reduction in the presence of nitrate, which led to the high nitrite accumulation.

  20. A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper-nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y M; Solomon, Edward I; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2009-11-01

    Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)-(*NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO(-))-Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO(2) (-)) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O(2). In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper-nitrosyl and copper-peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data.

  1. Speciation of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite using kiloelectronvolt energy atomic and polyatomic and megaelectronvolt energy atomic projectiles with secondary ion mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Van Stipdonk MJ; Justes; Force; Schweikert

    2000-06-01

    The negative-ion mass spectra produced by kiloelectronvolt energy (CsI)nCs+ (n = 0-2) and megaelectronvolt energy 252Cf fission fragment projectile impacts on NaNO3 and NaNO2 were collected and compared. The mass spectra generated by impacts of the kiloelectronvolt polyatomic primary ions on NaNO3 were markedly different from those derived from the fission fragment impacts, featuring higher relative intensities of nitrate (NO3-) specific secondary ions (those that reflect the sample stoichiometry). The most prominent secondary ion (SI) peaks produced from NaNO3 by the kiloelectronvolt energy projectiles were NO3- and Na(NO3)2-, both of which relate directly back to the chemical composition of the staring material. Likewise, the most prominent peaks produced by the kiloelectronvolt energy polyatomic projectile impacts on NaNO2 were NO2- and Na(NO2)2-. The fission fragment projectiles produced SI spectra from NaNO3 that were dominated by signals characteristic more of NaNO2, indicating that the megaelectronvolt energy ions induce considerable degradation of the nitrate solid. In addition, the fission fragment projectile produced relative negative SI intensity distributions that are remarkably similar to those reported in earlier studies of the use of laser desorption to produce SI signals from NaNO3. Of the projectiles examined in this study, the 20 keV (CsI)Cs+ projectile generated negative-ion mass spectra that best differentiated NaNO3 and NaNO2, primarily by producing a base peak in the NaNO3 spectrum that was unambiguously representative of the original sample stoichiometry.

  2. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  3. Nitrite reduction mechanism on a Pd surface.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-11-04

    Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2-) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3- is decomposed into NO2- on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2- reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ∼100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2- is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2- in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2- in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2- reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2- concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively).

  4. Competition for Ammonia Influences the Structure of Chemotrophic Communities in Geothermal Springs

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R.; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R.; Peters, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii” and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable

  5. Measurement of nitrite in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Mitschke, Anja; Beckmann, Bibiana; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is enzymatically produced from L-arginine and has a variety of biological functions. Autoxidation of NO in aqueous media yields nitrite (O = N-O(-)). NO and nitrite are oxidized in erythrocytes by oxyhemoglobin to nitrate (NO(3)(-)). Nitrate reductases from bacteria reduce nitrate to nitrite. Nitrite and nitrate are ubiquitous in nature, they are present throughout the body and they are excreted in the urine. Nitrite in urine has been used for several decades as an indicator and measure of bacteriuria. Since the identification of nitrite as a metabolite of NO, circulating nitrite is also used as an indicator of NO synthesis and is considered an NO storage form. In contrast to plasma nitrite, the significance of nitrite in the urine beyond bacteriuria is poorly investigated and understood. This chapter describes a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) protocol for the quantitative determination of nitrite in urine of humans. Although the method is useful for detection and quantification of bacteriuria, the procedures described herein are optimum for urinary nitrite in conditions other than urinary tract infection. The method uses [(15)N]nitrite as internal standard and pentafluorobenzyl bromide as the derivatization agent. Derivatization is -performed on 100-μL aliquots and quantification of toluene extracts by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 46 for urinary nitrite and m/z 47 for the internal standard in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode.

  6. Implications of Limited Thermophilicity of Nitrite Reduction for Control of Sulfide Production in Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Fida, Tekle Tafese; Chen, Chuan; Okpala, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrate reduction to nitrite in oil fields appears to be more thermophilic than the subsequent reduction of nitrite. Concentrated microbial consortia from oil fields reduced both nitrate and nitrite at 40 and 45°C but only nitrate at and above 50°C. The abundance of the nirS gene correlated with mesophilic nitrite reduction activity. Thauera and Pseudomonas were the dominant mesophilic nitrate-reducing bacteria (mNRB), whereas Petrobacter and Geobacillus were the dominant thermophilic NRB (tNRB) in these consortia. The mNRB Thauera sp. strain TK001, isolated in this study, reduced nitrate and nitrite at 40 and 45°C but not at 50°C, whereas the tNRB Petrobacter sp. strain TK002 and Geobacillus sp. strain TK003 reduced nitrate to nitrite but did not reduce nitrite further from 50 to 70°C. Testing of 12 deposited pure cultures of tNRB with 4 electron donors indicated reduction of nitrate in 40 of 48 and reduction of nitrite in only 9 of 48 incubations. Nitrate is injected into high-temperature oil fields to prevent sulfide formation (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which are strongly inhibited by nitrite. Injection of cold seawater to produce oil creates mesothermic zones. Our results suggest that preventing the temperature of these zones from dropping below 50°C will limit the reduction of nitrite, allowing more effective souring control. IMPORTANCE Nitrite can accumulate at temperatures of 50 to 70°C, because nitrate reduction extends to higher temperatures than the subsequent reduction of nitrite. This is important for understanding the fundamentals of thermophilicity and for the control of souring in oil fields catalyzed by SRB, which are strongly inhibited by nitrite. PMID:27208132

  7. Nitrite Reduces Cytoplasmic Acidosis under Anoxia1

    PubMed Central

    Libourel, I.G.L.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Fricker, M.D.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    The ameliorating effect of nitrate on the acidification of the cytoplasm during short-term anoxia was investigated in maize (Zea mays) root segments. Seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of nitrate, and changes in the cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH in response to the imposition of anoxia were measured by in vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Soluble ions and metabolites released to the suspending medium by the anoxic root segments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and volatile metabolites were measured by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The beneficial effect of nitrate on cytoplasmic pH regulation under anoxia occurred despite limited metabolism of nitrate under anoxia, and modest effects on the ions and metabolites, including fermentation end products, released from the anoxic root segments. Interestingly, exposing roots grown and treated in the absence of nitrate to micromolar levels of nitrite during anoxia had a beneficial effect on the cytoplasmic pH that was comparable to the effect observed for roots grown and treated in the presence of nitrate. It is argued that nitrate itself is not directly responsible for improved pH regulation under anoxia, contrary to the usual assumption, and that nitrite rather than nitrate should be the focus for further work on the beneficial effect of nitrate on flooding tolerance. PMID:17071644

  8. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs

  9. Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system.

  10. Method for the fast determination of bromate, nitrate and nitrite by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and their monitoring in Saudi Arabian drinking water with chemometric data treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Busquets, Rosa; Naushad, Mu

    2016-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive and precise method for the determination of bromate (BrO3(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in drinking water was developed with Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS). The elution of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) was attained in less than two minutes in a reverse phase column. Quality parameters of the method were established; run-to-run and day-to-day precisions were <3% when analysing standards at 10 µg L(-1). The limit of detection was 0.04 µg NO2(-) L(-1) and 0.03 µg L(-1) for both NO3(-)and BrO3(-). The developed UPLC-ESI/MS method was used to quantify these anions in metropolitan water from Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Dammam and Riyadh areas) and commercial bottled water (from well or unknown source) after mere filtration steps. The quantified levels of NO3(-) were not found to pose a risk. In contrast, BrO3(-) was found above the maximum contaminant level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 25% and 33% of the bottled and metropolitan waters, respectively. NO2(-) was found at higher concentrations than the aforementioned limits in 70% and 92% of the bottled and metropolitan water samples, respectively. Therefore, remediation measures or improvements in the disinfection treatments are required. The concentrations of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) were mapped with Principal Component analysis (PCA), which differentiated metropolitan water from bottled water through the concentrations of BrO3(-) and NO3(-) mainly. Furthermore, it was possible to discriminate between well water; blend of well water and desalinated water; and desalinated water. The point or source (region) was found to not be distinctive.

