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Sample records for ammonia percolated wheat

  1. PRETREATMENT AND FRACTIONATION OF CORN STOVER BY AMMONIA RECYCLE PERCOLATION PROCESS. (R831645)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn stover was pretreated with aqueous ammonia in a flow-through column reactor,
    a process termed as Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP). The aqueous ammonia causes
    swelling and efficient delignification of biomass at high temperatures. The ARP
    process solubilizes abou...

  2. Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Sarkar, Binoy; Khan, Naser; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6 mg kg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2 mg kg(-1)soil) and DAP (99 mg kg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat.

  3. Biochar-induced concomitant decrease in ammonia volatilization and increase in nitrogen use efficiency by wheat.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanchita; Thangarajan, Ramya; Bolan, Nanthi S; Sarkar, Binoy; Khan, Naser; Ok, Yong Sik; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major nitrogen (N) loss from the soil, especially under tropical conditions, NH3 volatilization results in low N use efficiency by crops. Incubation experiments were conducted using five soils (pH 5.5-9.0), three N sources such as, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and poultry manure (PM) and two biochars such as, poultry litter biochar (PL-BC) and macadamia nut shell biochar (MS-BC). Ammonia volatilization was higher at soil with higher pH (pH exceeding 8) due to the increased hydroxyl ions. Among the N sources, urea recorded the highest NH3 volatilization (151.6 mg kg(-1)soil) followed by PM (124.2 mg kg(-1)soil) and DAP (99 mg kg(-1)soil). Ammonia volatilization was reduced by approximately 70% with PL-BC and MS-BC. The decreased NH3 volatilization with biochars is attributed to multiple mechanisms such as NH3 adsorption/immobilization, and nitrification. Moreover, biochar increased wheat dry weight and N uptake as high as by 24.24% and 76.11%, respectively. This study unravels the immense potential of biochar in decreasing N volatilization from soils and simultaneously improving use efficiency by wheat. PMID:25959224

  4. Effects of conservation tillage practices on ammonia emissions from Loess Plateau rain-fed winter wheat fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Chunju; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Meng, Yuan; Tian, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Linquan

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities contribute to air pollution. For the rain-fed winter wheat system in the Loess Plateau there is a lack of information about ammonia emissions. Current study aimed to provide field data on ammonia emissions affected by conservation tillage practices and nitrogen applications. A two-year field experiment was conducted during 2011-2013 wheat growing seasons followed a split-plot design. Main plots consisted of one conventional tillage (CT, as the control) and five conservation tillage systems, i.e., stalk mulching (SM), film mulching (FM), ridge tillage (RT), ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge (RTfm), and ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge and stalk mulch in the furrow (RTfmsm); while subplots consisted of two nitrogen application rates, i.e., 0 and 180 kg N ha-1. Ammonia emissions were measured using an acid trapping method with vented chambers. Results showed ammonia fluxes peaked during the first 10 days after fertilization. On average, nitrogen application increased ammonia emissions by 26.5% (1.31 kg N ha-1) compared with treatments without nitrogen application (P < 0.05). Ammonia fluxes were strongly dependent on soil ammonium, moisture, and temperature. Tillage systems had significant effects on ammonia emissions. On average, conservation tillage practices reduced ammonia emissions by 7.7% (0.46 kg N ha-1) compared with conventional tillage (P < 0.05), with FM most effective. Deep-band application of nitrogen fertilizer, stalk mulches, and film mulches were responsible for reductions in ammonia emissions from nitrogen fertilization in conservation tillage systems, thus they were recommended to reduce ammonia emissions from winter wheat production regions in the southern Loess Plateau.

  5. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  6. Ammonia

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonia ; CASRN 7664 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  7. [Factors influencing ammonia volatilization in a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched ridges and unmulched furrows].

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Shi, Ri-Peng; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Li, Hui-Ke; Wang, Lin-Quan

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4.68 +/- 0.35) kg x ha(-1) in the conventional tillage treatment (i. e., smooth soil surface). The PMRF treatment reduced NH3 emissions by 29.8 to 63.8% compared with the conventional treatment. The NH3 emission losses were equivalent to 1.9% of the applied N in the conventional practice treatment. In contrast, the losses were equivalent to only 0.3% to 0.8% of the applied N in the PMRF treatment. Ammonia emissions were greatest during the first two weeks after sowing. Emissions before winter accounted for 82% of total NH3 emission in the conventional practice treatment, but only 49% to 61% of the total NH3 emission in the PMRF treatment. The soil NH4+ -N content and the soil moisture content had direct effects on NH3 emission before winter in the conventional treatment. In thePMRF treatment, the soil NH4+ -N content had a direct effect on NH3 emission before winter, whereas soil surface temperature and soil moisture had indirect effects. Ammonia emissions after the greening stage were mainly influenced by the soil NH4+ -N content. Simulation results indicated that logarithmic functions best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + high N rate treatment and the conventional treatment. A linear function best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + low N rate treatment and the unfertilized treatment. In conclusion, the PMRF treatment can significantly reduce N losses from winter wheat fields by changing the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil

  8. INFLUENCE OF BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS SUBSP. PLANTARUM IMV B-7404 STRAIN EXOMETABOLITES ON PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE ACTIVITY IN WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS.

    PubMed

    Dragovoz, I V; Korzh, Yu V; Leonova, N O; Iliash, V M; Avdeeva, L V

    2015-01-01

    Influence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum IMV B-7404 strain exometabolites on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.24) activity in winter wheat seedlings has been studied. A significant increase of PAL activity at 4-6 hours after treatment of plant roots with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum IMVB-7404 strain exometabolites and in case of leaves infection with Bipolaris sorokiniana plant pathogen has been shown. It was established that PAL activity changed along with a decrease of the infected surface area of the leaves evidenced for the induction of response in winter wheat seedlings induced by IMV B-7404 strain exometabolites. It was concluded that the studied exponents could be used as model systems in the research of phytoimmunity induction mechanisms.

  9. [Change in the content of salicylic acid and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the influence of Azospirilium lectins].

    PubMed

    Alen'kina, S A; Trutneva, K A; Nikitina, V E

    2013-01-01

    The time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum (A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3) is investigated. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains are established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model is proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in the accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and formation of induced resistance. PMID:25518563

  10. [Change in the content of salicylic acid and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the influence of Azospirilium lectins].

    PubMed

    Alen'kina, S A; Trutneva, K A; Nikitina, V E

    2013-01-01

    The time course of changes in the endogenous content of salicylic acid, the ratio between the acid's free and bound forms, and changes in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and catalase in wheat seedling roots under the effect of lectins of two strains of the associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum (A. brasilense Sp7 and its mutant defective in lectin activity, A. brasilense Sp7.2.3) is investigated. Differences in plant response to the action of the lectins from these two strains are established. On the basis of the obtained data, a model is proposed for lectin-assisted induction of resistance, according to which the lectin effect on the roots of seedlings results in the accumulation of free salicylic acid, which inhibits catalase activity, ultimately leading to accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and formation of induced resistance.

  11. Bond percolation in films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1988-04-01

    Bond percolation in films with simple cubic structure is considered. It is assumed that the probability of a bond being present between nearest-neighbor sites depends on the distances to surfaces. Based on the relation between the Potts model and the bond percolation model, and using the mean-field approximation, the phase diagram and profiles of the percolation probability have been obtained.

  12. Dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or ammonia confers gliadin-like characteristics to the glutenin in wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2015-02-01

    Spray-dried gluten has unique properties and is commercially available in the food industry worldwide. In this study, we examined the viscoelastic properties of gluten powder prepared by dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or an ammonia solvent and then followed by lyophilization instead of a spray drying. Mixograph measurements showed that the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders had marked decreases in the time to peak dough resistance when compared with the control gluten powder. The integrals of the dough resistance and bandwidth for 3 min after peak dough resistance decreased in both treated gluten powders. Similar phenomena were observed when gliadin was supplemented to gluten powders. Basic and acidic conditions were applied to the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders, respectively, and the viscoelastic behaviors were found to depend on the pH in the gluten dispersion just before lyophilization. These behaviors suggest that gluten may assume a reversible change in viscoelasticity by a fluctuation in pH during gluten dispersion. SDS-PAGE showed that the extractable proteins substantially increased in some polymeric glutenins including the low molecular weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) when the ammonia-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. In contrast, the extractable proteins markedly increased in many polymeric glutenins including the high molecular weight-glutenin subunit and/or the LMW-GS when the acid-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. It thus follows that the extractability of polymeric glutenin to ethanol increases similarly to gliadin when gluten is exposed to an acidic or a basic pH condition; therefore, glutenin adopts gliadin-like characteristics.

  13. Use of Nitrogen Isotope To Determine Fertilizer- and Soil-Derived Ammonia Volatilization in a Rice/Wheat Rotation System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Yingxin; Wang, Shenqiang; Xing, Guangxi; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2016-04-20

    The nitrogen (N) isotope method reveals that application of fertilizer N can increase crop uptake or denitrification and leaching losses of native soil N via the "added N interaction". However, there is currently little evidence of the impact of added N on soil N losses through NH3 volatilization using (15)N methodologies. In the present study, a three-year rice/wheat rotated experiment with 30% (15)N-labeled urea applied in the first rice season and unlabeled urea added in the following five crop seasons was performed to investigate volatilization of NH3 from fertilizer and soil N. We found 9.28% of NH3 loss from (15)N urea and 2.88-7.70% declines in (15)N-NH3 abundance occurred during the first rice season, whereas 0.11% of NH3 loss from (15)N urea and 0.02-0.21% enrichments in (15)N-NH3 abundance happened in the subsequent seasons. The contributions of fertilizer- and soil-derived N to NH3 volatilization from a rice/wheat rotation were 75.8-88.4 and 11.6-24.2%, respectively. These distinct variations in (15)N-NH3 and substantial soil-derived NH3 suggest that added N clearly interacts with the soil source contributing to NH3 volatilization. PMID:27022666

  14. Use of Nitrogen Isotope To Determine Fertilizer- and Soil-Derived Ammonia Volatilization in a Rice/Wheat Rotation System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Yingxin; Wang, Shenqiang; Xing, Guangxi; Zhu, Zhaoliang

    2016-04-20

    The nitrogen (N) isotope method reveals that application of fertilizer N can increase crop uptake or denitrification and leaching losses of native soil N via the "added N interaction". However, there is currently little evidence of the impact of added N on soil N losses through NH3 volatilization using (15)N methodologies. In the present study, a three-year rice/wheat rotated experiment with 30% (15)N-labeled urea applied in the first rice season and unlabeled urea added in the following five crop seasons was performed to investigate volatilization of NH3 from fertilizer and soil N. We found 9.28% of NH3 loss from (15)N urea and 2.88-7.70% declines in (15)N-NH3 abundance occurred during the first rice season, whereas 0.11% of NH3 loss from (15)N urea and 0.02-0.21% enrichments in (15)N-NH3 abundance happened in the subsequent seasons. The contributions of fertilizer- and soil-derived N to NH3 volatilization from a rice/wheat rotation were 75.8-88.4 and 11.6-24.2%, respectively. These distinct variations in (15)N-NH3 and substantial soil-derived NH3 suggest that added N clearly interacts with the soil source contributing to NH3 volatilization.

  15. Quantum entanglement percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomau, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Quantum communication demands efficient distribution of quantum entanglement across a network of connected partners. The search for efficient strategies for the entanglement distribution may be based on percolation theory, which describes evolution of network connectivity with respect to some network parameters. In this framework, the probability to establish perfect entanglement between two remote partners decays exponentially with the distance between them before the percolation transition point, which unambiguously defines percolation properties of any classical network or lattice. Here we introduce quantum networks created with local operations and classical communication, which exhibit non-classical percolation transition points leading to striking communication advantages over those offered by the corresponding classical networks. We show, in particular, how to establish perfect entanglement between any two nodes in the simplest possible network—the 1D chain—using imperfectly entangled pairs of qubits.

  16. Multipartite entanglement percolation

    SciTech Connect

    Perseguers, S.; Cavalcanti, D.; Lapeyre, G. J. Jr.; Lewenstein, M.; Acin, A.

    2010-03-15

    We present a percolation strategy based on multipartite measurements to propagate entanglement in quantum networks. We consider networks spanned on regular lattices whose bonds correspond to pure but nonmaximally entangled pairs of qubits, with any quantum operation allowed at the nodes. Despite significant effort in the past, improvements over standard (classical) percolation have been found for only a few lattices, often with restrictions on the initial amount of entanglement in the bonds. In contrast, multipartite entanglement percolation outperform the classical percolation protocols, as well as all previously known quantum ones, over the entire range of initial entanglement and for every lattice that we considered. Finally, we briefly show that our ideas also find application in noisy networks.

  17. Social percolation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sorin; Weisbuch, Gerard; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Jan, Naeem; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2000-03-01

    We here relate the occurrence of extreme market shares, close to either 0 or 100%, in the media industry to a percolation phenomenon across the social network of customers. We further discuss the possibility of observing self-organized criticality when customers and cinema producers adjust their preferences and the quality of the produced films according to previous experience. Comprehensive computer simulations on square lattices do indeed exhibit self-organized criticality towards the usual percolation threshold and related scaling behaviour.

  18. Price percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiji; Seki, Yoichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose a price percolation model to reproduce the price distribution of components used in industrial finished goods. The intent is to show, using the price percolation model and a component category as an example, that percolation behaviors, which exist in the matter system, the ecosystem, and human society, also exist in abstract, random phenomena satisfying the power law. First, we discretize the total potential demand for a component category, considering it a random field. Second, we assume that the discretized potential demand corresponding to a function of a finished good turns into actual demand if the difficulty of function realization is less than the maximum difficulty of the realization. The simulations using this model suggest that changes in a component category's price distribution are due to changes in the total potential demand corresponding to the lattice size and the maximum difficulty of realization, which is an occupation probability. The results are verified using electronic components' sales data.

  19. Percolation and Deconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Brijesh K.

    2011-07-01

    Possible phase transition of strongly interacting matter from hadron to a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state have in the past received considerable interest. It has been suggested that this problem might be treated by percolation theory. The Color String Percolation Model (CSPM) is used to determine the equation of state (EOS) of the QGP produced in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies. The bulk thermodynamic quantities - energy density, entropy density and the sound velocity - are obtained in the framework of CSPM. It is shown that the results are in excellent agreement with the recent lattice QCD calculations(LQCD).

  20. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  1. Percolation technique for galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We study percolation in mass and galaxy distributions obtained in 3D simulations of the CDM, C + HDM, and the power law (n = -1) models in the Omega = 1 universe. Percolation statistics is used here as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a mass or galaxy distribution is of a filamentary or cellular type. The very fast code used calculates the statistics of clusters along with the direct detection of percolation. We found that the two parameters mu(infinity), characterizing the size of the largest cluster, and mu-squared, characterizing the weighted mean size of all clusters excluding the largest one, are extremely useful for evaluating the percolation threshold. An advantage of using these parameters is their low sensitivity to boundary effects. We show that both the CDM and the C + HDM models are extremely filamentary both in mass and galaxy distribution. The percolation thresholds for the mass distributions are determined.

  2. Percolation and galaxies.

    PubMed

    Schulman, L S; Seiden, P E

    1986-07-25

    A theory is presented in which much of the structure of spiral galaxies arises from a percolation phase transition that underlies the phenomenon of propagating star formation. According to this view, the appearance of spiral arms is a consequence of the differential rotation of the galaxy and the characteristic divergence of correlation lengths for continuous phase transitions. Other structural properties of spiral galaxies, such as the distribution of the gaseous components and the luminosity, arise directly from a feedback mechanism that pins the star formation rate close to the critical point of the phase transition. The approach taken in this article differs from traditional dynamical views. The argument is presented that, at least for some galaxies, morphological and other features are already fixed by general properties of phase transitions, irrespective of detailed dynamic or other considerations. PMID:17794566

  3. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  4. Self Healing Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the concept of self-healing in the field of complex networks modelling; in particular, self-healing capabilities are implemented through distributed communication protocols that exploit redundant links to recover the connectivity of the system. Self-healing is a crucial in implementing the next generation of smart grids allowing to ensure a high quality of service to the users. We then map our self-healing procedure in a percolation problem and analyse the interplay between redundancies and topology in improving the resilience of networked infrastructures to multiple failures. We find exact results both for planar lattices and for random lattices, hinting the role of duality in the design of resilient networks. Finally, we introduce a cavity method approach to study the recovery of connectivity after damage in self-healing networks. CNR-PNR National Project ``Crisis-Lab,'' EU HOME/2013/CIPS/AG/4000005013 project CI2C and EU FET project MULTIPLEX nr.317532.

  5. Deep Percolation in Devegetated Hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, B. A.; Hinckley, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Deep percolation has recently been recognized as a critical component in hillslope hydrology studies. In devegetated hillslopes where vegetation is killed and, in some cases, removed, deep percolation may be substantially enhanced beyond pre-disturbance magnitudes. We discuss two examples of devegetated hillslopes where water balance partitioning shifted to favor increased deep percolation fluxes for some hydrologic conditions. The first is the Coos Bay Experimental Catchment in Oregon, USA, where commercial forestry resulted in the complete removal of trees. An intensive field campaign in the 1990's resulted in a long term record of precipitation, discharge, piezometric response, and groundwater levels. Hydrologic response modeling confirms hypotheses from the field-data analysis and points to unresolved questions regarding feedbacks between deep percolation and near-surface hydrologic processes. The second example is the area burned by the Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA, where a severe wildland fire removed all vegetation from a north-aspect hillslope in 2010. Precipitation, atmospheric conditions, soil-water content, matric potential, and runoff have been measured since the fire devegetated the site. Subsurface sampling of the vadose zone is accomplished using suction lysimeters to capture total nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Darcian flux calculations of net infiltration from the shallow soil into fractured granodiorite bedrock are used to estimate solute fluxes to a deeper groundwater system. Virtual experiments using numerical models of unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport further elucidate the temporal dynamics of deep percolation and associated solute fluxes during spring snowmelt and frontal rainstorms, which are the major hydrologic drivers of deep percolation in this fire-impacted system. Together, these examples serve to illustrate the critical importance of deep percolation in disturbed landscapes. The

  6. Ammonia Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  7. Entanglement Theories: Packing vs. Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wool, Richard

    2007-03-01

    There are two emergent theories of polymer entanglements, the Packing Model (Fetters, Lohse, Graessley, Milner, Whitten, ˜'98) and the Percolation Model (Wool ˜'93). The Packing model suggests that the entanglement molecular weight Me is determined by Me = K p^3, where the packing length parameter p = V/R^2 in which V is the volume of the chain (V=M/ρNa), R is the end-to end vector of the chain, and K 357 ρNa, is an empirical constant. The Percolation model states that an entanglement network develops when the number of chains per unit area σ, intersecting any load bearing plane, is equal to 3 times the number of chain segments (1/a cross-section), such that when 3aσ =1 at the percolation threshold, Me 31 MjC∞, in which Mj is the step molecular weight and C∞ is the characteristic ratio. There are no fitting parameters in the Percolation model. The Packing model predicts that Me decreases rapidly with chain stiffness, as Me˜1/C∞^3, while the Percolation model predicts that Me increases with C∞, as Me˜C∞. The Percolation model was found to be the correct model based on computer simulations (M. Bulacu et al) and a re-analysis of the Packing model experimental data. The Packing model can be derived from the Percolation model, but not visa versa, and reveals a surprising accidental relation between C∞ and Mj in the front factor K. This result significantly impacts the interpretation of the dynamics of rheology and fracture of entangled polymers.

  8. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  9. Clique percolation in random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Deng, Youjin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-10-01

    As a generation of the classical percolation, clique percolation focuses on the connection of cliques in a graph, where the connection of two k cliques means that they share at least l percolation in Erdős-Rényi graphs, which gives not only the exact solutions of the critical point, but also the corresponding order parameter. Based on this, we prove theoretically that the fraction ψ of cliques in the giant clique cluster always makes a continuous phase transition as the classical percolation. However, the fraction ϕ of vertices in the giant clique cluster for l >1 makes a step-function-like discontinuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit and a continuous phase transition for l =1 . More interesting, our analysis shows that at the critical point, the order parameter ϕc for l >1 is neither 0 nor 1, but a constant depending on k and l . All these theoretical findings are in agreement with the simulation results, which give theoretical support and clarification for previous simulation studies of clique percolation.

  10. Percolation of interaction diffusing particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The connectivity properties of systems of diffusing interacting particles with the blind and myopic diffusion rules are studied. It is found that the blind rule case is equivalent to the lattice gas with J = 0 in all dimensions. The connectivity properties of blind rule diffusion are described by random site percolation due to the fact that the density on neighboring sites is uncorrelated.

  11. Percolation on correlated random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Cioli, C.; Guadagnini, E.

    2011-09-01

    We consider a class of random, weighted networks, obtained through a redefinition of patterns in an Hopfield-like model, and, by performing percolation processes, we get information about topology and resilience properties of the networks themselves. Given the weighted nature of the graphs, different kinds of bond percolation can be studied: stochastic (deleting links randomly) and deterministic (deleting links based on rank weights), each mimicking a different physical process. The evolution of the network is accordingly different, as evidenced by the behavior of the largest component size and of the distribution of cluster sizes. In particular, we can derive that weak ties are crucial in order to maintain the graph connected and that, when they are the most prone to failure, the giant component typically shrinks without abruptly breaking apart; these results have been recently evidenced in several kinds of social networks.

  12. Bond percolation in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Eric I.; Stinchcombe, Robin; Thorpe, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    We collect results for bond percolation on various lattices from two to fourteen dimensions that, in the limit of large dimension d or number of neighbors z, smoothly approach a randomly diluted Erdős-Rényi graph. We include results on bond-diluted hypersphere packs in up to nine dimensions, which show the mean coordination, excess kurtosis, and skewness evolving smoothly with dimension towards the Erdős-Rényi limit.

  13. Percolation in dense storage arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Scott; Wilcke, Winfried W.; Garner, Robert B.; Huels, Harald

    2002-11-01

    As computers and their accessories become smaller, cheaper, and faster the providers of news, retail sales, and other services we now take for granted on the Internet have met their increasing computing needs by putting more and more computers, hard disks, power supplies, and the data communications linking them to each other and to the rest of the wired world into ever smaller spaces. This has created a new and quite interesting percolation problem. It is no longer desirable to fix computers, storage or switchgear which fail in such a dense array. Attempts to repair things are all too likely to make problems worse. The alternative approach, letting units “fail in place”, be removed from service and routed around, means that a data communications environment will evolve with an underlying regular structure but a very high density of missing pieces. Some of the properties of this kind of network can be described within the existing paradigm of site or bond percolation on lattices, but other important questions have not been explored. I will discuss 3D arrays of hundreds to thousands of storage servers (something which it is quite feasible to build in the next few years), and show that bandwidth, but not percolation fraction or shortest path lengths, is the critical factor affected by the “fail in place” disorder. Redundancy strategies traditionally employed in storage systems may have to be revised. Novel approaches to routing information among the servers have been developed to minimize the impact.

  14. Roots at the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere is the layer of soil around the roots where complex and dynamic interactions between plants and soil affect the capacity of plants to take up water. The physical properties of the rhizosphere are affected by mucilage, a gel exuded by roots. Mucilage can absorb large volumes of water, but it becomes hydrophobic after drying. We use a percolation model to describe the rewetting of dry rhizosphere. We find that at a critical mucilage concentration the rhizosphere becomes impermeable. The critical mucilage concentration depends on the radius of the soil particle size. Capillary rise experiments with neutron radiography prove that for concentrations below the critical mucilage concentration water could easily cross the rhizosphere, while above the critical concentration water could no longer percolate through it. Our studies, together with former observations of water dynamics in the rhizosphere, suggest that the rhizosphere is near the percolation threshold, where small variations in mucilage concentration sensitively alter the soil hydraulic conductivity. Is mucilage exudation a plant mechanism to efficiently control the rhizosphere conductivity and the access to water?

  15. Roots at the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Carminati, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The rhizosphere is the layer of soil around the roots where complex and dynamic interactions between plants and soil affect the capacity of plants to take up water. The physical properties of the rhizosphere are affected by mucilage, a gel exuded by roots. Mucilage can absorb large volumes of water, but it becomes hydrophobic after drying. We use a percolation model to describe the rewetting of dry rhizosphere. We find that at a critical mucilage concentration the rhizosphere becomes impermeable. The critical mucilage concentration depends on the radius of the soil particle size. Capillary rise experiments with neutron radiography prove that for concentrations below the critical mucilage concentration water could easily cross the rhizosphere, while above the critical concentration water could no longer percolate through it. Our studies, together with former observations of water dynamics in the rhizosphere, suggest that the rhizosphere is near the percolation threshold, where small variations in mucilage concentration sensitively alter the soil hydraulic conductivity. Is mucilage exudation a plant mechanism to efficiently control the rhizosphere conductivity and the access to water? PMID:25974526

  16. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be ordered, along with other tests such as glucose , electrolytes , and kidney and liver function tests , to help diagnose the cause of ... Pages tab.) An increased ammonia level and decreased glucose ... may indicate that severe liver or kidney damage has impacted the body's ability ...

  17. Spin dynamics on percolating networks

    SciTech Connect

    Aeppli, G.; Guggenheim, H.; Uemura, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have used inelastic neutron scattering to measure the order parameter relaxation rate GAMMA in the dilute, two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet Rb/sub 2/CoMg/sub 1-c/F/sub 4/ with c very close to the magnetic percolation threshold. Where kappa is the inverse magnetic correlation length, GAMMA approx. kappa/sup z/ with z = 2.4/sub -0.1//sup +0.2/. Our results are discussed in terms of current ideas about spin relaxation on fractals. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  19. Bond Percolation on Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, A.; Cellai, D.; Gómez, S.; Arenas, A.; Gleeson, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multiplex network constructed from London rail and European air transportation data sets.

  20. Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing

    2015-10-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links’ lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around -1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value -1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading.

  1. Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links’ lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around −1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value −1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading. PMID:26423347

  2. Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing

    2015-10-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links' lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around -1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value -1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading.

  3. Emergence of coexisting percolating clusters in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faqeeh, Ali; Melnik, Sergey; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Gleeson, James P.

    2016-06-01

    It is commonly assumed in percolation theories that at most one percolating cluster can exist in a network. We show that several coexisting percolating clusters (CPCs) can emerge in networks due to limited mixing, i.e., a finite and sufficiently small number of interlinks between network modules. We develop an approach called modular message passing (MMP) to describe and verify these observations. We demonstrate that the appearance of CPCs is an important source of inaccuracy in previously introduced percolation theories, such as the message passing (MP) approach, which is a state-of-the-art theory based on the belief propagation method. Moreover, we show that the MMP theory improves significantly over the predictions of MP for percolation on synthetic networks with limited mixing and also on several real-world networks. These findings have important implications for understanding the robustness of networks and in quantifying epidemic outbreaks in the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model of disease spread.

  4. Emergence of coexisting percolating clusters in networks.

    PubMed

    Faqeeh, Ali; Melnik, Sergey; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Gleeson, James P

    2016-06-01

    It is commonly assumed in percolation theories that at most one percolating cluster can exist in a network. We show that several coexisting percolating clusters (CPCs) can emerge in networks due to limited mixing, i.e., a finite and sufficiently small number of interlinks between network modules. We develop an approach called modular message passing (MMP) to describe and verify these observations. We demonstrate that the appearance of CPCs is an important source of inaccuracy in previously introduced percolation theories, such as the message passing (MP) approach, which is a state-of-the-art theory based on the belief propagation method. Moreover, we show that the MMP theory improves significantly over the predictions of MP for percolation on synthetic networks with limited mixing and also on several real-world networks. These findings have important implications for understanding the robustness of networks and in quantifying epidemic outbreaks in the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model of disease spread. PMID:27415281

  5. Roots at the Percolation Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, E.; Ahmed, M. A.; Kaestner, A.; Vontobel, P.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Carminati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Much of the carbon assimilated by plants during photosynthesis is lost to the soil via rhizodepositions. One component of rhizopdeposition is mucilage, a hydrogel that dramatically alters the soil physical properties. Mucilage was assumed to explain unexpectedly low rhizosphere rewetting rates during irrigation (Carminati et al. 2010) and temporarily water repellency in the rhizosphere after severe drying (Moradi et al. 2012).Here, we present an experimental and theoretical study for the rewetting behaviour of a soil mixed with mucilage, which was used as an analogue of the rhizosphere. Our samples were made of two layers of untreated soils separated by a thin layer (ca. 1 mm) of soil treated with mucilage. We prepared soil columns of varying particle size, mucilage concentration and height of the middle layer above the water table. The dry soil columns were re-wetted by capillary rise from the bottom.The rewetting of the middle layer showed a distinct dual behavior. For mucilage concentrations lower than a certain threshold, water could cross the thin layer almost immediately after rewetting of bulk soil. At slightly higher mucilage concentrations, the thin layer was almost impermeable. The mucilage concentration at the threshold strongly depended on particle size: the smaller the particle size the larger the soil specific surface and the more mucilage was needed to cover the entire particle surface and to induce water repellency.We applied a classic pore network model to simulate the experimental observations. In the model a certain fraction of nodes were randomly disconnected to reproduce the effect of mucilage in temporarily blocking the flow. The percolation model could qualitatively reproduce well the threshold characteristics of the experiments. Our experiments, together with former observations of water dynamics in the rhizosphere, suggest that the rhizosphere is near the percolation threshold, where small variations in mucilage concentration sensitively

  6. A Percolation Model for Fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Developments in fracking technology have enabled the recovery of vast reserves of oil and gas; yet, there is very little publicly available scientific research on fracking. Traditional reservoir simulator models for fracking are computationally expensive, and require many hours on a supercomputer to simulate a single fracking treatment. We have developed a computationally inexpensive percolation model for fracking that can be used to understand the processes and risks associated with fracking. In our model, a fluid is injected from a single site and a network of fractures grows from the single site. The fracture network grows in bursts, the failure of a relatively strong bond followed by the failure of a series of relatively weak bonds. These bursts display similarities to micro seismic events observed during a fracking treatment. The bursts follow a power-law (Gutenburg-Richter) frequency-size distribution and have growth rates similar to observed earthquake moment rates. These are quantifiable features that can be compared to observed microseismicity to help understand the relationship between observed microseismicity and the underlying fracture network.

  7. Multiple-well invasion percolation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, A D; Romeu, M C; Moreira, A A; Andrade, R F S; Andrade, J S

    2008-04-01

    When the invasion percolation model is applied as a simplified model for the displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous one, the distribution of displaced mass follows two distinct universality classes, depending on the criteria used to stop the displacement. Here we study the distribution of mass for this process, in the case where four extraction wells are placed around a single injection well in the middle of a square lattice. Our analysis considers the limit where the pressure of the extraction well Pe is zero; in other words, an extraction well is capped as soon as less viscous fluid reaches that extraction well. Our results show that, as expected, the probability of stopping the production with small amounts of displaced mass is greatly reduced. We also investigate whether or not creating extra extraction wells is an efficient strategy. We show that the probability of increasing the amount of displaced fluid by adding an extra extraction well depends on the total recovered mass obtained before adding this well. The results presented here could be relevant to determine efficient strategies in oil exploration. PMID:18517620

  8. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P.M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M.A. Center for Fundamental Materials Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 )

    1991-12-15

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates ({ital p}{sub {ital c}}) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-{ital p}{sub {ital c}}'s arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius {ital R}{sub {ital c}}, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  9. Short-time dynamics of percolation observables

    SciTech Connect

    Wanzeller, Wanderson G.; Mendes, Tereza; Krein, Gastao

    2006-11-15

    We consider the critical short-time evolution of magnetic and droplet-percolation order parameters for the Ising model in two and three dimensions, through Monte Carlo simulations with the (local) heat-bath method. We find qualitatively different dynamic behaviors for the two types of order parameters. More precisely, we find that the percolation order parameter does not have a power-law behavior as encountered for the magnetization, but develops a scale (related to the relaxation time to equilibrium) in the Monte Carlo time. We argue that this difference is due to the difficulty in forming large clusters at the early stages of the evolution. Our results show that, although the descriptions in terms of magnetic and percolation order parameters may be equivalent in the equilibrium regime, greater care must be taken to interpret percolation observables at short times. In particular, this concerns the attempts to describe the dynamics of the deconfinement phase transition in QCD using cluster observables.

  10. Connecting the vulcanization transition to percolation.

    PubMed

    Peng, W; Goldbart, P M; McKane, A J

    2001-09-01

    The vulcanization transition is addressed via a minimal replica-field-theoretic model. The appropriate long-wavelength behavior of the two- and three-point vertex functions is considered diagrammatically, to all orders in perturbation theory, and identified with the corresponding quantities in the Houghton-Reeve-Wallace field-theoretic approach to the percolation critical phenomenon. Hence, it is shown that percolation theory correctly captures the critical phenomenology of the vulcanization transition associated with the liquid and critical states.

  11. Percolation of secret correlations in a network

    SciTech Connect

    Leverrier, Anthony; Garcia-Patron, Raul

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we explore the analogy between entanglement and secret classical correlations in the context of large networks--more precisely, the question of percolation of secret correlations in a network. It is known that entanglement percolation in quantum networks can display a highly nontrivial behavior depending on the topology of the network and on the presence of entanglement between the nodes. Here we show that this behavior, thought to be of a genuine quantum nature, also occurs in a classical context.

  12. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ<60° while a percolation threshold exists for θ>60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  13. Critical exponents of the explosive percolation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2014-04-01

    In a new type of percolation phase transition, which was observed in a set of nonequilibrium models, each new connection between vertices is chosen from a number of possibilities by an Achlioptas-like algorithm. This causes preferential merging of small components and delays the emergence of the percolation cluster. First simulations led to a conclusion that a percolation cluster in this irreversible process is born discontinuously, by a discontinuous phase transition, which results in the term "explosive percolation transition." We have shown that this transition is actually continuous (second order) though with an anomalously small critical exponent of the percolation cluster. Here we propose an efficient numerical method enabling us to find the critical exponents and other characteristics of this second-order transition for a representative set of explosive percolation models with different number of choices. The method is based on gluing together the numerical solutions of evolution equations for the cluster size distribution and power-law asymptotics. For each of the models, with high precision, we obtain critical exponents and the critical point.

  14. Generalized epidemic process and tricritical dynamic percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Hans-Karl; Müller, Martin; Stenull, Olaf

    2004-08-01

    The renowned general epidemic process describes the stochastic evolution of a population of individuals which are either susceptible, infected, or dead. A second order phase transition belonging to the universality class of dynamic isotropic percolation lies between the endemic and pandemic behavior of the process. We generalize the general epidemic process by introducing a fourth kind of individuals, viz., individuals which are weakened by the process but not yet infected. This weakening gives rise to a mechanism that introduces a global instability in the spreading of the process and therefore opens the possibility of a discontinuous transition in addition to the usual continuous percolation transition. The tricritical point separating the lines of first and second order transitions constitutes an independent universality class, namely, the universality class of tricritical dynamic isotropic percolation. Using renormalized field theory we work out a detailed scaling description of this universality class. We calculate the scaling exponents in an ɛ expansion below the upper critical dimension dc=5 for various observables describing tricritical percolation clusters and their spreading properties. In a remarkable contrast to the usual percolation transition, the exponents β and β' governing the two order parameters, viz., the mean density and the percolation probability, turn out to be different at the tricritical point. In addition to the scaling exponents we calculate for all our static and dynamic observables logarithmic corrections to the mean-field scaling behavior at dc=5 .

  15. Effect of filler alignment on percolation in polymer nanocomposites using tunneling-percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sohan; Sabet, Fereshteh A.; Jasiuk, Iwona; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examine the effect of filler alignment on percolation behavior of polymer nanocomposites using Monte Carlo simulations of monodisperse prolate and oblate hard-core soft-shell ellipsoids representing carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets, respectively. The percolation threshold is observed to increase with increasing extent of alignment as expected. For a highly aligned system of rod-like fillers, the simulation results are shown to be in good agreement with the second virial approximation based predictions. However, for a highly aligned system of disk-like fillers, the second virial approximation based results are observed to significantly deviate from the simulations, even for higher aspect ratios. The effect of filler alignment on anisotropy in percolation behavior is also studied by predicting the percolation threshold along different directions. The anisotropy in percolation threshold is found to vanish even for highly aligned systems of fillers with increasing system size.

  16. Percolation on hypergraphs with four-edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatib Damavandi, Ojan; Ziff, Robert M.