  11. Abiotic Immobilization of Nitrate in Forest Soils: a Double Label Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, R. W.; Ollinger, S. V.; Hobbie, E. A.; Frey, S. D.; Dail, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Mechanisms of soil nitrogen (N) retention remain a key uncertainty in the terrestrial N cycle. During recent work at the Harvard Forest Chronic N Experiment, 15N added to soils as ammonia nitrate was observed to be rapidly immobilized after addition to soil on a time scale of minutes. In published results it was hypothesized that the rapid time of immobilization could be explained by abiotic immobilization of both ammonia and nitrate. The possibility of abiotic immobilization of nitrate has been studied since the first half of the 20th century, mainly using ideal compounds and soil sterilization techniques. However, critics of these studies have argued that while in vitro studies may indicate the possibility of an abiotic reaction, they cannot demonstrate its plausibility in soils. Soil sterilization methods have been criticized, because they are not effective enough to eliminate biotic interactions within an experimental treatment. Isotopic tracer studies have also been used but also have problems differentiating biotic and abiotic reactions. This study is an attempt to demonstrate abiotic immobilization of nitrate in soil samples through the use of double labeled nitrate (15N18O3- ). The resolution of this method depends on the biochemistry of microbial immobilization of nitrate; reduction of nitrate to nitrite, then ammonia and glutamine before incorporation into microbial biomass. Reduction of 15N18O3- before microbial utilization of the 15N implies that retention of both heavy isotopes in the soil can only occur through abiotic reaction of 15N18Ox species. In biotic immobilization the 18O is lost to the system in water. While nitrate has proven unreactive in soils, its reduced product, nitrite, is known to be readily reactive with various soil compounds. Nitrite can be introduced into the soil environment naturally by both 'leakiness' in nitrification and denitrification and may possibly be generated abiotically through methods such as the proposed Ferrous

  12. Electrochemical regeneration of zeolites and the removal of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaohui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Bai, Wei; Sugiura, Norio

    2009-09-30

    The electrochemical regeneration of zeolites was investigated with the objective of removing ammonia from water harmlessly and reusing the regeneration solution in an undivided electrochemical cell assembled with a Ti/IrO(2)-Pt anode and a Cu/Zn cathode. Zeolites could be completely regenerated through the electrochemical method in this study. With NaCl as a supporting electrolyte, the conversion rate of ammonia adsorbed by the zeolites into nitrogen gas was more that 96%, while the conversion rate to nitrate was less than 4%; no ammonia or nitrite was detected in the solution after electrolysis. The surface of the cathode appeared to be rougher after electrolysis than before. More nitrate was produced when the amount of NaCl was raised or when the current density was increased to the range of 20-60 mA/cm(2). The regeneration solution can be repeatedly reused over a long period of time with the proper amount of NaCl added to the solution. Even after the solution was reused for five times, it could still completely regenerate the zeolites, saving both water resources and the chemical reagent.

  13. Pepsin is nitrated in the rat stomach, acquiring antiulcerogenic activity: a novel interaction between dietary nitrate and gut proteins.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Lundberg, Jon O; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Laranjinha, João

    2013-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is reduced to nitrite and nitric oxide ((•)NO) in the gut, producing reactive species able to nitrate proteins and lipids. We investigated intragastric production of (•)NO and nitrating agents in vivo by examining selective nitration of pepsinogen and pepsin. We further addressed the functional impact of nitration on peptic activity by evaluating the progression of secretagogue-induced ulcers. Pepsinogen nitration was assessed in healthy and diclofenac-induced ulcerated rat stomachs. Both groups were fed nitrite or water by oral gavage. Protein nitration was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. In parallel experiments, pentagastrin was administered to rats and nitrite was then instilled intragastrically. (•)NO levels were measured before and after nitrite administration by chemiluminescence. Macroscopic damage was assessed and nitrated pepsin was examined in the margin of ulcers. Protein nitration was detected physiologically in the stomach of healthy animals. Nitrite had a dual effect on intragastric nitration: overall nitration was decreased under physiological conditions but enhanced by acute inflammation. Pepsin and pepsinogen were also nitrated via a nitrite-dependent pathway. Nitration of both pepsin and its zymogen led to decreased peptic activity in response to classical substrates (e.g., collagen). Under conditions of acute ulceration, nitrite-dependent pepsin nitration prevented the development of gastric ulcers. Dietary nitrite generates nitrating agents in the stomach in vivo, markedly decreasing peptic activity. Under inflammatory and ulcerogenic conditions pepsin nitration attenuates the progression of gastric ulceration. These results suggest that dietary nitrite-dependent nitration of pepsin may have a novel antiulcerogenic effect in vivo.

  14. Effect of inorganic carbon concentration on the stability and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria community structure of the CANON process in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yue; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Siyu; Zhang, Rongrong; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2017-03-30

    In the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be effectively suppressed or thoroughly washed out. In this study, the nitrate production and the structure of NOB community under different inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations were investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results showed that IC decrease correspondingly lowered the nitrogen removal, and simultaneously induced the nitrate production by NOB. DGGE results indicated the IC deficit led to the biodiversity increasing of both Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB. An equation fitted between the ratio of nitrate production to ammonia consumption ([Formula: see text]) and the ratio of influent IC to ammonia concentration ([Formula: see text]) indicated the influent [Formula: see text] should be controlled between 1.6 and 2.3 to ensure the stable operation of the CANON process. A small amount addition of organic material could be used as an effective strategy to suppress NOB when the [Formula: see text] ratio was not appropriate.

  15. Arsenic removal from geothermal waters with zero-valent iron--effect of temperature, phosphate and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Tyruvola, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Nikolaus P; Veranis, Nikolaus; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaso; Koulouridakis, Pavlos E

    2006-07-01

    Field column studies and laboratory batch experiments were conducted in order to assess the performance of zero-valent iron in removing arsenic from geothermal waters in agricultural regions where phosphates and nitrates were present. A field pilot study demonstrated that iron filings could remove arsenic, phosphate and nitrate from water. In addition, batch studies were performed to evaluate the effect of temperature, phosphate and nitrate on As(III) and As(V) removal rates. All batch experiments were conducted at three temperatures (20, 30 and 40 degrees C). Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were calculated for As(III), As(V), phosphate, nitrate and ammonia for all temperatures. As(V) exhibited greater removal rates than As(III). The presence of phosphate and nitrate decreased the rates of arsenic removal. The temperature of the water played a dominant role on the kinetics of arsenic, phosphate and nitrate removal. Nitrate reduction resulted in the formation of nitrite and ammonia. In addition, the activation energy, Eact, and the constant temperature coefficient, theta were determined for each removal process.

  16. [Identification of a high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterial strain TN-14 and its nitrogen removal capabilities].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xin; Yao, Li; Lu, Lei; Leng, Lu; Zhou, Ying-Qin; Guo, Jun-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    A new strain of high ammonia nitrogen tolerant and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium TN-14 was isolated from the environment. Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification, performences of heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic, the abilities of resistance to ammonia nitrogen as well as the decontamination abilities were studied, respectively. It was preliminary identified as Acinetobacter sp. according to its physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular identification results. In heterotrophic nitrification system, the ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen removal rate of the bacterial strain TN-14 could reach 97.13% and 93.53% within 24 h. In nitrates denitrification system, the nitrate concentration could decline from 94.24 mg · L(-1) to 39.32 mg · L(-1) within 24 h, where the removal rate was 58.28% and the denitrification rate was 2.28 mg · (L · h)(-1); In nitrite denitrification systems, the initial concentration of nitrite could be declined from 97.78 mg · L(-1) to 21.30 mg x L(-1), with a nitrite nitrogen removal rate of 78.22%, and a denitrification rate of 2.55 mg · (L· h)(-1). Meanwhile, strain TN-14 had the capability of flocculant production, and the flocculating rate could reach 94.74% when its fermentation liquid was used to treat 0.4% kaolin suspension. Strain TN-14 could grow at an ammonia nitrogen concentration as high as 1200 mg · L(-1). In the aspect of actual piggery wastewater treatment by strain TN-14, the removal rate of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN and TP cloud reached 85.30%, 65.72%, 64.86% and 79.41%, respectively. Strain TN-14 has a good application prospect in biological treatment of real high- ammonia wastewater.

  17. Biofiltration for removal of BOM and residual ammonia following control of bromate formation.

    PubMed

    Wert, Eric C; Neemann, Jeffrey J; Rexing, David J; Zegers, Ronald E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrification was developed within a biological filter to simultaneously remove biodegradable organic matter (BOM) and residual ammonia added to control bromate formation during the ozonation of drinking water. Testing was performed at pilot-scale using three filters containing sand and anthracite filter media. BOM formed during ozonation (e.g., assimilable organic carbon (396-572 microg/L), formaldehyde (11-20 microg/L), and oxalate (83-145 microg/L)) was up to 70% removed through biofiltration. Dechlorinated backwash water was required to develop the nitrifying bacteria needed to convert the residual ammonia (0.1-0.5 mg/L NH(3)-N) to nitrite and then to nitrate. Chlorinated backwash water resulted in biofiltration without nitrification. Deep-bed filtration (empty-bed contact time (EBCT) = 8.3 min) did not enhance the development of nitrification when compared with shallow-bed filtration (EBCT = 3.2 min). Variable filtration rates between 4.8 and 14.6 m/h (2 and 6 gpm/sf) had minimal impact on BOM removal. However, conversion of ammonia to nitrite was reduced by 60% when increasing the filtration rate from 4.8 to 14.6 m/h. The results provide drinking water utilities practicing ozonation with a cost-effective alternative to remove the residual ammonia added for bromate control.

  18. Ammonia inhibition of electricity generation in single-chambered microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Shin, Hang-Sik

    Batch experiments are conducted at various concentrations of initial total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) with acetate as an electron donor to examine the effects of free ammonia (NH 3) inhibition on electricity production in single-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This research demonstrates that initial TAN concentrations of over 500 mg N L -1 significantly inhibit electricity generation in MFCs. The maximum power density of 4240 mW m -3 at 500 mg N L -1 drastically decreases to 1700 mW m -3 as the initial TAN increases up to 4000 mg N L -1. Nitrite and nitrate analysis confirms that nitrification after complete acetate removal consumes some TAN. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are also inhibited by increasing the initial TAN concentrations. Another batch experiment verifies the strong inhibitory effect of TAN with only small differences between the half-maximum effective concentration (EC 50) for TAN (894 mg N L -1 equivalent to 10 mg N L -1 as NH 3) and optimum TAN conditions; it requires careful monitoring of the TAN for MFCs. In addition, abiotic control experiments reveal that granular activated carbon, which is used as an auxiliary anode material, adsorbs a significant amount of ammonia at each TAN concentration in batch MFCs.

  19. Interaction of organic carbon, reduced sulphur and nitrate in anaerobic baffled reactor for fresh leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhixuan; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of organic carbon, reduced sulphur and nitrate was examined using anaerobic baffled reactor for fresh leachate treatment by supplementing nitrate and/or sulphide to compartment 3. Nitrate was removed completely throughout the study mostly via denitrification (>80%) without nitrite accumulation. Besides carbon source, various reduced sulphur (e.g. sulphide, elemental sulphur and organic sulphur) could be involved in the nitrate reduction process via sulphur-based autotrophic denitrification when dissolved organic carbon/nitrate ratio decreased below 1.6. High sulphide concentration not only stimulated autotrophic denitrification, but it also inhibited heterotrophic denitrification, resulting in a shift (11-20%) from heterotrophic denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis further confirmed that sulphur-oxidizing nitrate-reducing bacteria were stimulated with increase in the proportion of bacterial population from 18.6% to 27.2% by high sulphide concentration, meanwhile, heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria were inhibited with 25.5% and 66.6% decrease in the bacterial population.

  20. Stable partial nitritation for low-strength wastewater at low temperature in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Isanta, Eduardo; Reino, Clara; Carrera, Julián; Pérez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Partial nitritation for a low-strength wastewater at low temperature was stably achieved in an aerobic granular reactor. A bench-scale granular sludge bioreactor was operated in continuous mode treating an influent of 70 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) to mimic pretreated municipal nitrogenous wastewater and the temperature was progressively decreased from 30 to 12.5 °C. A suitable effluent nitrite to ammonium concentrations ratio to a subsequent anammox reactor was maintained stable during 300 days at 12.5 °C. The average applied nitrogen loading rate at 12.5 °C was 0.7 ± 0.3 g N L(-1) d(-1), with an effluent nitrate concentration of only 2.5 ± 0.7 mg N-NO3(-) L(-1). The biomass fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the granular sludge decreased from 19% to only 1% in 6 months of reactor operation at 12.5 °C. Nitrobacter spp. where found as the dominant NOB population, whereas Nitrospira spp. were not detected. Simulations indicated that: (i) NOB would only be effectively repressed when their oxygen half-saturation coefficient was higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; and (ii) a lower specific growth rate of NOB was maintained at any point in the biofilm (even at 12.5 °C) due to the bulk ammonium concentration imposed through the control strategy.

  1. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    PubMed

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  2. Diversity, Physiology, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, has been suggested to have been a central part of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle since the oxygenation of Earth. The cultivation of several ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as the discovery that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo)-like gene sequences are nearly ubiquitously distributed in the environment and outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many habitats fundamentally revised our understanding of nitrification. Surprising insights into the physiological distinctiveness of AOA are mirrored by the recognition of the phylogenetic uniqueness of these microbes, which fall within a novel archaeal phylum now known as Thaumarchaeota. The relative importance of AOA in nitrification, compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is still under debate. This minireview provides a synopsis of our current knowledge of the diversity and physiology of AOA, the factors controlling their ecology, and their role in carbon cycling as well as their potential involvement in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It emphasizes the importance of activity-based analyses in AOA studies and formulates priorities for future research. PMID:22923400

  3. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Colin M; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Colin M.; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J. Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions. PMID:25506762

  5. Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in ammonia-exposed cultured astrocytes is coupled to increased arginine transport by upregulated y(+)LAT2 transporter.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Milewski, Krzysztof; Skowrońska, Marta; Gajos, Anna; Ziemińska, Elżbieta; Beręsewicz, Andrzej; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-12-01

    One of the aspects of ammonia toxicity to brain cells is increased production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases (NOSs). Previously we showed that ammonia increases arginine (Arg) uptake in cultured rat cortical astrocytes specifically via y(+)L amino acid transport system, by activation of its member, a heteromeric y(+)LAT2 transporter. Here, we tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of y(+)LAT2 underlies ammonia-dependent increase of NO production via inducible NOS (iNOS) induction, and protein nitration. Treatment of rat cortical astrocytes for 48 with 5 mM ammonium chloride ('ammonia') (i) increased the y(+)L-mediated Arg uptake, (ii) raised the expression of iNOS and endothelial NOS (eNOS), (iii) stimulated NO production, as manifested by increased nitrite+nitrate (Griess) and/or nitrite alone (chemiluminescence), and consequently, (iv) evoked nitration of tyrosine residues of proteins in astrocytes. Except for the increase of eNOS, all the above described effects of ammonia were abrogated by pre-treatment of astrocytes with either siRNA silencing of the Slc7a6 gene coding for y(+)LAT2 protein, or antibody to y(+)LAT2, indicating their strict coupling to y(+)LAT2 activity. Moreover, induction of y(+)LAT2 expression by ammonia was sensitive to Nf-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7085, linking y(+)LAT2 upregulation to the Nf-κB activation in this experimental setting as reported earlier and here confirmed. Importantly, ammonia did not affect y(+)LAT2 expression nor y(+)L-mediated Arg uptake activity in the cultured cerebellar neurons, suggesting astroglia-specificity of the above described mechanism. The described coupling of up-regulation of y(+)LAT2 transporter with iNOS in ammonia-exposed astrocytes may be considered as a mechanism to ensure NO supply for protein nitration. Ammonia (NH4(+)) increases the expression and activity of the L-arginine (Arg) transporter (Arg/neutral amino acids [NAA] exchanger) y(+)LAT2 in cultured rat cortical astrocytes by a mechanism

  6. A nitrite transporter associated with nitrite uptake by higher plant chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Miwa; Georgescu, Mihaela N; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Chloroplasts take up cytosolic nitrite during nitrate assimilation. In this study we identified a nitrite transporter located in the chloroplasts of higher plants. The transporter, CsNitr1-L, a member of the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (POT) family, was detected during light-induced chloroplast development in de-etiolating cucumber seedlings. We detected a CsNitr1-L-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in the chloroplasts of leaf cells and found that an immunoreactive 51 kDa protein was present in the isolated inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. CsNitr1-L has an isoform, CsNitr1-S, with an identical 484 amino acid core sequence; however, in CsNitr1-S the 120 amino acid N-terminal extension is missing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing CsNitr1-S absorbed nitrite from an acidic medium at a slower rate than mock-transformed control cells, and accumulated nitrite to only one-sixth the concentration of the control cells, suggesting that CsNitr1-S enhances the efflux of nitrite from the cell. Insertion of T-DNA in a single CsNitr1-L homolog (At1g68570) in Arabidopsis resulted in nitrite accumulation in leaves to more than five times the concentration found in the wild type. These results show that it is possible that both CsNitr1-L and CsNitr1-S encode efflux-type nitrite transporters, but with different subcellular localizations. CsNitr1-L may possibly load cytosolic nitrite into chloroplast stroma in the chloroplast envelope during nitrate assimilation. The presence of genes homologous to CsNitr1-L in the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice indicates that facilitated nitrite transport is of general physiological importance in plant nutrition.

  7. Electron transport to periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) of Wolinella succinogenes is independent of a NapC protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jörg; Sänger, Monica; Schuster, Stephan C; Gross, Roland

    2003-07-01

    The rumen bacterium Wolinella succinogenes grows by respiratory nitrate ammonification with formate as electron donor. Whereas the enzymology and coupling mechanism of nitrite respiration is well known, nitrate reduction to nitrite has not yet been examined. We report here that intact cells and cell fractions catalyse nitrate and chlorate reduction by reduced viologen dyes with high specific activities. A gene cluster encoding components of a putative periplasmic nitrate reductase system (napA, G, H, B, F, L, D) was sequenced. The napA gene was inactivated by inserting a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. The resulting mutant did not grow by nitrate respiration and did not reduce nitrate during growth by fumarate respiration, in contrast to the wild type. An antigen was detected in wild-type cells using an antiserum raised against the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) from Paracoccus pantotrophus. This antigen was absent in the W. succinogenes napA mutant. It is concluded that the periplasmic nitrate reductase NapA is the only respiratory nitrate reductase in W. succinogenes, although a second nitrate-reducing enzyme is apparently induced in the napA mutant. The nap cluster of W. succinogenes lacks a napC gene whose product is thought to function in quinol oxidation and electron transfer to NapA in other bacteria. The W. succinogenes genome encodes two members of the NapC/NirT family, NrfH and FccC. Characterization of corresponding deletion mutants indicates that neither of these two proteins is required for nitrate respiration. A mutant lacking the genes encoding respiratory nitrite reductase (nrfHA) had wild-type properties with respect to nitrate respiration. A model of the electron transport chain of nitrate respiration is proposed in which one or more of the napF, G, H and L gene products mediate electron transport from menaquinol to the periplasmic NapAB complex. Inspection of the W. succinogenes genome sequence suggests that ammonia formation from

  8. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... follows: (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked,...