    2015-10-01

    We study percolation on self-dual hypergraphs that contain hyperedges with four bounding vertices, or ‘four-edges’, using three different generators, each containing bonds or sites with three distinct probabilities p, r, and t connecting the four vertices. We find explicit values of these probabilities that satisfy the self-duality conditions discussed by Bollobás and Riordan. This demonstrates that explicit solutions of the self-duality conditions can be found using generators containing bonds and sites with independent probabilities. These solutions also provide new examples of lattices where exact percolation critical points are known. One of the generators exhibits three distinct criticality solutions (p, r, t). We carry out Monte-Carlo simulations of two of the generators on two different hypergraphs to confirm the critical values. For the case of the hypergraph and uniform generator studied by Wierman et al, we also determine the threshold p = 0.441 374 ± 0.000 001, which falls within the tight bounds that they derived. Furthermore, we consider a generator in which all or none of the vertices can connect, and find a soluble inhomogeneous percolation system that interpolates between site percolation on the union-jack lattice and bond percolation on the square lattice.

  17. Continuum percolation of congruent overlapping spherocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Su, Xianglong; Jiao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Continuum percolation of randomly orientated congruent overlapping spherocylinders (composed of cylinder of height H with semispheres of diameter D at the ends) with aspect ratio α =H /D in [0 ,∞ ) is studied. The percolation threshold ϕc, percolation transition width Δ, and correlation-length critical exponent ν for spherocylinders with α in [0, 200] are determined with a high degree of accuracy via extensive finite-size scaling analysis. A generalized excluded-volume approximation for percolation threshold with an exponent explicitly depending on both aspect ratio and excluded volume for arbitrary α values in [0 ,∞ ) is proposed and shown to yield accurate predictions of ϕc for an extremely wide range of α in [0, 2000] based on available numerical and experimental data. We find ϕc is a universal monotonic decreasing function of α and is independent of the effective particle size. Our study has implications in percolation theory for nonspherical particles and composite material design.

  18. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2016-02-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal—applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics—show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again.

  19. Quantum percolation by Arnoldi-Saad diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Hisao

    1998-03-01

    A quantum percolation problem is studied in two and three dimensions numerically by approximately diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian using the Arnoldi-Saad method. In this problem, the randomness is implemented as random site percolation with probability p for site occupation but is reflected as a random hopping term v_ij in the tight-binding Hamiltonian: H = sumi ɛi |i>v_ij|i>percolation problems but also yields an apparently anomalous behavior of the central gap as a function of p.

  20. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Dapp, Wolf B; Müser, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal--applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics--show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again. PMID:26839261

  1. Fluid leakage near the percolation threshold

    PubMed Central

    Dapp, Wolf B.; Müser, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Percolation is a concept widely used in many fields of research and refers to the propagation of substances through porous media (e.g., coffee filtering), or the behaviour of complex networks (e.g., spreading of diseases). Percolation theory asserts that most percolative processes are universal, that is, the emergent powerlaws only depend on the general, statistical features of the macroscopic system, but not on specific details of the random realisation. In contrast, our computer simulations of the leakage through a seal—applying common assumptions of elasticity, contact mechanics, and fluid dynamics—show that the critical behaviour (how the flow ceases near the sealing point) solely depends on the microscopic details of the last constriction. It appears fundamentally impossible to accurately predict from statistical properties of the surfaces alone how strongly we have to tighten a water tap to make it stop dripping and also how it starts dripping once we loosen it again. PMID:26839261

  2. Percolation conductivity in hafnium sub-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Islamov, D. R. Gritsenko, V. A.; Cheng, C. H.; Chin, A.

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we demonstrated experimentally that formation of chains and islands of oxygen vacancies in hafnium sub-oxides (HfO{sub x}, x < 2) leads to percolation charge transport in such dielectrics. Basing on the model of Éfros-Shklovskii percolation theory, good quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical data of current-voltage characteristics was achieved. Based on the percolation theory suggested model shows that hafnium sub-oxides consist of mixtures of metallic Hf nanoscale clusters of 1–2 nm distributed onto non-stoichiometric HfO{sub x}. It was shown that reported approach might describe low resistance state current-voltage characteristics of resistive memory elements based on HfO{sub x}.

  3. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A.; Kolaczyk, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed.

  4. Percolation under noise: Detecting explosive percolation using the second-largest component.

    PubMed

    Viles, Wes; Ginestet, Cedric E; Tang, Ariana; Kramer, Mark A; Kolaczyk, Eric D

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing between different rates of percolation under noise. A statistical model of percolation is constructed allowing for the birth and death of edges as well as the presence of noise in the observations. This graph-valued stochastic process is composed of a latent and an observed nonstationary process, where the observed graph process is corrupted by type-I and type-II errors. This produces a hidden Markov graph model. We show that for certain choices of parameters controlling the noise, the classical (Erdős-Rényi) percolation is visually indistinguishable from a more rapid form of percolation. In this setting, we compare two different criteria for discriminating between these two percolation models, based on the interquartile range (IQR) of the first component's size, and on the maximal size of the second-largest component. We show through data simulations that this second criterion outperforms the IQR of the first component's size, in terms of discriminatory power. The maximal size of the second component therefore provides a useful statistic for distinguishing between different rates of percolation, under physically motivated conditions for the birth and death of edges, and under noise. The potential application of the proposed criteria for the detection of clinically relevant percolation in the context of applied neuroscience is also discussed. PMID:27300904

  5. Percolation threshold on planar Euclidean Gabriel graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrenbrock, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In the present article, numerical simulations have been performed to find the bond and site percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Gabriel graphs (GG) for Poisson point processes. GGs belong to the family of "proximity graphs" and are discussed, e.g., in context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad-hoc networks. Finite-size scaling analyses have been performed to find the critical points and critical exponents ν, β and γ. The critical exponents obtained this way verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  6. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  7. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  8. Percolation in a kinetic opinion exchange model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Anjan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    We study the percolation transition of the geometrical clusters in the square-lattice LCCC model [a kinetic opinion exchange model introduced by Lallouache, Chakrabarti, Chakraborti, and Chakrabarti, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.056112 82, 056112 (2010)] with the change in conviction and influencing parameter. The cluster is comprised of the adjacent sites having an opinion value greater than or equal to a prefixed threshold value of opinion (Ω). The transition point is different from that obtained for the transition of the order parameter (average opinion value) found by Lallouache Although the transition point varies with the change in the threshold value of the opinion, the critical exponents for the percolation transition obtained from the data collapses of the maximum cluster size, the cluster size distribution, and the Binder cumulant remain the same. The exponents are also independent of the values of conviction and influencing parameters, indicating the robustness of this transition. The exponents do not match any other known percolation exponents (e.g., the static Ising, dynamic Ising, and standard percolation). This means that the LCCC model belongs to a separate universality class.

  9. Temporal percolation in activity-driven networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2014-03-01

    We study the temporal percolation properties of temporal networks by taking as a representative example the recently proposed activity-driven-network model [N. Perra et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 469 (2012), 10.1038/srep00469]. Building upon an analytical framework based on a mapping to hidden variables networks, we provide expressions for the percolation time Tp marking the onset of a giant connected component in the integrated network. In particular, we consider both the generating function formalism, valid for degree-uncorrelated networks, and the general case of networks with degree correlations. We discuss the different limits of the two approaches, indicating the parameter regions where the correlated threshold collapses onto the uncorrelated case. Our analytical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations of the model. The temporal percolation concept can be fruitfully applied to study epidemic spreading on temporal networks. We show in particular how the susceptible-infected-removed model on an activity-driven network can be mapped to the percolation problem up to a time given by the spreading rate of the epidemic process. This mapping allows us to obtain additional information on this process, not available for previous approaches.

  10. Microstructures, percolation thresholds, and rock physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Y.; Chelidze, T.; Le Ravalec, M.

    1997-09-01

    The physical properties (transport properties and mechanical properties) of porous/cracked rocks are mainly functions of their microstructure. In this connection the problem of critical (threshold) porosity for transport, elasticity and mechanical strength is especially important. Two dominant mathematical formalisms — effective medium theory (EMT) and percolation theory — pretend to give answers to this problem. Some of the EMT models do not predict any threshold (differential effective medium). Other EMT models (self-consistent models) do predict thresholds, but it is shown that these thresholds are fictitious and result from an extension of a theory beyond its limit of validity. The failure of EMT methods at high pores/crack concentrations is the result of clustering effects. The appropriate formalism to correctly describe the phenomenon of clustering of pores and cracks and the behaviour of a system close to its critical porosity is percolation theory. Percolation thresholds can be predicted in that case from classical site or bond percolation on regular or random lattices. The threshold values depend on the density and average size of pores/cracks so that porosity is not sufficient in general to characterize the threshold for a specific physical property. The general term 'critical porosity' should thus be used with caution and it is preferable to specify which property is concerned and what kind of microstructure is present. This term can be more safely used for a population of rocks which have an identical average shape of pores/cracks and for a given physical property.

  11. Toxicity of ammonia in pore-water and in the water column to freshwater benthic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, F.W.; Kahl, M.D.; Rau, D.M.; Balcer, M.D.; Ankley, G.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia has been mentioned as both a primary toxicant and a factor that can produce false positive results in laboratory sediment tests using benthic invertebrates. This study developed a sediment dosing system that percolates an ammonia solution through sediment to achieve target porewater ammonia concentrations that remain stable over four and ten day spiked sediment tests. Ten day flow-through water-only tests and ten day spiked sediment tests were used to determine the toxicity of ammonia in the water column and in the sediment pore-water to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and the midge Chironomus tentans. Four-day tests were run with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The relationship between water column ammonia toxicity and sediment pore-water ammonia toxicity is influenced by the organism`s association with the sediment. For Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus tentans that burrow into the sediment and are in direct contact with the porewater, the pore-water LC50 for ammonia is 30--40% higher than the water-only LC50 for each species. Hyalella azteca is epibenthic and avoids ammonia spiked sediment, thus ammonia in the water column is considerably more toxic than the pore-water ammonia with the porewater LC50 about 800% higher than the water only LC50.

  12. Relevance of percolation theory to the vulcanization transition.

    PubMed

    Janssen, H K; Stenull, O

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between vulcanization and percolation is explored from the perspective of renormalized local field theory. We show to arbitrary order in perturbation theory that the vulcanization and percolation correlation functions are governed by the same Gell-Mann-Low renormalization-group equation. Hence, all scaling aspects of the vulcanization transition are reigned by the critical exponents of the percolation universality class.

  13. Phase transitions in supercritical explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Nagler, Jan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Xiaolong; Shen, Huawei; Zheng, Zhiming; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2013-05-01

    Percolation describes the sudden emergence of large-scale connectivity as edges are added to a lattice or random network. In the Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model (BFW) of percolation, edges sampled from a random graph are considered individually and either added to the graph or rejected provided that the fraction of accepted edges is never smaller than a decreasing function with asymptotic value of α, a constant. The BFW process has been studied as a model system for investigating the underlying mechanisms leading to discontinuous phase transitions in percolation. Here we focus on the regime α∈[0.6,0.95] where it is known that only one giant component, denoted C1, initially appears at the discontinuous phase transition. We show that at some point in the supercritical regime C1 stops growing and eventually a second giant component, denoted C2, emerges in a continuous percolation transition. The delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 and their asymptotic sizes both depend on the value of α and we establish by several techniques that there exists a bifurcation point αc=0.763±0.002. For α∈[0.6,αc), C1 stops growing the instant it emerges and the delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 decreases with increasing α. For α∈(αc,0.95], in contrast, C1 continues growing into the supercritical regime and the delay between the emergence of C1 and C2 increases with increasing α. As we show, αc marks the minimal delay possible between the emergence of C1 and C2 (i.e., the smallest edge density for which C2 can exist). We also establish many features of the continuous percolation of C2 including scaling exponents and relations.

  14. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  15. Sources of atmospheric ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

  16. Reversible first-order transition in Pauli percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymenko, Mykola; Moessner, Roderich; Shtengel, Kirill

    2015-06-01

    Percolation plays an important role in fields and phenomena as diverse as the study of social networks, the dynamics of epidemics, the robustness of electricity grids, conduction in disordered media, and geometric properties in statistical physics. We analyze a new percolation problem in which the first-order nature of an equilibrium percolation transition can be established analytically and verified numerically. The rules for this site percolation model are physical and very simple, requiring only the introduction of a weight W (n )=n +1 for a cluster of size n . This establishes that a discontinuous percolation transition can occur with qualitatively more local interactions than in all currently considered examples of explosive percolation; and that, unlike these, it can be reversible. This greatly extends both the applicability of such percolation models in principle and their reach in practice.

  17. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  18. Local Directed Percolation Probability in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Norio; Konno, Norio; Komatsu, Genichi; Kameoka, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    Using the series expansion method and Monte Carlo simulation,we study the directed percolation probability on the square lattice Vn0=\\{ (x,y) \\in {Z}2:x+y=even, 0 ≤ y ≤ n, - y ≤ x ≤ y \\}.We calculate the local percolationprobability Pnl defined as the connection probability between theorigin and a site (0,n). The critical behavior of P∞lis clearly different from the global percolation probability P∞g characterized by a critical exponent βg.An analysis based on the Padé approximants shows βl=2βg.In addition, we find that the series expansion of P2nl can be expressed as a function of Png.

  19. Discontinuous percolation transitions in real physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Kahng, B.

    2011-11-01

    We study discontinuous percolation transitions (PTs) in the diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model of the sol-gel transition as an example of real physical systems, in which the number of aggregation events is regarded as the number of bonds occupied in the system. When particles are Brownian, in which cluster velocity depends on cluster size as vs˜sη with η=-0.5, a larger cluster has less probability to collide with other clusters because of its smaller mobility. Thus, the cluster is effectively more suppressed in growth of its size. Then the giant cluster size increases drastically by merging those suppressed clusters near the percolation threshold, exhibiting a discontinuous PT. We also study the tricritical behavior by controlling the parameter η, and the tricritical point is determined by introducing an asymmetric Smoluchowski equation.

  20. Percolation in Self-Similar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Krioukov, Dmitri; Boguñá, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We provide a simple proof that graphs in a general class of self-similar networks have zero percolation threshold. The considered self-similar networks include random scale-free graphs with given expected node degrees and zero clustering, scale-free graphs with finite clustering and metric structure, growing scale-free networks, and many real networks. The proof and the derivation of the giant component size do not require the assumption that networks are treelike. Our results rely only on the observation that self-similar networks possess a hierarchy of nested subgraphs whose average degree grows with their depth in the hierarchy. We conjecture that this property is pivotal for percolation in networks.

  1. Abrupt percolation in small equilibrated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsoukas, Themis

    2015-05-01

    Networks can exhibit an abrupt transition in the form of a spontaneous self-organization of a sizable fraction of the population into a giant component of connected members. This behavior has been demonstrated in random graphs under suppressive rules that passively or actively attempt to delay the formation of the giant cluster. We show that suppressive rules are not a necessary condition for a sharp transition at the percolation threshold. Rather, a finite system with aggressive tendency to form a giant cluster may exhibit an instability at the percolation threshold that is relieved through an abrupt and discontinuous transition to the stable branch. We develop the theory for a class of equilibrated networks that produce this behavior and find that the discontinuous jump is especially pronounced in small networks but disappears when the size of the system is infinite.

  2. Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Karpyn, Zuleima

    2015-01-31

    This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.

  3. Photosynthesis of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, W.A.

    1984-09-24

    This study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing ammonia using an innovative technique of combining air, water and sunlight. The technique involves passing moist air over a catalyst-doped, open-celled silica foam bed illuminated by concentrated sunlight. A catalytic reaction results in tounts of ammonia. The work summarized in this report included testing of a pilot (small scale) ammonia production system located on the roof of a Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Laboratory located in San Antonio, Texas. The system consisted of a catalyst foam bed located in a glass tube about three meters long and 5 centimeters in diameter and mounted on the focal line of a parabolic trough solar collector focused at the sun. The primary active ingredient in the catalyst was titanium dioxide. Moist air was blown through the glass tube, over illuminated catalyst foam bed. A catalytic reaction took place in the foam bed resulting in the production of ammonia gas. The ammonia gas was bubbled through a water scrubber where the ammonia was dissolved. The ammonia concentration in the scrubber water was then measured using chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry techniques to determine the ammonia production rate. Thirty-one tests were conducted in the roof top facility. A number of important process parameters were evaluated. The ammonia production rate from these tests varied from several milligrams per hour to a few micrograms per hour. The tests showed that ammonia production was possible although the yields were relatively low. Several aspects of the process could be improved to increase the yield rates. Specifically, better techniques for illuminating the catalyst with concentrated sunlight and for providing moisture at the catalyst surface should enhance the ammonia production rate. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Percolation properties in a traffic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feilong; Li, Daqing; Xu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Ruoqian; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    As a dynamical complex system, traffic is characterized by a transition from free flow to congestions, which is mostly studied in highways. However, despite its importance in developing congestion mitigation strategies, the understanding of this common traffic phenomenon in a city scale is still missing. An open question is how the traffic in the network collapses from a global efficient traffic to isolated local flows in small clusters, i.e. the question of traffic percolation. Here we study the traffic percolation properties on a lattice by simulation of an agent-based model for traffic. A critical traffic volume in this model distinguishes the free state from the congested state of traffic. Our results show that the threshold of traffic percolation decreases with increasing traffic volume and reaches a minimum value at the critical traffic volume. We show that this minimal threshold is the result of longest spatial correlation between traffic flows at the critical traffic volume. These findings may help to develop congestion mitigation strategies in a network view.

  5. On percolation as a cosmological test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekel, A.; West, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Difficulties in the use of percolation as a complementary statistic for the galaxy clustering pattern are pointed out by studying simple toy models and dynamical N-body models that represent the competing clustering scenarios. The percolation properties are found not to be very sensitive to the presence of pancakes and strings once they are clumpy, and hence they do not distinguish properly between models that are very different. In the case of very smooth pancakes, the ability to percolate depends on sampling parameters, such as the mean number density and the volume, in a way which is unknown a priori because it depends on the same properties that the test ought to measure. This problem could, in principle, be eased by using volume-limited samples of high mean number density (an order of magnitude denser than the CfA redshift survey volume limited at 4000 km/s) and by comparing to models of identical number density and volume. An alternative approach, based on the sampling effects themselves, may provide a qualitative test for pancakes in samples of lower densities.

  6. Method for forming ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  7. Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

  8. Topology of a percolating soil pore network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capa-Morocho, M.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Hapca, S. M.; Houston, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    A connectivity function defined by the 3D-Euler number, is a topological indicator and can be related to hydraulic properties (Vogel and Roth, 2001). This study aims to develop connectivity Euler indexes as indicators of the ability of soils for fluid percolation. The starting point was a 3D grey image acquired by X-ray computed tomography of a soil at bulk density of 1.2 mg cm-3. This image was used in the simulation of 40000 particles following a directed random walk algorithms with 7 binarization thresholds. These data consisted of 7 files containing the simulated end points of the 40000 random walks, obtained in Ruiz-Ramos et al. (2010). MATLAB software was used for computing the frequency matrix of the number of particles arriving at every end point of the random walks and their 3D representation. In a former work (Capa et al., 2011) a criteria for choosing the optimal threshold of grey value was identified: Final positions were divided in two subgroups, cg1 (positions with frequency of the number of particles received greater than the median) and cg2 (frequency lower or equal to median). Images with maximum difference between the Z coordinate of the center of gravity of both subgroups were selected as those with optimal threshold that reflects the major internal differences in soil structure that are relevant to percolation. According to this criterion, the optimal threshold for the soil with density 1.2 mg cm-3 was 24.Thresholds above and below the optimal (23 and 25) were also considered to confirm this selection; therefore the analysis were conducted for three files (1 image with 3 grey threshold values, which have different porosity). Additionally, three random matrix simulations with the same porosity than the selected binaries images were used to test the existence of pore connectivity as a consequence of a non-random soil structure. Therefore, 6 matrix were considered (three structured and three random) for this study. Random matrix presented a normal

  9. Exploring percolative landscapes: Infinite cascades of geometric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, Gennady Y.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of many kinetic processes in 1+1 (space-time) dimensions results in 2 D directed percolative landscapes. The active phases of these models possess numerous hidden geometric orders characterized by various types of large-scale and/or coarse-grained percolative backbones that we define. For the patterns originated in the classical directed percolation (DP) and contact process we show from the Monte Carlo simulation data that these percolative backbones emerge at specific critical points as a result of continuous phase transitions. These geometric transitions belong to the DP universality class and their nonlocal order parameters are the capacities of corresponding backbones. The multitude of conceivable percolative backbones implies the existence of infinite cascades of such geometric transitions in the kinetic processes considered. We present simple arguments to support the conjecture that such cascades of transitions are a generic feature of percolation as well as of many other transitions with nonlocal order parameters.

  10. Percolation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Water management in the catalyst layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is confronted by two issues, flooding and dry out, both of which result in improper functioning of the fuel cell and lead to poor performance and degradation. At the present time, the data that has been reported about water percolation and wettability within a fuel cell catalyst layer is limited. A method and apparatus for measuring the percolation pressure in the catalyst layer has been developed based upon an experimental apparatus used to test water percolation in porous transport layers (PTL). The experimental setup uses a pseudo Hele-Shaw type testing where samples are compressed and a fluid is injected into the sample. Testing the samples gives percolation pressure plots which show trends in increasing percolation pressure with an increase in flow rate. A decrease in pressure was seen as percolation occurred in one sample, however the pressure only had a rising effect in the other sample.

  11. Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Soheil; Hesse, Marc A; Prodanović, Maša; Gardner, James E

    2015-11-27

    Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments.

  12. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  13. Epidemic Percolation Networks, Epidemic Outcomes, and Interventions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kenah, Eben; Miller, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemic percolation networks (EPNs) are directed random networks that can be used to analyze stochastic “Susceptible-Infectious-Removed” (SIR) and “Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed” (SEIR) epidemic models, unifying and generalizing previous uses of networks and branching processes to analyze mass-action and network-based S(E)IR models. This paper explains the fundamental concepts underlying the definition and use of EPNs, using them to build intuition about the final outcomes of epidemics. We then show how EPNs provide a novel and useful perspective on the design of vaccination strategies.

  14. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  15. Tree structure of a percolating Universe.

    PubMed

    Colombi, S; Pogosyan, D; Souradeep, T

    2000-12-25

    We present a numerical study of topological descriptors of initially Gaussian and scale-free density perturbations evolving via gravitational instability in an expanding Universe. The measured Euler number of the excursion set at the percolation threshold, delta(c), is positive and nearly equal to the number of isolated components, suggesting that these structures are trees. Our study of critical point counts reconciles the clumpy appearance of the density field at delta(c) with measured filamentary local curvature. In the Gaussian limit, we measure delta(c)>sigma, where sigma2 is the variance of the density field.

  16. Modied invasion percolation model for fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large reserves of natural gas and oil. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. We consider new models of Invasion Percolation, (IP) which are models that were originally introduced to represent the injection of an invading fluid into a fluid filled porous medium. A primary difference between our model and the original model is the elimination of any unbroken bonds whose end sites are both filled with fluid. While the original model was found to have statistics nearly identical to traditional percolation, we find significant statistical differences. In particular, the distribution of broken bond strengths displays a strong roll-over near the critical point. Another difference between traditional percolation clusters and clusters generated using our model is the absence of internal loops. The modified growth rule prevents the formation of internal loops making the growing cluster ramified. Other ramified networks include drainage basins and DLA clusters. The study of drainage basins led to the development of Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. We used both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics to characterize simulated clusters using and found that the clusters generated by our model are statistically self-similar fractals. In addition to fractal clusters, IP also displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly through a spontaneous extension of percolating bonds. We define a burst to be a consecutive series of broken bonds whose strengths are all below a specified value. Using this definition of bursts we found good agreement with a power-law frequency-area distribution. Our model displays many of the characteristics of an energy landscape, and shows many similarities to DLA, neural networks, ecological landscapes, and the world wide web. We anticipate that this

  17. Equivalence of several generalized percolation models on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joel C.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, many variants of percolation have been used to study network structure and the behavior of processes spreading on networks. These include bond percolation, site percolation, k -core percolation, bootstrap percolation, the generalized epidemic process, and the Watts threshold model (WTM). We show that—except for bond percolation—each of these processes arises as a special case of the WTM, and bond percolation arises from a small modification. In fact "heterogeneous k -core percolation," a corresponding "heterogeneous bootstrap percolation" model, and the generalized epidemic process are completely equivalent to one another and the WTM. We further show that a natural generalization of the WTM in which individuals "transmit" or "send a message" to their neighbors with some probability less than 1 can be reformulated in terms of the WTM, and so this apparent generalization is in fact not more general. Finally, we show that in bond percolation, finding the set of nodes in the component containing a given node is equivalent to finding the set of nodes activated if that node is initially activated and the node thresholds are chosen from the appropriate distribution. A consequence of these results is that mathematical techniques developed for the WTM apply to these other models as well, and techniques that were developed for some particular case may in fact apply much more generally.

  18. Understanding and predicting deep percolation under surface irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethune, M. G.; Selle, B.; Wang, Q. J.

    2008-12-01

    A lysimeter experiment was conducted in southeastern Australia to quantify the deep percolation response under irrigated pasture to different soil types, water table depths, and ponding times during surface irrigation. Deep percolation was governed by the final infiltration rate of the subsoil, the ponding time, the water table depth, and the amount of water stored in the rootzone between saturation and field capacity. These key variables were used to characterize both steady- and nonsteady-state percolation in a conceptual model of deep percolation. The conceptual model was found to provide an effective representation of deep percolation for both the lysimeter and field-scale water balance data. Steady-state percolation during irrigation was the dominant process contributing to deep percolation on most of the studied soils. Nonsteady-state percolation (redistribution) was very important for the sandiest soil type. The conceptual model provided better prediction of deep percolation than both data-based model (artificial neural network) and process-based modeling approach (1-D Richards' equation model).

  19. Percolation with long-range correlations for epidemic spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Xian-Wu; Jin, Zhun-Zhi

    2000-12-01

    A percolation model with long-range correlations was introduced to investigate the phenomena of epidemic spreading by Monte Carlo simulations. The correlation exponent α and pathogenic ratio s correspond to different spreading methods and pathogenicity of variant epidemics. As the correlation changes from a weak one to a strong one, the patterns change from site percolation to Eden cluster when pathogenic ratio s=1, or Leath percolation cluster when s<1. Corresponding to change of patterns, the fractal dimension increases up to space dimension. The critical behavior in epidemic spreading has been examined based on the model. It is found that correlation has a great influence on the threshold of spreading percolation.

  20. Recent advances in percolation theory and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberi, Abbas Ali

    2015-05-01

    Percolation is the simplest fundamental model in statistical mechanics that exhibits phase transitions signaled by the emergence of a giant connected component. Despite its very simple rules, percolation theory has successfully been applied to describe a large variety of natural, technological and social systems. Percolation models serve as important universality classes in critical phenomena characterized by a set of critical exponents which correspond to a rich fractal and scaling structure of their geometric features. We will first outline the basic features of the ordinary model. Over the years a variety of percolation models has been introduced some of which with completely different scaling and universal properties from the original model with either continuous or discontinuous transitions depending on the control parameter, dimensionality and the type of the underlying rules and networks. We will try to take a glimpse at a number of selective variations including Achlioptas process, half-restricted process and spanning cluster-avoiding process as examples of the so-called explosive percolation. We will also introduce non-self-averaging percolation and discuss correlated percolation and bootstrap percolation with special emphasis on their recent progress. Directed percolation process will be also discussed as a prototype of systems displaying a nonequilibrium phase transition into an absorbing state. In the past decade, after the invention of stochastic Löwner evolution (SLE) by Oded Schramm, two-dimensional (2D) percolation has become a central problem in probability theory leading to the two recent Fields medals. After a short review on SLE, we will provide an overview on existence of the scaling limit and conformal invariance of the critical percolation. We will also establish a connection with the magnetic models based on the percolation properties of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn and geometric spin clusters. As an application we will discuss how percolation

  1. Correction-to-scaling exponent for two-dimensional percolation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziff, Robert M.

    2011-02-15

    We show that the correction-to-scaling exponents in two-dimensional percolation are bounded by {Omega}{<=}72/91, {omega}=D{Omega}{<=}3/2, and {Delta}{sub 1}={nu}{omega}{<=}2, based upon Cardy's result for the crossing probability on an annulus. The upper bounds are consistent with many previous measurements of site percolation on square and triangular lattices and new measurements for bond percolation, suggesting that they are exact. They also agree with exponents for hulls proposed recently by Aharony and Asikainen, based upon results of den Nijs. A corrections scaling form evidently applicable to site percolation is also found.

  2. Ammonia Release on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Crew: Approximately 53% metabolic load Product of protein metabolism Limit production of ammonia by external regulation NOT possbile Payloads Potential source Scientific experiments Thorough safety review ensures sufficient levels of containment

  3. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  4. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  5. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  6. Alternative E ammonia feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, M.J.; Wright, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    Power plants are using more Ammonia for increasing precipitator and baghouse efficiency, for SCR and SNCR processes, and for controlling acid stack plumes and dewpoint corrosion. These simple systems inject ammonia and air into the furnace or the precipitator or baghouse inlet ductwork. The common feedstocks in use today are Anhydrous ammonia [NH{sub 3}] and Aqueous ammonia [NH{sub 4}OH], both defined as poison gases by US authorities and most Western nations. Storage and handling procedures for these products are strictly regulated. Wilhelm Environmental Technologies Inc. is developing use of solid, formed or prilled Urea [CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}] as the feedstock. When heated in moist air, Urea sublimes to ammonia [NH{sub 3}] and carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}]. Urea is stored and handled without restrictions or environmental concerns. Urea is a more expensive feedstock than NH{sub 3}, but much less expensive than [NH{sub 4}OH]. The design, and operating results, of a pilot system at Jacksonville Electric St. John's River Plant [Unit 2] are described. The pilot plant successfully sublimed Urea up to 100 pounds/hour. Further testing is planned. Very large ammonia use may favor NH{sub 3}, but smaller quantities can be produced at attractive prices with Urea based ammonia systems. Storage costs are far less. Many fluidized-bed boilers can use pastille or solid urea metered directly into the existing cyclones for NO{sub x} control. This is more economical than aqueous ammonia or aqueous urea based technology.

  7. Water percolation through a clayey vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram, S.; Kurtzman, D.; Dahan, O.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryHeavy clay soils are regarded as less permeable due to their low saturated hydraulic conductivities, and are perceived as safe for the construction of unlined or soil-lined waste lagoons. Water percolation dynamics through a smectite-dominated clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy waste lagoon, waste channel and their margins was investigated using three independent vadose-zone monitoring systems. The monitoring systems, hosting 22 TDR sensors, were used for continuous measurements of the temporal variation in vadose zone water-content profiles. Results from 4 years of continuous measurements showed quick rises in sediment water content following rain events and temporal wastewater overflows. The percolation pattern indicated dominance of preferential flow through a desiccation-crack network crossing the entire clay sediment layer (depth of 12 m). High water-propagation velocities (0.4-23.6 m h-1) were observed, indicating that the desiccation-crack network remains open and serves as a preferential flow pathway year-round, even at high sediment water content (˜0.50 m3 m-3). The natural formation of desiccation-crack networks at the margins of waste lagoons induces rapid infiltration of raw waste to deep sections of the vadose zone, bypassing the sediment's most biogeochemically active parts, and jeopardizing groundwater quality.

  8. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  9. Spectral Dimension of a Percolation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta

    2005-03-01

    While the fractal dimension df describes the self-similar static nature of the lattice, the spectral dimension ds dictates the dynamic properties on it. Alexander and Orbach^1 conjectured that the spectral dimension might be exactly 4/3 for percolation networks with embedding euclidian dimension de >= 2. Recent numerical simulations^2, however, could not decisively prove or disprove this conjecture, although there are other indirect evidences that it is true. We believe that the failure of the simulations to decisively check the validity of the conjecture is due to the non-stochastic nature of the methods. Most of these simulations are Monte Carlo Methods based on a random-walk model and, in spite of very large number of walks on huge lattices, the results do not reach the satisfactory level. In this work we apply a stochastic approach^3 to determine the spectral dimension of percolation network for de >= 2 and check the validity of the Alexander-Orbach-conjecture. Due to its stochastic nature this method is numerically superior and more accurate than the conventional Monte Carlo simulations. References: 1. S. Alexander and R. Orbach, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 43 (1982) L625. 2. N. Pitsianis, G. Bleris and P. Argyrakis, Phys. Rev. B 39 (1989) 7097. 3. J. Rudra and J. Kozak, Phys. Lett A 151 (1990) 429.

  10. Explosive percolation transitions in growing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. M.; Son, S.-W.; Kahng, B.

    2016-03-01

    Recent extensive studies of the explosive percolation (EP) model revealed that the EP transition is second order with an extremely small value of the critical exponent β associated with the order parameter. This result was obtained from static networks, in which the number of nodes in the system remains constant during the evolution of the network. However, explosive percolating behavior of the order parameter can be observed in social networks, which are often growing networks, where the number of nodes in the system increases as dynamics proceeds. However, extensive studies of the EP transition in such growing networks are still missing. Here we study the nature of the EP transition in growing networks by extending an existing growing network model to a general case in which m node candidates are picked up in the Achiloptas process. When m =2 , this model reduces to the existing model, which undergoes an infinite-order transition. We show that when m ≥3 , the transition becomes second order due to the suppression effect against the growth of large clusters. Using the rate-equation approach and performing numerical simulations, we also show that the exponent β decreases algebraically with increasing m , whereas it does exponentially in a corresponding static random network model. Finally, we find that the hyperscaling relations hold but in different forms.

  11. k-core percolation on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    We generalize the theory of k-core percolation on complex networks to k-core percolation on multiplex networks, where k ≡(k1,k2,...,kM). Multiplex networks can be defined as networks with vertices of one kind but M different types of edges, representing different types of interactions. For such networks, the k-core is defined as the largest subgraph in which each vertex has at least ki edges of each type, i =1,2,...,M. We derive self-consistency equations to obtain the birth points of the k-cores and their relative sizes for uncorrelated multiplex networks with an arbitrary degree distribution. To clarify our general results, we consider in detail multiplex networks with edges of two types and solve the equations in the particular case of Erdős-Rényi and scale-free multiplex networks. We find hybrid phase transitions at the emergence points of k-cores except the (1,1)-core for which the transition is continuous. We apply the k-core decomposition algorithm to air-transportation multiplex networks, composed of two layers, and obtain the size of (k1,k2)-cores.

  12. Percolation on bipartite scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooyberghs, H.; Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Indekeu, J. O.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies introduced biased (degree-dependent) edge percolation as a model for failures in real-life systems. In this work, such process is applied to networks consisting of two types of nodes with edges running only between nodes of unlike type. Such bipartite graphs appear in many social networks, for instance in affiliation networks and in sexual-contact networks in which both types of nodes show the scale-free characteristic for the degree distribution. During the depreciation process, an edge between nodes with degrees k and q is retained with a probability proportional to (, where α is positive so that links between hubs are more prone to failure. The removal process is studied analytically by introducing a generating functions theory. We deduce exact self-consistent equations describing the system at a macroscopic level and discuss the percolation transition. Critical exponents are obtained by exploiting the Fortuin-Kasteleyn construction which provides a link between our model and a limit of the Potts model.

  13. Novel percolation transitions and coupled catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Raissa

    Collections of interdependent networks are at the core of modern society, spanning physical, biological and social systems. Simple mathematical models of the structure and function of networks can provide important insights into real-world systems, enhancing our ability to steer and control them. Here our focus is on abrupt changes in networks, due both to phase transitions and to jumping between bi-stable equilibria. We begin with an overview of novel classes of percolation phase transitions that result from repeated, small interventions intended to delay the transition. These new phenomena allow us to extend percolation approaches to modular networks, Brownian motion, and cluster growth dynamics. We then focus on abrupt transitions due to a system jumping between bi-stable equilibria, modeled as a cusp catastrophe in nonlinear dynamics. We show that when systems that each undergo a cusp catastrophe interact, we can observe a new phenomena of catastrophe-hopping leading to non-local cascading failures. Here an intermediate system facilitates the propagation of a sudden change or collapse, and we show that catastrophe hopping is consistent with the outbreak of protests observed during the Arab Spring of 2011.

  14. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  15. Explosive percolation transitions in growing networks.

    PubMed

    Oh, S M; Son, S-W; Kahng, B

    2016-03-01

    Recent extensive studies of the explosive percolation (EP) model revealed that the EP transition is second order with an extremely small value of the critical exponent β associated with the order parameter. This result was obtained from static networks, in which the number of nodes in the system remains constant during the evolution of the network. However, explosive percolating behavior of the order parameter can be observed in social networks, which are often growing networks, where the number of nodes in the system increases as dynamics proceeds. However, extensive studies of the EP transition in such growing networks are still missing. Here we study the nature of the EP transition in growing networks by extending an existing growing network model to a general case in which m node candidates are picked up in the Achiloptas process. When m = 2, this model reduces to the existing model, which undergoes an infinite-order transition. We show that when m ≥ 3, the transition becomes second order due to the suppression effect against the growth of large clusters. Using the rate-equation approach and performing numerical simulations, we also show that the exponent β decreases algebraically with increasing m, whereas it does exponentially in a corresponding static random network model. Finally, we find that the hyperscaling relations hold but in different forms. PMID:27078375

  16. Behavior of cellulose and xylan in aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Xin, Donglin; Jia, Lili; Zhao, Chengjuan; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-12-01

    The effect of aqueous ammonia on the solubilization of cellulose and xylans was investigated by detecting the amounts of reducing sugars and monosaccharides in the treatment liquors. The degree of cellulose and xylan solubilization increased with the increase of treatment temperature. When the treatment temperature increased from 20 to 90 °C, the amounts of reducing sugars released from Avicel and cellulose fiber by 21 % ammonia at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 for 24 h increased from 1.0 and 0.9 to 4.4 and 2.7 mg/g dry matter (DM), respectively. The amounts of reducing sugars released from wheat straw, beechwood, and oat spelt xylans increased from 1.2-7.0 to 3.3-13.5 mg/g DM. Xylans appeared to be more susceptible than cellulose in aqueous ammonia treatment. Structure analysis of untreated and treated Avicel and cellulose fiber showed that aqueous ammonia increased the specific surface area and crystallinity index of cellulose. Most of the cellulose and xylan that were solubilized existed in the form of oligomers such as cello-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides. Xylobiose and xylotriose were the main oligosaccharides released from oat spelt xylan by aqueous ammonia treatment as confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The results here indicated that a slight amount of cellulose and xylans was solubilized and low amounts of cellulase inhibitors, oligomers, were found during mild aqueous ammonia pretreatment process. Therefore, from the economical perspectives, mild ammonia pretreatment would be favorable for aqueous ammonia pretreatment of lignocelluloses.

  17. PRETREATMENT OF CORN STOVER BY SOAKING IN AQUEOUS AMMONIA PERCOLATION PROCESS. (R831645)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Electrical percolation networks of carbon nanotubes in a shear flow.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gyemin; Heo, Youhee; Shin, Kwanwoo; Sung, Bong June

    2012-01-01

    The effect of shear on the electrical percolation network of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites is investigated using computer simulations. Configurations of CNTs in a simple shear, obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations, are used to locate the electrical percolation network of CNTs and calculate the electric conductivity. When exposed to the shear, CNTs align parallel to the shear direction and the electrical percolation threshold CNT concentration decreases. Meanwhile, after a certain period of the shear imposition above a critical shear rate, CNTs begin to form an aggregate and the percolating network of CNTs is broken, thus decreasing the electric conductivity significantly. We also construct quasiphase diagrams for the aggregate formation and the electrical percolation network formation to investigate the effect of the shear rate and CNT concentration. PMID:22400548

  19. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan™ film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film.

  20. Percolation of localized attack on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai; Huang, Xuqing; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-02-01

    The robustness of complex networks against node failure and malicious attack has been of interest for decades, while most of the research has focused on random attack or hub-targeted attack. In many real-world scenarios, however, attacks are neither random nor hub-targeted, but localized, where a group of neighboring nodes in a network are attacked and fail. In this paper we develop a percolation framework to analytically and numerically study the robustness of complex networks against such localized attack. In particular, we investigate this robustness in Erdős-Rényi networks, random-regular networks, and scale-free networks. Our results provide insight into how to better protect networks, enhance cybersecurity, and facilitate the design of more robust infrastructures.

  1. Cluster size diversity, percolation, and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Tsang, I R; Tsang, I J

    1999-09-01

    Diversity of cluster size has been used as a measurement of complexity in several systems that generate a statistical distribution of clusters. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we present a statistical analysis of the cluster size diversity and the number of clusters generated on randomly occupied lattices for the Euclidean dimensions 1 to 6. A tuning effect for diversity of cluster size and critical probabilities associated with the maximum diversity and the maximum number of clusters are reported. The probability of maximum diversity is related to the percolation threshold and several scaling relations between the variables measured are reported. The statistics of cluster size diversity has important consequences in the statistical description of the Universe as a complex system. PMID:11970070

  2. Explosive Percolation with Multiple Giant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2011-03-01

    We generalize the random graph evolution process of Bohman, Frieze, and Wormald [T. Bohman, A. Frieze, and N. C. Wormald, Random Struct. AlgorithmsRSALFD1042-983210.1002/rsa.20038, 25, 432 (2004)]. Potential edges, sampled uniformly at random from the complete graph, are considered one at a time and either added to the graph or rejected provided that the fraction of accepted edges is never smaller than a decreasing function asymptotically approaching the value α=1/2. We show that multiple giant components appear simultaneously in a strongly discontinuous percolation transition and remain distinct. Furthermore, tuning the value of α determines the number of such components with smaller α leading to an increasingly delayed and more explosive transition. The location of the critical point and strongly discontinuous nature are not affected if only edges which span components are sampled.

  3. Percolation of Blast Waves though Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has concentrated on the physical processes occurring when samples of sand, of varying moisture content, were shock compressed. In this study quartz sand samples are subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure and duration. Aspects of particle movement are discussed; the global movement of a bed hundreds of particles thick is a fraction of particle width. The main diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. Results are presented for a range of particle sizes, aspect ratio, density and moisture content. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by density and porosity the effect of moisture reveals a more complex dependence. The ISP acknowledges the support of the Atomic Weapons Establishment and Imperial College London.

  4. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO2-CaCu3Ti4O12 metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO2 metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  5. Percolation in binary and ternary mixtures of patchy colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiferling, Felix; de las Heras, Daniel; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate percolation in binary and ternary mixtures of patchy colloidal particles theoretically and using Monte Carlo simulations. Each particle has three identical patches, with distinct species having different types of patch. Theoretically we assume tree-like clusters and calculate the bonding probabilities using Wertheim's first-order perturbation theory for association. For ternary mixtures, we find up to eight fundamentally different percolated states. The states differ in terms of the species and pairs of species that have percolated. The strongest gel is a trigel or tricontinuous gel, in which each of the three species has percolated. The weakest gel is a mixed gel in which all of the particles have percolated, but none of the species percolates by itself. The competition between entropy of mixing and internal energy of bonding determines the stability of each state. Theoretical and simulation results are in very good agreement. The only significant difference is the temperature at the percolation threshold, which is overestimated by the theory due to the absence of correlations between bonds in the theoretical description.

  6. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris

    2014-10-27

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO{sub 2} metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  7. Percolation in binary and ternary mixtures of patchy colloids.

    PubMed

    Seiferling, Felix; de Las Heras, Daniel; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-08-21

    We investigate percolation in binary and ternary mixtures of patchy colloidal particles theoretically and using Monte Carlo simulations. Each particle has three identical patches, with distinct species having different types of patch. Theoretically we assume tree-like clusters and calculate the bonding probabilities using Wertheim's first-order perturbation theory for association. For ternary mixtures, we find up to eight fundamentally different percolated states. The states differ in terms of the species and pairs of species that have percolated. The strongest gel is a trigel or tricontinuous gel, in which each of the three species has percolated. The weakest gel is a mixed gel in which all of the particles have percolated, but none of the species percolates by itself. The competition between entropy of mixing and internal energy of bonding determines the stability of each state. Theoretical and simulation results are in very good agreement. The only significant difference is the temperature at the percolation threshold, which is overestimated by the theory due to the absence of correlations between bonds in the theoretical description. PMID:27544122

  8. The Ammonia-Soda Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1979-01-01

    This article is a condensed version of a commentary written to accompany a set of slides which describes the ammonia-soda process used by the ammonia-soda plant at Northwich of the United Kingdom. (HM)

  9. Liberation of ammonia by cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    Photoheterotrophic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria release ammonia when treated with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) to inhibit nitrogen incorporation into protein. This released ammonia can be derived from recently fixed nitrogen (nitrogen atmosphere) or endogenous reserves (argon atmosphere). Anaerobic ammonia release requires light and is stimulated by the photosystem II herbicides DCMU and Atrazine, regardless of the source of ammonia. As much as one quarter of the total cellular nitrogen can be released as ammonia by cyanbacteria treated with MSX and DCMU under argon in light. Chromatography of cell extracts indicates that virtually all cellular proteins are degraded. DCMU and Atrazine, at very low concentration, inhibit sustained uptake of the ammonia analog /sup 14/C methylamine. These data indicate that the herbicides interrupt ammonia uptake and retention by the cells, and support a role for photosystem II in ammonia metabolism.

  10. The Chemistry of Liquid Ammonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solvent and chemical properties of liquid ammonia are presented. In a certain sense, ammonia is a more versatile solvent than is water because of its ability to solubilize, without reaction, highly negative or reducing species. (Author/BB)

  11. Improved wheat for baking.

    PubMed

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  12. Truncated Long-Range Percolation on Oriented Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Enter, A. C. D.; de Lima, B. N. B.; Valesin, D.

    2016-07-01

    We consider different problems within the general theme of long-range percolation on oriented graphs. Our aim is to settle the so-called truncation question, described as follows. We are given probabilities that certain long-range oriented bonds are open; assuming that the sum of these probabilities is infinite, we ask if the probability of percolation is positive when we truncate the graph, disallowing bonds of range above a possibly large but finite threshold. We give some conditions in which the answer is affirmative. We also translate some of our results on oriented percolation to the context of a long-range contact process.

  13. Exact Solution of a Drop-Push Model for Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Satya N.; Dean, David S.

    2002-08-01

    Motivated by a computer science algorithm known as ``linear probing with hashing,'' we study a new type of percolation model whose basic features include a sequential ``dropping'' of particles on a substrate followed by their transport via a ``pushing'' mechanism. Our exact solution in one dimension shows that, unlike the ordinary random percolation model, the drop-push model has nontrivial spatial correlations generated by the dynamics itself. The critical exponents in the drop-push model are also different from those of the ordinary percolation. The relevance of our results to computer science is pointed out.

  14. Ammonia tank failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sweat, M.E.

    1983-04-01

    An ammonia tank failure at Hawkeye Chemical of Clinton, Iowa is discussed. The tank was a double-wall, 27,000 metric-ton tank built in 1968 and commissioned in December 1969. The paper presented covers the cause of the failure, repair, and procedural changes made to prevent recurrence of the failure. (JMT)

  15. Bigeodesics in First-Passage Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damron, Michael; Hanson, Jack

    2016-09-01

    In first-passage percolation, we place i.i.d. continuous weights at the edges of Z^2 and consider the weighted graph metric. A distance-minimizing path between points x and y is called a geodesic, and a bigeodesic is a doubly-infinite path whose segments are geodesics. It is a famous conjecture that almost surely, there are no bigeodesics. In the 1990s, Licea-Newman showed that, under a curvature assumption on the "asymptotic shape," all infinite geodesics have an asymptotic direction, and there is a full measure set {D subset [0,2π)} such that for any {θ in D} , there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in direction {θ} . In this paper, we show that there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in any deterministic direction, assuming the shape boundary is differentiable. This rules out existence of ground state pairs for the related disordered ferromagnet whose interface has a deterministic direction. Furthermore, it resolves the Benjamini-Kalai-Schramm "midpoint problem" (Benjamini et al. in Ann Probab 31, p. 1976, 2003). under the extra assumption that the limit shape boundary is differentiable.

  16. Percolation transition in networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jae Dong

    2007-08-01

    We introduce an exponential random graph model for networks with a fixed degree distribution and a tunable degree-degree correlation. We then investigate the nature of the percolation transition in a correlated network with a Poisson degree distribution. It is found that negative correlation is irrelevant in that the percolation transition in the disassortative network belongs to the same universality class as in the uncorrelated network. Positive correlation turns out to be relevant. The percolation transition in the assortative network is characterized by the nondiverging mean size of finite clusters and power-law scalings of the density of the largest cluster and the cluster size distribution in the nonpercolating phase as well as at the critical point. Our results suggest that the unusual type of percolation transition in the growing network models reported recently may be inherited from the assortative degree-degree correlation.

  17. Fission gas bubble percolation on crystallographically consistent grain boundary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal-Suárez, Daniel; David Alzate-Cardona, Juan; Restrepo-Parra, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Fission gas release in nuclear fuels can be modeled in the framework of percolation theory, where each grain boundary is classified as open or closed to the release of the fission gas. In the present work, two-dimensional grain boundary networks were assembled both at random and in a crystallographically consistent manner resembling a general textured microstructure. In the crystallographically consistent networks, grain boundaries were classified according to its misorientation. The percolation behavior of the grain boundary networks was evaluated as a function of radial cracks and radial thermal gradients in the fuel pellet. Percolation thresholds tend to shift to the left with increasing length and number of cracks, especially in the presence of thermal gradients. In general, the topology and percolation behavior of the crystallographically consistent networks differs from those of the random network.

  18. Social percolation and the influence of mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proykova, Ana; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2002-09-01

    In the marketing model of Solomon and Weisbuch, people buy a product only if their neighbours tell them of its quality, and if this quality is higher than their own quality expectations. Now we introduce additional information from the mass media, which is analogous to the ghost field in percolation theory. The mass media shift the percolative phase transition observed in the model, and decrease the time after which the stationary state is reached.

  19. Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing of Recharge Basin Percolation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Allen, E. M.; Hutchinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Infiltration (spreading) basins are a central component of managed aquifer and recovery operations around the world. The concept is simple. Water is percolated into an aquifer where it can be withdrawn at a later date. However, managing infiltration basins can be complicated by entrapped air in sediments, strata of low permeability, clogging of the recharge surface, and biological growth, among other factors. Understanding the dynamics of percolation in light of these complicating factors provides a basis for making management decisions that increase recharge efficiency. As an aid to understanding percolation dynamics, fiber optic distribute temperature sensing (DTS) was used to track heat as a tracer of water movement in an infiltration basin. The diurnal variation of temperature in the basin was sensed at depth. The time lag between the oscillating temperature signal at the surface and at depth indicated the velocity of water percolation. DTS fiber optic cables were installed horizontally along the basin and vertically in boreholes to measure percolation behavior. The horizontal cable was installed in trenches at 0.3 and 1 m depth, and the vertical cable was installed using direct push technology. The vertical cable was tightly wound to produce a factor of 10 increase in spatial resolution of temperature measurements. Temperature was thus measured every meter across the basin and every 10 cm to a depth of 10 m. Data from the trenched cable suggested homogeneous percolation across the basin, but infiltration rates were a function of stage indicating non-ideal percolation. Vertical temperature monitoring showed significant lateral flow in sediments underlying the basin both during saturation and operation of the basin. Deflections in the vertical temperature profile corresponded with fine grained layers identified in core samples indicating a transient perched water table condition. The three-dimensional flow in this relatively homogenous surficial geology calls

  20. Percolation thresholds for rod-like particles: polydispersity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    2008-06-01

    A model based upon excluded volume considerations is presented for the connectedness percolation thresholds in polydisperse systems of cylindrical rod-like nanoparticles. The dependence of the percolation threshold upon polydispersity index and number-averaged aspect ratio is examined for two different distribution functions for the rod radii and lengths. The importance of accounting for polydispersity is explored in the context of measurements of the elastic moduli and electrical conductance in fibre-filled nanocomposites.

  1. Understanding the Percolation Characteristics of Nonlinear Composite Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear composite dielectrics can function as smart materials for stress control and field grading in all fields of electrical insulations. The percolation process is a significant issue of composite dielectrics. However, the classic percolation theory mainly deals with traditional composites in which the electrical parameters of both insulation matrix and conducting fillers are independent of the applied electric field. This paper measured the nonlinear V-I characteristics of ZnO microvaristors/silicone rubber composites with several filler concentrations around an estimated percolation threshold. For the comparison with the experiment, a new microstructural model is proposed to simulate the nonlinear conducting behavior of the composite dielectrics modified by metal oxide fillers, which is based on the Voronoi network and considers the breakdown feature of the insulation matrix for near percolated composites. Through both experiment and simulation, the interior conducting mechanism and percolation process of the nonlinear composites were presented and a specific percolation threshold was determined as 33%. This work has provided a solution to better understand the characteristics of nonlinear composite dielectrics.

  2. Percolation velocity dependence on local concentration in bidisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan P.; Xiao, Hongyi; Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    The percolation velocity, up, of granular material in size or density bidisperse mixtures depends on the local concentration, particle size ratio, particle density ratio, and shear rate, γ ˙. Discrete element method computational results were obtained for bounded heap flows with size ratios between 1 and 3 and for density ratios between 1 and 4. The results indicate that small particles percolate downward faster when surrounded by large particles than large particles percolate upward when surrounded by small particles, as was recently observed in shear-box experiments. Likewise, heavy particles percolate downward faster when surrounded by light particles than light particles percolate upward when surrounded by heavy particles. The dependence of up / γ ˙ on local concentration results in larger percolation flux magnitudes at high concentrations of large (or light) particles compared to high concentrations of small (or heavy) particles, while local volumetric flux is conserved. The dependence of up / γ ˙ on local concentration can be incorporated into a continuum model, but the impact on global segregation patterns is usually minimal. Partially funded by Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant No. CBET-1511450.

  3. Understanding the Percolation Characteristics of Nonlinear Composite Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear composite dielectrics can function as smart materials for stress control and field grading in all fields of electrical insulations. The percolation process is a significant issue of composite dielectrics. However, the classic percolation theory mainly deals with traditional composites in which the electrical parameters of both insulation matrix and conducting fillers are independent of the applied electric field. This paper measured the nonlinear V-I characteristics of ZnO microvaristors/silicone rubber composites with several filler concentrations around an estimated percolation threshold. For the comparison with the experiment, a new microstructural model is proposed to simulate the nonlinear conducting behavior of the composite dielectrics modified by metal oxide fillers, which is based on the Voronoi network and considers the breakdown feature of the insulation matrix for near percolated composites. Through both experiment and simulation, the interior conducting mechanism and percolation process of the nonlinear composites were presented and a specific percolation threshold was determined as 33%. This work has provided a solution to better understand the characteristics of nonlinear composite dielectrics. PMID:27476998

  4. Understanding the Percolation Characteristics of Nonlinear Composite Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear composite dielectrics can function as smart materials for stress control and field grading in all fields of electrical insulations. The percolation process is a significant issue of composite dielectrics. However, the classic percolation theory mainly deals with traditional composites in which the electrical parameters of both insulation matrix and conducting fillers are independent of the applied electric field. This paper measured the nonlinear V-I characteristics of ZnO microvaristors/silicone rubber composites with several filler concentrations around an estimated percolation threshold. For the comparison with the experiment, a new microstructural model is proposed to simulate the nonlinear conducting behavior of the composite dielectrics modified by metal oxide fillers, which is based on the Voronoi network and considers the breakdown feature of the insulation matrix for near percolated composites. Through both experiment and simulation, the interior conducting mechanism and percolation process of the nonlinear composites were presented and a specific percolation threshold was determined as 33%. This work has provided a solution to better understand the characteristics of nonlinear composite dielectrics.

  5. Percolation model for selective dissolution of multi-component glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, R.P.; Brinker, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    A percolation model is developed which accounts for most known features of the process of porous glass membrane preparation by selective dissolution of multi-component glasses. The model is founded within tile framework of the classical percolation theory, wherein the components of a glass are represented by random sites on a suitable lattice. Computer simulation is used to mirror the generation of a porous structure during the dissolution process, reproducing many of the features associated with the phenomenon. Simulation results evaluate the effect of the initial composition of the glass on the kinetics of the leaching process as well as the morphology of the generated porous structure. The percolation model establishes the porous structure as a percolating cluster of unreachable constituents in the glass. The simulation algorithm incorporates removal of both, the accessible leachable components in the glass as well as the independent clusters of unreachable components not attached to the percolating cluster. The dissolution process thus becomes limited by the conventional site percolation thresholds of the unreachable components (which restricts the formation of the porous network), as well as the leachable components (which restricts the accessibility of the solvating medium into the glass). The simulation results delineate the range of compositional variations for successful porous glass preparation and predict the variation of porosity, surface area, dissolution rates and effluent composition with initial composition and time. Results compared well with experimental studies and improved upon similar models attempted in die past.

  6. Understanding the Percolation Characteristics of Nonlinear Composite Dielectrics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Hu, Jun; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear composite dielectrics can function as smart materials for stress control and field grading in all fields of electrical insulations. The percolation process is a significant issue of composite dielectrics. However, the classic percolation theory mainly deals with traditional composites in which the electrical parameters of both insulation matrix and conducting fillers are independent of the applied electric field. This paper measured the nonlinear V-I characteristics of ZnO microvaristors/silicone rubber composites with several filler concentrations around an estimated percolation threshold. For the comparison with the experiment, a new microstructural model is proposed to simulate the nonlinear conducting behavior of the composite dielectrics modified by metal oxide fillers, which is based on the Voronoi network and considers the breakdown feature of the insulation matrix for near percolated composites. Through both experiment and simulation, the interior conducting mechanism and percolation process of the nonlinear composites were presented and a specific percolation threshold was determined as 33%. This work has provided a solution to better understand the characteristics of nonlinear composite dielectrics. PMID:27476998

  7. Percolation in suspensions of hard nanoparticles: From spheres to needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Tanja; Miller, Mark A.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2015-09-01

    We investigate geometric percolation and scaling relations in suspensions of nanorods, covering the entire range of aspect ratios from spheres to extremely slender needles. A new version of connectedness percolation theory is introduced and tested against specialised Monte Carlo simulations. The theory accurately predicts percolation thresholds for aspect ratios of rod length to width as low as 10. The percolation threshold for rod-like particles of aspect ratios below 1000 deviates significantly from the inverse aspect ratio scaling prediction, thought to be valid in the limit of infinitely slender rods and often used as a rule of thumb for nanofibres in composite materials. Hence, most fibres that are currently used as fillers in composite materials cannot be regarded as practically infinitely slender for the purposes of percolation theory. Comparing percolation thresholds of hard rods and new benchmark results for ideal rods, we find that i) for large aspect ratios, they differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the connectivity distance between the hard cores, and ii) they approach the slender rod limit differently.

  8. Oceanic emissions of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M.; Bell, T. G.; Stock, C. A.; Doney, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Half of natural ammonia (NH3) emissions is thought to originate from the oceans. Such large emissions have implications for the global budget of N and the acidity of marine aerosols. We develop two new inventories of oceanic NH3 emissions based on simulated monthly NH3 seawater concentrations from the GFDL-COBALT and the CESM-BEC ocean models. These new inventories explicitly account for the effect of temperature on the water-atmosphere exchange of NH3. We evaluate these inventory using cruise observations of gas-phase ammonia (AMT cruises) and ammonium (NOAA cruises) as well as seawater measurement of NHx. Implications of atmospheric NHx observations for the exchange of N between ocean and land and ocean N/P limitations are discussed.

  9. Integrated optic ammonia sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Rainer; Voges, Edgar I.

    1993-05-01

    Most of the disadvantages that exist with electrochemical devices (e.g., short lifetimes, difficult to miniaturize, need of reference electrodes) can be avoided by using optical sensors. Smock et al. describe a device incorporating a ninhydrin coated fused silica rod that could detect ammonia vapor at concentrations below 100 ppb, however, the reaction is irreversible. Guiliani et al. describe a reversible sensor using a dye coated capillary tube. The dye utilized is oxazine perchlorate, a laser dye. They report that the presence of water vapor is an important factor in the detection of ammonia, and the concentration of water vapor must be controlled. Optical sensors built-up in integrated-optic technique with planar waveguide configurations allow the construction of optical sensor systems for a parallel detection of several chemical species, provide the generation of reference signals, and facilitate the problem of cross-sensitivities. Here, we report on integrated-optic sensors for ammonia detection with a sensitivity in the ppb-range. The reaction is reversible, and the response is independent of the water vapor concentration in the test gas.

  10. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia: an ammonia fog model

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.; Rodean, H.C.; Chan, S.T.; Ermak, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A simplification to the two-phase ammonia vapor-droplet fog problem has been implemented to study the dispersion of a spill of 40 tons of ammonia. We have circumvented the necessity of adding the partial differential equations for mass, momentum, and energy for the ammonia in the liquid phase by certain assumptions. It is assumed that the ammonia fog behaves as an ideal gas including the droplets. A temperature-dependent molecular weight was introduced to simulate the transition from a vapor-droplet cloud to a pure vapor cloud of ammonia. Likewise, the vaporization of ammonia was spread out over a temperature range. Mass, momentum, energy, and total ammonia is conserved rigorously. The observed features of the ammonia spill simulation have pointed out phenomena that could not be predicted in simpler calculations. Perhaps the most obvious feature is the cloud bifurcation due to the strength of the gravity current relative to the ambient wind. The gravity spreading of the denser ammonia fog significantly perturbs the unidirectional windfield in the vicinity of the spill, setting up complex eddy patterns in the cloud which are enhanced by ground heating and warm dry air entrainment. The lower concentrations appear to lift off by a buoyancy-induced flow. The ammonia cloud, rather than being cigar shaped as assumed in simpler models, ranges from pancake shaped to pear shaped, depending upon the ambient windfield. The fact that the ammonia cloud remains cold, very low, and wide is in qualitative agreement with some of the large-scale ammonia spill accidents. 14 figures.

  11. Pretreatment and fractionation of wheat straw for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products in a biorefinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated process has been developed for a wheat straw biorefinery. In this process wheat straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which extensively removed lignin but preserved high percentages of the carbohydrate fractions for subsequent bioconversion. The pretreatment condi...

  12. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p . Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R1 and R2 of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R1-R2 plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is pc(sq) , the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R ∈{0 ,R0} and a percolation transition is observed with R0 as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  13. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability.

  14. Percolation model with an additional source of disorder.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S S

    2016-06-01

    The ranges of transmission of the mobiles in a mobile ad hoc network are not uniform in reality. They are affected by the temperature fluctuation in air, obstruction due to the solid objects, even the humidity difference in the environment, etc. How the varying range of transmission of the individual active elements affects the global connectivity in the network may be an important practical question to ask. Here a model of percolation phenomena, with an additional source of disorder, is introduced for a theoretical understanding of this problem. As in ordinary percolation, sites of a square lattice are occupied randomly with probability p. Each occupied site is then assigned a circular disk of random value R for its radius. A bond is defined to be occupied if and only if the radii R_{1} and R_{2} of the disks centered at the ends satisfy a certain predefined condition. In a very general formulation, one divides the R_{1}-R_{2} plane into two regions by an arbitrary closed curve. One defines a point within one region as representing an occupied bond; otherwise it is a vacant bond. The study of three different rules under this general formulation indicates that the percolation threshold always varies continuously. This threshold has two limiting values, one is p_{c}(sq), the percolation threshold for the ordinary site percolation on the square lattice, and the other is unity. The approach of the percolation threshold to its limiting values are characterized by two exponents. In a special case, all lattice sites are occupied by disks of random radii R∈{0,R_{0}} and a percolation transition is observed with R_{0} as the control variable, similar to the site occupation probability. PMID:27415234

  15. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  16. Gaussian model of explosive percolation in three and higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2011-10-01

    The Gaussian model of discontinuous percolation, recently introduced by Araújo and Herrmann [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.035701 105, 035701 (2010)], is numerically investigated in three dimensions, disclosing a discontinuous transition. For the simple cubic lattice, in the thermodynamic limit we report a finite jump of the order parameter J=0.415±0.005. The largest cluster at the threshold is compact, but its external perimeter is fractal with fractal dimension dA=2.5±0.2. The study is extended to hypercubic lattices up to six dimensions and to the mean-field limit (infinite dimension). We find that, in all considered dimensions, the percolation transition is discontinuous. The value of the jump in the order parameter, the maximum of the second moment, and the percolation threshold are analyzed, revealing interesting features of the transition and corroborating its discontinuous nature in all considered dimensions. We also show that the fractal dimension of the external perimeter, for any dimension, is consistent with the one from bridge percolation and establish a lower bound for the percolation threshold of discontinuous models with a finite number of clusters at the threshold.

  17. Two-dimensional percolation threshold in confined Si nanoparticle networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, J.; Gutsch, S.; Wang, D.; Kübel, C.; Zacharias, M.; Hiller, D.

    2016-01-01

    Non-percolating and percolating silicon quantum dot (QD) networks were investigated by plane-view energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM). The Si QD networks were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on free standing 5 nm Si3N4 membranes, followed by high temperature annealing. The percolation threshold from non-percolating to percolating networks is found to be in between a SiOx stoichiometry of SiO0.5 up to SiO0.7. Using the EF-TEM images, key structural parameters of the Si QD ensemble were extracted and compared, i.e., their size distribution, nearest neighbor distance, and circularity. Increasing the silicon excess within the SiOx layer results in an ensemble of closer spaced, less size-controlled, and less circular Si QDs that give rise to coupling effects. Furthermore, the influence of the structural parameters on the optical and electrical Si QD ensemble properties is discussed.

  18. Bounds for percolation thresholds on directed and undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    Percolation theory is an efficient approach to problems with strong disorder, e.g., in quantum or classical transport, composite materials, and diluted magnets. Recently, the growing role of big data in scientific and industrial applications has led to a renewed interest in graph theory as a tool for describing complex connections in various kinds of networks: social, biological, technological, etc. In particular, percolation on graphs has been used to describe internet stability, spread of contagious diseases and computer viruses; related models describe market crashes and viral spread in social networks. We consider site-dependent percolation on directed and undirected graphs, and present several exact bounds for location of the percolation transition in terms of the eigenvalues of matrices associated with graphs, including the adjacency matrix and the Hashimoto matrix used to enumerate non-backtracking walks. These bounds correspond t0 a mean field approximation and become asymptotically exact for graphs with no short cycles. We illustrate this convergence numerically by simulating percolation on several families of graphs with different cycle lengths. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.

  19. Percolation analysis of force networks in anisotropic granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Miguel, M.-Carmen

    2012-02-01

    We study the percolation properties of force networks in an anisotropic model for granular packings, the so-called q-model. Following the original recipe of Ostojic et al (2006 Nature 439 828), we consider a percolation process in which forces smaller than a given threshold f are deleted in the network. For a critical threshold fc, the system experiences a transition akin to percolation. We determine the point of this transition and its characteristic critical exponents applying a finite-size scaling analysis that takes explicitly into account the directed nature of the q-model. By means of extensive numerical simulations, we show that this percolation transition is strongly affected by the anisotropic nature of the model, yielding characteristic exponents which are neither those found in isotropic granular systems nor those in the directed version of standard percolation. The differences shown by the computed exponents can be related to the presence of strong directed correlations and mass conservation laws in the model under scrutiny.

  20. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on runoff and percolating water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Water quality concerns, including greater potential for nutrient transport to surface waters resulting in eutrophication and nutrient leaching to ground water, exist when agricultural or food processing industry wastes and by-products are land applied. Plot- and field-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sugar beet by-products on NO3-N and P losses and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in runoff and NO3-N concentrations in percolating waters. In the runoff plot study, treatments in the first year included two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year, no by-products were applied on the treated plots, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer, and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the following year. In the percolation field study, the treatments were the control, pulp (224 Mg ha(-)(1)), and spoiled beets (224 Mg ha(-1)). Results from the runoff plot showed that both by-products caused immobilization of soil inorganic N and thus reduced NO3-N losses in runoff and soil waters during the first growing season. There was some risk of NO3-N exceeding the drinking water limit of 10 mg L(-1), especially between the period of wheat harvest and soil freezing in fall when pulp was applied at 448 Mg ha(-1). The field-scale study showed that by-product application at 224 Mg ha(-1) did not result in increased ground water NO3-N concentrations. Application of spoiled beets at both rates caused significantly higher BODs in runoff in the first year of application. The concentrations of total and soluble reactive P (SRP) were also higher from both rates of spoiled beet application and from the higher application rate of pulp during the 2-yr study period. These high BODs and total P and SRP concentrations in runoff waters

  1. Connectivity percolation in suspensions of attractive square-well spherocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Mohit; Meyer, Hugues; Schilling, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the connectivity percolation transition in suspensions of attractive square-well spherocylinders by means of Monte Carlo simulation and connectedness percolation theory. In the 1980s the percolation threshold of slender fibers has been predicted to scale as the fibers' inverse aspect ratio [Phys. Rev. B 30, 3933 (1984), 10.1103/PhysRevB.30.3933]. The main finding of our study is that the attractive spherocylinder system reaches this inverse scaling regime at much lower aspect ratios than found in suspensions of hard spherocylinders. We explain this difference by showing that third virial corrections of the pair connectedness functions, which are responsible for the deviation from the scaling regime, are less important for attractive potentials than for hard particles.

  2. Continuum Nonsimple Loops and 2D Critical Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camia, Federico; Newman, Charles M.

    2004-08-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years on the 2D critical percolation scaling limit and its conformal invariance properties. In particular, chordal SLE 6(the Stochastic Loewner Evolution with parameter κ=6) was, in the work of Schramm and of Smirnov, identified as the scaling limit of the critical percolation "exploration process." In this paper we use that and other results to construct what we argue is the fullscaling limit of the collection of allclosed contours surrounding the critical percolation clusters on the 2D triangular lattice. This random process or gas of continuum nonsimple loops in Bbb R2is constructed inductively by repeated use of chordal SLE 6. These loops do not cross but do touch each other—indeed, any two loops are connected by a finite "path" of touching loops.

  3. Percolation-based precursors of transitions in extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Méndez, Víctor; Eguíluz M, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ramasco, José J.

    2016-07-01

    Abrupt transitions are ubiquitous in the dynamics of complex systems. Finding precursors, i.e. early indicators of their arrival, is fundamental in many areas of science ranging from electrical engineering to climate. However, obtaining warnings of an approaching transition well in advance remains an elusive task. Here we show that a functional network, constructed from spatial correlations of the system’s time series, experiences a percolation transition way before the actual system reaches a bifurcation point due to the collective phenomena leading to the global change. Concepts from percolation theory are then used to introduce early warning precursors that anticipate the system’s tipping point. We illustrate the generality and versatility of our percolation-based framework with model systems experiencing different types of bifurcations and with Sea Surface Temperature time series associated to El Niño phenomenon.

  4. Incomplete and noisy network data as a percolation process

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Wiuf, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ramifications of noisy and incomplete observations of network data on the existence of a giant connected component (GCC). The existence of a GCC in a random graph can be described in terms of a percolation process, and building on general results for classes of random graphs with specified degree distributions we derive percolation thresholds above which GCCs exist. We show that sampling and noise can have a profound effect on the perceived existence of a GCC and find that both processes can destroy it. We also show that the absence of a GCC puts a theoretical upper bound on the false-positive rate and relate our percolation analysis to experimental protein–protein interaction data. PMID:20378609

  5. Fast and accurate database searches with MS-GF+Percolator

    SciTech Connect

    Granholm, Viktor; Kim, Sangtae; Navarro, Jose' C.; Sjolund, Erik; Smith, Richard D.; Kall, Lukas

    2014-02-28

    To identify peptides and proteins from the large number of fragmentation spectra in mass spectrometrybased proteomics, researches commonly employ so called database search engines. Additionally, postprocessors like Percolator have been used on the results from such search engines, to assess confidence, infer peptides and generally increase the number of identifications. A recent search engine, MS-GF+, has previously been showed to out-perform these classical search engines in terms of the number of identified spectra. However, MS-GF+ generates only limited statistical estimates of the results, hence hampering the biological interpretation. Here, we enabled Percolator-processing for MS-GF+ output, and observed an increased number of identified peptides for a wide variety of datasets. In addition, Percolator directly reports false discovery rate estimates, such as q values and posterior error probabilities, as well as p values, for peptide-spectrum matches, peptides and proteins, functions useful for the whole proteomics community.

  6. Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrylyuk, Andriy V.; Hermant, Marie Claire; Schilling, Tanja; Klumperman, Bert; Koning, Cor E.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymeric composites can have favourable electrical properties, which make them useful for applications such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic devices. However, using aqueous dispersions to fabricate composites with specific physical properties requires that the processing of the nanotube dispersion be understood and controlled while in the liquid phase. Here, using a combination of experiment and theory, we study the electrical percolation of carbon nanotubes introduced into a polymer matrix, and show that the percolation threshold can be substantially lowered by adding small quantities of a conductive polymer latex. Mixing colloidal particles of different sizes and shapes (in this case, spherical latex particles and rod-like nanotubes) introduces competing length scales that can strongly influence the formation of the system-spanning networks that are needed to produce electrically conductive composites. Interplay between the different species in the dispersions leads to synergetic or antagonistic percolation, depending on the ease of charge transport between the various conductive components.