  12. Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-08-29

    The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed.

  13. A convenient method for preparation of pure standards of peroxyacetyl nitrate for atmospheric analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Torben; Hansen, Anne Maria; Thomsen, Erling Lund

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is synthesized by nitration of peracetic acid (1.2 M), extracted by n- heptane, and purified with normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The purified PAN solution is free of acetyl nitrate. The content of PAN is determined by means of hydrolysis of PAN into nitrite, and determination by ion chromatography of nitrite and nitrate (formed by oxidation of nitrite). The purified PAN solution is used for the calibration of the gas Chromatograph with electron capture detection.

  14. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  15. The Reaction between Nitrite and Oxyhemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Keszler, Agnes; Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N.; Hogg, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite anion (NO–2) has recently received much attention as an endogenous nitric oxide source that has the potential to be supplemented for therapeutic benefit. One major mechanism of nitrite reduction is the direct reaction between this anion and the ferrous heme group of deoxygenated hemoglobin. However, the reaction of nitrite with oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) is well established and generates nitrate and methemoglobin (metHb). Several mechanisms have been proposed that involve the intermediacy of protein-free radicals, ferryl heme, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in an autocatalytic free radical chain reaction, which could potentially limit the usefulness of nitrite therapy. In this study we show that none of the previously published mechanisms is sufficient to fully explain the kinetics of the reaction of nitrite with oxyHb. Based on experimental data and kinetic simulation, we have modified previous models for this reaction mechanism and show that the new model proposed here is consistent with experimental data. The important feature of this model is that, whereas previously both H2O2 and NO2 were thought to be integral to both the initiation and propagation steps, H2O2 now only plays a role as an initiator species, and NO2 only plays a role as an autocatalytic propagatory species. The consequences of uncoupling the roles of H2O2 and NO2 in the reaction mechanism for the in vivo reactivity of nitrite are discussed. PMID:18203719

  16. Role of nitrogen oxides in the metabolism of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kampschreur, M J; Tan, N C G; Picioreanu, C; Jetten, M S M; Schmidt, I; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2006-02-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can use oxygen and nitrite as electron acceptors. Nitrite reduction by Nitrosomonas is observed under three conditions: (i) hydrogen-dependent denitrification, (ii) anoxic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and (iii) NO(x)-induced aerobic ammonia oxidation. NO(x) molecules play an important role in the conversion of ammonia and nitrite by AOB. Absence of nitric oxide (NO), which is generally detectable during ammonia oxidation, severely impairs ammonia oxidation by AOB. The lag phase of recovery of aerobic ammonia oxidation was significantly reduced by NO(2) addition. Acetylene inhibition tests showed that NO(2)-dependent and oxygen-dependent ammonia oxidation can be distinguished. Addition of NO(x) increased specific activity of ammonia oxidation, growth rate and denitrification capacity. Together, these findings resulted in a hypothetical model on the role of NO(x) in ammonia oxidation: the NO(x) cycle.

  17. Dietary Nitrite Restores NO Homeostasis and is Cardioprotective in eNOS Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Nathan S.; Calvert, John W.; Gundewar, Susheel; Lefer, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) is critical for vascular homeostasis. Nitrite and nitrate are formed endogenously by the step wise oxidation of NO and have for years been regarded as inactive degradation products. As a result both anions are routinely used as surrogate markers of NO production with nitrite as a more sensitive marker. However, both nitrite and nitrate are derived from dietary sources. We sought to determine how exogenous nitrite affects steady state concentrations of NO metabolites thought to originate from NOS derived NO as well as blood pressure and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) demonstrated decreased blood and tissue nitrite, nitrate and nitroso which were further reduced by low nitrite (NOx) diet for 1 week. Nitrite supplementation (50mg/L) in the drinking water for 1 week restored NO homeostasis in eNOS−/− mice and protected against I/R injury. Nitrite failed to alter heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure at the protective dose. These data demonstrate the significant influence of dietary nitrite intake on the maintenance of steady-state NO levels. Dietary nitrite and nitrate may serve as essentials nutrient for optimal cardiovascular health and may provide a novel prevention/treatment modality for disease associated with NO insufficiency. PMID:18501719

  18. Inorganic Nitrite Therapy: Historical perspective and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kevil, Christopher G.; Kolluru, Gopi K.; Pattillo, Christopher B.; Giordano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, investigators studying nitric oxide (NO) biology and metabolism have come to learn that the one electron oxidation product of NO, nitrite anion, serves as a unique player in modulating tissue NO bioavailability. Numerous studies have examined how this oxidized metabolite of NO can act as a salvage pathway for maintaining NO equivalents through multiple reduction mechanisms in permissive tissue environments. Moreover, it is now clear that nitrite anion production and distribution throughout the body can act in an endocrine manner to augment NO bioavailability that is important for physiological and pathological processes. These discoveries have led to renewed hope and efforts for an effective NO based therapeutic agent through the unique action of sodium nitrite as an NO pro-drug. More recent studies also indicate that sodium nitrate may also increase plasma nitrite levels via the enterosalivary circulatory system resulting in nitrate reduction to nitrite by microorganisms found within the oral cavity. In this review, we discuss the importance of nitrite anion in several disease models along with an appraisal of sodium nitrite therapy in the clinic, potential caveats of such clinical uses, and future possibilities of nitrite based therapies. PMID:21619929

  19. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

  20. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  1. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products.

  2. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  4. Influence of operating conditions on electrochemical reduction of nitrate in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Li, Miao; Zhang, Baogang; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The influences of current density, initial pH, cation and anion concentrations, and the coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- on the efficiency of electrochemical nitrate reduction by a copper cathode and Ti/IrO2 anode in an undivided cell were studied. In the presence of 5 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl), the nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased from 3.57 to 0.69 mM in 120 minutes, and no ammonia or nitrite byproducts were detected. The nitrate reduction rate increased as the current density increased. The electrochemical method performed well at an initial pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The rate of nitrate reduction increased as concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ increased. The anion of the supporting electrolyte decreased the rate of reduction in the order Cl- > HCO3(2-) = CO3(2-) > SO4(2-) at both 5 mM and 10 mM of anion. The coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions could inhibit nitrate reduction. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in polluted groundwater decreased from 2.80 to 0.31 mM after electrolysis for 120 minutes.

  5. Nitrate reduction in a simulated free-water surface wetland system.

    PubMed

    Misiti, Teresa M; Hajaya, Malek G; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2011-11-01

    The feasibility of using a constructed wetland for treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater resulting from the land application of biosolids was investigated for a site in the southeastern United States. Biosolids degradation led to the release of ammonia, which upon oxidation resulted in nitrate concentrations in the upper aquifer in the range of 65-400 mg N/L. A laboratory-scale system was constructed in support of a pilot-scale project to investigate the effect of temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrate and carbon loading on denitrification using soil and groundwater from the biosolids application site. The maximum specific reduction rates (MSRR), measured in batch assays conducted with an open to the atmosphere reactor at four initial nitrate concentrations from 70 to 400 mg N/L, showed that the nitrate reduction rate was not affected by the initial nitrate concentration. The MSRR values at 22 °C for nitrate and nitrite were 1.2 ± 0.2 and 0.7 ± 0.1 mg N/mg VSS(COD)-day, respectively. MSRR values were also measured at 5, 10, 15 and 22 °C and the temperature coefficient for nitrate reduction was estimated at 1.13. Based on the performance of laboratory-scale continuous-flow reactors and model simulations, wetland performance can be maintained at high nitrogen removal efficiency (>90%) with an HRT of 3 days or higher and at temperature values as low as 5 °C, as long as there is sufficient biodegradable carbon available to achieve complete denitrification. The results of this study show that based on the climate in the southeastern United States, a constructed wetland can be used for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater to low, acceptable nitrate levels.

  6. AMMONIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, EMISSIONS, INORGANIC PM 2.5, AND CLEAN AIR INTERSTATE RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has be...

  7. The presence of ammonium facilitates nitrite reduction under PHB driven simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, B M; Shephard, L R; Third, K A; Cord-Ruwisch, R

    2004-01-01

    For economic and efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment plants via simultaneous nitrification and denitrification the nitrification process should stop at the level of nitrite such that nitrite rather than nitrate becomes the substrate for denitrification. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the conditions that are necessary to improve nitrite reduction over nitrite oxidation. Laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with synthetic wastewater containing acetate as COD and ammonium as the nitrogen source. Computer controlled operation of the reactors allowed reproducible simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The oxygen supply was kept precisely at a low level of 0.5 mgL(-1) and bacterial PHB was the only electron donor available for denitrification. During SND little nitrite or nitrate accumulated (< 20% total N), indicating that the reducing processes were almost as fast as the production of nitrite and nitrate from nitrification. Nitrite spiking tests were performed to investigate the fate of nitrite under different oxidation (0.1-1.5 mgL(-1) of dissolved oxygen) and reduction conditions. High levels of reducing power were provided by allowing the cells to build up to 2.5 mM of PHB. Nitrite added was preferentially oxidised to nitrate rather than reduced even when dissolved oxygen was low and reducing power (PHB) was excessively high. However, the presence of ammonium enabled significant reduction of nitrite under low oxygen conditions. This is consistent with previous observations in SBR where aerobic nitrite and nitrate reduction occurred only as long as ammonium was present. As soon as ammonium was depleted, the rate of denitrification decreased significantly. The significance of the observed strongly stimulating effect of ammonium on nitrite reduction under SND conditions is discussed and potential consequences for SBR operation are suggested.