  7. Variable percolation threshold of composites with fiber fillers under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan; Wang, Hongtao; Yang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The piezoresistant effect in conducting fiber-filled composites has been studied by a continuum percolation model. Simulation was performed by a Monte Carlo method that took into account both the deformation-induced fiber bending and rotation. The percolation threshold was found to rise with the compression strain, which explains the observed positive piezoresistive coefficients in such composites. The simulations unveiled the effect of the microstructure evolution during deformation. The fibers are found to align perpendicularly to the compression direction. As the fiber is bended, the effective length in making a conductive network is shortened. Both effects contribute to a larger percolation threshold and imply a positive piezoresistive coefficient according the universal power law.

  8. Percolation-based precursors of transitions in extended systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, Víctor; Eguíluz M, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ramasco, José J.

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt transitions are ubiquitous in the dynamics of complex systems. Finding precursors, i.e. early indicators of their arrival, is fundamental in many areas of science ranging from electrical engineering to climate. However, obtaining warnings of an approaching transition well in advance remains an elusive task. Here we show that a functional network, constructed from spatial correlations of the system’s time series, experiences a percolation transition way before the actual system reaches a bifurcation point due to the collective phenomena leading to the global change. Concepts from percolation theory are then used to introduce early warning precursors that anticipate the system’s tipping point. We illustrate the generality and versatility of our percolation-based framework with model systems experiencing different types of bifurcations and with Sea Surface Temperature time series associated to El Niño phenomenon. PMID:27412567

  9. Scaling behavior of explosive percolation on the square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziff, Robert M.

    2010-11-01

    Clusters generated by the product-rule growth model of Achlioptas, D’Souza, and Spencer on a two-dimensional square lattice are shown to obey qualitatively different scaling behavior than standard (random growth) percolation. The threshold with unrestricted bond placement (allowing loops) is found precisely using several different criteria based on both moments and wrapping probabilities, yielding pc=0.526565±0.000005 , consistent with the recent result of Radicchi and Fortunato. The correlation-length exponent ν is found to be close to 1. The qualitative difference from regular percolation is shown dramatically in the behavior of the percolation probability P∞ (size of largest cluster), of the susceptibility, and of the second moment of finite clusters, where discontinuities appear at the threshold. The critical cluster-size distribution does not follow a consistent power law for the range of system sizes we study (L≤8192) but may approach a power law with τ>2 for larger L .

  10. Percolation-based precursors of transitions in extended systems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Méndez, Víctor; Eguíluz M, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt transitions are ubiquitous in the dynamics of complex systems. Finding precursors, i.e. early indicators of their arrival, is fundamental in many areas of science ranging from electrical engineering to climate. However, obtaining warnings of an approaching transition well in advance remains an elusive task. Here we show that a functional network, constructed from spatial correlations of the system's time series, experiences a percolation transition way before the actual system reaches a bifurcation point due to the collective phenomena leading to the global change. Concepts from percolation theory are then used to introduce early warning precursors that anticipate the system's tipping point. We illustrate the generality and versatility of our percolation-based framework with model systems experiencing different types of bifurcations and with Sea Surface Temperature time series associated to El Niño phenomenon. PMID:27412567

  11. Correlated percolation models of structured habitat in ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Géraldine; Lesne, Annick; Munoz, François; Pitard, Estelle

    2014-12-01

    Percolation offers acknowledged models of random media when the relevant medium characteristics can be described as a binary feature. However, when considering habitat modeling in ecology, a natural constraint comes from nearest-neighbor correlations between the suitable/unsuitable states of the spatial units forming the habitat. Such constraints are also relevant in the physics of aggregation where underlying processes may lead to a form of correlated percolation. However, in ecology, the processes leading to habitat correlations are in general not known or very complex. As proposed by Hiebeler (2000), these correlations can be captured in a lattice model by an observable aggregation parameter q, supplementing the density p of suitable sites. We investigate this model as an instance of correlated percolation. We analyze the phase diagram of the percolation transition and compute the cluster size distribution, the pair-connectedness function C(r) and the correlation function g(r). We find that while g(r) displays a power-law decrease associated with long-range correlations in a wide domain of parameter values, critical properties are compatible with the universality class of uncorrelated percolation. We contrast the correlation structures obtained respectively for the correlated percolation model and for the Ising model, and show that the diversity of habitat configurations generated by the Hiebeler model is richer than the archetypal Ising model. We also find that emergent structural properties are peculiar to the implemented algorithm, leading to questioning the notion of a well-defined model of aggregated habitat. We conclude that the choice of model and algorithm has strong consequences on what insights ecological studies can get using such models of species habitat.

  12. Gas transport through magma near the percolation threshold (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellin, E. W.; Blower, J.; Leslie, D.

    2009-12-01

    Explosive silicic eruptions may simultaneously produce both tube pumice - containing highly-elongate vesicles - and pumice containing sub-spherical vesicles. This has been cited as evidence for strain localization within the volcanic conduit: in a relatively-undeformed axial ‘plug’ bubbles are spherical (regime 1) whilst near the conduit margin rapidly-shearing magma bears elongate bubbles (regime 2). Published numerical studies support this model and indicate that bubbly-magma rheology or viscous heating may be responsible for strain localization. The difference in bubble morphology in these two regimes has important consequences for magma permeability. We present the results of fluid dynamic simulations which quantify the anisotropy of permeability in regime 2 as a function of gas volume fraction and bubble aspect ratio. In this regime, we find that vertical permeability may be many times greater than radial permeability, and that permeability anisotropy is most pronounced near the percolation threshold. We further use a network model to quantify the development of permeability in regime 1. In the case where the predominantly vertical expansion of the magma is slow compared with bubble relaxation time, we find that permeability is, again, anisotropic, but that radial permeability dominates. This effect is also most pronounced near the percolation threshold, and percolation is expected to occur radially before vertical percolation occurs. Our findings imply that gas transport in regime 1 is predominantly radial, whilst vertical gas transport is favoured in regime 2. Consequently, near the percolation threshold, conditions are appropriate for effective degassing of the central magma plug as gas permeates radially to the conduit margin and then vertically upwards. Repeated cycles of percolation, radial gas loss and densification may degas the central magma plug without the development of large gas volume fractions.

  13. Percolation models for boiling and bubble growth in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1991-05-01

    We analyze the liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component fluids in porous media at low superheats. Conditions typical to steam injection in porous media are taken. We examine nucleation, phase equilibria and their stability, and the growth of vapor bubbles. Effects of pore structure are emphasized. It is shown that at low supersaturations, bubble growth can be described as a percolation process. In the absence of spatial gradients, macroscopic flow properties are calculated in terms of nucleation parameters. A modification of gradient percolation is also proposed in the case of spatial temperature gradients, when solid conduction predominates. 22 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mirrorless lasing from light emitters in percolating clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, Gennadiy; Rubo, Y. G.

    2015-07-01

    We describe the lasing effect in the three-dimensional percolation system, where the percolating cluster is filled by active media composed by light emitters excited noncoherently. We show that, due to the presence of a topologically nontrivial photonic structure, the stimulated emission is modified with respect to both conventional and random lasers. The time dynamics and spectra of the lasing output are studied numerically with finite-difference time-domain approach. The Fermat principle and Monte Carlo approach are applied to characterize the optimal optical path and interconnection between the radiating emitters. The spatial structure of the laser mode is found by a long-time FDTD simulation.

  15. Percolation transition in active neural networks with adaptive geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iudin, F. D.; Iudin, D. I.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2015-02-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed for a neural network whose morphological structure varies dynamically depending on activity. This is the property of the so-called structural plasticity typical of developed neural systems of a brain. It has been shown that the spontaneous generation and propagation of a signal in such networks correspond to a percolation transition and the appearance of the connectivity component covering the entire system. Furthermore, adaptive change in the geometric structure of a network results in the clustering of cells and in the reduction of the effective percolation threshold, which corresponds to experimental neurobiological observations.

  16. Remnant percolative disorder in highly-cured networks

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Hance, B.; Martin, J.E. )

    1993-05-24

    The authors have previously reported viscoelastic measurements demonstrating that fully-cured networks and critical gels exhibit similar relaxation spectra, implying that fully-cured networks are somewhat ill- connected. Here, they present restricted valence percolation simulations of networks well beyond the percolation transition that explicitly display remnant disorder over length scales less than the correlation length of the network. They conclude that the topology of highly-cured networks is not well described by a regular three- dimensional tennis net but is ill-connected over length scales that correspond to relaxation modes of practical interest.

  17. Jamming versus caging in three dimensional jamming percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, Nimrod; Teomy, Eial; Shokef, Yair

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a three-dimensional kinetically-constrained model that exhibits two types of phase transitions at different densities. At the jamming density $ \\rho_J $ there is a mixed-order phase transition in which a finite fraction of the particles become frozen, but the other particles may still diffuse throughout the system. At the caging density $ \\rho_C > \\rho_J $, the mobile particles are trapped in finite cages and no longer diffuse. The caging transition occurs due to a percolation transition of the unfrozen sites, and we numerically find that it is a continuous transition with the same critical exponents as random percolation.

  18. Micelle Formation in Liquid Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Joseph M; Atherton, John H; Page, Michael I

    2015-07-17

    Perfluorinated long chain alkyl amides aggregate in liquid ammonia with increasing concentration which reflects micelle-type formation based on changes in (19)F NMR chemical shifts. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) decrease with increasing chain length and give Kleven parameters A = 0.18 and B = 0.19. The micelles catalyze the ammonolysis of esters in liquid ammonia. The corresponding perfluorinated long chain alkyl carboxylates form ion pairs in liquid ammonia, but the equilibrium dissociation constants indicate favorable interactions between the chains in addition to the electrostatic forces. These perfluorinated carboxylates form micelles in aqueous solution, and their cmc's generate a Kleven B-value = 0.52 compared with 0.30 for the analogous alkyl carboxylates. The differences in hydrophobicity of CH2 and CF2 units in water and liquid ammonia are discussed, as is the possible relevance to life forms in liquid ammonia.

  19. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  20. Percolation induced heat transfer in deep unsaturated zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; LeCain, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from a borehole located in a desert wash were measured and used to delineate the conductive and advective heat transfer regimes, and to estimate the percolation quantity associated with the 1997-1998 El Ni??no precipitation. In an arid environment, conductive heat transfer dominates the variation of shallow subsurface temperature most of the time, except during sporadic precipitation periods. The subsurface time-varying temperature due to conductive heat transfer is highly correlated with the surface atmospheric temperature variation, whereas temperature variation due to advective heat transfer is strongly correlated with precipitation events. The advective heat transfer associated with precipitation and infiltration is the focus of this paper. Disruptions of the subsurface conductive temperature regime, associated with the 1997-1998 El Ni??no precipitation, were detected and used to quantify the percolation quantity. Modeling synthesis using a one-dimensional coupled heat and unsaturated flow model indicated that a percolation per unit area of 0.7 to 1.3 m height of water in two weeks during February 1998 was responsible for the observed temperature deviations down to a depth of 35.2 m. The reported study demonstrated quantitatively, for the first time, that the near surface temperature variation due to advective heat transfer can be significant at a depth greater than 10 m in unsaturated soils and can be used to infer the percolation amount in thick unsaturated soils.

  1. Continuous time random walk approach to dynamic percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfer, R.; Orbach, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present an approximate solution for time (frequency) dependent response under conditions of dynamic percolation which may be related to excitation transfer in some random structures. In particular, we investigate the dynamics of structures where one random component blocks a second (carrier) component. Finite concentrations of the former create a percolation network for the latter. When the blockers are allowed to move in time, the network seen by the carriers changes with time, allowing for long-range transport even if the instantaneous carrier site availability is less than pc, the critical percolation concentration. A specific example of this situation is electrical transport in sodium β″-alumina. The carriers are Na + ions which can hop on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. The blockers are ions of much higher activation energy, such as Ba 2+. We study the frequency dependence of the conductivity for such a system. Given a fixed Ba 2+ hopping rate, 1/τ, the Na + ions experience a frozen site percolation environment for frequencies ω > 1/τ. At frequencies ω < 1/τ, the Na + ions experience a dynamic environment which allows long-range transport, even below pc. A continuous time random walk model combined with an effective medium approximation allows us to arrive at a numerical solution for the frequency-dependent Na+ conductivity σ(ω) which clearly exhibits the crossover from frozen to dynamic environment.

  2. Percolation thresholds on planar Euclidean relative-neighborhood graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.

    2013-04-01

    In the present article, statistical properties regarding the topology and standard percolation on relative neighborhood graphs (RNGs) for planar sets of points, considering the Euclidean metric, are put under scrutiny. RNGs belong to the family of “proximity graphs”; i.e., their edgeset encodes proximity information regarding the close neighbors for the terminal nodes of a given edge. Therefore they are, e.g., discussed in the context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad hoc networks that guarantee connectedness of all underlying nodes. Here, by means of numerical simulations, we determine the asymptotic degree and diameter of RNGs and we estimate their bond and site percolation thresholds, which were previously conjectured to be nontrivial. We compare the results to regular 2D graphs for which the degree is close to that of the RNG. Finally, we deduce the common percolation critical exponents from the RNG data to verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  3. Cell Invasion in Collagen Scaffold Architectures Characterized by Percolation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Jennifer C; Mehr, Marco; Buxton, Paul G; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2015-06-24

    The relationship between biological scaffold interconnectivity and cell migration is an important but poorly understood factor in tissue regeneration. Here a scale-independent technique for characterization of collagen scaffold interconnectivity is presented, using a combination of X-ray microcomputed tomography and percolation theory. Confocal microscopy of connective tissue cells reveals this technique as highly relevant for determining the extent of cell invasion.

  4. The Use of Percolating Filters in Teaching Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, N. F.

    1982-01-01

    Using percolating filters (components of sewage treatment process) reduces problems of organization, avoids damage to habitats, and provides a local study site for field work or rapid collection of biological material throughout the year. Component organisms are easily identified and the habitat can be studied as a simple or complex system.…

  5. The persistent percolation of single-stream voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, B.; Neyrinck, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    We study the nature of voids defined as single-stream regions that have not undergone shell-crossing. We use ORIGAMI to determine the cosmic web morphology of each dark matter particle in a suite of cosmological N-body simulations, which explicitly calculates whether a particle has crossed paths with others along multiple sets of axes and does not depend on a parameter or smoothing scale. The theoretical picture of voids is that of expanding underdensities with borders defined by shell-crossing. We find instead that locally underdense single-stream regions are not bounded on all sides by multi-stream regions, thus they percolate, filling the simulation volume; we show that the set of multi-stream particles also percolates. This percolation persists to high resolution, where the mass fraction of single-stream voids is low, because the volume fraction remains high; we speculate on the fraction of collapsed mass in the continuum limit of infinite resolution. By introducing a volume threshold parameter to define underdense void `cores', we create a catalogue of ORIGAMI voids which consist entirely of single-stream particles and measure their percolation properties, volume functions, and average densities.

  6. Water-network percolation transitions in hydrated yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowska, Dagmara; Król-Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Mościcki, Józef K.

    2004-11-01

    We discovered two percolation processes in succession in dc conductivity of bulk baker’s yeast in the course of dehydration. Critical exponents characteristic for the three-dimensional network for heavily hydrated system, and two dimensions in the light hydration limit, evidenced a dramatic change of the water network dimensionality in the dehydration process.

  7. A Simple Soil Percolation Test Device for Field Environmentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William H.; Stark, Phillip E.

    1977-01-01

    A primary responsibility of field environmental health workers is evaluation of individual sewage disposal system sites. The authors of this article developed a practical, accurate, and inexpensive measurement device for obtaining reliable percolation test results. Directions for the construction and use of the device are detailed. Drawings…

  8. Continuum percolation of long lifespan clusters in a simple fluid.

    PubMed

    Pugnaloni, Luis A; Carlevaro, Carlos M; Valluzzi, Marcos G; Vericat, Fernando

    2008-08-14

    We present results on the percolation loci for chemical clusters and physical clusters of long lifespan. Chemical clusters are defined as sets of particles connected through particle-particle bonds that last for a given time tau. Physical clusters are sets of particles that remain close together at every instant for a given period of time tau. By using molecular dynamics simulations of a Lennard-Jones system we obtain the percolation loci at different values of tau as the lines in the temperature-density plane at which the system presents a spanning cluster in 50% of the configurations. We find that the percolation loci for chemical clusters shifts rapidly toward high densities as tau is increased. For moderate values of tau this line converges to the low-density branch of the liquid-solid coexistence curve. This implies that no stable chemical clusters can be found in the fluid phase. In contrast, the percolation loci for physical clusters tend to a limiting line, as tau tends to infinity, which is far from the liquid-solid transition line.

  9. Tunable Percolation in Semiconducting Binary Polymer Nanoparticle Glasses.

    PubMed

    Renna, Lawrence A; Bag, Monojit; Gehan, Timothy S; Han, Xu; Lahti, Paul M; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Venkataraman, D

    2016-03-10

    Binary polymer nanoparticle glasses provide opportunities to realize the facile assembly of disparate components, with control over nanoscale and mesoscale domains, for the development of functional materials. This work demonstrates that tunable electrical percolation can be achieved through semiconducting/insulating polymer nanoparticle glasses by varying the relative percentages of equal-sized nanoparticle constituents of the binary assembly. Using time-of-flight charge carrier mobility measurements and conducting atomic force microscopy, we show that these systems exhibit power law scaling percolation behavior with percolation thresholds of ∼24-30%. We develop a simple resistor network model, which can reproduce the experimental data, and can be used to predict percolation trends in binary polymer nanoparticle glasses. Finally, we analyze the cluster statistics of simulated binary nanoparticle glasses, and characterize them according to their predominant local motifs as (p(i), p(1-i))-connected networks that can be used as a supramolecular toolbox for rational material design based on polymer nanoparticles. PMID:26854924

  10. Percolation exponents and thresholds obtained from the nearly ideal continuum percolation system graphite-boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; McLachlan, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Compressed disks made from graphite and, its mechanical but not electrical isomorph, boron nitride as well as graphite-boron nitride powders, undergoing compression, are nearly ideal continuum percolation systems, as the ratio of their conductivities is nearly 10{sup {minus}18} and the scatter of the experimental points near the critical volume fraction {phi}{sub c} is very small. The following measurements, with the characteristic exponent(s) in brackets, are made on some or all of the samples in (axial) and at right angles (radial) to the direction of compression, as a function of the volume fraction of graphite ({phi}); dc conductivity (s and t), dielectric constant (s), magnetoresistivity (t{sub {perpendicular}}), and noise power (K). The noise power is also measured as function of resistance (w) and volume (b{sup {prime}}). The {phi}{sub c}{close_quote}s obtained for all measurements are consistent and explicable. The results for the exponents are less well understood but, where possible, these results are compared with theoretical predictions and previous experiments. The reasons for the nonuniversality of t are clarified. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Novel percolation phenomena and mechanism of strengthening elastomers by nanofillers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Jun; Wu, Sizhu; Wang, Wenchuan; Zhang, Liqun

    2010-03-28

    Nano-strengthening by employing nanoparticles is necessary for high-efficiency strengthening of elastomers, which has already been validated by numerous researches and industrial applications, but the underlying mechanism is still an open challenge. In this work, we mainly focus our attention on studying the variation of the tensile strength of nanofilled elastomers by gradually increasing the filler content, within a low loading range. Interestingly, the percolation phenomenon is observed in the relationship between the tensile strength and the filler loading, which shares some similarities with the percolation phenomenon occurring in rubber toughened plastics. That is, as the loading of nanofillers (carbon black, zinc oxide) increases, the tensile strength of rubber nanocomposites (SBR, EPDM) increases slowly at first, then increases abruptly and finally levels off. Meanwhile, the bigger the particle size, the higher the filler content at the percolation point, and the lower the corresponding tensile strength of rubber nanocomposites. The concept of a critical particle-particle distance (CPD) is proposed to explain the observed percolation phenomenon. It is suggested that rubber strengthening through nanoparticles is attributed to the formation of stretched straight polymer chains between neighbor particles, induced by the slippage of adsorbed polymer chains on the filler surface during tension. Meanwhile, the factors to govern this CPD and the critical minimum particle size (CMPS) figured out in this work are both discussed and analyzed in detail. Within the framework of this percolation phenomenon, this paper also clearly answers two important and intriguing issues: (1) why is it necessary and essential to strengthen elastomers through nanofillers; (2) why does it need enough loading of nanofillers to effectively strengthen elastomers. Moreover, on the basis of the percolation phenomenon, we give out some guidance for reinforcement design of rubbery materials

  12. Network representation of pore scale imagery for percolation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, K. A.; McKenna, S. A.; Read, E.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Celauro, J.

    2012-12-01

    Multiphase flow under capillary dominated flow regimes is driven by an intricate relationship between pore geometry, material and fluid properties. In this research, high-resolution micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of bead packs, and how they influence percolation pathways. Coreflood experiments use a mix of hydrophilic and hydrophobic beads to track the influence of variable contact angle on capillary flow. While high-resolution CT images can render micron scale representation of the pore space, data must be upscaled to capture pore and pore throat geometry for use in percolation models. In this analysis, the pore space is upscaled into a network representation based on properties of the medial axis. Finding the medial axis using micron scale images is computationally expensive. Here, we compare the efficiency and accuracy of medial axes using erosion-based and watershed algorithms. The resulting network representation is defined as a ball-and-stick model which represents pores and pore throats. The ball-and-stick model can be further reduced by eliminating sections of the network that fall below a capillary pressure threshold. In a system of mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic beads, capillary pressure can change significantly throughout the network based on the interaction between surface and fluid properties. The upscaled network representations are used in percolation models to estimate transport pathway. Current results use a basic percolation model that sequentially fills neighboring pores with the highest potential. Future work will expand the percolation model to include additional mechanics, such as trapping, vacating pores, and viscous fingering. Results from the coreflood experiments will be used to validate upscaling techniques and percolation models. Preliminary results show that the relative strength of water-wet and oil-wet surfaces has a significant impact on percolation

  13. Ammonia metabolism and hyperammonemic disorders.

    PubMed

    Walker, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Human adults produce around 1000 mmol of ammonia daily. Some is reutilized in biosynthesis. The remainder is waste and neurotoxic. Eventually most is excreted in urine as urea, together with ammonia used as a buffer. In extrahepatic tissues, ammonia is incorporated into nontoxic glutamine and released into blood. Large amounts are metabolized by the kidneys and small intestine. In the intestine, this yields ammonia, which is sequestered in portal blood and transported to the liver for ureagenesis, and citrulline, which is converted to arginine by the kidneys. The amazing developments in NMR imaging and spectroscopy and molecular biology have confirmed concepts derived from early studies in animals and cell cultures. The processes involved are exquisitely tuned. When they are faulty, ammonia accumulates. Severe acute hyperammonemia causes a rapidly progressive, often fatal, encephalopathy with brain edema. Chronic milder hyperammonemia causes a neuropsychiatric illness. Survivors of severe neonatal hyperammonemia have structural brain damage. Proposed explanations for brain edema are an increase in astrocyte osmolality, generally attributed to glutamine accumulation, and cytotoxic oxidative/nitrosative damage. However, ammonia neurotoxicity is multifactorial, with disturbances also in neurotransmitters, energy production, anaplerosis, cerebral blood flow, potassium, and sodium. Around 90% of hyperammonemic patients have liver disease. Inherited defects are rare. They are being recognized increasingly in adults. Deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes, citrin, and pyruvate carboxylase demonstrate the roles of isolated pathways in ammonia metabolism. Phenylbutyrate is used routinely to treat inherited urea cycle disorders, and its use for hepatic encephalopathy is under investigation. PMID:25735860

  14. Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The top cloud layer on Jupiter is thought to consist of ammonia ice, but most of that ammonia 'hides' from spectrometers. It does not absorb light in the same way ammonia does. To many scientists, this implies that ammonia churned up from lower layers of the atmosphere 'ages' in some way after it condenses, possibly by being covered with a photochemically generated hydrocarbon mixture. The New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), the half of the Ralph instrument that is able to 'see' in infrared wavelengths that are absorbed by ammonia ice, spotted these clouds and watched them evolve over five Jupiter days (about 40 Earth hours). In these images, spectroscopically identified fresh ammonia clouds are shown in bright blue. The largest cloud appeared as a localized source on day 1, intensified and broadened on day 2, became more diffuse on days 3 and 4, and disappeared on day 5. The diffusion seemed to follow the movement of a dark spot along the boundary of the oval region. Because the source of this ammonia lies deeper than the cloud, images like these can tell scientists much about the dynamics and heat conduction in Jupiter's lower atmosphere.

  15. The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H; Begon, M; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2008-07-31

    Percolation theory is most commonly associated with the slow flow of liquid through a porous medium, with applications to the physical sciences. Epidemiological applications have been anticipated for disease systems where the host is a plant or volume of soil, and hence is fixed in space. However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory, the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis) in populations of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in Kazakhstan have been used to show that epizootics only occur when more than about 0.33 of the burrow systems built by the host are occupied by family groups. The underlying mechanism for this abundance threshold is unknown. Here we present evidence that it is a percolation threshold, which arises from the difference in scale between the movements that transport infectious fleas between family groups and the vast size of contiguous landscapes colonized by gerbils. Conventional theory predicts that abundance thresholds for the spread of infectious disease arise when transmission between hosts is density dependent such that the basic reproduction number (R(0)) increases with abundance, attaining 1 at the threshold. Percolation thresholds, however, are separate, spatially explicit thresholds that indicate long-range connectivity in a system and do not coincide with R(0) = 1. Abundance thresholds are the theoretical basis for attempts to manage infectious disease by reducing the abundance of susceptibles, including vaccination and the culling of wildlife. This first natural example of a percolation threshold in a disease system invites a re-appraisal of other invasion thresholds, such as those for epidemic viral infections in African lions (Panthera leo), and of other disease systems such as bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in

  16. Morphology-Driven High-Performance Polymer Transistor-based Ammonia Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hoon; Cho, Jangwhan; Sim, Kyu Min; Ha, Jae Un; Chung, Dae Sung

    2016-03-01

    Developing high-performance gas sensors based on polymer field-effect transistors (PFETs) requires enhancing gas-capture abilities of polymer semiconductors without compromising their high charge carrier mobility. In this work, cohesive energies of polymer semiconductors were tuned by strategically inserting buffer layers, which resulted in dramatically different semiconductor surface morphologies. Elucidating morphological and structural properties of polymer semiconductor films in conjunction with FET studies revealed that surface morphologies containing large two-dimensional crystalline domains were optimal for achieving high surface areas and creating percolation pathways for charge carriers. Ammonia molecules with electron lone pairs adsorbed on the surface of conjugated semiconductors can serve as efficient trapping centers, which negatively shift transfer curves for p-type PFETs. Therefore, morphology optimization of polymer semiconductors enhances their gas sensing abilities toward ammonia, leading to a facile method of manufacturing high-performance gas sensors.

  17. Morphology-Driven High-Performance Polymer Transistor-based Ammonia Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seong Hoon; Cho, Jangwhan; Sim, Kyu Min; Ha, Jae Un; Chung, Dae Sung

    2016-03-01

    Developing high-performance gas sensors based on polymer field-effect transistors (PFETs) requires enhancing gas-capture abilities of polymer semiconductors without compromising their high charge carrier mobility. In this work, cohesive energies of polymer semiconductors were tuned by strategically inserting buffer layers, which resulted in dramatically different semiconductor surface morphologies. Elucidating morphological and structural properties of polymer semiconductor films in conjunction with FET studies revealed that surface morphologies containing large two-dimensional crystalline domains were optimal for achieving high surface areas and creating percolation pathways for charge carriers. Ammonia molecules with electron lone pairs adsorbed on the surface of conjugated semiconductors can serve as efficient trapping centers, which negatively shift transfer curves for p-type PFETs. Therefore, morphology optimization of polymer semiconductors enhances their gas sensing abilities toward ammonia, leading to a facile method of manufacturing high-performance gas sensors. PMID:26927929

  18. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  19. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  20. ENGINEERING DESIGN CONFIGURATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL AMMONIA REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many regions in the United States have excessive levels of nutrients including ammonia in their source waters. For example, farming and agricultural sources of ammonia in the Midwest contribute to relatively high levels of ammonia in many ground waters. Although ammonia in water ...

  1. Percolation parameter and percolation-threshold estimates for three-dimensional random ellipses with widely scattered distributions of eccentricity and size

    PubMed

    de Dreuzy JR; Davy; Bour

    2000-11-01

    In fractured materials of very low matrix permeability, fracture connectivity is the first-order determinant of the occurrence of flow. For systems having a narrow distribution of object sizes (short-range percolation), a first-order percolation criterion is given by the total excluded volume which is almost constant at threshold. In the case of fractured media, recent observations have demonstrated that the fracture-length distribution is extremely large. Because of this widely scattered fracture-length distribution, the classical expression of the total excluded volume is no longer scale invariant at the percolation threshold and has no finite limit for infinitely large systems. Thus, the classical estimation method of the percolation threshold established in short-range percolation becomes useless for the connectivity determination of fractured media. In this study, we derive an expression for the total excluded volume that remains scale invariant at the percolation threshold and that can thus be used as the proper control parameter, called the parameter of percolation in percolation theory. We show that the scale-invariant expression of the total excluded volume is the geometrical union normalized by the system volume rather than the summation of the mutual excluded volumes normalized by the system volume. The summation of the mutual excluded volume (classical expression) remains linked to the number of intersections between fractures, whereas the normalized geometrical union of the mutual excluded volume (our expression) can be essentially identified with the percolation parameter. Moreover, fluctuations of this percolation parameter at threshold with length and eccentricity distributions remain limited within a range of less than one order of magnitude, giving in turn a rough percolation criterion. We finally show that the scale dependence of the percolation parameter causes the connectivity of fractured media to increase with scale, meaning especially that

  2. Getter materials for cracking ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Boffito, Claudio; Baker, John D.

    1999-11-02

    A method is provided for cracking ammonia to produce hydrogen. The method includes the steps of passing ammonia over an ammonia-cracking catalyst which is an alloy including (1) alloys having the general formula Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x M.sub.1 M.sub.2, wherein M.sub.1 and M.sub.2 are selected independently from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and x is between about 0.0 and about 1.0 inclusive; and between about 20% and about 50% Al by weight. In another aspect, the method of the invention is used to provide methods for operating hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and hydrogen fuel cells. In still another aspect, the present invention provides a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine and a hydrogen fuel cell including the above-described ammonia-cracking catalyst.

  3. Measurement of the percolation threshold for fully penetrable disks of different radii

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanilla, J.

    2001-06-01

    We perform simulations of gradient percolation to study the percolation threshold for systems of homogeneous fully penetrable disks of variable radii. We find that, if the radii follow a uniform distribution, the percolation threshold is 0.686610{+-}0.000007. We also investigate binary dispersions, studying the influence of constitutive parameters on the percolation threshold and suggesting an empirical formula for the threshold. We find that, with the appropriate parameters, a percolation threshold of approximately 0.76 can be achieved. The minimal threshold of 0.676339{+-}0.000004 is achieved by disks of equal radius.

  4. How Inhomogeneous Site Percolation Works on Bethe Lattices: Theory and Application

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingli; Zhang, Liying; Siegmund, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Inhomogeneous percolation, for its closer relationship with real-life, can be more useful and reasonable than homogeneous percolation to illustrate the critical phenomena and dynamical behaviour of complex networks. However, due to its intricacy, the theoretical framework of inhomogeneous percolation is far from being complete and many challenging problems are still open. In this paper, we first investigate inhomogeneous site percolation on Bethe Lattices with two occupation probabilities, and then extend the result to percolation with m occupation probabilities. The critical behaviour of this inhomogeneous percolation is shown clearly by formulating the percolation probability with given occupation probability p, the critical occupation probability , and the average cluster size where p is subject to . Moreover, using the above theory, we discuss in detail the diffusion behaviour of an infectious disease (SARS) and present specific disease-control strategies in consideration of groups with different infection probabilities. PMID:26926785

  5. How Inhomogeneous Site Percolation Works on Bethe Lattices: Theory and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingli; Zhang, Liying; Siegmund, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Inhomogeneous percolation, for its closer relationship with real-life, can be more useful and reasonable than homogeneous percolation to illustrate the critical phenomena and dynamical behaviour of complex networks. However, due to its intricacy, the theoretical framework of inhomogeneous percolation is far from being complete and many challenging problems are still open. In this paper, we first investigate inhomogeneous site percolation on Bethe Lattices with two occupation probabilities, and then extend the result to percolation with m occupation probabilities. The critical behaviour of this inhomogeneous percolation is shown clearly by formulating the percolation probability with given occupation probability p, the critical occupation probability , and the average cluster size where p is subject to . Moreover, using the above theory, we discuss in detail the diffusion behaviour of an infectious disease (SARS) and present specific disease-control strategies in consideration of groups with different infection probabilities.

  6. Fermented wheat aleurone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Borowicki, Anke; Stein, Katrin; Scharlau, Daniel; Scheu, Kerstin; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Obst, Ursula; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf; Wachter, Norbert; Glei, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microflora may enhance levels of SCFA, which are potentially chemoprotective against colon cancer. Functional food containing wheat aleurone may prevent cancer by influencing cell cycle and cell death. We investigated effects of fermented wheat aleurone on growth and apoptosis of HT29 cells. Wheat aleurone, flour and bran were digested and fermented in vitro. The resulting fermentation supernatants (fs) were analysed for their major metabolites (SCFA, bile acids and ammonia). HT29 cells were treated for 24-72 h with the fs or synthetic mixtures mimicking the fs in SCFA, butyrate or deoxycholic acid (DCA) contents, and the influence on cell growth was determined. Fs aleurone was used to investigate the modulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. The fermented wheat samples contained two- to threefold higher amounts of SCFA than the faeces control (blank), but reduced levels of bile acids and increased concentrations of ammonia. Fs aleurone and flour equally reduced cell growth of HT29 more effectively than the corresponding blank and the SCFA mixtures. The EC(50) (48 h) ranged from 10 % (flour) to 19 % (blank). Markedly after 48 h, fs aleurone (10 %) significantly induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, fermentation of wheat aleurone results in a reduced level of tumour-promoting DCA, but higher levels of potentially chemopreventive SCFA. Fermented wheat aleurone is able to induce apoptosis and to block cell cycle - two essential markers of secondary chemoprevention.

  7. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  9. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  10. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  11. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  12. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  13. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  14. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  15. Randomness versus deterministic chaos: Effect on invasion percolation clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chung-Kang; Prakash, Sona; Herrmann, Hans J.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1990-10-01

    What is the difference between randomness and chaos \\? Although one can define randomness and one can define chaos, one cannot easily assess the difference in a practical situation. Here we compare the results of these two antipodal approaches on a specific example. Specifically, we study how well the logistic map in its chaotic regime can be used as quasirandom number generator by calculating pertinent properties of a well-known random process: invasion percolation. Only if λ>λ*1 (the first reverse bifurcation point) is a smooth extrapolation in system size possible, and percolation exponents are retrieved. If λ≠1, a sequential filling of the lattice with the random numbers generates a measurable anisotropy in the growth sequence of the clusters, due to short-range correlations.

  16. Percolation mechanism drives actin gels to the critically connected state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Pruessner, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Cell motility and tissue morphogenesis depend crucially on the dynamic remodeling of actomyosin networks. An actomyosin network consists of an actin polymer network connected by cross-linker proteins and motor protein myosins that generate internal stresses on the network. A recent discovery shows that for a range of experimental parameters, actomyosin networks contract to clusters with a power-law size distribution [J. Alvarado, Nat. Phys. 9, 591 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2715]. Here, we argue that actomyosin networks can exhibit a robust critical signature without fine-tuning because the dynamics of the system can be mapped onto a modified version of percolation with trapping (PT), which is known to show critical behavior belonging to the static percolation universality class without the need for fine-tuning of a control parameter. We further employ our PT model to generate experimentally testable predictions.

  17. Colloidal suspensions of C-particles: Entanglement, percolation and microrheology.

    PubMed

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-05-01

    We explore structural and dynamical behavior of concentrated colloidal suspensions made up by C-shape particles using Brownian dynamics computer simulations and theory. In particular, we focus on the entanglement process between nearby particles for almost closed C-shapes with a small opening angle. Depending on the opening angle and the particle concentration, there is a percolation transition for the cluster of entangled particles which shows the classical scaling characteristics. In a broad density range below the percolation threshold, we find a stretched exponential function for the dynamical decorrelation of the entanglement process. Finally, we study a setup typical in microrheology by dragging a single tagged particle with constant speed through the suspension. We measure the cluster connected to and dragged with this tagged particle. In agreement with a phenomenological theory, the size of the dragged cluster depends on the dragging direction and increases markedly with the dragging speed.

  18. Effect of threshold disorder on the quorum percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau, Pascal; Renault, Renaud; Métens, Stéphane; Bottani, Samuel

    2016-07-01

    We study the modifications induced in the behavior of the quorum percolation model on neural networks with Gaussian in-degree by taking into account an uncorrelated Gaussian thresholds variability. We derive a mean-field approach and show its relevance by carrying out explicit Monte Carlo simulations. It turns out that such a disorder shifts the position of the percolation transition, impacts the size of the giant cluster, and can even destroy the transition. Moreover, we highlight the occurrence of disorder independent fixed points above the quorum critical value. The mean-field approach enables us to interpret these effects in terms of activation probability. A finite-size analysis enables us to show that the order parameter is weakly self-averaging with an exponent independent on the thresholds disorder. Last, we show that the effects of the thresholds and connectivity disorders cannot be easily discriminated from the measured averaged physical quantities.

  19. Percolation mechanism drives actin gels to the critically connected state.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Pruessner, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Cell motility and tissue morphogenesis depend crucially on the dynamic remodeling of actomyosin networks. An actomyosin network consists of an actin polymer network connected by cross-linker proteins and motor protein myosins that generate internal stresses on the network. A recent discovery shows that for a range of experimental parameters, actomyosin networks contract to clusters with a power-law size distribution [J. Alvarado, Nat. Phys. 9, 591 (2013)1745-247310.1038/nphys2715]. Here, we argue that actomyosin networks can exhibit a robust critical signature without fine-tuning because the dynamics of the system can be mapped onto a modified version of percolation with trapping (PT), which is known to show critical behavior belonging to the static percolation universality class without the need for fine-tuning of a control parameter. We further employ our PT model to generate experimentally testable predictions. PMID:27300931

  20. Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Boccaletti, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-06-02

    Co-evolutionary adaptive mechanisms are not only ubiquitous in nature, but also beneficial for the functioning of a variety of systems. We here consider an adaptive network of oscillators with a stochastic, fitness-based, rule of connectivity, and show that it self-organizes from fragmented and incoherent states to connected and synchronized ones. The synchronization and percolation are associated to abrupt transitions, and they are concurrently (and significantly) enhanced as compared to the non-adaptive case. Finally we provide evidence that only partial adaptation is sufficient to determine these enhancements. Our study, therefore, indicates that inclusion of simple adaptive mechanisms can efficiently describe some emergent features of networked systems' collective behaviors, and suggests also self-organized ways to control synchronization and percolation in natural and social systems.

  1. Quantum percolation in cuprate high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is now generally acknowledged that electron–phonon interactions cause cuprate superconductivity with Tc values ≈100 K, the complexities of atomic arrangements in these marginally stable multilayer materials have frustrated both experimental analysis and theoretical modeling of the remarkably rich data obtained both by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and high-resolution, large-area scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Here, we analyze the theoretical background in terms of our original (1989) model of dopant-assisted quantum percolation (DAQP), as developed further in some two dozen articles, and apply these ideas to recent STM data. We conclude that despite all of the many difficulties, with improved data analysis it may yet be possible to identify quantum percolative paths. PMID:18626024

  2. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  3. Vulnerability of networks: Fractional percolation on random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yilun

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework for understanding nonbinary, nonindependent percolation on networks with general degree distributions. The model incorporates a partially functional (PF) state of nodes so that both intensity and extensity of error are characterized. Two connected nodes in a PF state cannot sustain the load and therefore break their link. We give exact solutions for the percolation threshold, the fraction of giant cluster, and the mean size of small clusters. The robustness-fragility transition point for scale-free networks with a degree distribution pk∝k-α is identified to be α =3. The analysis reveals that scale-free networks are vulnerable to targeted attack at hubs: a more complete picture of their Achilles' heel turns out to be not only the hubs themselves but also the edges linking them together.

  4. The September 11 attack: A percolation of individual passive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, S.

    2002-04-01

    A model to terrorism is presented using the theory of percolation. Terrorism power is related to the spontaneous formation of random backbones of people who are sympathetic to terrorism but without being directly involved in it. They just don't oppose in case they could. In the past such friendly-to-terrorism backbones have been always existing but were of finite size and localized to a given geographical area. The September 11 terrorist attack on the US has revealed for the first time the existence of a world wide spread extension. It is argued to have result from a sudden world percolation of otherwise unconnected and dormant world spread backbones of passive supporters. The associated strategic question is then to determine if collecting ground information could have predict and thus avoid such a transition. Our results show the answer is no, voiding the major criticism against intelligence services. To conclude the impact of military action is discussed.

  5. Finite-size effects and percolation properties of Poisson geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmier, C.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F.; Mazzolo, A.; Zoia, A.

    2016-07-01

    Random tessellations of the space represent a class of prototype models of heterogeneous media, which are central in several applications in physics, engineering, and life sciences. In this work, we investigate the statistical properties of d -dimensional isotropic Poisson geometries by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation, with special emphasis on the case d =3 . We first analyze the behavior of the key features of these stochastic geometries as a function of the dimension d and the linear size L of the domain. Then, we consider the case of Poisson binary mixtures, where the polyhedra are assigned two labels with complementary probabilities. For this latter class of random geometries, we numerically characterize the percolation threshold, the strength of the percolating cluster, and the average cluster size.

  6. Stochastic Loewner evolution relates anomalous diffusion and anisotropic percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Credidio, Heitor F.; Moreira, André A.; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-04-01

    We disclose the origin of anisotropic percolation perimeters in terms of the stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE) process. Precisely, our results from extensive numerical simulations indicate that the perimeters of multilayered and directed percolation clusters at criticality are the scaling limits of the Loewner evolution of an anomalous Brownian motion, being superdiffusive and subdiffusive, respectively. The connection between anomalous diffusion and fractal anisotropy is further tested by using long-range power-law correlated time series (fractional Brownian motion) as the driving functions in the evolution process. The fact that the resulting traces are distinctively anisotropic corroborates our hypothesis. Under the conceptual framework of SLE, our study therefore reveals different perspectives for mathematical and physical interpretations of non-Markovian processes in terms of anisotropic paths at criticality and vice versa.

  7. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  8. Colloidal suspensions of C-particles: Entanglement, percolation and microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-05-01

    We explore structural and dynamical behavior of concentrated colloidal suspensions made up by C-shape particles using Brownian dynamics computer simulations and theory. In particular, we focus on the entanglement process between nearby particles for almost closed C-shapes with a small opening angle. Depending on the opening angle and the particle concentration, there is a percolation transition for the cluster of entangled particles which shows the classical scaling characteristics. In a broad density range below the percolation threshold, we find a stretched exponential function for the dynamical decorrelation of the entanglement process. Finally, we study a setup typical in microrheology by dragging a single tagged particle with constant speed through the suspension. We measure the cluster connected to and dragged with this tagged particle. In agreement with a phenomenological theory, the size of the dragged cluster depends on the dragging direction and increases markedly with the dragging speed.

  9. The price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-03-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called ``price of anarchy'' (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly-placed ``congestible'' and ``incongestible'' links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  10. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold. PMID:26066138

  11. Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Young-Ho; Boccaletti, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Co-evolutionary adaptive mechanisms are not only ubiquitous in nature, but also beneficial for the functioning of a variety of systems. We here consider an adaptive network of oscillators with a stochastic, fitness-based, rule of connectivity, and show that it self-organizes from fragmented and incoherent states to connected and synchronized ones. The synchronization and percolation are associated to abrupt transitions, and they are concurrently (and significantly) enhanced as compared to the non-adaptive case. Finally we provide evidence that only partial adaptation is sufficient to determine these enhancements. Our study, therefore, indicates that inclusion of simple adaptive mechanisms can efficiently describe some emergent features of networked systems’ collective behaviors, and suggests also self-organized ways to control synchronization and percolation in natural and social systems. PMID:27251577

  12. Minimal spanning trees at the percolation threshold: a numerical calculation.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sean M; Middleton, A Alan

    2013-09-01

    The fractal dimension of minimal spanning trees on percolation clusters is estimated for dimensions d up to d=5. A robust analysis technique is developed for correlated data, as seen in such trees. This should be a robust method suitable for analyzing a wide array of randomly generated fractal structures. The trees analyzed using these techniques are built using a combination of Prim's and Kruskal's algorithms for finding minimal spanning trees. This combination reduces memory usage and allows for simulation of larger systems than would otherwise be possible. The path length fractal dimension d_{s} of MSTs on critical percolation clusters is found to be compatible with the predictions of the perturbation expansion developed by T. S. Jackson and N. Read [Phys. Rev. E 81, 021131 (2010)]. PMID:24125235

  13. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  14. Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Boccaletti, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Co-evolutionary adaptive mechanisms are not only ubiquitous in nature, but also beneficial for the functioning of a variety of systems. We here consider an adaptive network of oscillators with a stochastic, fitness-based, rule of connectivity, and show that it self-organizes from fragmented and incoherent states to connected and synchronized ones. The synchronization and percolation are associated to abrupt transitions, and they are concurrently (and significantly) enhanced as compared to the non-adaptive case. Finally we provide evidence that only partial adaptation is sufficient to determine these enhancements. Our study, therefore, indicates that inclusion of simple adaptive mechanisms can efficiently describe some emergent features of networked systems’ collective behaviors, and suggests also self-organized ways to control synchronization and percolation in natural and social systems.

  15. Mesoscale modeling of intergranular bubble percolation in nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Paul C.; Tonks, Michael; Biner, S. B.

    2012-04-15

    Phase-field simulations are used to examine the variability of intergranular fission gas bubble growth and percolation on uranium dioxide grain boundaries on a mesoscopic length scale. Three key parameters are systematically varied in this study: the contact angle (or dihedral angle) defining the bubble shape, the initial bubble density on the grain boundary plane, and the ratio of the gas diffusivity on the grain boundary versus the grain interiors. The simulation results agree well with previous experimental data obtained for bubble densities and average bubble areas during coalescence events. Interestingly, the rate of percolation is found to be highly variable, with a large dependency on the contact angle and the initial bubble density and little-to-no dependency on the grain boundary gas diffusivity.

  16. Effect of threshold disorder on the quorum percolation model.

    PubMed

    Monceau, Pascal; Renault, Renaud; Métens, Stéphane; Bottani, Samuel

    2016-07-01

    We study the modifications induced in the behavior of the quorum percolation model on neural networks with Gaussian in-degree by taking into account an uncorrelated Gaussian thresholds variability. We derive a mean-field approach and show its relevance by carrying out explicit Monte Carlo simulations. It turns out that such a disorder shifts the position of the percolation transition, impacts the size of the giant cluster, and can even destroy the transition. Moreover, we highlight the occurrence of disorder independent fixed points above the quorum critical value. The mean-field approach enables us to interpret these effects in terms of activation probability. A finite-size analysis enables us to show that the order parameter is weakly self-averaging with an exponent independent on the thresholds disorder. Last, we show that the effects of the thresholds and connectivity disorders cannot be easily discriminated from the measured averaged physical quantities. PMID:27575157

  17. MESOSCALE MODELING OF INTERGRANULAR BUBBLE PERCOLATION IN NUCLEAR FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-04-01

    Phase-field simulations are used to examine the variability of intergranular fission gas bubble growth and percolation on uranium dioxide grain boundaries on a mesoscopic length scale. Three key parameters are systematically varied in this study: the contact angle (or dihedral angle) defining the bubble shape, the initial bubble density on the grain boundary plane, and the ratio of the gas diffusivity on the grain boundary versus the grain interiors. The simulation results agree well with previous experimental data obtained for bubble densities and average bubble areas during coalescence events. Interestingly, the rate of percolation is found to be highly variable, with a large dependency on the contact angle and the initial bubble density, and little-to-no dependency on the grain boundary gas diffusivity.

  18. Finite-size effects and percolation properties of Poisson geometries.

    PubMed

    Larmier, C; Dumonteil, E; Malvagi, F; Mazzolo, A; Zoia, A

    2016-07-01

    Random tessellations of the space represent a class of prototype models of heterogeneous media, which are central in several applications in physics, engineering, and life sciences. In this work, we investigate the statistical properties of d-dimensional isotropic Poisson geometries by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation, with special emphasis on the case d=3. We first analyze the behavior of the key features of these stochastic geometries as a function of the dimension d and the linear size L of the domain. Then, we consider the case of Poisson binary mixtures, where the polyhedra are assigned two labels with complementary probabilities. For this latter class of random geometries, we numerically characterize the percolation threshold, the strength of the percolating cluster, and the average cluster size. PMID:27575099

  19. Percolation threshold determines the optimal population density for public cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-03-01

    While worldwide census data provide statistical evidence that firmly link the population density with several indicators of social welfare, the precise mechanisms underlying these observations are largely unknown. Here we study the impact of population density on the evolution of public cooperation in structured populations and find that the optimal density is uniquely related to the percolation threshold of the host graph irrespective of its topological details. We explain our observations by showing that spatial reciprocity peaks in the vicinity of the percolation threshold, when the emergence of a giant cooperative cluster is hindered neither by vacancy nor by invading defectors, thus discovering an intuitive yet universal law that links the population density with social prosperity.

  20. Concurrent enhancement of percolation and synchronization in adaptive networks.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young-Ho; Boccaletti, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Co-evolutionary adaptive mechanisms are not only ubiquitous in nature, but also beneficial for the functioning of a variety of systems. We here consider an adaptive network of oscillators with a stochastic, fitness-based, rule of connectivity, and show that it self-organizes from fragmented and incoherent states to connected and synchronized ones. The synchronization and percolation are associated to abrupt transitions, and they are concurrently (and significantly) enhanced as compared to the non-adaptive case. Finally we provide evidence that only partial adaptation is sufficient to determine these enhancements. Our study, therefore, indicates that inclusion of simple adaptive mechanisms can efficiently describe some emergent features of networked systems' collective behaviors, and suggests also self-organized ways to control synchronization and percolation in natural and social systems. PMID:27251577

  1. Random geometric graph description of connectedness percolation in rod systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Avik P.; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    The problem of continuum percolation in dispersions of rods is reformulated in terms of weighted random geometric graphs. Nodes (or sites or vertices) in the graph represent spatial locations occupied by the centers of the rods. The probability that an edge (or link) connects any randomly selected pair of nodes depends upon the rod volume fraction as well as the distribution over their sizes and shapes, and also upon quantities that characterize their state of dispersion (such as the orientational distribution function). We employ the observation that contributions from closed loops of connected rods are negligible in the limit of large aspect ratios to obtain percolation thresholds that are fully equivalent to those calculated within the second-virial approximation of the connectedness Ornstein-Zernike equation. Our formulation can account for effects due to interactions between the rods, and many-body features can be partially addressed by suitable choices for the edge probabilities.

  2. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media.

  3. PLANT OLIGOSACCHARIDES ENHANCE WHEAT DEFENCE RESPONSE AGAINST SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH.

    PubMed

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Siah, A; Randoux, B; Reignault, Ph; Halama, P; Rodriguez, R; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Our work provides the first evidence for elicitation and protection effects of preventive treatments with oligosaccharides (20%)-based new formulation (Oligos) against Mycosphaerella graminicola, a major pathogen of bread wheat (BW) and durum wheat (DW). In planta Oligos treatment led to strongly reduced hyphal growth, penetration, mesophyll colonization and fructification. During the necrotrophic phase, Oligos also drastically decreased the production of M. graminicola CWDE activities, such as xylanase and glucanase as well as protease activity in both wheat species, suggesting their correlation with disease severity. Concerning plant defence markers, PR2, Chi 4 precursor-, Per- and LOX-1-encoding genes were up-regulated, while glucanase (GLUC), catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities and total phenolic compound (PC) accumulation were induced in both (non-inoculated and inoculated contexts. In inoculated context, a localized accumulation of H2O2 and PC at fungal penetration sites and a specific induction of phenylalanine ammonia-Lyase (PAL) enzymatic activity were observed. Moreover, our experiment exhibited some similarities and differences in both wheat species responses. GLUC and CAT activities and H2O2 accumulation were more responsive in DW leaves, while LOX and PAL activities and PC accumulation occurred earlier and to a stronger extent in BW leaves. The tested Oligos formulation showed an interesting resistance induction activity characterized by a high and stable efficiency whatever the wheat species, suggesting it integration in common control strategies against STB on both DW and BW. PMID:27141743

  4. Tritium percolation, convection, and permeation in fusion solid breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Models are developed to describe the percolation of released tritium through the breeder interconnected porosity to the purge stream, convection of tritium by the helium purge stream, and leakage or permeation of tritium through the structural material to the primary coolant system. Important parameters in the models are tritium generation rate, breeder microstructure, tritium species in the gas phase, temperatures, tritium diffusivities and permeabilities, and effectiveness of oxide barriers.

  5. Microwave study of superconducting Sn films above and below percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Manfred H.; Ebensperger, Nikolaj G.; Thiemann, Markus; Untereiner, Gabriele; Fritz, Vincent; Javaheri, Mojtaba; Nägele, Jonathan; Rösslhuber, Roland; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties of superconducting Sn films ({T}{{c}}≈ 3.8 {{K}}) change significantly when reducing the film thickness down to a few {nm}, in particular close to the percolation threshold. The low-energy electrodynamics of such Sn samples can be probed via microwave spectroscopy, e.g. with superconducting stripline resonators. Here we study Sn thin films, deposited via thermal evaporation—ranging in thickness between 38 and 842 {nm}—which encompasses the percolation transition. We use superconducting Pb stripline resonators to probe the microwave response of these Sn films in a frequency range between 4 and 20 {GHz} at temperatures from 7.2 down to 1.5 {{K}}. The measured quality factor of the resonators decreases with rising temperature due to enhanced losses. As a function of the sample thickness we observe three regimes with significantly different properties: samples below percolation, i.e. ensembles of disconnected superconducting islands, exhibit dielectric properties with negligible losses, demonstrating that macroscopic current paths are required for appreciable dynamical conductivity of Sn at GHz frequencies. Thick Sn films, as the other limit, lead to low-loss resonances both above and below T c of Sn, as expected for bulk conductors. But in an intermediate thickness regime, just above percolation and with labyrinth-like morphology of the Sn, we observe a quite different behavior: the superconducting state has a microwave response similar to the thicker, completely covering films with low microwave losses; but the metallic state of these Sn films is so lossy that resonator operation is suppressed completely.

  6. Cell Invasion in Collagen Scaffold Architectures Characterized by Percolation Theory.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Jennifer C; Mehr, Marco; Buxton, Paul G; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2015-06-24

    The relationship between biological scaffold interconnectivity and cell migration is an important but poorly understood factor in tissue regeneration. Here a scale-independent technique for characterization of collagen scaffold interconnectivity is presented, using a combination of X-ray microcomputed tomography and percolation theory. Confocal microscopy of connective tissue cells reveals this technique as highly relevant for determining the extent of cell invasion. PMID:25881025

  7. Rapidity long range correlations, parton percolation and color glass condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, I.; Pajares, C.; Dias de Deus, J.

    2011-05-23

    The similarities between string percolation and Glasma results are emphasized, special attention being paid to rapidity long range correlations, ridge structure and elliptic flow. As the string density of high multiplicity pp collisions at LHC energies has similar value as the corresponding to Au-Au semi-central collisions at RHIC we also expect in pp collisions long rapidity correlations and ridge structure, extended more than 8 units in rapidity.

  8. Percolation Problem Describing +/- J Ising Spin Glass System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Y.; Okiji, A.

    1988-05-01

    The critical concentration of the extended percolation problem on the simple cubic lattice is determined with reference to Bhatt, Young, Ogielski and Morgenstern's simulation data of transition temperature. A relation of dimensional invariants for the critical concentration suggests that in the spin glass phase an infinite number of infinitely-large clusters coexist and each of those clusters is confined in a domain with a connectivity dimension ~ 1.4.

  9. Correlation function of four spins in the percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotsenko, Vladimir S.

    2016-10-01

    By using the Coulomb gas technics we calculate the four-spin correlation function in the percolation q → 1 limit of the Potts model. It is known that the four-point functions define the actual fusion rules of a particular model. In this respect, we find that fusion of two spins, of dimension Δσ =5/96, produce a new channel, in the 4-point function, which is due to the operator with dimension Δ = 5 / 8.

  10. Can percolation theory be applied to the stock market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Dietrich

    1998-11-01

    The fluctuations of the stock market - the price changes per unit time - seem to deviate from Gaussians for short time steps. Power laws, exponentials, and multifractal descriptions have been offered to explain this short-time behavior. Microscopic models dealing with the decisions of single traders on the market have tried to reproduce this behavior. Possibly the simplest of these models is the herding approach of Cont and Bouchaud. Here a total of Nt traders cluster together randomly as in percolation theory. Each cluster randomly decides by buy or sell an amount proportional to its size, or not to trade. Monte Carlo simulations in two to seven dimensions at the percolation threshold depend on the number N of clusters trading within one time step. For N 1, the changes follow a power law; for 1 N Nt they are bell-shaped with power-law tails; for N Nt they crossover to a Gaussian. The correlations in the absolute value of the change decay slowly with time. Thus percolation not only describes the origin of life or the boiling of your breakfast egg, but also explains why we are not rich.

  11. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  12. General and exact approach to percolation on random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comprehensive and versatile theoretical framework to study site and bond percolation on clustered and correlated random graphs. Our contribution can be summarized in three main points. (i) We introduce a set of iterative equations that solve the exact distribution of the size and composition of components in finite-size quenched or random multitype graphs. (ii) We define a very general random graph ensemble that encompasses most of the models published to this day and also makes it possible to model structural properties not yet included in a theoretical framework. Site and bond percolation on this ensemble is solved exactly in the infinite-size limit using probability generating functions [i.e., the percolation threshold, the size, and the composition of the giant (extensive) and small components]. Several examples and applications are also provided. (iii) Our approach can be adapted to model interdependent graphs—whose most striking feature is the emergence of an extensive component via a discontinuous phase transition—in an equally general fashion. We show how a graph can successively undergo a continuous then a discontinuous phase transition, and preliminary results suggest that clustering increases the amplitude of the discontinuity at the transition.

  13. Onsite synthesis of thermally percolated nanocomposite for thermal interface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obori, Masanao; Nita, Satoshi; Miura, Asuka; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    To solve the problem of lack of thermal percolation in thermal interface materials (TIM), we propose a two-step synthesis method to realize thermally percolated nanofiber network in polymer matrix. First, by packing vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) on top of aluminum heat sink and integrally sintering the whole material, the aluminum partially melts and connects the VGCF network, forming a continuous thermal path, i.e., realizing thermal percolation. Second, the pores in the hybrid network are filled by Silicone oil to obtain a polymer nanocomposite. The direct synthesis of VGCF-aluminum network on the heat sink (onsite synthesis) omits pasting process of the TIM, and thus, removes the restriction on the network morphology. By this onsite synthesis method, we reinforce thermal contact not only between the nanofibers but also between nanofibers and the heat sink. By testing the developed TIM for thermal contact to silicon surface, we demonstrate the potential to significantly reduce thermal contact resistance from what can be achieved by a conventional TIM.

  14. Percolation of heteronuclear dimers irreversibly deposited on square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, M. C.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The percolation problem of irreversibly deposited heteronuclear dimers on square lattices is studied. A dimer is composed of two segments, and it occupies two adjacent adsorption sites. Each segment can be either a conductive segment (segment type A ) or a nonconductive segment (segment type B ). Three types of dimers are considered: A A , B B , and A B . The connectivity analysis is carried out by accounting only for the conductive segments (segments type A ). The model offers a simplified representation of the problem of percolation of defective (nonideal) particles, where the presence of defects in the system is simulated by introducing a mixture of conductive and nonconductive segments. Different cases were investigated, according to the sequence of deposition of the particles, the types of dimers involved in the process, and the degree of alignment of the deposited objects. By means of numerical simulations and finite-size scaling analysis, the complete phase diagram separating a percolating from a nonpercolating region was determined for each case. Finally, the consistency of our results was examined by comparing with previous data in the literature for linear k -mers (particles occupying k adjacent sites) with defects.

  15. Percolative theories of strongly disordered ceramic high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimally doped ceramic superconductors (cuprates, pnictides, etc.) exhibit transition temperatures T c much larger than strongly coupled metallic superconductors like Pb (T c = 7.2 K, E g/kT c = 4.5) and exhibit many universal features that appear to contradict the Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer theory of superconductivity based on attractive electron-phonon pairing interactions. These complex materials are strongly disordered and contain several competing nanophases that cannot be described effectively by parameterized Hamiltonian models, yet their phase diagrams also exhibit many universal features in both the normal and superconductive states. Here we review the rapidly growing body of experimental results that suggest that these anomalously universal features are the result of marginal stabilities of the ceramic electronic and lattice structures. These dual marginal stabilities favor both electronic percolation of a dopant network and rigidity percolation of the deformed lattice network. This “double percolation” model has previously explained many features of the normal-state transport properties of these materials and is the only theory that has successfully predicted strict lowest upper bounds for T c in the cuprate and pnictide families. Here it is extended to include Coulomb correlations and percolative band narrowing, as well as an angular energy gap equation, which rationalizes angularly averaged gap/T c ratios, and shows that these are similar to those of conventional strongly coupled superconductors. PMID:20080578

  16. Loopless nontrapping invasion-percolation model for fracking.

    PubMed

    Norris, J Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L; Rundle, John B

    2014-02-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large quantities of natural gas and oil from old, low-permeability shales. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. The injected fluid introduces distributed damage that provides fracture permeability for the extraction of the gas and oil. In order to model this process, we utilize a loopless nontrapping invasion percolation previously introduced to model optimal polymers in a strongly disordered medium and for determining minimum energy spanning trees on a lattice. We performed numerical simulations on a two-dimensional square lattice and find significant differences from other percolation models. Additionally, we find that the growing fracture network satisfies both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. As with other invasion percolation models, our model displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly into a connected region. We introduce an alternative definition of bursts to be a consecutive series of opened bonds whose strengths are all below a specified value. Using this definition of bursts, we find good agreement with a power-law frequency-area distribution. These results are generally consistent with the observed distribution of microseismicity observed during a high-volume frack.

  17. Covering by random intervals and one-dimensional continuum percolation

    SciTech Connect

    Domb, C. )

    1989-04-01

    A brief historical introduction is given to the problem of covering a line by random overlapping intervals. The problem for equal intervals was first solved by Whitworth in the 1890s. A brief resume is given of his solution. The advantages of the present author's approach, which uses a Poisson process, are outlined, and a solution is derived by Laplace transforms. The asymptotic behavior as the line becomes long is calculated and is related to the one-dimensional continuum percolation problem. It is shown that as long as the mean interval size is finite, the probability of complete coverage decays exponentially, so that the critical percolation probability p{sub c} = 1. However, as soon as the mean interval size becomes infinite, the critical percolation probability p{sub c} switches to 0. This is in accord with previous results for a lattice model by Chinese workers, but differs from those of Schulman. A possible reason for the discrepancy is a difference in boundary conditions.

  18. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North–South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density. PMID:27152211

  19. Controlling electrical percolation in multicomponent carbon nanotube dispersions.

    PubMed

    Kyrylyuk, Andriy V; Hermant, Marie Claire; Schilling, Tanja; Klumperman, Bert; Koning, Cor E; van der Schoot, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymeric composites can have favourable electrical properties, which make them useful for applications such as flat-panel displays and photovoltaic devices. However, using aqueous dispersions to fabricate composites with specific physical properties requires that the processing of the nanotube dispersion be understood and controlled while in the liquid phase. Here, using a combination of experiment and theory, we study the electrical percolation of carbon nanotubes introduced into a polymer matrix, and show that the percolation threshold can be substantially lowered by adding small quantities of a conductive polymer latex. Mixing colloidal particles of different sizes and shapes (in this case, spherical latex particles and rod-like nanotubes) introduces competing length scales that can strongly influence the formation of the system-spanning networks that are needed to produce electrically conductive composites. Interplay between the different species in the dispersions leads to synergetic or antagonistic percolation, depending on the ease of charge transport between the various conductive components. PMID:21478868

  20. Transport pathways within percolating pore space networks of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Kevin; Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2013-06-01

    Granular media can be regarded as a mixture of two components: grains and the material filling the voids or pores between the grains. Pore properties give rise to a range of applications such as modelling ground water flow, carbon capture and sequestration. The grains within a dense granular material respond to deformation (e.g., shearing or compression) by rearranging to create local zones of compression and zones of dilatation (i.e., regions of high pore space). Descriptions of the deformation are typically focused on analysis of the solid skeleton via topology of physical contact networks of grains but an alternative perspective is to consider network representations of the evolving anisotropic pore space. We demonstrate how to construct pore space networks that express the local size of voids about a grain through network edge weights. We investigate sectors of the loading history when a percolating giant component of the pore space network exists. At these states the grains are in a configuration more prone to the efficient transport of material (e.g., fluid flow, mineral/gas deposits). These pathways can be found through examination of the weighted shortest paths percolating the boundaries of the material. In particular, network weights biased towards large void space results in efficient percolating pathways traversing the shear band in the direction of principal stress within a 2D granular assembly subject to high strains.

  1. Percolation and cooperation with mobile agents: Geometric and strategy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Brito, Carolina; Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    2014-08-01

    We study the conditions for persistent cooperation in an off-lattice model of mobile agents playing the Prisoner's Dilemma game with pure, unconditional strategies. Each agent has an exclusion radius rP, which accounts for the population viscosity, and an interaction radius rint, which defines the instantaneous contact network for the game dynamics. We show that, differently from the rP=0 case, the model with finite-sized agents presents a coexistence phase with both cooperators and defectors, besides the two absorbing phases, in which either cooperators or defectors dominate. We provide, in addition, a geometric interpretation of the transitions between phases. In analogy with lattice models, the geometric percolation of the contact network (i.e., irrespective of the strategy) enhances cooperation. More importantly, we show that the percolation of defectors is an essential condition for their survival. Differently from compact clusters of cooperators, isolated groups of defectors will eventually become extinct if not percolating, independently of their size.

  2. The Fermi paradox: An approach based on percolation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    If even a very small fraction of the hundred billion stars in the galaxy are home to technological civilizations which colonize over interstellar distances, the entire galaxy could be completely colonized in a few million years. The absence of such extraterrestrial civilizations visiting Earth is the Fermi paradox. A model for interstellar colonization is proposed using the assumption that there is a maximum distance over which direct interstellar colonization is feasible. Due to the time lag involved in interstellar communications, it is assumed that an interstellar colony will rapidly develop a culture independent of the civilization that originally settled it. Any given colony will have a probability P of developing a colonizing civilization, and a probability (1-P) that it will develop a non-colonizing civilization. These assumptions lead to the colonization of the galaxy occuring as a percolation problem. In a percolation problem, there will be a critical value of percolation probability, P(sub c). For P less than P(sub c), colonization will always terminate after a finite number of colonies. Growth will occur in 'clusters', with the outside of each cluster consisting of non-colonizing civilizations. For P greater than P(sub c), small uncolonized voids will exist, bounded by non-colonizing civilizations. For P approximately = to P(sub c), arbitrarily large filled regions exist, and also arbitrarily large empty regions.

  3. Loopless nontrapping invasion-percolation model for fracking.

    PubMed

    Norris, J Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L; Rundle, John B

    2014-02-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large quantities of natural gas and oil from old, low-permeability shales. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. The injected fluid introduces distributed damage that provides fracture permeability for the extraction of the gas and oil. In order to model this process, we utilize a loopless nontrapping invasion percolation previously introduced to model optimal polymers in a strongly disordered medium and for determining minimum energy spanning trees on a lattice. We performed numerical simulations on a two-dimensional square lattice and find significant differences from other percolation models. Additionally, we find that the growing fracture network satisfies both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. As with other invasion percolation models, our model displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly into a connected region. We introduce an alternative definition of bursts to be a consecutive series of opened bonds whose strengths are all below a specified value. Using this definition of bursts, we find good agreement with a power-law frequency-area distribution. These results are generally consistent with the observed distribution of microseismicity observed during a high-volume frack. PMID:25353434

  4. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  5. Loopless nontrapping invasion-percolation model for fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2014-02-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large quantities of natural gas and oil from old, low-permeability shales. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. The injected fluid introduces distributed damage that provides fracture permeability for the extraction of the gas and oil. In order to model this process, we utilize a loopless nontrapping invasion percolation previously introduced to model optimal polymers in a strongly disordered medium and for determining minimum energy spanning trees on a lattice. We performed numerical simulations on a two-dimensional square lattice and find significant differences from other percolation models. Additionally, we find that the growing fracture network satisfies both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. As with other invasion percolation models, our model displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly into a connected region. We introduce an alternative definition of bursts to be a consecutive series of opened bonds whose strengths are all below a specified value. Using this definition of bursts, we find good agreement with a power-law frequency-area distribution. These results are generally consistent with the observed distribution of microseismicity observed during a high-volume frack.

  6. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  7. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-01-15

    SRNL was requested by WSRC Waste Solidification Engineering to characterize the release of ammonia from saltstone curing at 95 C by performing experimental testing. These tests were performed with an MCU-type Tank 50H salt simulant containing 0, 50, and 200 mg/L ammonia. The testing program showed that above saltstone made from the 200 mg/L ammonia simulant, the vapor space ammonia concentration was about 2.7 mg/L vapor at 95 C. An upper 95% confidence value for this concentration was found to be 3.9 mg/L. Testing also showed that ammonia was chemically generated from curing saltstone at 95 C; the amount of ammonia generated was estimated to be equivalent to 121 mg/L additional ammonia in the salt solution feed. Even with chemical generation, the ammonia release from saltstone was found to be lower than its release from salt solution only with 200 mg/L ammonia.

  8. Effect of vortex flows on ammonia oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Beskov, V.S.; Shpinel', E.E.

    1988-09-01

    The oxidation of ammonia over platinum sieve catalysts was investigated given the vortex flows found in industrial contact units. Mathematical and physical models were used to assess the influence of vortices on ammonia oxidation. The flow pattern of the ammonia-air mixture in the reactor was modeled as a stream with a partial recycle. It is shown that vortex flows reduce the conversion of ammonia to nitrogen monoxide and increase the passage of unconverted ammonia through the catalyst sieve. Over long contact periods, the main effect of vortices is to increase the passage of unconverted ammonia, which may lead to the formation of explosive compounds.

  9. The Ammonia Dimer Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, Richard; Van Der Avoird, Ad

    2012-06-01

    The conclusion from microwave spectra by Nelson, Fraser, and Klemperer that the ammonia dimer has a nearly cyclic structure led to much debate about the issue of whether (NH_3)_2 is hydrogen bonded. This structure was surprising because most {ab initio} calculations led to a classical, nearly linear, hydrogen-bonded structure. An obvious explanation of the discrepancy between the outcome of these calculations and the microwave data which led Nelson {et al.} to their ``surprising structure'' might be the effect of vibrational averaging: the electronic structure calculations focus on finding the minimum of the intermolecular potential, the experiment gives a vibrationally averaged structure. Isotope substitution studies seemed to indicate, however, that the complex is nearly rigid. Additional data became available from high-resolution molecular beam far-infrared spectroscopy in the Saykally group. These spectra, displaying large tunneling splittings, indicate that the complex is very floppy. The seemingly contradictory experimental data were explained when it became possible to calculate the vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) states of the complex on a six-dimensional intermolecular potential surface. The potential used was a simple model potential, with parameters fitted to the far-infrared data. Now, for the first time, a six-dimensional potential was computed by high level {ab initio} methods and this potential will be used in calculations of the VRT states of (NH_3)_2 and (ND_3)_2. So, we will finally be able to answer the question whether the conclusions from the model calculations are indeed a valid explanation of the experimental data. D. Nelson, G. T. Fraser, and W. Klemperer J. Chem. Phys. 83 6201 (1985) J. G. Loeser, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, R. C. Cohen, M. J. Elrod, D. W. Steyert, R. J. Saykally, R. E. Bumgarner, and G. A. Blake J. Chem. Phys. 97 4727 (1992) E. H. T. Olthof, A. van der Avoird, and P. E. S. Wormer J. Chem. Phys. 101 8430 (1994) E. H. T. Olthof

  10. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  11. Graphene liquid crystal retarded percolation for new high-k materials

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinkai; Luna, Alan; Neri, Wilfrid; Zakri, Cécile; Schilling, Tanja; Colin, Annie; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Graphene flakes with giant shape anisotropy are extensively used to establish connectedness electrical percolation in various heterogeneous systems. However, the percolation behaviour of graphene flakes has been recently predicted to be far more complicated than generally anticipated on the basis of excluded volume arguments. Here we confirm experimentally that graphene flakes self-assemble into nematic liquid crystals below the onset of percolation. The competition of percolation and liquid crystal transition provides a new route towards high-k materials. Indeed, near-percolated liquid-crystalline graphene-based composites display unprecedented dielectric properties with a dielectric constant improved by 260-fold increase as compared with the polymer matrix, while maintaining the loss tangent as low as 0.4. This performance is shown to depend on the structure of monodomains of graphene liquid-crystalline phases. Insights into how the liquid crystal phase transition interferes with percolation transition and thus alters the dielectric constant are discussed. PMID:26567720

  12. Graphene liquid crystal retarded percolation for new high-k materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinkai; Luna, Alan; Neri, Wilfrid; Zakri, Cécile; Schilling, Tanja; Colin, Annie; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Graphene flakes with giant shape anisotropy are extensively used to establish connectedness electrical percolation in various heterogeneous systems. However, the percolation behaviour of graphene flakes has been recently predicted to be far more complicated than generally anticipated on the basis of excluded volume arguments. Here we confirm experimentally that graphene flakes self-assemble into nematic liquid crystals below the onset of percolation. The competition of percolation and liquid crystal transition provides a new route towards high-k materials. Indeed, near-percolated liquid-crystalline graphene-based composites display unprecedented dielectric properties with a dielectric constant improved by 260-fold increase as compared with the polymer matrix, while maintaining the loss tangent as low as 0.4. This performance is shown to depend on the structure of monodomains of graphene liquid-crystalline phases. Insights into how the liquid crystal phase transition interferes with percolation transition and thus alters the dielectric constant are discussed.