  8. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-06-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity.

  9. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  10. The anoxic plant mitochondrion as a nitrite: NO reductase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2011-07-01

    Under the conditions of oxygen deprivation, accumulating nitrite can be reduced in the mitochondrial electron transport chain forming free radical nitric oxide (NO). By reducing nitrite to NO, plant mitochondria preserve the capacity to oxidize external NADH and NADPH and retain a limited power for ATP synthesis complementing glycolytic ATP production. NO participates in O(2) balance in mitochondria by competitively inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase which can oxidize it to nitrite when oxygen concentration increases. Some of the NO escapes to the cytosol, where the efficient scavenging system involving non-symbiotic hemoglobin oxygenates NO to nitrate and supports continuous anaerobic turnover of nitrogen species.

  11. Kinetic Characterization of Nitrite Uptake and Reduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Francisco; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of nitrite uptake and reduction by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells growing phototrophically has been studied by means of progress curves and the Michaelis-Menten integrated equation. Both uptake and reduction processes exhibited hyperbolic saturation kinetics, the nitrite uptake system lacking a diffusion component. Nitrite uptake and reduction showed significant differences in Ks for nitrite at pH 7.5 (1.6 versus 20 micromolar, respectively), optimal pH, activation energy values, and sensitivity toward reagents of sulfhydryl groups. Ks values for nitrite uptake were halved in cells subjected to darkness or to nitrogen-starvation. Nitrate inhibited nitrite uptake by a partially competitive mechanism. The same inhibition pattern was found for nitrite uptake by C. reinhardtii mutant 305 cells incapable of nitrate assimilation. The results demonstrate that C. reinhardtii cells take up nitrite via a highly specific carrier, probably energy-dependent, kinetically responsive to environmental changes, distinguishable from the enzymic nitrite reduction and endowed with an active site for nitrite not usable for nitrate transport. PMID:16665164

  12. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate uptake has been studied in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. When these cells are incubated in the presence of nitrate, this ion is quickly taken up from the medium, and nitrite is excreted by the cells. Nitrite is excreted following classical saturation kinetics, its rate being independent of nitrate concentration in the incubation medium for nitrate concentration values higher than 3 micromolar. Nitrate uptake shows mixed-transfer kinetics, which can be attributed to the simultaneous contributions of mediated and diffusion transfer. Cycloheximide and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibit the carrier-mediated contribution to nitrate uptake, without affecting the diffusion component. When cells are preincubated with nitrate, the net nitrogen uptake is increased. PMID:16660652

  13. Cross effect of temperature, pH and free ammonia on autotrophic denitrification process with sulphide as electron donor.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Carmen; Mora, Mabel; Fernández, Isaac; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Méndez, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Autotrophic denitrification is a suitable technology to simultaneously remove oxidised nitrogen compounds and reduced sulphur compounds yielding nitrogen gas, sulphur and sulphate as the main products. In this work, several batch tests were conducted to investigate the cross effect of temperature, pH and free ammonia on the autotrophic denitrification. Denitrification efficiencies above 95% were achieved at 35°C and pH 7.5-8.0 with maximum specific autotrophic denitrifying activities up to 188mgN2g(-1)VSSd(-1). Free ammonia did not show any effect on denitrification at concentrations up to 53mg NH3-NL(-1). Different sulphide concentrations were also tested with stoichiometric nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Sulphide inhibited denitrification at concentrations higher than 200mgS(2-)L(-1). A 50% inhibition was also found at nitrite concentrations above 48mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The maximum specific activity decreased until a value of 25mgN2g(-1) VSSd(-1) at 232mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The Haldane model was used to describe denitrification inhibition caused by nitrite. Kinetic parameters determined from the fitting of experimental data were rmax=176mgN2g(-1)VSSd(-1), Ks=10.7mg NO2(-)-NL(-1) and Ki=34.7mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The obtained model allowed optimising an autotrophic denitrification process by avoiding situations of inhibition and thus obtaining higher denitrification efficiencies.

  14. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  15. Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and Regulatory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Simon, J; Rowley, G; Bedmar, E J; Richardson, D J; Gates, A J; Delgado, M J

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released. This aim is particularly important in the context of the ever expanding population and subsequent increased burden on the food chain. More than two-thirds of N2O emissions from soils can be attributed to bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes. In ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, N2O is formed through the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. In denitrifiers, nitrate is reduced to N2 via nitrite, NO and N2O production. In addition to denitrification, respiratory nitrate ammonification (also termed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) is another important nitrate-reducing mechanism in soil, responsible for the loss of nitrate and production of N2O from reduction of NO that is formed as a by-product of the reduction process. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the environmental, regulatory and biochemical control of N2O emissions by nitrate-reducing bacteria and point to new solutions for agricultural GHG mitigation.

  16. Nitrate as an oxidant in the cathode chamber of a microbial fuel cell for both power generation and nutrient removal purposes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-06-01

    Nitrate ions were used as the oxidant in the cathode chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity from organic compounds with simultaneous nitrate removal. The MFC using nitrate as oxidant could generate a voltage of 111 mV (1,000 Ω) with a plain carbon cathode. The maximum power density achieved was 7.2 mW m(-2) with a 470 Ω resistor. Nitrate was reduced from an initial concentration of 49 to 25 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) during 42-day operation. The daily removal rate was 0.57 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) day(-1) with a voltage generation of 96 mV. In the presence of Pt catalyst dispersed on cathode, the cell voltage was significantly increased up to 450 mV and the power density was 117.7 mW m(-2), which was 16 times higher than the value without Pt catalyst. Significant nitrate removal was also observed with a daily removal rate of 2 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) day(-1), which was 3.5 times higher compared with the operation without catalyst. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite and ammonia in the liquid phase at a ratio of 0.6% and 51.8% of the total nitrate amount. These results suggest that nitrate can be successfully used as an oxidant for power generation without aeration and also nitrate removal from water in MFC. However, control of the process would be needed to reduce nitrate to only nitrogen gas, and avoid further reduction to ammonia.

  17. [Utilization of nitrate by bacteroids and cytosol of nodules formed by Rhizobium leguminosarum].

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, M; Delgado, M J; Olivares, J; Bedmar, E J

    1989-06-01

    Nitrite production by nodules and roots of pea plants (Pisum sativum L., cultivar Alaska) inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 3855 has been studied. Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity of the bacteroidal and cytosolic fractions of the nodules were also determined, as well as the nitrite content of the nodules cytosol. Nitrite production by nodules and roots from plants treated with 5 mM KNO3 was higher than that of nodules and roots from plants not treated with nitrate, and regardless of the nitrate treatment, nitrite production increased with the incubation period. The presence of nitrate, propanol or both compounds in the incubation mixtures significantly increased the nitrite production by nodules and roots. Nitrite reductase activity was detected in fresh by isolated bacteroids of R. leguminosarum strain 3855, although the presence of nitrate reductase activity could not be detected both in bacteroids of nodules isolated from plants treated or not with 5 mM KNO3. After isolation, when bacteroids were incubated in a mixture with nitrate, nitrate reductase activity developed after incubation for 12 h. Consequently, there was an increase in nitrite reductase activity, which resulted in the disappearance of the nitrite previously accumulated in the incubation medium. Nitrate utilization by bacteroids was not detected until 5 h from the beginning of the incubation period. Since the presence of chloramphenicol or rifampicin in the incubation medium prevented the development of the nitrate reductase activity, such activity was induced in bacteroids. Nitrite content and nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of the cytosol from nodules of pea plants treated or not with 5 mM KNO3 varied with the buffer used for nodules homogenization. However, no nitrite was found when nodules were homogenized with ethanol, what indicates that nitrite accumulation in the cytosol occurs during the homogenization process of the

  18. Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  19. An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.

    2013-01-01

    Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Stability of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Aquarium Biofilters

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Laura A.; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D.; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4–5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ≥81–86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium

  1. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria dominating in lab-scale bioreactors with high ammonium bicarbonate loading.

    PubMed

    Vejmelkova, Dana; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Kovaleva, Olga L; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Kampschreur, Marlies J; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2012-01-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community (AOB) was investigated in two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors performing partial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite or nitrate at high (80 mM) to extremely high (428 mM) concentrations of ammonium bicarbonate. At all conditions, the dominant AOB was affiliated to the Nitrosomonas europaea lineage as was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Molecular analysis of the mixed populations, based on the 16S rRNA and cbbL genes, demonstrated the presence of two different phylotypes of Nitrosomonas, while microbiological analysis produced a single phylotype, represented by three different morphotypes. One of the most striking features of the AOB populations encountered in the bioreactors was the domination of highly aggregated obligate microaerophilic Nitrosomonas, with unusual cellular and colony morphology, commonly observed in nitrifying bioreactors but rarely investigated by cultural methods. The latter is probably not an adaptation to stressful conditions created by high ammonia or nitrite concentrations, but oxygen seems to be a stressful factor in these bioreactors.

  2. Synthesis and intracrystalline oxidation of nitrite-intercalated layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Nygil; Pradeep Kumar, G.; Rajamathi, Michael

    2009-03-15

    Nitrite-intercalated LDHs could be prepared by a two-stage process that involves coprecipitation in the presence of nitrite ions followed by stirring the product with excess of nitrite ions. The nitrite ion lies flat in these LDHs with its c{sub 2}-axis lying approximately perpendicular to the crystallographic c-axis. The interlayer nitrite ions in these LDHs could be quantitatively oxidized to nitrate ions using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. In the LDHs thus obtained the nitrate ion lies flat with its c{sub 3}-axis parallel to the crystallographic c-axis (D{sub 3h} symmetry) in the interlayer region resulting in lower basal spacing. - Graphical abstract: Nitrite-intercalated LDHs could be prepared by a two-stage process that involves coprecipitation in the presence of nitrite ions followed by stirring the product with excess of nitrite ions. The interlayer nitrite ions in these LDHs could be quantitatively oxidized to nitrate ions.

  3. Dietary nitrate and cardiovascular health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahluwalia, A.; Gladwin, M.T.; Harman, Jane L.; Ward, M.H.; Nolan, Bernard T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened this workshop to discuss the results of recent research on the effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite on the cardiovascular system, possible long term effects of these compounds in the diet and drinking water, and future research needs including population-wide effects examined through epidemiological studies.

  4. Electrochemical removal of nitrate using ZVI packed bed bipolar electrolytic cell.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joo-Young; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Joo-Yang

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates the performance of the zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) packed bed bipolar electrolytic cell for nitrate removal. The packing mixture consists of ZVI as electronically conducting material and silica sand as non-conducting material between main cathode and anode electrodes. In the continuous column experiments for the simulated groundwater (initial nitrate and electrical conductivity of about 30 mg L(-1) as N and 300 μS cm(-1), respectively), above 99% of nitrate was removed at the applied potential of 600 V with the main anode placed on the bottom of reactor. The influx nitrate was converted to ammonia (20% to maximum 60%) and nitrite (always less than 0.5 mg L(-1) as N in the effluent). The optimum packing ratio (v/v) of silica sand to ZVI was found to be 1:1-2:1. Magnetite was observed on the surface of the used ZVI as corrosion product. The reduction at the lower part of the reactor in acidic condition and adsorption at the upper part of the reactor in alkaline condition are the major mechanism of nitrate removal.

  5. Mechanisms of Nitrite Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that the anion nitrite, once considered an inert oxidation product of nitric oxide (NO), contributes to hypoxic vasodilation, physiological blood pressure control, and redox signaling. As such, its application in therapeutics is being actively testing in pre-clinical models and in human phase I–II clinical trials. Major pathways for nitrite bioactivation involve its reduction to NO by members of the hemoglobin or molybdopterin family of proteins, or catalyzed dysproportionation. These conversions occur preferentially under hypoxic and acidic conditions. A number of enzymatic systems reduce nitrite to NO and their activity and importance are defined by oxygen tension, specific organ system and allosteric and redox effectors. In this work, we review different proposed mechanisms of nitrite bioactivation, focusing on analysis of kinetics and experimental evidence for the relevance of each mechanism under different conditions. PMID:24315961

  6. Conversion of the refractory ammonia and acetic acid in catalytic wet air oxidation of animal byproducts.

    PubMed

    Fontanier, Virginie; Zalouk, Sofiane; Barbati, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of slaughtered animal byproducts (ABPs) were investigated. Two step experiment was carried out consisting of a non-catalysed WAO run followed by a CWAO run at 170-275 degrees C, 20 MPa, and reaction time 180 min. The WAO (1st step) of sample (5 g/L total organic carbon (TOC)) yielded (82.0 +/- 4)% TOC removal and (78.4 +/- 13.2)% conversion of the initial organic-N into NH4(+)-N. Four metal catalysts (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) supported over alumina have been tested in catalytic WAO (2nd step) at elevated pH to enhance ammonia conversion and organic matter removal, particularly acetic acid. It was found that the catalysts Ru, Pt, and Rh had significant effects on the TOC removal (95.1%, 99.5% and 96.7%, respectively) and on the abatement of ammonia (93.4%, 96.7% and 96.3%, respectively) with high nitrogen selectivity. The catalyst Pd was found to have the less activity while Pt had the best performance. The X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the support of catalyst was not stable under the experimental conditions since it reacted with phosphate present in solution. Nitrite and nitrate ions were monitored during the oxidation reaction and it was concluded that CWAO of ammonia in real waste treatment framework was in good agreement with the results obtained from the literature for ideal solutions of ammonia.

  7. An acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing γ-proteobacterium from soil.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Tago, Kanako; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Toyoda, Atsushi; Wang, Yong; Shimomura, Yumi; Okubo, Takashi; Kurisu, Futoshi; Hirono, Yuhei; Nonaka, Kunihiko; Akiyama, Hiroko; Itoh, Takehiko; Takami, Hideto

    2017-01-10

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, occurs in a wide range of acidic soils. However, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that have been isolated from soil to date are acid-sensitive. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an acid-adapted AOB from an acidic agricultural soil. The isolated AOB, strain TAO100, is classified within the Gammaproteobacteria based on phylogenetic characteristics. TAO100 can grow in the pH range of 5-7.5 and survive in highly acidic conditions until pH 2 by forming cell aggregates. Whereas all known gammaproteobacterial AOB (γ-AOB) species, which have been isolated from marine and saline aquatic environments, are halophiles, TAO100 is not phenotypically halophilic. Thus, TAO100 represents the first soil-originated and non-halophilic γ-AOB. The TAO100 genome is considerably smaller than those of other γ-AOB and lacks several genes associated with salt tolerance which are unnecessary for survival in soil. The ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene of TAO100 and its transcript are higher in abundance than those of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and betaproteobacterial AOB in the strongly acidic soil. These results indicate that TAO100 plays an important role in the nitrification of acidic soils. Based on these results, we propose TAO100 as a novel species of a new genus, Candidatus Nitrosoglobus terrae.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.191.

  8. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Siverio, José M

    2002-08-01

    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed.

  9. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  10. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  11. Mechanism of reaction of myeloperoxidase with nitrite.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Furtmuller, P G; Kettle, A J; Koppenol, W H; Obinger, C

    2000-07-07

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a major neutrophil protein and may be involved in the nitration of tyrosine residues observed in a wide range of inflammatory diseases that involve neutrophils and macrophage activation. In order to clarify if nitrite could be a physiological substrate of myeloperoxidase, we investigated the reactions of the ferric enzyme and its redox intermediates, compound I and compound II, with nitrite under pre-steady state conditions by using sequential mixing stopped-flow analysis in the pH range 4-8. At 15 degrees C the rate of formation of the low spin MPO-nitrite complex is (2.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(4) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (2.2 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. The dissociation constant of nitrite bound to the native enzyme is 2.3 +/- 0.1 mm at pH 7 and 31.3 +/- 0.5 micrometer at pH 5. Nitrite is oxidized by two one-electron steps in the MPO peroxidase cycle. The second-order rate constant of reduction of compound I to compound II at 15 degrees C is (2.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(7) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. The rate constant of reduction of compound II to the ferric native enzyme at 15 degrees C is (5.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(2) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (8.9 +/- 1.6) x 10(4) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. pH dependence studies suggest that both complex formation between the ferric enzyme and nitrite and nitrite oxidation by compounds I and II are controlled by a residue with a pK(a) of (4.3 +/- 0.3). Protonation of this group (which is most likely the distal histidine) is necessary for optimum nitrite binding and oxidation.

  12. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Effects of Ammonia Oxidation by Thermophilic Thaumarchaeota from a Geothermal Water Stream

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Sanae; Konno, Uta; Nakahara, Nozomi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Tasumi, Eiji; Makabe, Akiko; Koba, Keisuke; Takai, Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ammonia oxidation regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature. Although ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been recently recognized to often outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in various environments, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea is still uncertain due to difficulties in the in situ quantification of ammonia oxidation activity. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrite (δ15NNO2− and δ18ONO2−, respectively) are geochemical tracers for evaluating the sources and the in situ rate of nitrite turnover determined from the activities of nitrification and denitrification; however, the isotope ratios of nitrite from archaeal ammonia oxidation have been characterized only for a few marine species. We first report the isotope effects of ammonia oxidation at 70°C by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota populations composed almost entirely of “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus.” The nitrogen isotope effect of ammonia oxidation varied with ambient pH (25‰ to 32‰) and strongly suggests the oxidation of ammonia, not ammonium. The δ18O value of nitrite produced from ammonia oxidation varied with the δ18O value of water in the medium but was lower than the isotopic equilibrium value in water. Because experiments have shown that the half-life of abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between nitrite and water is longer than 33 h at 70°C and pH ≥6.6, the rate of ammonia oxidation by thermophilic Thaumarchaeota could be estimated using δ18ONO2− in geothermal environments, where the biological nitrite turnover is likely faster than 33 h. This study extended the range of application of nitrite isotopes as a geochemical clock of the ammonia oxidation activity to high-temperature environments. IMPORTANCE Because ammonia oxidation is generally the rate-limiting step in nitrification that regulates the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, it is important to understand the biological and environmental factors underlying

  13. Methemoglobinemia attributable to nitrite contamination of potable water through boiler fluid additives--New Jersey, 1992 and 1996.