  13. Percolation transition in thermal conductivity of β-Si3N4 filledepoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan; Chen, Kexin; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-03-01

    Homemade β-Si3N4 particles of different aspect ratio and commercial epoxy resin were used to form heterogeneous composites and a percolation transition was observed. The pre-percolation phase, near percolation phase and post-percolation phase were discussed with different models. In the near percolation phase, multicrystal model was taken to modify the percolation scaling law and provide physical images to the dumb proportional coefficient. X-ray holograph was used to compare the 3D morphology of the composites, and surface modification was found capable of enhancing the particle dispersion. The aspect ratio dependence was also discussed and the competition between the bridging effect and the interface thermal resistance was considered as the cause of the turning point in the thermal conductivity.

  14. Graphene liquid crystal retarded percolation for new high-k materials.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinkai; Luna, Alan; Neri, Wilfrid; Zakri, Cécile; Schilling, Tanja; Colin, Annie; Poulin, Philippe

    2015-11-16

    Graphene flakes with giant shape anisotropy are extensively used to establish connectedness electrical percolation in various heterogeneous systems. However, the percolation behaviour of graphene flakes has been recently predicted to be far more complicated than generally anticipated on the basis of excluded volume arguments. Here we confirm experimentally that graphene flakes self-assemble into nematic liquid crystals below the onset of percolation. The competition of percolation and liquid crystal transition provides a new route towards high-k materials. Indeed, near-percolated liquid-crystalline graphene-based composites display unprecedented dielectric properties with a dielectric constant improved by 260-fold increase as compared with the polymer matrix, while maintaining the loss tangent as low as 0.4. This performance is shown to depend on the structure of monodomains of graphene liquid-crystalline phases. Insights into how the liquid crystal phase transition interferes with percolation transition and thus alters the dielectric constant are discussed.

  15. Effects of treating wheat straw with pH-regulated solutions of alkaline hydrogen peroxide on nutrient digestion by sheep.

    PubMed

    Kerley, M S; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L; Merchen, N R; Gould, J M

    1987-10-01

    An experiment using a 4 X 4 Latin square design was to determine effects of treating wheat straw with pH-regulated (pH = 11.5) solutions of hydrogen peroxide on site and extent of nutrient digestion in multiple-fistulated sheep. Regulating reaction pH at 11.5 prevented solubilization of some cell wall hemicelluloses, resulting in improved retention of DM. Diets fed to sheep contained 33 or 70% wheat straw either untreated or treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Sheep fed diets of treated wheat straw digested more DM, NDF, ADF, and cellulose anterior to the duodenum and in the total tract than when fed diets of untreated wheat straw. Apparent CP digestion before the duodenum was highest when sheep were fed the treated 33% wheat straw diet and untreated 70% wheat straw diet. Treatments did not affect apparent nutrient digestibilities in the large intestine. Ruminal pH was lower when sheep were fed the alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated or diets containing 33% wheat straw. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were highest when sheep were fed the untreated 70% wheat straw diet. Molar proportions of ruminal acetic and propionic acids were unaffected by diet. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment substantially increased susceptibility of structural carbohydrates of wheat straw to microbial degradation in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

  16. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbrink, M. W. L.; Michels, M. A. J.; Vellinga, W. P.; Meijer, H. E. H.

    2005-03-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle surface-to-surface distance was controlled, changing particle volume fraction φ and particle number density independently. This was achieved by mixing two sets of monodisperse particles with widely differing radii ( 0.35μm and 17.5μm ) with the matrix. A scaling exponent of 3.9±0.6 for the storage modulus G' vs φ-φc was observed above a threshold φc , in good agreement with theoretical values for rigidity percolation. It is found that at the rigidity-percolation threshold the pore structure, as characterized by the mean surface-to-surface distance for the filler, rather than the filler volume fraction, is similar for different types of composites. This behavior is explained from the internal structure of the viscoelastic matrix, which consists of fractal solid aggregates dissolved in a viscous medium; the effective radius of these aggregates and the mean surface-to-surface distance together determine whether or not the aggregates are capable of providing rigidity to the composite. The explanation is further supported by a qualitative comparison with effective-medium calculations. These indicate that the observed breakdown of time-temperature superposition near φc is due to the appearance of a time scale characteristic for the mechanical interplay between the viscous binder phase and the purely elastic solid particles.

  17. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  18. Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquet, Martí; Calsamiglia, John

    2011-03-01

    We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.

  19. Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cuquet, Marti; Calsamiglia, John

    2011-03-15

    We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.

  20. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  1. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  2. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  3. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo tank containing more than 8% oxygen by volume. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo tank containing more than 8% oxygen by volume. ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo tank containing more than 8% oxygen by volume. ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo tank containing more than 8% oxygen by volume. ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1760 - Liquid ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1760 Liquid ammonia. The master shall ensure that no person sprays liquid ammonia into a cargo tank containing more than 8% oxygen by volume. ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid ammonia. 154.1760 Section 154.1760 Shipping...

  9. 21 CFR 573.180 - Anhydrous ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.180 Anhydrous ammonia. (a) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied directly...: (1)(i) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied as a component of an aqueous premix...

  10. 21 CFR 573.180 - Anhydrous ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.180 Anhydrous ammonia. (a) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied directly...: (1)(i) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied as a component of an aqueous premix...

  11. 21 CFR 573.180 - Anhydrous ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.180 Anhydrous ammonia. (a) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied directly...: (1)(i) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied as a component of an aqueous premix...

  12. 21 CFR 573.180 - Anhydrous ammonia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.180 Anhydrous ammonia. (a) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied directly...: (1)(i) The food additive anhydrous ammonia is applied as a component of an aqueous premix...

  13. Synergistic ammonia losses from animal wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thin-layer models are commonly used to estimate ammonia emissions from liquid waste. However, such models differ in their ability to accurately reproduce observed emissions, which may be partly due to an incomplete mechanistic understanding of ammonia volatilization. In this study, ammonia release...

  14. Percolation, sliding, localization and relaxation in topologically closed circuits

    PubMed Central

    Hurowitz, Daniel; Cohen, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Considering a random walk in a random environment in a topologically closed circuit, we explore the implications of the percolation and sliding transitions for its relaxation modes. A complementary question regarding the “delocalization” of eigenstates of non-hermitian Hamiltonians has been addressed by Hatano, Nelson, and followers. But we show that for a conservative stochastic process the implied spectral properties are dramatically different. In particular we determine the threshold for under-damped relaxation, and observe “complexity saturation” as the bias is increased. PMID:26961586

  15. On the genre-fication of music: a percolation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, R.; Ausloos, M.

    2006-03-01

    We analyze web-downloaded data on people sharing their music library. By attributing to each music group usual music genres (Rock, Pop ...), and analysing correlations between music groups of different genres with percolation-idea based methods, we probe the reality of these subdivisions and construct a music genre cartography, with a tree representation. We also discuss an alternative objective way to classify music, that is based on the complex structure of the groups audience. Finally, a link is drawn with the theory of hidden variables in complex networks.

  16. Percolation Theory for the Distribution and Abundance of Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fangliang; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2003-11-01

    We develop and test new models that unify the mathematical relationships among the abundance of a species, the spatial dispersion of the species, the number of patches occupied by the species, the edge length of the occupied patches, and the scale on which the distribution of species is mapped. The models predict that species distributions will exhibit percolation critical thresholds, i.e., critical population abundances at which the fragmented patches (as measured by the number of patches and edge length) start to coalesce to form large patches.

  17. Percolation in insect nest networks: Evidence for optimal wiring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Sergi; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Perna, Andrea; Kuntz, Pascale; Theraulaz, Guy; Solé, Ricard V.

    2009-06-01

    Optimization has been shown to be a driving force for the evolution of some biological structures, such as neural maps in the brain or transport networks. Here we show that insect networks also display characteristic traits of optimality. By using a graph representation of the chamber organization of termite nests and a disordered lattice model, it is found that these spatial nests are close to a percolation threshold. This suggests that termites build efficient systems of galleries spanning most of the nest volume at low cost. The evolutionary consequences are outlined.

  18. Percolation Blocking as the Origin of Organic Magneto-resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Qing; Sun, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    In order to identify the elementary mechanisms governing the organic magneto-resistance (OMAR) phenomenon, we demonstrated how the applied magnetic field acts on the variable hopping mobility. Based on a percolation model of hopping between localized states, we introduced an analytic expression for magneto-mobility and thus the OMAR, and discussed the influence of inter-site electronic interaction, operating bias, film thickness, temperature, and material parameters on the OMAR. The double occupied states and the spin selection rules play a major role in the mechanism.

  19. Resistance of Feynman diagrams and the percolation backbone dimension.

    PubMed

    Janssen, H K; Stenull, O; Oerding, K

    1999-06-01

    We present an alternative view of Feynman diagrams for the field theory of random resistor networks, in which the diagrams are interpreted as being resistor networks themselves. This simplifies the field theory considerably as we demonstrate by calculating the fractal dimension D(B) of the percolation backbone to three loop order. Using renormalization group methods we obtain D(B)=2+epsilon/21-172epsilon(2)/9261+2epsilon(3)[-74 639+22 680zeta(3)]/4 084 101, where epsilon=6-d with d being the spatial dimension and zeta(3)=1.202 057... .

  20. Uncertainty in oil production predicted by percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. R.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Dokholyan, N. V.; Havlin, S.; Lopez, E.; Paul, G.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we apply scaling laws from percolation theory to the problem of estimating the time for a fluid injected into an oilfield to breakthrough into a production well. The main contribution is to show that when these previously published results are used on realistic data they are in good agreement with results calculated in a more conventional way, but they can be obtained significantly and more quickly. As a result, they may be used in practical engineering circumstances and aid decision-making for real field problems.

  1. Using percolation theory to predict oil field performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. R.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Dokholyan, N. V.; Havlin, S.; Lopez, E.; Paul, G.; Stanley, H. E.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we apply scaling laws from percolation theory to the problem of estimating the time for a fluid injected into an oilfield to breakthrough into a production well. The main contribution is to show that when these previously published results are used on realistic data they are in good agreement with results calculated in a more conventional way but they can be obtained significantly more quickly. As a result they may be used in practical engineering circumstances and aid decision making for real field problems.

  2. Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2014-11-01

    We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.

  3. Hydrogen production using ammonia borane

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Charles W; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy A; Shrestha, Roshan P

    2013-12-24

    Hydrogen ("H.sub.2") is produced when ammonia borane reacts with a catalyst complex of the formula L.sub.nM-X wherein M is a base metal such as iron, X is an anionic nitrogen- or phosphorus-based ligand or hydride, and L is a neutral ancillary ligand that is a neutral monodentate or polydentate ligand.

  4. Ammonia excretion by Azobacter chroococcum

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, N.; Lakshminarayana, K.; Tauro, P.

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, research has focused attention on the development of biological systems for nitrogen fixation. In this report, two strains of Azotobacter chroococcum are identified which can excrete as much as 45 mg ammonia/ml of the culture broth in a sucrose supplemented synthetic medium.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and....1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour...

  6. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  7. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  8. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  9. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  10. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  11. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

  12. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe Villeneuve, Jérémie Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-28

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  13. Percolation analysis for cosmic web with discrete points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung

    2016-03-01

    Percolation analysis has long been used to quantify the connectivity of the cosmic web. Unlike most of the previous works using density field on grids, we have studied percolation analysis based on discrete points. Using a Friends-of-Friends (FoF) algorithm, we generate the S-bb relation, between the fractional mass of the largest connected group (S) and the FoF linking length (bb). We propose a new model, the Probability Cloud Cluster Expansion Theory (PCCET) to relate the S-bb relation with correlation functions. We show that the S-bb relation reflects a combination of all orders of correlation functions. We have studied the S-bb relation with simulation and find that the S-bb relation is robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness in observation. From the Bolshoi simulation, with Halo Abundance Matching (HAM), we have generated a mock galaxy catalogue. Good matching of the projected two-point correlation function with observation is confirmed. However, comparing the mock catalogue with the latest galaxy catalogue from SDSS DR12, we have found significant differences in their S-bb relations. This indicates that the mock catalogue cannot accurately recover higher order correlation functions than the two-point correlation function, which reveals the limit of HAM method.

  14. Percolation theory and connectivity of multiscale porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrier, E.; Bird, N.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that flow and transport properties in porous media vary as non-linear functions of the porosity and that the macroscopic conductivity of a soil sample is stronly dependent on the connectivity of the pore network observed at a microscopic scale. Connectivity is a key parameter which is still difficult to quantify. We present first a review on the basic concepts of percolation theory and on their application to the standard modelling of critical transitions in the connectivity of pore or fracture subnetworks. Then we show how these concepts have to be revisited when the pore network is non longer randomly distributed, and namely when the medium is structured on multiple embedded organisation scales. We finally present some novel research results obtained on multiscale fractal soil models as regards the probability for pore or solid networks to percolate as a function of the type of geometrical organization : in particular we highligt the possibility of high porosity structures supporting impaired flow and transport. The presentation of several computer simulations illustrates the theoretical concepts. In turn, the theoretical formalism will serve as a guide for assessing the asymptotic behavior of multiscale simulated networks, in the growing research field of network modelling applied to complex natural systems.

  15. Percolation transition in dynamical traffic network with evolving critical bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Li, Daqing; Fu, Bowen; Wang, Yunpeng; Lu, Guangquan; Berezin, Yehiel; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-20

    A critical phenomenon is an intrinsic feature of traffic dynamics, during which transition between isolated local flows and global flows occurs. However, very little attention has been given to the question of how the local flows in the roads are organized collectively into a global city flow. Here we characterize this organization process of traffic as "traffic percolation," where the giant cluster of local flows disintegrates when the second largest cluster reaches its maximum. We find in real-time data of city road traffic that global traffic is dynamically composed of clusters of local flows, which are connected by bottleneck links. This organization evolves during a day with different bottleneck links appearing in different hours, but similar in the same hours in different days. A small improvement of critical bottleneck roads is found to benefit significantly the global traffic, providing a method to improve city traffic with low cost. Our results may provide insights on the relation between traffic dynamics and percolation, which can be useful for efficient transportation, epidemic control, and emergency evacuation. PMID:25552558

  16. Rubber elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian chains

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Kengo E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sakai, Takamasa E-mail: sakai@tetrapod.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-11-14

    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation (EMA) for Hookian spring network to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1, G{sub 0}, must be equal to G/G{sub 0} = (p − 2/f)/(1 − 2/f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels.

  17. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-02-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors.

  18. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  19. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ < β3 < β2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  20. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors. PMID:26888337

  1. Ultrasensitive photodetectors exploiting electrostatic trapping and percolation transport

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Hellebusch, Daniel J.; Bronstein, Noah D.; Ko, Changhyun; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of semiconductor photodetectors is limited by photocarrier recombination during the carrier transport process. We developed a new photoactive material that reduces recombination by physically separating hole and electron charge carriers. This material has a specific detectivity (the ability to detect small signals) of 5 × 1017 Jones, the highest reported in visible and infrared detectors at room temperature, and 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than that of commercial single-crystal silicon detectors. The material was fabricated by sintering chloride-capped CdTe nanocrystals into polycrystalline films, where Cl selectively segregates into grain boundaries acting as n-type dopants. Photogenerated electrons concentrate in and percolate along the grain boundaries—a network of energy valleys, while holes are confined in the grain interiors. This electrostatic field-assisted carrier separation and percolation mechanism enables an unprecedented photoconductive gain of 1010 e− per photon, and allows for effective control of the device response speed by active carrier quenching. PMID:27323904

  2. Ultrasensitive photodetectors exploiting electrostatic trapping and percolation transport.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Hellebusch, Daniel J; Bronstein, Noah D; Ko, Changhyun; Ogletree, D Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of semiconductor photodetectors is limited by photocarrier recombination during the carrier transport process. We developed a new photoactive material that reduces recombination by physically separating hole and electron charge carriers. This material has a specific detectivity (the ability to detect small signals) of 5 × 10(17) Jones, the highest reported in visible and infrared detectors at room temperature, and 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than that of commercial single-crystal silicon detectors. The material was fabricated by sintering chloride-capped CdTe nanocrystals into polycrystalline films, where Cl selectively segregates into grain boundaries acting as n-type dopants. Photogenerated electrons concentrate in and percolate along the grain boundaries-a network of energy valleys, while holes are confined in the grain interiors. This electrostatic field-assisted carrier separation and percolation mechanism enables an unprecedented photoconductive gain of 10(10) e(-) per photon, and allows for effective control of the device response speed by active carrier quenching. PMID:27323904

  3. Percolation transition in dynamical traffic network with evolving critical bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daqing

    A critical phenomenon is an intrinsic feature of traffic dynamics, during which transition between isolated local flows and global flows occurs. However, very little attention has been given to the question of how the local flows in the roads are organized collectively into a global city flow. Here we characterize this organization process of traffic as ``traffic percolation,'' where the giant cluster of local flows disintegrates when the second largest cluster reaches its maximum. We find in real-time data of city road traffic that global traffic is dynamically composed of clusters of local flows, which are connected by bottleneck links. This organization evolves during a day with different bottleneck links appearing in different hours, but similar in the same hours in different days. A small improvement of critical bottleneck roads is found to benefit significantly the global traffic, providing a method to improve city traffic with low cost. Our results may provide insights on the relation between traffic dynamics and percolation, which can be useful for efficient transportation, epidemic control, and emergency evacuation.

  4. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  5. Rubber elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Kengo; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takamasa; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-01

    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation (EMA) for Hookian spring network to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1, G0, must be equal to G/G0 = (p - 2/f)/(1 - 2/f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels.

  6. Rubber Elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Sakai, Takamasa

    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation for Hookian spring network (EMA) to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1 ,G0, must be equal to G /G0 = (p - 2 / f) / (1 - 2 / f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA, and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels.

  7. Ultralow percolation threshold in aerogel and cryogel templated composites.

    PubMed

    Irin, Fahmida; Das, Sriya; Atore, Francis O; Green, Micah J

    2013-09-10

    We demonstrate a novel concept for preparing percolating composites with ultralow filler content by utilizing nanofiller-loaded aerogel and cryogels as a conductive template. This concept is investigated for several porous systems, including resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), silica, and polyacrylamide (PAM) gels, and both graphene and carbon nanotubes are utilized as nanofiller. In each case, a stable, aqueous nanofiller dispersion is mixed with a sol-gel precursor and polymerized to form a hydrogel, which can then be converted to an aerogel by critical point drying or cryogel by freeze-drying. Epoxy resin is infused into the pores of the gels by capillary action without disrupting the monolithic structure. We show that conductive graphene/epoxy composites are formed with a very low graphene loading; a percolation threshold as low as 0.012 vol % is obtained for graphene-RF cryogel/epoxy composite. This is the lowest reported threshold of any graphene-based nanocomposites. Similar values are achieved in other aerogel and nanofiller systems, which demonstrates the versatility of this method. PMID:23927050

  8. Accelerating Gas Adsorption on 3D Percolating Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wen, Chenyu; Zhang, Youwei; Wu, Dongping; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the field of electronic gas sensing, low-dimensional semiconductors such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can offer high detection sensitivity owing to their unprecedentedly large surface-to-volume ratio. The sensitivity and responsivity can further improve by increasing their areal density. Here, an accelerated gas adsorption is demonstrated by exploiting volumetric effects via dispersion of SWCNTs into a percolating three-dimensional (3D) network in a semiconducting polymer. The resultant semiconducting composite film is evaluated as a sensing membrane in field effect transistor (FET) sensors. In order to attain reproducible characteristics of the FET sensors, a pulsed-gate-bias measurement technique is adopted to eliminate current hysteresis and drift of sensing baseline. The rate of gas adsorption follows the Langmuir-type isotherm as a function of gas concentration and scales with film thickness. This rate is up to 5 times higher in the composite than only with an SWCNT network in the transistor channel, which in turn results in a 7-fold shorter time constant of adsorption with the composite. The description of gas adsorption developed in the present work is generic for all semiconductors and the demonstrated composite with 3D percolating SWCNTs dispersed in functional polymer represents a promising new type of material for advanced gas sensors. PMID:26888337

  9. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph

    PubMed Central

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media. PMID:26311434

  10. Ultrasensitive photodetectors exploiting electrostatic trapping and percolation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Hellebusch, Daniel J.; Bronstein, Noah D.; Ko, Changhyun; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2016-06-01

    The sensitivity of semiconductor photodetectors is limited by photocarrier recombination during the carrier transport process. We developed a new photoactive material that reduces recombination by physically separating hole and electron charge carriers. This material has a specific detectivity (the ability to detect small signals) of 5 × 1017 Jones, the highest reported in visible and infrared detectors at room temperature, and 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than that of commercial single-crystal silicon detectors. The material was fabricated by sintering chloride-capped CdTe nanocrystals into polycrystalline films, where Cl selectively segregates into grain boundaries acting as n-type dopants. Photogenerated electrons concentrate in and percolate along the grain boundaries--a network of energy valleys, while holes are confined in the grain interiors. This electrostatic field-assisted carrier separation and percolation mechanism enables an unprecedented photoconductive gain of 1010 e- per photon, and allows for effective control of the device response speed by active carrier quenching.

  11. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  12. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  13. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  14. Predicting Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Percolation Test Results in Layered Silt Loam Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size of on-site waste disposal systems is usually determined by one or more percolation tests performed on the proposed site. The objectives of this study were to develop an empirical relationship between the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of layered soils and their percolation times (PT)...

  15. Message passing theory for percolation models on multiplex networks with link overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellai, Davide; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-09-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, including infrastructures, transportation networks, and biological systems. Most of these networks feature a significant link overlap. It is therefore of particular importance to characterize the mutually connected giant component in these networks. Here we provide a message passing theory for characterizing the percolation transition in multiplex networks with link overlap and an arbitrary number of layers M . Specifically we propose and compare two message passing algorithms that generalize the algorithm widely used to study the percolation transition in multiplex networks without link overlap. The first algorithm describes a directed percolation transition and admits an epidemic spreading interpretation. The second algorithm describes the emergence of the mutually connected giant component, that is the percolation transition, but does not preserve the epidemic spreading interpretation. We obtain the phase diagrams for the percolation and directed percolation transition in simple representative cases. We demonstrate that for the same multiplex network structure, in which the directed percolation transition has nontrivial tricritical points, the percolation transition has a discontinuous phase transition, with the exception of the trivial case in which all the layers completely overlap.

  16. Crossover phenomena of percolation transition in evolution networks with hybrid attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Yang, Chun; Zhong, Linfeng; Tang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A first-order percolation transition, called explosive percolation, was recently discovered in evolution networks with random edge selection under a certain restriction. For many real world networks, the mechanism of preferential attachment plays a significant role in the formation of heterogeneous structures, but the network percolation in evolution process with preferential attachment has not yet been concerned. We propose a tunable network percolation model by introducing a hybrid mechanism of edge selection into the Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, in which a parameter adjusts the relative weights between random and preferential selections. A large number of simulations indicate that there exist crossover phenomena of percolation transition by adjusting the parameter in the evolution processes. When the strategy of selecting a candidate edge is dominated by random selection, a single discontinuous percolation transition occurs. When a candidate edge is selected more preferentially based on nodes degree, the size of the largest component undergoes multiple discontinuous jumps, which exhibits a peculiar difference from the network percolation of random selection with a certain restriction. Besides, the percolation transition becomes continuous when the candidate edge is selected completely preferentially.

  17. Crossover phenomena of percolation transition in evolution networks with hybrid attachment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Yang, Chun; Zhong, Linfeng; Tang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A first-order percolation transition, called explosive percolation, was recently discovered in evolution networks with random edge selection under a certain restriction. For many real world networks, the mechanism of preferential attachment plays a significant role in the formation of heterogeneous structures, but the network percolation in evolution process with preferential attachment has not yet been concerned. We propose a tunable network percolation model by introducing a hybrid mechanism of edge selection into the Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, in which a parameter adjusts the relative weights between random and preferential selections. A large number of simulations indicate that there exist crossover phenomena of percolation transition by adjusting the parameter in the evolution processes. When the strategy of selecting a candidate edge is dominated by random selection, a single discontinuous percolation transition occurs. When a candidate edge is selected more preferentially based on nodes degree, the size of the largest component undergoes multiple discontinuous jumps, which exhibits a peculiar difference from the network percolation of random selection with a certain restriction. Besides, the percolation transition becomes continuous when the candidate edge is selected completely preferentially. PMID:27586610

  18. Crossover phenomena of percolation transition in evolution networks with hybrid attachment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Yang, Chun; Zhong, Linfeng; Tang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A first-order percolation transition, called explosive percolation, was recently discovered in evolution networks with random edge selection under a certain restriction. For many real world networks, the mechanism of preferential attachment plays a significant role in the formation of heterogeneous structures, but the network percolation in evolution process with preferential attachment has not yet been concerned. We propose a tunable network percolation model by introducing a hybrid mechanism of edge selection into the Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, in which a parameter adjusts the relative weights between random and preferential selections. A large number of simulations indicate that there exist crossover phenomena of percolation transition by adjusting the parameter in the evolution processes. When the strategy of selecting a candidate edge is dominated by random selection, a single discontinuous percolation transition occurs. When a candidate edge is selected more preferentially based on nodes degree, the size of the largest component undergoes multiple discontinuous jumps, which exhibits a peculiar difference from the network percolation of random selection with a certain restriction. Besides, the percolation transition becomes continuous when the candidate edge is selected completely preferentially.

  19. Superionic water-ammonia mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethkenhagen, M.; Cebulla, D.; Redmer, R.; Hamel, S.

    2014-12-01

    The interior of the Giant Planets Uranus and Neptune contains large amounts of water, ammonia and methane (referred to as planetary ices). Many observable properties of these planets, such as luminosity, gravitational moments and magnetic fields, are thought to be determined by the physical and chemical properties of matter within this ice layer. Hence, the phase diagrams, equations of state and structural properties of these materials and their respective mixtures are of great interest.Especially the phase diagrams of water and ammonia gained much attention since Cavazzoni et al. [1] proposed superionic phases for these materials, which are characterized by highly mobile hydrogen ions in a lattice of oxygen and nitrogen ions, respectively. For water, the influence of such a phase on the properties of the Giant Planets as well as on exoplanets has been discussed widely. [2,3] Nevertheless, it is an open question how the properties of such a water layer change when another compound, e.g., ammonia is introduced. Considering a 1:1 mixture, we have performed ab initio simulations based on density functional theory using the VASP code [4] heating up structures which we had found from evolutionary random structure search calculations with XtalOpt [5]. We propose possible superionic water-ammonia structures present up to several Mbar. Moreover, we investigate the equation of state and transport properties of this mixture such as diffusion coefficients in order to compare with the pure compounds. These results are essential to construct new interior models for Neptune-like planets.[1] C. Cavazzoni et al., Science 283, 44 (1999).[2] R. Redmer et al., Icarus 211, 798 (2011).[3] L. Zeng and D. Sasselov, ApJ 784, 96 (2014).[4] G. Kresse and J. Hafner, Phys. Rev. B 47, 558 (1993).[5] D. C. Lonie and E. Zurek, Comput. Phys. Commun. 182, 372 (2011).

  20. Fluorographene based Ultrasensitive Ammonia Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tadi, Kiran Kumar; Pal, Shubhadeep; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.

    2016-01-01

    Single molecule detection using graphene can be brought by tuning the interactions via specific dopants. Electrostatic interaction between the most electronegative element fluorine (F) and hydrogen (H) is one of the strong interactions in hydrogen bonding, and here we report the selective binding of ammonia/ammonium with F in fluorographene (FG) resulting to a change in the impedance of the system. Very low limit of detection value of ~0.44 pM with linearity over wide range of concentrations (1 pM–0.1 μM) is achieved using the FG based impedance sensor, andthisscreen printed FG sensor works in both ionized (ammonium) and un-ionized ammonia sensing platforms. The interaction energies of FG and NH3/NH4+ are evaluated using density functional theory calculations and the interactions are mapped. Here FGs with two different amounts of fluorinecontents −~5 atomic% (C39H16F2) and ~24 atomic% (C39H16F12) - are theoretically and experimentally studied for selective, high sensitive and ultra-low level detection of ammonia. Fast responding, high sensitive, large area patternable FG based sensor platform demonstrated here can open new avenues for the development of point-of-care devices and clinical sensors. PMID:27142522

  1. Planar waveguide sensor of ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogoziński, Roman; Tyszkiewicz, Cuma; Karasiński, Paweł; Izydorczyk, Weronika

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the concept of forming ammonia sensor based on a planar waveguide structure. It is an amplitude sensor produced on the basis of the multimode waveguide. The technological base for this kind of structure is the ion exchange method and the sol-gel method. The planar multimode waveguide of channel type is produced in glass substrate (soda-lime glass of Menzel-Glaser company) by the selective Ag+↔Na+ ion exchange. On the surface of the glass substrate a porous (~40%) silica layer is produced by the sol-gel method. This layer is sensitized to the presence of ammonia in the surrounding atmosphere by impregnation with Bromocresol Purple (BCP) dye. Therefore it constitutes a sensor layer. Spectrophotometric tests carried out showed about 50% reduction of cross-transmission changes of such sensor layer for a wave λ=593 nm caused by the presence of 25% ammonia water vapor in its ambience. The radiation source used in this type of sensor structure is a light emitting diode LED. The gradient channel waveguide is designed for frontal connection (optical glue) with a standard multimode telecommunications waveguide 62.5/125μm.

  2. Fiber-Optic Ammonia Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Reversible, colorimetric fiber-optic sensors are undergoing development for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia in air at levels relevant to human health [0 to 50 parts per million (ppm)]. A sensor of this type includes an optical fiber that has been modified by replacing a portion of its cladding with a polymer coat that contains a dye that reacts reversibly with ammonia and changes color when it does so. The change in color is measured as a change in the amount of light transmitted from one end of the fiber to the other. Responses are reversible and proportional to the concentration of ammonia over the range from 9 to 175 ppm and in some cases the range of reversibility extends up to 270 ppm. The characteristic time for the response of a sensor to rise from 10 to 90 percent of full scale is about 25 seconds. These sensors are fully operational in pure carbon dioxide and are not adversely affected by humidity. This work was done by Michael T. Carter

  3. Precise percolation thresholds of two-dimensional random systems comprising overlapping ellipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiantong; Östling, Mikael

    2016-11-01

    This work explores the percolation thresholds of continuum systems consisting of randomly-oriented overlapping ellipses. High-precision percolation thresholds for various homogeneous ellipse systems with different aspect ratios are obtained from extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on the incorporation of Vieillard-Baron's contact function of two identical ellipses with our efficient algorithm for continuum percolation. In addition, we generalize Vieillard-Baron's contact function from identical ellipses to unequal ellipses, and extend the Monte Carlo algorithm to heterogeneous ellipse systems where the ellipses have different dimensions and/or aspect ratios. Based on the concept of modified excluded area, a general law is verified for precise prediction of percolation threshold for many heterogeneous ellipse systems. In particular, the study of heterogeneous ellipse systems gains insight into the apparent percolation threshold symmetry observed earlier in systems comprising unequal circles (Consiglio et al., 2004).

  4. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  5. Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs by ammonia.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Nelson, Kara L

    2005-10-15

    Uncharged ammonia is known to cause inactivation of a number of wastewater pathogens, but its effect on Ascaris eggs has never been isolated or quantified. The objectives of this research were to determine the conditions under which ammonia inactivates eggs of the swine Ascaris species, Ascaris suum, and to quantify the impact of ammonia on the U.S. EPA's requirements for alkaline treatment to produce Class A sludge. Eggs were incubated in controlled, laboratory solutions such that the effects of ammonia concentration and speciation, pH, and temperature could be separated. With a 24-h incubation, the inactivation at all pH levels (range 7-11) was not statistically different in the absence of ammonia. The presence of ammonia (0-1000 ppm as N) significantly increased Ascaris egg inactivation at pH 9 and 11, and the ovicidal effect was directly related to the concentration of the uncharged NH3 species. Increasing temperatures (32-52 degrees C) caused increased inactivation at all pH levels and ammonia concentrations. The current EPA treatment requirements to produce Class A biosolids by alkaline treatment have temperature, pH, and time requirements, but do not account for the effectof differences in ammonia concentration on inactivation. To illustrate the potential savings in temperature and pH that could be achieved when accounting for ammonia inactivation, the combinations of ammonia concentration, temperature, and pH neededto achieve 99% inactivation after 72 h were determined. The presence of ammonia at concentrations encountered in sludges and feces (up to 8000 ppm as N) allowed for 99% egg inactivation to be achieved at temperatures up to 14 degrees C lower than ammonia-free controls. Thus, environmentally relevant concentrations of ammonia may significantly increase the rate of Ascaris egg inactivation during alkaline stabilization.

  6. Percolation and Burgers' dynamics in a model of capillary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, A.; de Candia, A.; di Talia, S.; Gamba, A.

    2004-05-01

    Capillary networks are essential in vertebrates to supply tissues with nutrients. Experiments of in vitro capillary formation show that cells randomly spread on a gel matrix autonomously organize to form vascular networks. Cells form disconnected networks at low densities and connected ones above a critical density. Above the critical density the network is characterized by a typical mesh size ˜200 μm , which is approximately constant on a wide range of density values. In this paper we present a full characterization of a recently proposed model which reproduces the main features of the biological system, focusing on its dynamical properties, on the fractal properties of patterns, and on the percolative phase transition. We discuss the relevance of the model in relation with some experiments in living beings and proposed diagnostic methods based on the measurement of the fractal dimension of vascular networks.

  7. Lattice percolation approach to 3D modeling of tissue aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, Vyacheslav; Privman, Vladimir; Libert, Sergiy

    2016-11-01

    We describe a 3D percolation-type approach to modeling of the processes of aging and certain other properties of tissues analyzed as systems consisting of interacting cells. Lattice sites are designated as regular (healthy) cells, senescent cells, or vacancies left by dead (apoptotic) cells. The system is then studied dynamically with the ongoing processes including regular cell dividing to fill vacant sites, healthy cells becoming senescent or dying, and senescent cells dying. Statistical-mechanics description can provide patterns of time dependence and snapshots of morphological system properties. The developed theoretical modeling approach is found not only to corroborate recent experimental findings that inhibition of senescence can lead to extended lifespan, but also to confirm that, unlike 2D, in 3D senescent cells can contribute to tissue's connectivity/mechanical stability. The latter effect occurs by senescent cells forming the second infinite cluster in the regime when the regular (healthy) cell's infinite cluster still exists.

  8. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M; Shneidman, Anna V; Cranshaw, Derek J; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids. PMID:26790372

  9. Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation and percolation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Paech, Kerstin; Bauer, Wolfgang; Pratt, Scott

    2007-11-15

    We investigate the average sizes of the n largest fragments in nuclear multifragmentation events near the critical point of the nuclear matter phase diagram. We perform analytic calculations employing Poisson statistics as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the percolation type. We find that previous claims of manifestations of Zipf's Law in the rank-ordered fragment size distributions are not borne out in our result, in neither finite nor infinite systems. Instead, we find that Zipf-Mandelbrot distributions are needed to describe the results, and we show how one can derive them in the infinite size limit. However, we agree with previous authors that the investigation of rank-ordered fragment size distributions is an alternative way of looking for the critical point in the nuclear matter diagram.