    PubMed

    1997-03-07

    Nitrite and nitrate ions are naturally occurring forms of nitrogen that can be present in ground and surface water and can be used as a food preservative because they inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Exposure to excessive levels of nitrite or nitrate may result in the acute syndrome of methemoglobinemia (MetHb), in which nitrite binds to hemoglobin. This report summarizes the findings of investigations of two incidents in which unintentional exposure to high doses of nitrite occurred through drinking potable water contaminated with additives to boiler conditioning fluids.

  14. The Effect of Humic Substances on the Production Rate of Alkyl Nitrates in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, E. M.; Dahl, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    Alkyl nitrates are produced photochemically in seawater by the reaction of organic peroxy radicals and nitric oxide (ROO + NO). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a source of organic peroxy radicals in seawater, but it is unclear as to which fraction of DOM is important for alkyl nitrate formation. Dissolved humics may be important to alkyl nitrate production. The production rates of C1-C3 alkyl nitrates were observed in 0.2 μm filtered open ocean seawater as a function of nitrite concentration. The net production rates of methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and n-propyl nitrate increased with increasing nitrite concentrations. Suwannee River humics were added to seawater samples and the net production rates of alkyl nitrates were determined. The production rate of ethyl nitrate increased at nitrite concentrations above 20 μM nitrite by a factor of ~5 with the addition of humic substances. The addition of humic substances to the water samples also resulted in an increase in the ratio of isopropyl nitrate production to ethyl nitrate production by a factor of ~3 compared to nitrite only additions. The ratio of isopropyl to ethyl nitrate production with additional humics is also greater than production rates determined using open ocean water in previous studies. The ratios of methyl nitrate and n-propyl nitrate production to ethyl nitrate production did not change significantly. The minimal change in alkyl nitrate production rates at nitrite concentrations below 20 μM indicates that NO may be the limiting reactant in this particular water sample. The effect of the humics at high nitrite concentrations shows that organic peroxy radicals are an important reactant in the production of alkyl nitrates. The difference between production rate patterns with the addition of humics compared to the nitrite only incubations indicate that humics are not the only source of organic peroxy radicals affecting open ocean water alkyl nitrate formation.

  15. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Nar1 Gene Encodes a Chloroplast Membrane Protein Involved in Nitrite Transport

    PubMed Central

    Rexach, Jesus; Fernández, Emilio; Galván, Aurora

    2000-01-01

    A key step for nitrate assimilation in photosynthetic eukaryotes occurs within chloroplasts, where nitrite is reduced to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. The Nar1 gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is clustered with five other genes for nitrate assimilation, all of them regulated by nitrate. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA of Nar1 and comparative studies of strains having or lacking Nar1 have been performed. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that Nar1 encodes a chloroplast membrane protein with substantial identity to putative formate and nitrite transporters in bacteria. Use of antibodies against NAR1 has corroborated its location in the plastidic membrane. Characterization of strains having or lacking this gene suggests that NAR1 is involved in nitrite transport in plastids, which is critical for cell survival under limiting nitrate conditions, and controls the amount of nitrate incorporated by the cells under limiting CO2 conditions. PMID:10948261

  16. Performance of Denitrifying Microbial Fuel Cell with Biocathode over Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Jianqiang; Li, Fenghai; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 54.80 ± 0.01 g m−3 d−1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode. PMID:27047462

  17. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Ammonia Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: NH3 Formal name: Ammonia, plasma Related tests: Liver Panel , ALT , AST , ALP , ...

  18. RESULTS OF INITIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fowley, M.

    2016-12-30

    This memo presents an experimental survey of aqueous phase chemical processes to remove aqueous ammonia from waste process streams. Ammonia is generated in both the current Hanford waste flowsheet and in future waste processing. Much ammonia will be generated in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters.i Testing with simulants in glass melters at Catholic University has demonstrated the significant ammonia production.ii The primary reaction there is the reducing action of sugar on nitrate in the melter cold cap. Ammonia has been found to be a problem in secondary waste stabilization. Ammonia vapors are noxious and destruction of ammonia could reduce hazards to waste treatment process personnel. It is easily evolved especially when ammonia-bearing solutions are adjusted to high pH.

  19. Genetic basis for nitrate resistance in Desulfovibrio strains

    PubMed Central

    Korte, Hannah L.; Fels, Samuel R.; Christensen, Geoff A.; Price, Morgan N.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Zane, Grant M.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In petroleum production sites, amendments of nitrate and nitrite are used to prevent SRB production of sulfide that causes souring of oil wells. A better understanding of nitrate stress responses in the model SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20, will strengthen predictions of environmental outcomes of nitrate application. Nitrate inhibition of SRB has historically been considered to result from the generation of small amounts of nitrite, to which SRB are quite sensitive. Here we explored the possibility that nitrate might inhibit SRB by a mechanism other than through nitrite inhibition. We found that nitrate-stressed D. vulgaris cultures grown in lactate-sulfate conditions eventually grew in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate, and their resistance continued through several subcultures. Nitrate consumption was not detected over the course of the experiment, suggesting adaptation to nitrate. With high-throughput genetic approaches employing TnLE-seq for D. vulgaris and a pooled mutant library of D. alaskensis, we determined the fitness of many transposon mutants of both organisms in nitrate stress conditions. We found that several mutants, including homologs present in both strains, had a greatly increased ability to grow in the presence of nitrate but not nitrite. The mutated genes conferring nitrate resistance included the gene encoding the putative Rex transcriptional regulator (DVU0916/Dde_2702), as well as a cluster of genes (DVU0251-DVU0245/Dde_0597-Dde_0605) that is poorly annotated. Follow-up studies with individual D. vulgaris transposon and deletion mutants confirmed high-throughput results. We conclude that, in D. vulgaris and D. alaskensis, nitrate resistance in wild-type cultures is likely conferred by spontaneous mutations. Furthermore, the mechanisms that confer nitrate resistance may be different from those that confer nitrite resistance

  20. Zebrafish as a Model to Assess the Teratogenic Potential of Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Keshari, Vishal; Adeeb, Basma; Simmons, Alison E; Simmons, Thomas W; Diep, Cuong Q

    2016-02-16

    High nitrate levels in the environment may result in congenital defects or miscarriages in humans. Presumably, this is due to the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by gut and salivary bacteria. However, in other mammalian studies, high nitrite levels do not cause birth defects, although they can lead to poor reproductive outcomes. Thus, the teratogenic potential of nitrite is not clear. It would be useful to have a vertebrate model system to easily assess teratogenic effects of nitrite or any other chemical of interest. Here, we demonstrate the utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to screen compounds for toxicity and embryonic defects. Zebrafish embryos are fertilized externally and have rapid development, making them a good model for teratogenic studies. We show that increasing the time of exposure to nitrite negatively affects survival. Increasing the concentration of nitrite also adversely affects survival, whereas nitrate does not. For embryos that survive nitrite exposure, various defects can occur, including pericardial and yolk sac edema, swim bladder noninflation, and craniofacial malformation. Our results indicate that the zebrafish is a convenient system for studying the teratogenic potential of nitrite. This approach can easily be adapted to test other chemicals for their effects on early vertebrate development.

  1. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  2. Arabidopsis Root-Type Ferredoxin:NADP(H) Oxidoreductase 2 is Involved in Detoxification of Nitrite in Roots.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Takushi; Ueda, Nanae; Kitagawa, Munenori; Hanke, Guy; Suzuki, Akira; Hase, Toshiharu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ferredoxin:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) plays a key role in redox metabolism in plastids. Whereas leaf FNR (LFNR) is required for photosynthesis, root FNR (RFNR) is believed to provide electrons to ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent enzymes, including nitrite reductase (NiR) and Fd-glutamine-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Fd-GOGAT) in non-photosynthetic conditions. In some herbal species, however, most nitrate reductase activity is located in photosynthetic organs, and ammonium in roots is assimilated mainly by Fd-independent NADH-GOGAT. Therefore, RFNR might have a limited impact on N assimilation in roots grown with nitrate or ammonium nitrogen sources. AtRFNR genes are rapidly induced by application of toxic nitrite. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that RFNR could contribute to nitrite reduction in roots by comparing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings of the wild type with loss-of-function mutants of RFNR2 When these seedlings were grown under nitrate, nitrite or ammonium, only nitrite nutrition caused impaired growth and nitrite accumulation in roots of rfnr2 Supplementation of nitrite with nitrate or ammonium as N sources did not restore the root growth in rfnr2 Also, a scavenger for nitric oxide (NO) could not effectively rescue the growth impairment. Thus, nitrite toxicity, rather than N depletion or nitrite-dependent NO production, probably causes the rfnr2 root growth defect. Our results strongly suggest that RFNR2 has a major role in reduction of toxic nitrite in roots. A specific set of genes related to nitrite reduction and the supply of reducing power responded to nitrite concomitantly, suggesting that the products of these genes act co-operatively with RFNR2 to reduce nitrite in roots.

  3. Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and oxidation of by-products using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Xiaohui; Chen, Rongzhi; Yang, Yinan; Sugiura, Norio

    2009-11-15

    Electrochemical denitrification was studied with an objective to enhance the selectivity of nitrate to nitrogen gas and to remove the by-products in an undivided electrochemical cell, in which Cu-Zn cathode and Ti/IrO(2)-Pt anode were assembled. In the presence of 0.50 g/L NaCl as supporting electrolyte, the NO(3)(-)-N decreased from 100.0 to 9.7 mg/L after 300 min electrolysis; no ammonia and nitrite were detected in the treated solution. The surface of the cathode was appeared to be rougher than unused after electrolysis at initial pH 6.5 and 12.0. After electrolysis of 5h at the initial pH 3.0, passivation of the Cu-Zn cathode was observed. The reduction rate slightly increased with increasing current density in the range of 10-60 mA/cm(2) and temperatures had little effect on nitrate reduction. Nitrate could be completely removed by the simultaneous reduction and oxidation developed in this study, which is suitable for deep treatment of nitrate polluted water.

  4. Nitrite reduction and formation of corrosion coatings in zerovalent iron systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong H; Zhang, Tian C

    2006-08-01

    Batch tests were conducted to investigate nitrite reduction in a zerovalent iron (Fe0) system under various conditions. Nitrite at 1.4 mM initial concentration was slowly reduced to nitrogen gas in the first stage (days 1-6), which was mediated by an amorphous, Fe(II)-rich iron oxide coating. The second stage (days 7-14) featured a rapid reduction of nitrite to both ammonia and nitrogen gas and the formation of a more crystalline, magnetite form iron oxide coating. Water reduction by Fe0 occurred concurrently with nitrite reduction from the beginning and contributed significantly to the overall iron corrosion. Nitrite at 14 mM was found to passivate the surface of Fe0 grains with respect to nitrite reduction. Adding aqueous Fe2+ significantly accelerated reduction of nitrite by Fe0 to nitrogen gas with lepidocrocite as the main iron corrosion product. Substantially, though still substoichiometrically, 0.55 mol of Fe2+ were concomitantly consumed per 1.0 mol nitrite reduction, indicating that Fe0 was the main electron source. In the presence of Fe2+, nitrite reduction out-competed water reduction in terms of contributing to the overall iron corrosion. Results of this study help understand complicated interactions between water reduction and nitrite reduction, the roles of surface-bound Fe2+, and the evolution of the iron corrosion coating.

  5. Function of the Rhizobium etli CFN42 nirK gene in nitrite metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bueno, E; Gómez-Hernández, N; Girard, L; Bedmar, E J; Delgado, M J

    2005-02-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 is not capable of growing anaerobically with nitrate but it grows with nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. This bacterium contains the nirK gene encoding the copper-containing Nir (nitrite reductase), which is located on the cryptic plasmid pCFN42f. Mutational analysis has demonstrated that a nirK deficient mutant was not capable of growing under nitrite-respiring conditions. Moreover, microaerobic growth of this mutant was inhibited by the presence of nitrite. Nir activity and nitrite uptake were highly diminished in a nirK mutant, compared with the wild-type levels after incubation under anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that the copper-containing Nir may have both a respiratory and a nitrite-detoxifying role in R. etli.

  6. Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

  7. Inhibitory effect of nitrite on coagulation processes demonstrated by thrombelastography.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Piknova, B; Nghiem, K; Lozier, J N; Schechter, A N

    2014-08-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by two-step reduction pathway in which nitrate is converted first into nitrite and then into NO via several mechanisms, as well as from arginine by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We have recently shown that nitrite ions in the presence of erythrocytes inhibit platelet aggregation and activation, as measured by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin, through its reduction to NO under partially deoxygenated conditions. In the current study, we investigated how nitrite may affect overall clotting processes via modulating platelet function using thrombelastography (TEG). We measured three major TEG parameters, reaction time (R, time to initial fibrin formation), α angle (velocity of clot growth) and maximum amplitude (MA, maximum clot strength) using blood from healthy volunteers. An NO donor (DEANONOate) showed inhibitory effects on all TEG parameters in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, resulting in delayed R, decreased angle, and reduced MA in a dose dependent manner. Nitrite ions also exhibited inhibitory effects in whole blood at 20% hematocrit, and this was greatly enhanced under hypoxic conditions, being demonstrable at 0.1 μM concentration. Neither compound changed any TEG parameters in plasma. Our results suggest that nitrite affects overall blood clotting and that TEG may be used to follow this process. Further the physiological effects of factors which determine NO bioavailability, such as endogenous levels of blood and tissue nitrite, may be useful as biomarkers for predicting hemostatic potential.

  8. Inhibitory effect of nitrite on coagulation processes demonstrated by thrombelastography

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. W.; Piknova, B.; Nghiem, K.; Lozier, J. N.; Schechter, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by two-step reduction pathway in which nitrate is converted first into nitrite and then into NO via several mechanisms, as well as from arginine by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We have recently shown that nitrite ions in the presence of erythrocytes inhibit platelet aggregation and activation, as measured by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin, through its reduction to NO under partially deoxygenated conditions. In the current study, we investigated how nitrite may affect overall clotting processes via modulating platelet function using thrombelastography (TEG). We measured three major TEG parameters, reaction time (R, time to initial fibrin formation), α angle (velocity of clot growth) and maximum amplitude (MA, maximum clot strength) using blood from healthy volunteers. An NO donor (DEANONOate) showed inhibitory effects on all TEG parameters in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, resulting in delayed R, decreased angle, and reduced MA in a dose dependent manner. Nitrite ions also exhibited inhibitory effects in whole blood at 20% hematocrit, and this was greatly enhanced under hypoxic conditions, being demonstrable at 0.1 μM concentration. Neither compound changed any TEG parameters in plasma. Our results suggest that nitrite affects overall blood clotting and that TEG may be used to follow this process. Further the physiological effects of factors which determine NO bioavailability, such as endogenous levels of blood and tissue nitrite, may be useful as biomarkers for predicting hemostatic potential. PMID:24858214

  9. Nitrogen removal in maturation ponds: tracer experiments with 15N-labelled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

    2007-01-01

    A primary maturation pond (M1) was spiked with labelled ammonium chloride (15NH4Cl) to track ammonium transformations associated with algal uptake and subsequent sedimentation. Conventional sampling based on grab samples collected from M1 influent, water column and effluent, and processed for unfiltered and filtered TKN, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, found low total nitrogen removal (8%) and high ammonium nitrogen removal (90%). Stable isotope analysis of 15N from suspended organic and ammonium nitrogen fractions in M1 effluent revealed that labelled ammonium was mainly found in the organic fraction (69% of the 15N recovered), rather than the inorganic fraction (5%). Algal uptake was the predominant pathway for ammonia removal, even though conditions were favourable for ammonia volatilization (8.9 < pH <10.1 units, 15.2 < temperature <18.8 degrees C). Total nitrogen was removed by ammonia volatilization at 15 g N/ha d (3%), organic nitrogen sedimentation at 105 g N/ha d (20%), and in-pond accumulation due to algal uptake at 377 g N/ha d (71%). Algal uptake of ammonium and subsequent sedimentation and retention in the benthic sludge, after partial ammonification of the algal organic nitrogen, is thus likely to be the dominant mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in maturation ponds during warm summer months in England.

  10. Assessment of N2O emission from a photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate.

    PubMed

    Mezzari, Melissa P; da Silva, Márcio L B; Nicoloso, Rodrigo S; Ibelli, Adriana M G; Bortoli, Marcelo; Viancelli, Aline; Soares, Hugo M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the interactions between naturally occurring bacteria and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris within a lab scale photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate effluent. Nitrification and denitrification were assessed by targeting ammonia monoxygenases (amoA), nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS), nitric oxide (norB) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases genes. Oxygen produced from microalgae photosynthesis stimulated nitrification. Under limiting carbon availability (i.e., <1.44 for mg TOC/mg NO2-N and 1.72 for mg TOC/mg NO3-N), incomplete denitrification led to accumulation of NO2 and NO3. Significant N2O emission (up to 118 μg N2O-N) was linked to NO2 metabolism in Chlorella. The addition of acetate as external carbon source recovered heterotrophic denitrification activity suppressing N2O emission. Effluent methane concentrations trapped within photobioreactor was removed concomitantly with ammonia. Overall, closed photobioreactors can be built to effectively remove nitrogen and mitigate simultaneously greenhouse gases emissions that would occur otherwise in open microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems.

  11. [Effect of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on chloraminated disinfection attenuation in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Hui; Cai, Yun-Long; Zhou, Bin-Hui; Zhi, Xing-Hua

    2009-06-15

    The growth of microbe and formation of biofilm in water distribution system were important factors affecting the security of water quality. The number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biofilm of a chloraminated drinking water distribution system in Shanghai was detected by MPN-Griess method, and the relations among AOB, nitrification and chloraminated disinfection were analyzed. Meanwhile, the effects of AOB on chloraminated disinfection fastness and attenuation by simulation experiment were studied. The result indicated that the number of