  10. Round robin testing of a percolation column leaching procedure.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Roeland; Spooren, Jeroen; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Broos, Kris; Kenis, Cindy; Debaene, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Round robin test results of a percolation column leaching procedure (CEN/TS 14405:2004), organised by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), over a time span of 13years with a participation of between 8 and 18 different laboratories are presented and discussed. Focus is on the leachability of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from mineral waste materials. By performing statistical analyses on the obtained results, insight into the reproducibility and repeatability of the column leaching test is gathered. A ratio of 1:3 between intra- and inter-laboratory variability is found. The reproducibility of the eluates' element concentrations differ significantly between elements, materials and fractions (i.e. different liquid-to-solid ratios). The reproducibility is discussed in light of the application of the column leaching test for legal and environmental policy purposes. In addition, the performances of laboratories are compared.

  11. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids.

  12. Round robin testing of a percolation column leaching procedure.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Roeland; Spooren, Jeroen; Quaghebeur, Mieke; Broos, Kris; Kenis, Cindy; Debaene, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Round robin test results of a percolation column leaching procedure (CEN/TS 14405:2004), organised by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), over a time span of 13years with a participation of between 8 and 18 different laboratories are presented and discussed. Focus is on the leachability of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn from mineral waste materials. By performing statistical analyses on the obtained results, insight into the reproducibility and repeatability of the column leaching test is gathered. A ratio of 1:3 between intra- and inter-laboratory variability is found. The reproducibility of the eluates' element concentrations differ significantly between elements, materials and fractions (i.e. different liquid-to-solid ratios). The reproducibility is discussed in light of the application of the column leaching test for legal and environmental policy purposes. In addition, the performances of laboratories are compared. PMID:27311350

  13. Percolation, renormalization, and quantum computing with nondeterministic gates.

    PubMed

    Kieling, K; Rudolph, T; Eisert, J

    2007-09-28

    We apply a notion of static renormalization to the preparation of entangled states for quantum computing, exploiting ideas from percolation theory. Such a strategy yields a novel way to cope with the randomness of nondeterministic quantum gates. This is most relevant in the context of optical architectures, where probabilistic gates are common, and cold atoms in optical lattices, where hole defects occur. We demonstrate how to efficiently construct cluster states without the need for rerouting, thereby avoiding a massive amount of conditional dynamics; we furthermore show that except for a single layer of gates during the preparation, all subsequent operations can be shifted to the final adapted single-qubit measurements. Remarkably, cluster state preparation is achieved using essentially the same scaling in resources as if deterministic gates were available.

  14. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids. PMID:26790372

  15. Process studies of water percolation in a Mediterranean karst area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Arbel, Y.; Greenbaum, N.; Grodek, T.

    2009-04-01

    In drylands karst environments comprise large areas and their groundwater resources are important for local and regional water supply. Recharge estimations are usually based on long term averages and hence uncertain, because they do not explicitly account for the accentuated variability of dryland precipitation, where a large fraction of annual rainfall is concentrated in a small number of high magnitude events. To provide process information in adequate temporal resolution the present study directly investigates percolation processes in an Eastern Mediterranean karst system, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Therefore the drip response of stalactites in a karstic cave 28m below a sprinkling experiment was measured. Besides hydrometric measurements (soil moisture, surface runoff, stalactite dripping rates) also tracers were applied. Sprinkling water was pumped from two wells of the underlying karst aquifer. The experiment took place at the end of the dry season. Simulating a series of two high intensity storms, 190 mm of artificial rainfall was sprinkled over two days on a 143 m2 plot. Two types of tracers were used: (i) the relatively high conductivity of the sprinkling water facilitated the separation between old (pre-sprinkling) and new (sprinkling) water by mixing analysis, (ii) before second day sprinkling bromide was injected as a dirac impulse on top of selected soil pockets to facilitate direct insights into percolation fluxes. On the plot surface saturation excess runoff was observed towards the end of first day sprinkling and entire soil saturation occurred down to the deepest soil moisture sensor. During the second day the entire soil reached quickly saturation and remained at field capacity until the end of data collection. In the cave the drip response depended on stalactite type: (i) perennial stalactites were already dripping continuously before sprinkling onset. Conductivity dynamics resulted in high percentages of pre-sprinkling water suggesting continuous input

  16. Hybrid Percolation Transition in Cluster Merging Processes: Continuously Varying Exponents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y S; Lee, J S; Herrmann, H J; Kahng, B

    2016-01-15

    Consider growing a network, in which every new connection is made between two disconnected nodes. At least one node is chosen randomly from a subset consisting of g fraction of the entire population in the smallest clusters. Here we show that this simple strategy for improving connection exhibits a more unusual phase transition, namely a hybrid percolation transition exhibiting the properties of both first-order and second-order phase transitions. The cluster size distribution of finite clusters at a transition point exhibits power-law behavior with a continuously varying exponent τ in the range 2<τ(g)≤2.5. This pattern reveals a necessary condition for a hybrid transition in cluster aggregation processes, which is comparable to the power-law behavior of the avalanche size distribution arising in models with link-deleting processes in interdependent networks. PMID:26824550

  17. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  18. Soil porosity correlation and its influence in percolation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Ruis-Ramos, Margarita; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    The prediction of percolation in natural soils is relevant for modeling root growth and optimizing infiltration of water and nutrients. Also, it would improve our understanding on how pollutants as pesticides, and virus and bacteria (Darnault et al., 2003) reach significant depths without being filtered out by the soil matrix (Beven and Germann, 2013). Random walk algorithms have been used successfully to date to characterize the dynamical characteristics of disordered media. This approach has been used here to describe how soil at different bulk densities and with different threshold values applied to the 3D gray images influences the structure of the pore network and their implications on particle flow and distribution (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2009). In order to do so first we applied several threshold values to each image analyzed and characterized them through Hurst exponents, then we computed random walks algorithms to calculate distances reached by the particles and speed of those particles. At the same time, 3D structures with a Hurst exponent of ca 0.5 and with different porosities were constructed and the same random walks simulations were replicated over these generated structures. We have found a relationship between Hurst exponents and the speed distribution of the particles reaching percolation of the total soil depth. REFERENCES Darnault, C.J. G., P. Garnier, Y.J. Kim, K.L. Oveson, T.S. Steenhuis, J.Y. Parlange, M. Jenkins, W.C. Ghiorse, and P. Baveye (2003), Preferential transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in variably saturated subsurface environments, Water Environ. Res., 75, 113-120. Beven, Keith and Germann, Peter. 2013. Macropores and water flow in soils revisited. Water Resources Research, 49(6), 3071-3092. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20156. Ruiz-Ramos, M., D. del Valle, D. Grinev, and A.M. Tarquis. 2009. Soil hydraulic behaviour at different bulk densities. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-6234.

  19. Modelling heterogeneous meltwater percolation on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligtenberg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has experienced an increase of surface meltwater production over the last decades, with the latest record set in the summer of 2012. For current and future ice sheet mass balance assessments, it is important to quantify what part of this meltwater reaches the ocean and contributes to sea level change. Meltwater produced at the surface has several options: it can infiltrate the local firn pack, where it is either stored temporarily or refrozen, or it can run off along the surface or via en-glacial drainage systems. In this study, we focus on the first; more specifically, in which manner meltwater percolates the firn column. Over the past years, GrIS research has shown that meltwater does not infiltrate the firn pack homogeneously (i.e. matrix flow), but that inhomogeneities in horizontal firn layers causes preferential flow paths for meltwater (i.e. piping). Although this process has been observed and studied on a few isolated sites, it has never been examined on the entire GrIS. To do so, we use the firn model IMAU-FDM with new parameterizations for preferential flow, impermeable ice lenses and sub-surface runoff. At the surface, IMAU-FDM is forced with realistic climate data from the regional climate model RACMO2.3. The model results are evaluated with temperatures and density measurements from firn cores across the GrIS. By allowing for heterogeneous meltwater percolation, the model is able to store heat and mass much deeper in the firn column. This is, however, in part counteracted by the inclusion of impermeability of ice lenses, which causes part of the meltwater to run off horizontally.

  20. Water percolation through the root-soil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pascal; Kroener, Eva; Vontobel, Peter; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Plant roots exude a significant fraction of the carbon assimilated via photosynthesis into the soil. The mucilaginous fraction of root exudates affects the hydraulic properties of the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere, in a remarkable and dynamic way. After drying, mucilage becomes hydrophobic and limits the rewetting of the rhizosphere. Here, we aim to find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. We used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that the mucilage concentration per solid soil surface increases the contact angle between the liquid and solid phases consequently limiting the rewetting of pores covered with dry mucilage. We used the Young-Laplace equation to calculate the mucilage concentration at which pores are not wettable for varying particle sizes and matric potentials. Then, we simulated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice. Our simulations predicted that above a critical mucilage concentration water could not flow through the porous medium. The critical mucilage concentration decreased with increasing particle size and decreasing matric potential. The model was compared with experiments of capillary rise in soils of different particle size and mucilage concentration. The experiments confirmed the percolation behaviour of the rhizosphere rewetting. Mucilage turned hydrophobic at concentrations above 0.1 mg/cm². The critical mucilage concentration at matric potential of -2.5 hPa was ca. 1% [g/g] for fine sand and 0.1 % [g/g] for coarse sand. Our conceptual model is a first step towards a better understanding of the water dynamics in the rhizosphere during rewetting and it can be used to predict in what soil textures rhizosphere water repellency becomes a critical issue for root water uptake.

  1. Water percolation through the root-soil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pascal; Kroener, Eva; Vontobel, Peter; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Plant roots exude a significant fraction of the carbon assimilated via photosynthesis into the soil. The mucilaginous fraction of root exudates affects the hydraulic properties of the soil near the roots, the so called rhizosphere, in a remarkable and dynamic way. After drying, mucilage becomes hydrophobic and limits the rewetting of the rhizosphere. Here, we aim to find a quantitative relation between rhizosphere rewetting, particle size, soil matric potential and mucilage concentration. We used a pore-network model in which mucilage was randomly distributed in a cubic lattice. The general idea was that the mucilage concentration per solid soil surface increases the contact angle between the liquid and solid phases consequently limiting the rewetting of pores covered with dry mucilage. We used the Young-Laplace equation to calculate the mucilage concentration at which pores are not wettable for varying particle sizes and matric potentials. Then, we simulated the percolation of water across a cubic lattice. Our simulations predicted that above a critical mucilage concentration water could not flow through the porous medium. The critical mucilage concentration decreased with increasing particle size and decreasing matric potential. The model was compared with experiments of capillary rise in soils of different particle size and mucilage concentration. The experiments confirmed the percolation behaviour of the rhizosphere rewetting. Mucilage turned hydrophobic at concentrations above 0.1 mg/cm2. The critical mucilage concentration at matric potential of -2.5 hPa was ca. 1% [g/g] for fine sand and 0.1 % [g/g] for coarse sand. Our conceptual model is a first step towards a better understanding of the water dynamics in the rhizosphere during rewetting and it can be used to predict in what soil textures rhizosphere water repellency becomes a critical issue for root water uptake.

  2. Ammonia Process by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Felix Jegede

    2010-12-27

    The overall objective of the project is to design, develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production. This is achieved through a significantly more efficient ammonia psa recovery system. The new ammonia recovery system receives the reactor effluents and achieves complete ammonia recovery, (which completely eliminates the energy intensive refrigeration and condensation system currently used in ammonia production). It also recovers the unused reactants and recycles them back to the reactor, free of potential reactor contaminants, and without the need for re-compression and re-heat of recycle stream thereby further saving more energy. The result is a significantly lower energy consumption, along with capital cost savings.

  3. Adsorption of ammonia on multilayer iron phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Isvoranu, Cristina; Knudsen, Jan; Ataman, Evren; Andersen, Jesper N.; Schnadt, Joachim; Schulte, Karina; Wang Bin; Bocquet, Marie-Laure

    2011-03-21

    The adsorption of ammonia on multilayers of well-ordered, flat-lying iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules on a Au(111) support was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that the electron-donating ammonia molecules coordinate to the metal centers of iron phthlalocyanine. The coordination of ammonia induces changes of the electronic structure of the iron phthalocyanine layer, which, in particular, lead to a modification of the FePc valence electron spin.

  4. Polyaniline-based optical ammonia detector

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2002-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy of a polyaniline film deposited on a polyethylene surface by chemical oxidation of aniline monomer at room temperature was used to quantitatively detect ammonia gas. The present optical ammonia gas detector was found to have a response time of less than 15 s, a regeneration time of less than 2 min. at room temperature, and a detection limit of 1 ppm (v/v) for ammonia, with a linear dynamic range from 180 ppm to 18,000 ppm.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  9. Registration of Colter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of 'Yellowstone', and BZ9W96-895 is an unr...

  10. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  11. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  12. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  13. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  14. Registration of 'Cowboy' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cowboy' (Reg. No. CV-1095, PI 668564) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and the University of Wyoming (UWYO) in August 2011. In addition to researchers at CSU and U...

  15. Percolation through leaf litter: What happens during rainfall events of varying intensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, David

    2015-06-01

    Simulated rainfall experiments with a layer of eucalypt leaf litter showed that the flux of percolate emerging from the layer was influenced by the intensity profile of the incident rainfall. Experiments involved several different fixed rainfall intensities, and also seven different temporal patterns of changing intensity (event profiles). The event profiles all had a mean intensity of 10 mm/h and the same 30 min duration, but included intensity bursts or peaks of up to 100 mm/h early or late within the event, as well as events with multiple intensity peaks. The litter percolate flux associated with early rainfall intensity peaks was typically attenuated by nearly 50% in comparison with the intensity of the incident rainfall. In contrast, percolate flux from late rainfall peaks was often magnified, in some cases by up to 360%. Even under rainfall of constant intensity, the percolate flux exhibits fluctuations of about ±25% of the mean flux. In most cases, peaks in percolate flux lagged peaks in the incident rainfall by 4-5 min. The potential importance of diminished or enlarged litter percolate fluxes is their effect on water partitioning and the potential for lateral flow within and beneath litter layers, especially if the peaks in percolate flux exceed local soil infiltrability.

  16. Evidence of Universal Temperature Scaling in Self-Heated Percolating Networks.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprem R; Mohammed, Amr M S; Maize, Kerry; Sadeque, Sajia; Shakouri, Ali; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A

    2016-05-11

    During routine operation, electrically percolating nanocomposites are subjected to high voltages, leading to spatially heterogeneous current distribution. The heterogeneity implies localized self-heating that may (self-consistently) reroute the percolation pathways and even irreversibly damage the material. In the absence of experiments that can spatially resolve the current distribution and a nonlinear percolation model suitable to interpret them, one relies on empirical rules and safety factors to engineer these materials. In this paper, we use ultrahigh resolution thermo-reflectance imaging, coupled with a new imaging processing technique, to map the spatial distribution ΔT(x, y; I) and histogram f(ΔT) of temperature rise due to self-heating in two types of 2D networks (percolating and copercolating). Remarkably, we find that the self-heating can be described by a simple two-parameter Weibull distribution, even under voltages high enough to reconfigure the percolation pathways. Given the generality of the phenomenological argument supporting the distribution, other percolating networks are likely to show similar stress distribution in response to sufficiently large stimuli. Furthermore, the spatial evolution of the self-heating of network was investigated by analyzing the spatial distribution and spatial correlation, respectively. An estimation of degree of hotspot clustering reveals a mechanism analogous to crystallization physics. The results should encourage nonlinear generalization of percolation models necessary for predictive engineering of nanocomposite materials.

  17. Continuum percolation of overlapping disks with a distribution of radii having a power-law tail.

    PubMed

    Sasidevan, V

    2013-08-01

    We study the continuum percolation problem of overlapping disks with a distribution of radii having a power-law tail; the probability that a given disk has a radius between R and R+dR is proportional to R(-(a+1)), where a>2. We show that in the low-density nonpercolating phase, the two-point function shows a power-law decay with distance, even at arbitrarily low densities of the disks, unlike the exponential decay in the usual percolation problem. As in the problem of fluids with long-range interaction, we argue that in our problem, the critical exponents take their short-range values for a>3-η(sr) whereas they depend on a for a<3-η(sr) where η(sr) is the anomalous dimension for the usual percolation problem. The mean-field regime obtained in the fluid problem corresponds to the fully covered regime, a≤2, in the percolation problem. We propose an approximate renormalization scheme to determine the correlation length exponent ν and the percolation threshold. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations and determine the exponent ν as a function of a. The determined values of ν show that it is independent of the parameter a for a>3-η(sr) and is equal to that for the lattice percolation problem, whereas ν varies with a for 2percolation threshold of the system as a function of the parameter a.

  18. Adjustment of the osmolality of Percoll for the isopycnic separation of cells and cell organelles.

    PubMed

    Vincent, R; Nadeau, D

    1984-09-01

    The addition of 1 part of 1.5 M NaCl or 2.5 M sucrose (10 X concentrate) to 9 parts of Percoll produces a stock solution that is hypertonic (350-360 mOsm/kg H2O). Because the osmolality is a critical variable in the isopycnic separation of cells and cell organelles, the factors accountable for this hypertonicity were investigated. Percoll, a colloidal suspension of silica particles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone, can be described as a medium composed of two distinct compartments, an aqueous phase and a solid phase. According to this model, solutes (e.g., NaCl, sucrose) should have access to the aqueous phase and add to the intrinsic osmolality of Percoll, but should be excluded from the solid phase. In order to verify this hypothesis, mathematical equations were derived and tested. It was found that the ratio of the aqueous volume to the total volume of Percoll (R value) was dependent on the ionic strength of the stock solution. With this parameter, the osmolality of Percoll stock solutions could be predicted (+/-2%) and, consequently, one could calculate the proper dilution to be used with saline, culture medium, or sucrose concentrates to obtain a truly isotonic Percoll stock solution (congruent to 290 mOsm/kg H2O). The relative importance of an accurate control of the osmolality in the preparation of density gradients made up of Percoll is also discussed.

  19. Shape-controlled percolation transition in 2D random packing of asymmetric dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Youngkyu; Lee, Juncheol; Choi, Siyoung Q.; Choi, Myung Chul; Kim, Mahn Won

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of a shape-controlled percolation transition in two-dimensional (2D) amorphous packing of dimers without long-range order. In the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packing of asymmetric dimers consisting of head and body, a dramatic increase in the connectivity of heads upon increasing the head-to-body size ratio γ leads to a percolation transition of the heads at the well-defined percolation threshold. In comparison with binary disks, the existence of a bond in dimers causes the heads to be homogeneously distributed over a system by inhibiting the local segregation. Interestingly, we found, however, that the cluster structure at the percolation threshold is insensitive to the bond, even though the existence of the bonds affects the percolation threshold as well as the head distribution. The fractal dimensions at the percolation threshold obey the universal law of the 2D percolation theory independently of the existence of bonds. Our finding can provide us with a new perspective of interesting applications of randomly assembled binary composites by using the homogeneous particle distribution and the sensitively tunable connectivity under particle shape control.

  20. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low.

  1. Universality class of site and bond percolation on multifractal scale-free planar stochastic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. K.; Rahman, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we investigate both site and bond percolation on a weighted planar stochastic lattice (WPSL), which is a multifractal and whose dual is a scale-free network. The characteristic property of percolation is that it exhibits threshold phenomena as we find sudden or abrupt jump in spanning probability across pc accompanied by the divergence of some other observable quantities, which is reminiscent of a continuous phase transition. Indeed, percolation is characterized by the critical behavior of percolation strength P (p ) ˜(pc-p ) β , mean cluster size S ˜(pc-p ) -γ , and the system size L ˜(pc-p ) -ν , which are known as the equivalent counterpart of the order parameter, susceptibility, and correlation length, respectively. Moreover, the cluster size distribution function ns(pc) ˜s-τ and the mass-length relation M ˜Ldf of the spanning cluster also provide useful characterization of the percolation process. We numerically obtain a value for pc and for all the exponents such as β ,ν ,γ ,τ , and df. We find that, except for pc, all the exponents are exactly the same in both bond and site percolation despite the significant difference in the definition of cluster and other quantities. Our results suggest that the percolation on WPSL belongs to a new universality class, as its exponents do not share the same value as for all the existing planar lattices. Besides, like all other cases, its site and bond type belong to the same universality class.

  2. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  3. Correlated Percolation, Fractal Structures, and Scale-Invariant Distribution of Clusters in Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Saeed; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural images are scale invariant with structures at all length scales. We formulated a geometric view of scale invariance in natural images using percolation theory, which describes the behavior of connected clusters on graphs. We map images to the percolation model by defining clusters on a binary representation for images. We show that critical percolating structures emerge in natural images and study their scaling properties by identifying fractal dimensions and exponents for the scale-invariant distributions of clusters. This formulation leads to a method for identifying clusters in images from underlying structures as a starting point for image segmentation. PMID:26415153

  4. Grain Boundary Percolation Modeling of Fission Gas Release in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fission gas release modeling in oxide fuels based on grain boundary network percolation. The method accounts for variability in the bubble growth and coalescence rates on individual grain boundaries, and the resulting effect on macroscopic fission gas release. Two-dimensional representa- tions of fuel pellet microstructures are considered, and the resulting gas release rates are compared with traditional two-stage Booth models, which do not account for long-range percolation on grain boundary net- works. The results show that the requirement of percolation of saturated grain boundaries can considerably reduce the total gas release rates, particularly when gas resolution is considered.

  5. Effect of root distribution on modelling percolation and groundwater evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, F. A.; Daly, E.

    2011-12-01

    In groundwater-dependent ecosystems, vegetation is able to extend its root system deep in the soil to wet zones strongly influenced by the water table. As a result, either part or all transpired water is supplied by groundwater. In many models, roots are assumed to be submerged in groundwater; however, this is not the case for many species. We analised the effect of using different root systems in estimating evapotranspiration and recharge in groundwater-dependent ecosystems. A 2D finite-elements model was developed using the program SEEPW to simulate the interaction between saturated and unsaturated soil in a riparian area. The domain of the model consists in a soil layer 8 meters deep and 100 meters long, with a constant water table outside of the vegetated area and a variable water table in the opposite side, controlled by the stage level of a river. Five root distributions were simulated: homogeneous in the saturated zone, homogeneous in the unsaturated zone, concentrated in the top layer of the soil, concentrated in the capillary fringe and a dimorphic distribution. The water-table level in the vegetated zone is always close to three meter depth; therefore, the direct evaporation from groundwater is neglected. Preliminary results show a significant impact of differing root distributions on the modelled water-table levels. The daily pattern of transpiration produces daily fluctuations in the water-table level, whose amplitude is higher when the total transpiration is uptaken from groundwater, and is considerably smaller when the root system is only in the unsaturated zone. These differences are also reflected in the net recharge and groundwater evapotranspiration. When transpiration comes directly from groundwater, most of the infiltrated water reaches the water table. However, when roots are distributed in the unsaturated zone, they are able to intercep part of the infiltration, with a decrease in percolation. Likewise, groundwater evapotranspiration reduces

  6. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  7. Method for releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Arvind; Diwan, Moiz; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Hwang, Hyun-Tae; Al-Kukhun, Ahmad

    2013-02-19

    A method of releasing hydrogen from ammonia borane is disclosed. The method comprises heating an aqueous ammonia borane solution to between about 80-135.degree. C. at between about 14.7 and 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) to release hydrogen by hydrothermolysis.

  8. Ammonia Production Using Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system that integrates reaction to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production.

  9. Decontaminating Aluminum/Ammonia Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Internal gas slugs reduced or eliminated. Manufacturing method increases efficiency of aluminum heat pipes in which ammonia is working fluid by insuring pipe filled with nearly pure charge of ammonia. In new process heat pipe initially closed with stainless-steel valve instead of weld so pipe put through several cycles of filling, purging, and accelerated aging.

  10. Regeneration of ammonia borane from polyborazylene

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, Andrew; Gordon, John C; Ott, Kevin C; Burrell, Anthony K

    2013-02-05

    Method of producing ammonia borane, comprising providing a reagent comprising a dehydrogenated material in a suitable solvent; and combining the reagent with a reducing agent comprising hydrazine, a hydrazine derivative, or combinations thereof, in a reaction which produces a mixture comprising ammonia borane.

  11. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  12. Measuring ammonia from space: limits and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Pinder, R. W.; Walker, J. T.; Bash, J. O.; Luo, M.; Henze, D. K.; Shephard, M. W.; Zhu, J.; Rinsland, C.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an important component in local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry. Ammonia contributes significantly to several well-known environmental problems: excess deposition in terrestrial ecosystems can lead to soil acidification and loss of plant diversity, while in coastal ecosystems, it can cause eutrophication, algal blooms, and loss of fish and shellfish. In the atmosphere NH3 can combine with sulfates and nitric acid to form ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, which constitute a substantial fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Nevertheless, there is great uncertainty in the magnitude and in the spatial/seasonal variability of ammonia concentrations and emissions. Retrievals of ammonia from spectra obtained from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) flying on the AURA satellite have the potential of significantly increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of ammonia and of providing constraints on ammonia emissions through the use of inverse models at both the regional and global scales. We will present an updated evaluation of the TES ammonia retrievals using sensitivity studies, simulations, and in situ observations. We will demonstrate TES’ capability to discern spatial gradients and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations, with results from the TES transects over the Central Valley and North Carolina, as well as monthly means from TES global surveys. We will also show an example of using TES NH3 measurements to constrain surface emissions over North America.

  13. Effects of maturity stages on the nutritive composition and silage quality of whole crop wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z L; Zhang, T F; Chen, X Z; Li, G D; Zhang, J G

    2012-10-01

    The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×10(5) colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages. PMID:25049492

  14. Effects of Maturity Stages on the Nutritive Composition and Silage Quality of Whole Crop Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. L.; Zhang, T. F.; Chen, X. Z.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The changes in yields and nutritive composition of whole crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during maturation and effects of maturity stage and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability were investigated under laboratory conditions. Whole crop wheat harvested at three maturation stages: flowering stage, milk stage and dough stage. Two strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum: LAB1, Lactobacillus parafarraqinis: LAB2) were inoculated for wheat ensiling at 1.0×105 colony forming units per gram of fresh forage. The results indicated that wheat had higher dry matter yields at the milk and dough stages. The highest water-soluble carbohydrates content, crude protein yields and relative feed value of wheat were obtained at the milk stage, while contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the lowest, compared to the flowering and dough stages. Lactic acid contents of wheat silage significantly decreased with maturity. Inoculating homofermentative LAB1 markedly reduced pH values and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) content (p<0.05) of silages at three maturity stages compared with their corresponding controls. Inoculating heterofermentative LAB2 did not significantly influence pH values, whereas it notably lowered lactic acid and NH3-N content (p<0.05) and effectively improved the aerobic stability of silages. In conclusion, considering both yields and nutritive value, whole crop wheat as forage should be harvested at the milk stage. Inoculating LAB1 improved the fermentation quality, while inoculating LAB2 enhanced the aerobic stability of wheat silages at different maturity stages. PMID:25049492

  15. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  16. Wheat yield forecasts using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Several considerations of winter wheat yield prediction using LANDSAT data were discussed. In addition, a simple technique which permits direct early season forecasts of wheat production was described.

  17. Hybrid phase transition into an absorbing state: Percolation and avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deokjae; Choi, S.; Stippinger, M.; Kertész, J.; Kahng, B.

    2016-04-01

    Interdependent networks are more fragile under random attacks than simplex networks, because interlayer dependencies lead to cascading failures and finally to a sudden collapse. This is a hybrid phase transition (HPT), meaning that at the transition point the order parameter has a jump but there are also critical phenomena related to it. Here we study these phenomena on the Erdős-Rényi and the two-dimensional interdependent networks and show that the hybrid percolation transition exhibits two kinds of critical behaviors: divergence of the fluctuations of the order parameter and power-law size distribution of finite avalanches at a transition point. At the transition point global or "infinite" avalanches occur, while the finite ones have a power law size distribution; thus the avalanche statistics also has the nature of a HPT. The exponent βm of the order parameter is 1 /2 under general conditions, while the value of the exponent γm characterizing the fluctuations of the order parameter depends on the system. The critical behavior of the finite avalanches can be described by another set of exponents, βa and γa. These two critical behaviors are coupled by a scaling law: 1 -βm=γa .

  18. Crystalline Nanojoining Silver Nanowire Percolated Networks on Flexible Substrate.

    PubMed

    Nian, Qiong; Saei, Mojib; Xu, Yang; Sabyasachi, Ganguli; Deng, Biwei; Chen, Yong P; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-10-27

    Optoelectronic performance of metal nanowire networks are dominated by junction microstructure and network configuration. Although metal nanowire printings, such as silver nanowires (AgNWs) or AgNWs/semiconductor oxide bilayer, have great potential to replace traditional ITO, efficient and selective nanoscale integration of nanowires is still challenging owing to high cross nanowire junction resistance. Herein, pulsed laser irradiation under controlled conditions is used to generate local crystalline nanojoining of AgNWs without affecting other regions of the network, resulting in significantly improved optoelectronic performance. The method, laser-induced plasmonic welding (LPW), can be applied to roll-to-roll printed AgNWs percolating networks on PET substrate. First principle simulations and experimental characterizations reveal the mechanism of crystalline nanojoining originated from thermal activated isolated metal atom flow over nanowire junctions. Molecular dynamic simulation results show an angle-dependent recrystallization process during LPW. The excellent optoelectronic performance of AgNW/PET has achieved Rs ∼ 5 Ω/sq at high transparency (91% @λ = 550 nm).

  19. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading. PMID:27415287

  20. Anisotropy in Fracking: A Percolation Model for Observed Microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking), using high pressures and a low viscosity fluid, allow the extraction of large quantiles of oil and gas from very low permeability shale formations. The initial production of oil and gas at depth leads to high pressures and an extensive distribution of natural fractures which reduce the pressures. With time these fractures heal, sealing the remaining oil and gas in place. High volume fracking opens the healed fractures allowing the oil and gas to flow to horizontal production wells. We model the injection process using invasion percolation. We use a 2D square lattice of bonds to model the sealed natural fractures. The bonds are assigned random strengths and the fluid, injected at a point, opens the weakest bond adjacent to the growing cluster of opened bonds. Our model exhibits burst dynamics in which the clusters extend rapidly into regions with weak bonds. We associate these bursts with the microseismic activity generated by fracking injections. A principal object of this paper is to study the role of anisotropic stress distributions. Bonds in the y-direction are assigned higher random strengths than bonds in the x-direction. We illustrate the spatial distribution of clusters and the spatial distribution of bursts (small earthquakes) for several degrees of anisotropy. The results are compared with observed distributions of microseismicity in a fracking injection. Both our bursts and the observed microseismicity satisfy Gutenberg-Richter frequency-size statistics.

  1. Sub-percolative composites for dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, H.; Kollosche, M.; McCarthy, D.; Becker, A.; Risse, S.; Kofod, G.

    2009-07-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) based on Maxwell-stress induced deformation are considered for many potential applications where high actuation strain and energy are required. However, the high electric field and voltage required to drive them limits some of the applications. The high driving field could be lowered by developing composite materials with high-electromechanical response. In this study, a sub-percolative approach for increasing the electromechanical response has been investigated. Composites with conductive carbon black (CB) particles introduced into a soft rubber matrix poly-(styrene-co-ethylene-co-butylene-co-styrene) (SEBS) were prepared by a drop-casting method. The resulting composites were characterized by dielectric spectroscopy, tensile tests, and for electric breakdown strength. The results showed a substantial increase of the relative permittivity at low volume percentages, thereby preserving the mechanical properties of the base soft polymer material. Young's modulus was found to increase with content of CB, however, due to the low volume percentages used, the composites still retain relatively low stiffness, as it is required to achieve high actuation strain. A serious drawback of the approach is the large decrease of the composite electric breakdown strength, due to the local enhancement in the electric field, such that breakdown events will occur at a lower macroscopic electric field.

  2. Percolation in networks composed of connectivity and dependency links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Parshani, Roni; Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-05-01

    Networks composed from both connectivity and dependency links were found to be more vulnerable compared to classical networks with only connectivity links. Their percolation transition is usually of a first order compared to the second-order transition found in classical networks. We analytically analyze the effect of different distributions of dependencies links on the robustness of networks. For a random Erdös-Rényi (ER) network with average degree k that is divided into dependency clusters of size s, the fraction of nodes that belong to the giant component P∞ is given by P∞=ps-1[1-exp(-kpP∞)]s, where 1-p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. Our general result coincides with the known Erdös-Rényi equation for random networks for s=1. For networks with Poissonian distribution of dependency links we find that P∞ is given by P∞=fk,p(P∞)e(-1)[pfk,p(P∞)-1], where fk,p(P∞)≡1-exp(-kpP∞) and is the mean value of the size of dependency clusters. For networks with Gaussian distribution of dependency links we show how the average and width of the distribution affect the robustness of the networks.

  3. Hybrid phase transition into an absorbing state: Percolation and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Choi, S; Stippinger, M; Kertész, J; Kahng, B

    2016-04-01

    Interdependent networks are more fragile under random attacks than simplex networks, because interlayer dependencies lead to cascading failures and finally to a sudden collapse. This is a hybrid phase transition (HPT), meaning that at the transition point the order parameter has a jump but there are also critical phenomena related to it. Here we study these phenomena on the Erdős-Rényi and the two-dimensional interdependent networks and show that the hybrid percolation transition exhibits two kinds of critical behaviors: divergence of the fluctuations of the order parameter and power-law size distribution of finite avalanches at a transition point. At the transition point global or "infinite" avalanches occur, while the finite ones have a power law size distribution; thus the avalanche statistics also has the nature of a HPT. The exponent β_{m} of the order parameter is 1/2 under general conditions, while the value of the exponent γ_{m} characterizing the fluctuations of the order parameter depends on the system. The critical behavior of the finite avalanches can be described by another set of exponents, β_{a} and γ_{a}. These two critical behaviors are coupled by a scaling law: 1-β_{m}=γ_{a}.

  4. Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation.

    PubMed

    Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-08-01

    The whole frame of interconnections in complex networks hinges on a specific set of structural nodes, much smaller than the total size, which, if activated, would cause the spread of information to the whole network, or, if immunized, would prevent the diffusion of a large scale epidemic. Localizing this optimal, that is, minimal, set of structural nodes, called influencers, is one of the most important problems in network science. Despite the vast use of heuristic strategies to identify influential spreaders, the problem remains unsolved. Here we map the problem onto optimal percolation in random networks to identify the minimal set of influencers, which arises by minimizing the energy of a many-body system, where the form of the interactions is fixed by the non-backtracking matrix of the network. Big data analyses reveal that the set of optimal influencers is much smaller than the one predicted by previous heuristic centralities. Remarkably, a large number of previously neglected weakly connected nodes emerges among the optimal influencers. These are topologically tagged as low-degree nodes surrounded by hierarchical coronas of hubs, and are uncovered only through the optimal collective interplay of all the influencers in the network. The present theoretical framework may hold a larger degree of universality, being applicable to other hard optimization problems exhibiting a continuous transition from a known phase. PMID:26131931

  5. Percolation on shopping and cashback electronic commerce networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tao; Chen, Yini; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Many realistic networks live in the form of multiple networks, including interacting networks and interdependent networks. Here we study percolation properties of a special kind of interacting networks, namely Shopping and Cashback Electronic Commerce Networks (SCECNs). We investigate two actual SCECNs to extract their structural properties, and develop a mathematical framework based on generating functions for analyzing directed interacting networks. Then we derive the necessary and sufficient condition for the absence of the system-wide giant in- and out- component, and propose arithmetic to calculate the corresponding structural measures in the sub-critical and supercritical regimes. We apply our mathematical framework and arithmetic to those two actual SCECNs to observe its accuracy, and give some explanations on the discrepancies. We show those structural measures based on our mathematical framework and arithmetic are useful to appraise the status of SCECNs. We also find that the supercritical regime of the whole network is maintained mainly by hyperlinks between different kinds of websites, while those hyperlinks between the same kinds of websites can only enlarge the sizes of in-components and out-components.

  6. Leveraging percolation theory to single out influential spreaders in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Among the consequences of the disordered interaction topology underlying many social, technological, and biological systems, a particularly important one is that some nodes, just because of their position in the network, may have a disproportionate effect on dynamical processes mediated by the complex interaction pattern. For example, the early adoption of a commercial product by an opinion leader in a social network may change its fate or just a few superspreaders may determine the virality of a meme in social media. Despite many recent efforts, the formulation of an accurate method to optimally identify influential nodes in complex network topologies remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we present the exact solution of the problem for the specific, but highly relevant, case of the susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model for epidemic spreading at criticality. By exploiting the mapping between bond percolation and the static properties of the SIR model, we prove that the recently introduced nonbacktracking centrality is the optimal criterion for the identification of influential spreaders in locally tree-like networks at criticality. By means of simulations on synthetic networks and on a very extensive set of real-world networks, we show that the nonbacktracking centrality is a highly reliable metric to identify top influential spreaders also in generic graphs not embedded in space and for noncritical spreading.

  7. Directed Percolation and Other Systems with Absorbing States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröjdh, Per; Howard, Martin; Lauritsen, Kent Bækgaard

    We review the critical behavior of nonequilibrium systems, such as directed percolation (DP) and branching-annihilating random walks (BARW), which possess phase transitions into absorbing states. After reviewing the bulk scaling behavior of these models, we devote the main part of this review to analyzing the impact of walls on their critical behavior. We discuss the possible boundary universality classes for the DP and BARW models, which can be described by a general scaling theory which allows for two independent surface exponents in addition to the bulk critical exponents. Above the upper critical dimension dc, we review the use of mean field theories, whereas in the regime d

  8. Hybrid phase transition into an absorbing state: Percolation and avalanches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Choi, S; Stippinger, M; Kertész, J; Kahng, B

    2016-04-01

    Interdependent networks are more fragile under random attacks than simplex networks, because interlayer dependencies lead to cascading failures and finally to a sudden collapse. This is a hybrid phase transition (HPT), meaning that at the transition point the order parameter has a jump but there are also critical phenomena related to it. Here we study these phenomena on the Erdős-Rényi and the two-dimensional interdependent networks and show that the hybrid percolation transition exhibits two kinds of critical behaviors: divergence of the fluctuations of the order parameter and power-law size distribution of finite avalanches at a transition point. At the transition point global or "infinite" avalanches occur, while the finite ones have a power law size distribution; thus the avalanche statistics also has the nature of a HPT. The exponent β_{m} of the order parameter is 1/2 under general conditions, while the value of the exponent γ_{m} characterizing the fluctuations of the order parameter depends on the system. The critical behavior of the finite avalanches can be described by another set of exponents, β_{a} and γ_{a}. These two critical behaviors are coupled by a scaling law: 1-β_{m}=γ_{a}. PMID:27176256

  9. Directed percolation identified as equilibrium pre-transition towards non-equilibrium arrested gel states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurati, Marco; Capellmann, Ronja; Kohl, Matthias; Egelhaaf, Stefan; Schmiedeberg, Michael

    The macroscopic properties of gels arise from their slow dynamics and load bearing network structure, which are exploited by nature and in numerous industrial products. However, a link between these structural and dynamical properties has remained elusive. Here we present confocal microscopy exper- iments and simulations of gel-forming colloid-polymer mixtures with competing interactions. They reveal that gel formation is preceded by continuous and directed percolation. Both transitions lead to system spanning networks, but only directed percolation results in extremely slow dynamics, ageing and a shrinking of the gel that resembles syneresis. Therefore, dynamical arrest in gels is found to be linked to a structural transition, namely directed percolation, which is quantitatively associated with the mean number of bonded neighbours. Directed percolation is a universality class of transitions out of equilibrium, our study hence connects gel formation to a well-developed theoretical framework which now can be exploited to achieve a detailed understanding of arrested gels.

  10. Directed percolation identified as equilibrium pre-transition towards non-equilibrium arrested gel states

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, M.; Capellmann, R. F.; Laurati, M.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Schmiedeberg, M.

    2016-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of gels arise from their slow dynamics and load-bearing network structure, which are exploited by nature and in numerous industrial products. However, a link between these structural and dynamical properties has remained elusive. Here we present confocal microscopy experiments and simulations of gel-forming colloid–polymer mixtures. They reveal that gel formation is preceded by continuous and directed percolation. Both transitions lead to system-spanning networks, but only directed percolation results in extremely slow dynamics, ageing and a shrinking of the gel that resembles synaeresis. Therefore, dynamical arrest in gels is found to be linked to a structural transition, namely directed percolation, which is quantitatively associated with the mean number of bonded neighbours. Directed percolation denotes a universality class of transitions. Our study hence connects gel formation to a well-developed theoretical framework, which now can be exploited to achieve a detailed understanding of arrested gels. PMID:27279005

  11. Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Exfoliated Graphite/Polyimide Composite Films with Low Percolation Threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Zhang, Yi-He; Shang, Jiwu; Ke, Shan-Ming; Tong, Wang-shu; Shen, Bo; Huang, Hai-Tao

    2012-09-01

    Exfoliated graphite/polyimide composite films were synthesized by in situ polymerization. The electrical and dielectric properties of composite films with different volume fraction of exfoliated graphite were investigated over the frequency range from 103 Hz to 3 × 106 Hz. The dielectric behavior of the composite films was investigated by percolation theory and a microcapacitor model. A low percolation threshold f c ≈ 3.1 vol.% was obtained due to the high aspect ratio of the exfoliated graphite. Both the dielectric constant and alternating-current (AC) conductivity showed an abrupt increase in the vicinity of the percolation threshold. The ultralarge enhancement of the dielectric constant near and beyond the percolation threshold was due to Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization between the exfoliated graphite and polyimide and interface polarization between the composite film and electrode.

  12. Out-of-equilibrium stationary states, percolation, and subcritical instabilities in a fully nonconservative system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génois, Mathieu; Hersen, Pascal; Bertin, Eric; Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Grégoire, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    The exploration of the phase diagram of a minimal model for barchan fields leads to the description of three distinct phases for the system: stationary, percolable, and unstable. In the stationary phase the system always reaches an out-of-equilibrium, fluctuating, stationary state, independent of its initial conditions. This state has a large and continuous range of dynamics, from dilute—where dunes do not interact—to dense, where the system exhibits both spatial structuring and collective behavior leading to the selection of a particular size for the dunes. In the percolable phase, the system presents a percolation threshold when the initial density increases. This percolation is unusual, as it happens on a continuous space for moving, interacting, finite lifetime dunes. For extreme parameters, the system exhibits a subcritical instability, where some of the dunes in the field grow without bound. We discuss the nature of the asymptotic states and their relations to well-known models of statistical physics.

  13. Percolation in random sequential adsorption of extended objects on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Lončarević, I.; Petković, M.; Jakšić, Z. M.; Vrhovac, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    The percolation aspect of random sequential adsorption of extended objects on a triangular lattice is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The depositing objects are formed by self-avoiding lattice steps on the lattice. Jamming coverage θjam, percolation threshold θp*, and their ratio θp*/θjam are determined for objects of various shapes and sizes. We find that the percolation threshold θp* may decrease or increase with the object size, depending on the local geometry of the objects. We demonstrate that for various objects of the same length, the threshold θp* of more compact shapes exceeds the θp* of elongated ones. In addition, we study polydisperse mixtures in which the size of line segments making up the mixture gradually increases with the number of components. It is found that the percolation threshold decreases, while the jamming coverage increases, with the number of components in the mixture.

  14. Revisit to three-dimensional percolation theory: Accurate analysis for highly stretchable conductive composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Seongdae; Oh, Eunho; Byun, Junghwan; Kim, Hyunjong; Lee, Byeongmoon; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2016-01-01

    A percolation theory based on variation of conductive filler fraction has been widely used to explain the behavior of conductive composite materials under both small and large deformation conditions. However, it typically fails in properly analyzing the materials under the large deformation since the assumption may not be valid in such a case. Therefore, we proposed a new three-dimensional percolation theory by considering three key factors: nonlinear elasticity, precisely measured strain-dependent Poisson’s ratio, and strain-dependent percolation threshold. Digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to determine actual Poisson’s ratios at various strain levels, which were used to accurately estimate variation of conductive filler volume fraction under deformation. We also adopted strain-dependent percolation threshold caused by the filler re-location with deformation. When three key factors were considered, electrical performance change was accurately analyzed for composite materials with both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties. PMID:27694856

  15. Percolating length scales from topological persistence analysis of micro-CT images of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Vanessa; Saadatfar, Mohammad; Delgado-Friedrichs, Olaf; Sheppard, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    Topological persistence is a powerful and general technique for characterizing the geometry and topology of data. Its theoretical foundations are over 15 years old and efficient computational algorithms are now available for the analysis of large digital images. We explain here how quantities derived from topological persistence relate to other measurements on porous materials such as grain and pore-size distributions, connectivity numbers, and the critical radius of a percolating sphere. The connections between percolation and topological persistence are explored in detail using data obtained from micro-CT images of spherical bead packings, unconsolidated sand packing, a variety of sandstones, and a limestone. We demonstrate how persistence information can be used to estimate the percolating sphere radius and to characterize the connectivity of the percolating cluster.

  16. The Role of Air Percolation in the Disintegration of Entering Meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabetah, M. E.; Melosh, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the role of air percolation on the break-up of entering meteoroids in an attempt to explain the nearly complete disintegration of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid that led to significantly more than the expected damages from small meteoroids.

  17. Percolation analysis of nonlinear structures in scale-free two-dimensional simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominik, Kurt G.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of applying percolation analysis to several two-dimensional N-body models which simulate the formation of large-scale structure. Three parameters are estimated: total area (a(c)), total mass (M(C)), and percolation density (rho(c)) of the percolating structure at the percolation threshold for both unsmoothed and smoothed (with different scales L(s)) nonlinear with filamentary structures, confirming early speculations that this type of model has several features of filamentary-type distributions. Also, it is shown that, by properly applying smoothing techniques, many problems previously considered detrimental can be dealt with and overcome. Possible difficulties and prospects with the use of this method are discussed, specifically relating to techniques and methods already applied to CfA deep sky surveys. The success of this test in two dimensions and the potential for extrapolation to three dimensions is also discussed.

  18. PERCOLATION ON GRAIN BOUNDARY NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO FISSION GAS RELEASE IN NUCLEAR FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C. Millett

    2012-02-01

    The percolation behavior of grain boundary networks is characterized in two- and three-dimensional lattices with circular macroscale cross-sections that correspond to nuclear fuel elements. The percolation of gas bubbles on grain boundaries, and the subsequent percolation of grain boundary networks is the primary mechanism of fission gas release from nuclear fuels. Both radial cracks and radial gradients in grain boundary property distributions are correlated with the fraction of grain boundaries vented to the free surfaces. Our results show that cracks surprisingly do not significantly increase the percolation of uniform grain boundary networks. However, for networks with radial gradients in boundary properties, the cracks can considerably raise the vented grain boundary content.

  19. Effect of Percolation on the Cubic Susceptibility of Metal Nanoparticle Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Bender, Matthew W.; Boyd, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Generalized two-dimensional and three-dimensional Maxwell Garnett and Bruggeman geometries reveal that a sign reversal in the cubic susceptibility occurs for metal nanoparticle composites near the percolation threshold.

  20. Directed percolation identified as equilibrium pre-transition towards non-equilibrium arrested gel states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, M.; Capellmann, R. F.; Laurati, M.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Schmiedeberg, M.

    2016-06-01

    The macroscopic properties of gels arise from their slow dynamics and load-bearing network structure, which are exploited by nature and in numerous industrial products. However, a link between these structural and dynamical properties has remained elusive. Here we present confocal microscopy experiments and simulations of gel-forming colloid-polymer mixtures. They reveal that gel formation is preceded by continuous and directed percolation. Both transitions lead to system-spanning networks, but only directed percolation results in extremely slow dynamics, ageing and a shrinking of the gel that resembles synaeresis. Therefore, dynamical arrest in gels is found to be linked to a structural transition, namely directed percolation, which is quantitatively associated with the mean number of bonded neighbours. Directed percolation denotes a universality class of transitions. Our study hence connects gel formation to a well-developed theoretical framework, which now can be exploited to achieve a detailed understanding of arrested gels.

  1. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults.

    PubMed

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2015-12-14

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 3-18) versus 46 μmol L(-1) (IQR, 23-66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 265-765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 180-1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17  ±  6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia.

  2. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults

    PubMed Central

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2016-01-01

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L−1 (interquartile range (IQR), 3–18) versus 46 μmol L−1 (IQR, 23–66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 265–765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL−1 CO2 (IQR, 180–1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17 ± 6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia. PMID:26658550

  3. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation by soil thaumarchaea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Offre, Pierre R; He, Ji-Zheng; Verhamme, Daniel T; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

    2010-10-01

    Nitrification plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle and is responsible for significant losses of nitrogen fertilizer, atmospheric pollution by the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, and nitrate pollution of groundwaters. Ammonia oxidation, the first step in nitrification, was thought to be performed by autotrophic bacteria until the recent discovery of archaeal ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidizers have been cultivated from marine and thermal spring environments, but the relative importance of bacteria and archaea in soil nitrification is unclear and it is believed that soil archaeal ammonia oxidizers may use organic carbon, rather than growing autotrophically. In this soil microcosm study, stable isotope probing was used to demonstrate incorporation of (13)C-enriched carbon dioxide into the genomes of thaumarchaea possessing two functional genes: amoA, encoding a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that catalyses the first step in ammonia oxidation; and hcd, a key gene in the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, which has been found so far only in archaea. Nitrification was accompanied by increases in archaeal amoA gene abundance and changes in amoA gene diversity, but no change was observed in bacterial amoA genes. Archaeal, but not bacterial, amoA genes were also detected in (13)C-labeled DNA, demonstrating inorganic CO(2) fixation by archaeal, but not bacterial, ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidation was further supported by coordinate increases in amoA and hcd gene abundance in (13)C-labeled DNA. The results therefore provide direct evidence for a role for archaea in soil ammonia oxidation and demonstrate autotrophic growth of ammonia oxidizing archaea in soil.

  4. Note: optimization of the numerical data analysis for conductivity percolation studies of drying moist porous systems.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, J K; Sokolowska, D; Kwiatkowski, L; Dziob, D; Nowak, J

    2014-02-01

    A simplified data analysis protocol, for dielectric spectroscopy use to study conductivity percolation in dehydrating granular media is discussed. To enhance visibility of the protonic conductivity contribution to the dielectric loss spectrum, detrimental effects of either low-frequency dielectric relaxation or electrode polarization are removed. Use of the directly measurable monofrequency dielectric loss factor rather than estimated DC conductivity to parameterize the percolation transition substantially reduces the analysis work and time.

  5. Physarum polycephalum Percolation as a Paradigm for Topological Phase Transitions in Transportation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fessel, Adrian; Oettmeier, Christina; Bernitt, Erik; Gauthier, Nils C.; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2012-08-01

    We study the formation of transportation networks of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum after fragmentation by shear. Small fragments, called microplasmodia, fuse to form macroplasmodia in a percolation transition. At this topological phase transition, one single giant component forms, connecting most of the previously isolated microplasmodia. Employing the configuration model of graph theory for small link degree, we have found analytically an exact solution for the phase transition. It is generally applicable to percolation as seen, e.g., in vascular networks.

  6. Note: Optimization of the numerical data analysis for conductivity percolation studies of drying moist porous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moscicki, J. K.; Sokolowska, D.; Dziob, D.; Nowak, J.; Kwiatkowski, L.

    2014-02-15

    A simplified data analysis protocol, for dielectric spectroscopy use to study conductivity percolation in dehydrating granular media is discussed. To enhance visibility of the protonic conductivity contribution to the dielectric loss spectrum, detrimental effects of either low-frequency dielectric relaxation or electrode polarization are removed. Use of the directly measurable monofrequency dielectric loss factor rather than estimated DC conductivity to parameterize the percolation transition substantially reduces the analysis work and time.

  7. The state of vortex glass induced by creep of vortices in percolation superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Yu. I.; Pleshakov, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of magnetic flux creep on the dynamics of vortices in percolation superconductors containing fractal clusters of the normal phase has been considered. Dependences of the resistance of these superconductors on the transport current are obtained for different fractal dimensions of cluster boundaries. It is established that the vortex-glass state is implemented in percolation superconductors with a fractal cluster structure under collective creep of vortices.

  8. Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

  9. Managed aquifer recharge in South India: What to expect from small percolation tanks in hard rock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massuel, S.; Perrin, J.; Mascre, C.; Mohamed, W.; Boisson, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2014-05-01

    Many states in India are currently facing general overuse of their groundwater resources mainly due to growing demand for irrigated agriculture. Groundwater levels are declining despite water harvesting measures to enhance aquifer recharge which are supported on a massive scale by watershed development programmes. New programmes are being implemented to improve artificial percolation (i.e., managed aquifer recharge, MAR) although the impact of former measures on aquifer recharge has not yet been assessed. It is therefore crucial to increase our understanding of MAR to successfully overcome the threat of groundwater scarcity in the near future. This paper scrutinizes the ability of a typical percolation tank to recharge the aquifer using a comprehensive approach combining water accounting, geochemistry and hydrodynamic modelling. Over 2 years of observation, the percolation efficiency (percolated fraction of stored water) of the tank ranged from 57% to 63%, the rest being evaporated. Modelling showed that the percolated water was mostly (80%) pumped straight back by the neighbouring boreholes, limiting the area of MAR influence but increasing percolation efficiency.

  10. Comparison of deep percolation rates below contrasting land covers with a joint canopy and soil model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, C. G.; Pryet, A.; García Vera, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chaumont, C.; Tournebize, J.; Villacis, M.; d'Ozouville, N.; Violette, S.

    2016-01-01

    A Rutter-type canopy interception model is combined with a 1-D physically-based soil water flow model to compare deep percolation rates below distinct land covers. The joint model allows the quantification of both evaporation and transpiration rates as well as deep percolation from vegetation and soil characteristics. Experimental observations are required to constitute the input and calibration datasets. An appropriate monitoring design is described which consists in meteorological monitoring together with throughfall and soil water tension measurements. The methodology is illustrated in Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos Archipelago, which has been affected by significant land use changes. Two adjacent study plots are investigated: a secondary forest and a pasture. The results of the model reveal that evaporation of canopy interception is higher in the pasture due to the bigger canopy storage capacity, which promotes evaporation against canopy drainage. This is however compensated by higher transpiration in the secondary forest, due to the smaller surface resistance. As a consequence, total evapotranspiration is similar for the two plots and no marked difference in deep percolation can be observed. In both cases, deep percolation reaches ca. 2 m/year which corresponds to 80% of the incoming rainfall. This methodology not only allows the quantification of deep percolation, but can also be used to identify the controlling factors of deep percolation under contrasting land covers.

  11. Analytic results for the percolation transitions of the enhanced binary tree.

    PubMed

    Minnhagen, Petter; Baek, Seung Ki

    2010-07-01

    Percolation for a planar lattice has a single percolation threshold, whereas percolation for a negatively curved lattice displays two separate thresholds. The enhanced binary tree (EBT) can be viewed as a prototype model displaying two separate percolation thresholds. We present an analytic result for the EBT model which gives two critical percolation threshold probabilities, p(c1) = 1/2 square root(13) - 3/2 and p(c2) = 1/2, and yields a size-scaling exponent Φ = ln[(p(1+p))/(1-p(1-p))]/ln 2. It is inferred that the two threshold values give exact upper limits and that pc1 is furthermore exact. In addition, we argue that p(c2) is also exact. The physics of the model and the results are described within the midpoint-percolation concept: Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the number of boundary points which are reached from the midpoint, and the results are compared to the number of routes from the midpoint to the boundary given by the analytic solution. These comparisons provide a more precise physical picture of what happens at the transitions. Finally, the results are compared to related works, in particular, the Cayley tree and Monte Carlo results for hyperbolic lattices as well as earlier results for the EBT model. It disproves a conjecture that the EBT has an exact relation to the thresholds of its dual lattice.

  12. Percolation of the site random-cluster model by Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songsong; Zhang, Wanzhou; Ding, Chengxiang

    2015-08-01

    We propose a site random-cluster model by introducing an additional cluster weight in the partition function of the traditional site percolation. To simulate the model on a square lattice, we combine the color-assignation and the Swendsen-Wang methods to design a highly efficient cluster algorithm with a small critical slowing-down phenomenon. To verify whether or not it is consistent with the bond random-cluster model, we measure several quantities, such as the wrapping probability Re, the percolating cluster density P∞, and the magnetic susceptibility per site χp, as well as two exponents, such as the thermal exponent yt and the fractal dimension yh of the percolating cluster. We find that for different exponents of cluster weight q =1.5 , 2, 2.5 , 3, 3.5 , and 4, the numerical estimation of the exponents yt and yh are consistent with the theoretical values. The universalities of the site random-cluster model and the bond random-cluster model are completely identical. For larger values of q , we find obvious signatures of the first-order percolation transition by the histograms and the hysteresis loops of percolating cluster density and the energy per site. Our results are helpful for the understanding of the percolation of traditional statistical models.

  13. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  14. Dakota Gasification Company - ammonia scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Wallach, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Amain stack BACT assessment for sulfur dioxide emissions conducted in 1990 for the Dakota Gasification Company`s (DGC) Great Plains Synfuels Plant identified wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system as BACT. During the development of the design specification for the wet limestone FGD, GE Environmental Systems Inc. and DGC jointly demonstrated a new ammonia-based process for flue gas desulfurization on a large pilot plant located at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant. The production of saleable ammonium sulfate, rather than a waste product, was of interest to DGC as it fit into the plant`s on-going by-product recovery efforts. With the success of the pilot plant, DGC and GEESI entered into an agreement to build the first commercial scale Ammonium Sulfate Forced Oxidation FGD system. Construction of this system is well in progress with an anticipated start-up date of August, 1996.

  15. Measuring ammonia concentration over a grassland near livestock facilities using a semiconductor ammonia sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, S.; Yonemura, S.

    We demonstrated the effectiveness of a semiconductor ammonia sensor capable of performing diachronic measurements; its characteristics were checked in the laboratory by means including comparison with standard gases. We found as a result that the ammonia sensor's readings increased with increasing water vapor pressure. We compared sensor readings with values obtained by chemical analysis of samples collected in situ and checked sensor reading accuracy. Ammonia concentration was determined by combining ammonia sensor readings with measured values for water vapor pressure. In situ conditions were ammonia concentration of under 100 ppbv and water vapor pressure of 4-16 hPa. There was a good correlation with the concentration of samples trapped with boric acid and analyzed by indophenol colorimetry. We discerned a relationship between ammonia concentration and local meteorological conditions such as wind direction and speed. The estimated error of the ammonia sensor's measurements was ±9.7 ppbv when ammonia concentration as measured by acid sampling and colorimetry was regarded as correct. This demonstrated that it is possible to detect in situ fluctuations in low ammonia concentrations of about 10 ppbv, which was the background concentration in farming areas. We have shown a monitoring method for ammonia in situ that is both easy to operate and low-cost.

  16. [Non-celiac disease non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zopf, Yurdagül; Dieterich, Walburga

    2015-11-01

    Non-celiac non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity is regarded as discrete glutensensitivity diagnosed after the exclusion of celiac disease and wheat allergy. Due to the absence of reliable biomarkers no exact prevalence rates are known and estimations range between 0,5-6 %. Soon after ingestion of wheat, patients complain of intestinal symptoms mainly bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea which improve fast under glutenfree diet. Often extraintestinal manifestation as tiredness, muscle or joint pain, headache and depression are reported. Actually, there are no serological markers and no intestinal mucosal damage was found in patients. The underlying mechanism of the disease is completely unknown and beside of gluten other wheat proteins as well as amylase-trypsin-inhibitor or short chain sugars are discussed as triggers. In addition, the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in pathology of glutensensitivity must be considered.

  17. [Non-celiac disease non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zopf, Yurdagül; Dieterich, Walburga

    2015-11-01

    Non-celiac non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity is regarded as discrete glutensensitivity diagnosed after the exclusion of celiac disease and wheat allergy. Due to the absence of reliable biomarkers no exact prevalence rates are known and estimations range between 0,5-6 %. Soon after ingestion of wheat, patients complain of intestinal symptoms mainly bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea which improve fast under glutenfree diet. Often extraintestinal manifestation as tiredness, muscle or joint pain, headache and depression are reported. Actually, there are no serological markers and no intestinal mucosal damage was found in patients. The underlying mechanism of the disease is completely unknown and beside of gluten other wheat proteins as well as amylase-trypsin-inhibitor or short chain sugars are discussed as triggers. In addition, the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in pathology of glutensensitivity must be considered. PMID:26536646

  18. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 °C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Ammonia synthesis using magnetic induction method (MIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, P.; Razak, J. Abd; Yahya, N.

    2012-09-01

    The most challenging issues for ammonia synthesis is to get the high yield. New approach of ammonia synthesis by using Magnetic Induction Method (MIM) and the Helmholtz Coils has been proposed. The ammonia detection was done by using Kjeldahl Method and FTIR. The system was designed by using Autocad software. The magnetic field of MIM was vary from 100mT-200mT and the magnetic field for the Helmholtz coils was 14mT. The FTIR result shows that ammonia has been successfully formed at stretching peaks 1097,1119,1162,1236, 1377, and 1464 cm-1. UV-VIS result shows the ammonia bond at 195nm of wavelength. The ammonia yield was increase to 244.72μmole/g.h by using the MIM and six pairs of Helmholtz coils. Therefore this new method will be a new promising method to achieve the high yield ammonia at ambient condition (at 25δC and 1atm), under the Magnetic Induction Method (MIM).

  20. Highly compressed ammonia forms an ionic crystal.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Chris J; Needs, R J

    2008-10-01

    Ammonia is an important compound with many uses, such as in the manufacture of fertilizers, explosives and pharmaceuticals. As an archetypal hydrogen-bonded system, the properties of ammonia under pressure are of fundamental interest, and compressed ammonia has a significant role in planetary physics. We predict new high-pressure crystalline phases of ammonia (NH(3)) through a computational search based on first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Ammonia is known to form hydrogen-bonded solids, but we predict that at higher pressures it will form ammonium amide ionic solids consisting of alternate layers of NH(4)(+) and NH(2)(-) ions. These ionic phases are predicted to be stable over a wide range of pressures readily obtainable in laboratory experiments. The occurrence of ionic phases is rationalized in terms of the relative ease of forming ammonium and amide ions from ammonia molecules, and the volume reduction on doing so. We also predict that the ionic bonding cannot be sustained under extreme compression and that, at pressures beyond the reach of current static-loading experiments, ammonia will return to hydrogen-bonded structures consisting of neutral NH(3) molecules. PMID:18724375

  1. Percolation of partially interdependent scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Gao, Jianxi; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-05-01

    We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. Our results are based on numerical solutions of analytical expressions and simulations. We find that as the coupling strength between the two networks q reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2, which separate three different regions with different behavior of the giant component as a function of p. (i) For q≥q1, an abrupt collapse transition occurs at p=pc. (ii) For q23, q1 decreases with increasing λ. Here, λ is the scaling exponent of the degree distribution, P(k)∝k-λ. (b) In the hybrid transition, at the q20 for λ>3. Thus, the known theoretical pc=0 for a single network with λ⩽3 is expected to be valid also for strictly partial interdependent networks.

  2. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    2004-03-23

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model

  3. Reconstruction of Graph Signals Through Percolation from Seeding Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segarra, Santiago; Marques, Antonio G.; Leus, Geert; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    New schemes to recover signals defined in the nodes of a graph are proposed. Our focus is on reconstructing bandlimited graph signals, which are signals that admit a sparse representation in a frequency domain related to the structure of the graph. Most existing formulations focus on estimating an unknown graph signal by observing its value on a subset of nodes. By contrast, in this paper, we study the problem of reconstructing a known graph signal using as input a graph signal that is non-zero only for a small subset of nodes (seeding nodes). The sparse signal is then percolated (interpolated) across the graph using a graph filter. Graph filters are a generalization of classical time-invariant systems and represent linear transformations that can be implemented distributedly across the nodes of the graph. Three setups are investigated. In the first one, a single simultaneous injection takes place on several nodes in the graph. In the second one, successive value injections take place on a single node. The third one is a generalization where multiple nodes inject multiple signal values. For noiseless settings, conditions under which perfect reconstruction is feasible are given, and the corresponding schemes to recover the desired signal are specified. Scenarios leading to imperfect reconstruction, either due to insufficient or noisy signal value injections, are also analyzed. Moreover, connections with classical interpolation in the time domain are discussed. The last part of the paper presents numerical experiments that illustrate the results developed through synthetic graph signals and two real-world signal reconstruction problems: influencing opinions in a social network and inducing a desired brain state in humans.

  4. Registration of 'Rollag' spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) is a disease that annually threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the northern plains of the United States. Resistance to this disease is a high priority trait in the University of Minnesota’s spring wheat breedi...

  5. Registration of 'Bill Brown' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  6. Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  7. Registration of 'LCS Wizard' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop widely adapted hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to meet the needs of mills, bakeries, and consumers in the eastern and Great Plains regions of the United States. ‘LCS Wizard’ (Reg. No. CV-1111, PI 669574), a hard red winter (HRW) wheat,...

  8. Do diatoms percolate through soil and can they be used for tracing the origin of runoff?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Graaf, Lenka; Cammeraat, Erik; Pfister, Laurent; Wetzel, Carlos; Klaus, Julian; Hissler, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Tracers are widely used to study the movement of water in a catchment. Because of depletion of scientific possibilities with most common tracer types, we proposed the use of diatoms as a natural tracer. Paradoxical results on the contribution of surface runoff to the storm hydrograph were obtained in pioneer research on this idea. Diatom transport via the subsurface flow to the stream would explain this paradox. Prerequisite for this is vertical transport of diatoms through soils, which is the topic of this study. Emphasis is on percolation behavior (speed of percolation, speed of percolation over time, and species distribution) of Pseudostaurosira sp. and Melosira sp. (Bacillariophyceae) through undisturbed soil columns of contrasting substrates. Co-objective is to study the flowpaths of water through the soil columns. Natural undisturbed soil columns were sampled in the Attert basin (Luxembourg) on schist, marl and sandstone substrates. Rain simulation experiments were performed to study vertical diatom transport. Rhodamine dye experiments were carried out to gain insight in the active flowpaths of water, and breakthrough experiments were performed to study the responses of the soil columns to applied water. Diatoms were transported through the soil columns of the three substrates. A vast majority of diatom percolation took place within the first 15 minutes, percolation hereafter was marginal but nevertheless present. Peaks in diatom percolation corresponded with a high flux caused by the addition of the diatom culture, but seepage of diatoms along the sides is unlikely according to the species distribution and the rhodamine dye experiment. Pseudostaurosira sp. percolated significantly better than Melosira sp. Significantly more diatoms percolated through the marl columns compared to the schist columns and variance within the sandstone group was very high. Absolute differences between substrates however, were marginal. Most preferential flowpaths were observed in

  9. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  10. Beyond the percolation universality class: the vertex split model for tetravalent lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtrab, Susan; Hoffmann, Matthias J. F.; Kapfer, Sebastian C.; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    We propose a statistical model defined on tetravalent three-dimensional lattices in general and the three-dimensional diamond network in particular where the splitting of randomly selected nodes leads to a spatially disordered network, with decreasing degree of connectivity. The terminal state, that is reached when all nodes have been split, is a dense configuration of self-avoiding walks on the diamond network. Starting from the crystallographic diamond network, each of the four-coordinated nodes is replaced with probability p by a pair of two edges, each connecting a pair of the adjacent vertices. For all values 0≤slant p≤slant 1 the network percolates, yet the fraction fp of the system that belongs to a percolating cluster drops sharply at pc = 1 to a finite value fpc. This transition is reminiscent of a percolation transition yet with distinct differences to standard percolation behaviour, including a finite mass fpc\\gt 0 of the percolating clusters at the critical point. Application of finite size scaling approach for standard percolation yields scaling exponents for p\\to {{p}c} that are different from the critical exponents of the second-order phase transition of standard percolation models. This transition significantly affects the mechanical properties of linear-elastic realizations (e.g. as custom-fabricated models for artificial bone scaffolds), obtained by replacing edges with solid circular struts to give an effective density ϕ. Finite element methods demonstrate that, as a low-density cellular structure, the bulk modulus K shows a cross-over from a compression-dominated behaviour, K(φ )\\propto {{φ }κ } with κ ≈ 1, at p = 0 to a bending-dominated behaviour with κ ≈ 2 at p = 1.

  11. Ammonia measurement with a pH electrode in the ammonia/urea-SCR process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröcher, Oliver; Elsener, Martin

    2007-03-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia (ammonia SCR) and urea (urea SCR), respectively, is a widespread process to clean flue and diesel exhaust gases due to its simplicity and efficiency. The main challenge of the process is to minimize the ammonia emissions downstream of the SCR catalyst. We found that ammonia emissions of >10 ppm can reliably be detected with a simple pH electrode in the presence of CO2, SOx, NOx, and moderately weak organic acids. 10-20 ppm of ammonia in the exhaust gas are sufficient to neutralize the acids and to increase the pH value from 3 to 6. On this basis a continuous measuring method for ammonia was developed, which was used to control the dosage of urea in the SCR process. While keeping the ammonia emissions after the SCR catalyst at 5-30 ppm an average NOx removal efficiency (DeNOx) of >95% were achieved at a diesel test rig. The method can also be applied for exhaust gases with higher acid contents, if a basic pre-filter is added adsorbing the acidic exhaust components. Compared to water as absorption solution, more precise ammonia measurements are possible, if a 0.1 M NH4Cl absorption solution is applied, whose pH value is changing as a Nernst function of the ammonia concentration.

  12. Ammonia manipulates the ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the coastal sediment-water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Sun, Renhua; Wen, Donghui

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia was observed as a potential significant factor to manipulate the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) in water environments. For the first time, this study confirmed this phenomenon by laboratory cultivation. In a series of estuarine sediment-coastal water microcosms, we investigated the AOM's phylogenetic composition and activity change in response to ammonia concentration. Increase of ammonia concentration promoted bacterial amoA gene abundance in a linear pattern. The ratio of transcribed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene/ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) amoA gene increased from 0.1 to 43 as NH4 (+)-N increased from less than 0.1 to 12 mg L(-1), and AOA amoA transcription was undetected under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). The incubation of stable isotope probing (SIP) microcosms revealed a faster (13)C-NaHCO3 incorporation rate of AOA amoA gene under 0.1 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) and a sole (13)C-NaHCO3 utilization of the AOB amoA gene under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). Our results indicate that ammonia concentration manipulates the structure of AOM. AOA prefers to live and perform higher amoA transcription activity than AOB in ammonia-limited water environments, and AOB tends to take the first contributor place in ammonia-rich ones.

  13. Assimilation of ammonia in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Mikes, V; Chválová, H; Mátlová, L

    1991-01-01

    Two pathways serve for assimilation of ammonia in Paracoccus denitrificans. Glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) catalyzes the assimilation at a high NH4+ concentration. If nitrate serves as the nitrogen source, glutamate is synthesized by glutamate-ammonia ligase and glutamate synthase (NADPH). At a very low NH4+ concentration, all three enzymes are synthesized simultaneously. No direct relationship exists between glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) and glutamate-ammonia ligase in P. denitrificans, while the glutamate synthase (NADPH) activity changes in parallel with that of the latter enzyme. Ammonia does not influence the induction or repression of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+). The inner concentration of metabolites indicates a possible repression of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) by the high concentration of glutamine or its metabolic products as in the case when NH4+ is formed by assimilative nitrate reduction. No direct effect of the intermediates of nitrate assimilation on the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) was observed. PMID:1688163

  14. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bodega, Guillermo; Segura, Berta; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María del Carmen; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; García, María Isabel; Trabado, Isabel; Suárez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis. PMID:26421615

  15. [Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of pigmented yeasts].

    PubMed

    Mushi, N Iu; Kupletskaia, M B; Bab'eva, I P; Egorov, N S

    1980-01-01

    116 pigmented yeast cultures were tested for the presence of L-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase transforming L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid. The enzyme was found in 54 strains. Most of these strains belonged to the genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces. Toluene, along with acetone, was successfully used to increase cellular permeability of the yeast cultures while determining the activity of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase.

  16. Supercritical ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y.C.T.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A pretreatment technique using ammonia in a supercritical or near-critical fluid state was shown to substantially enhance the susceptibility of polysaccharides in lignocellulosics to subsequent hydrolysis by Trichoderma reesei cellulase. Near-theoretical conversion of cellulose and 70-80% conversion of hemicellulose to sugars from supercritical ammonia pretreated hardwoods or agricultural byproducts were obtained with a small dosage of cellulase. This technique was less effective toward softwoods. The pretreatment results are discussed in light of the properties of supercritical fluids.

  17. Ammonia chemistry in a flameless jet

    SciTech Connect

    Zieba, Mariusz; Schuster, Anja; Scheffknecht, Guenter; Brink, Anders; Hupa, Mikko

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, the nitrogen chemistry in an ammonia (NH{sub 3}) doped flameless jet is investigated using a kinetic reactor network model. The reactor network model is used to explain the main differences in ammonia chemistry for methane (CH{sub 4})-containing fuels and methane-free fuels. The chemical pathways of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formation and destruction are identified using rate-of-production analysis. The results show that in the case of natural gas, ammonia reacts relatively late at fuel lean condition leading to high NO{sub x} emissions. In the pre-ignition zone, the ammonia chemistry is blocked due to the absence of free radicals which are consumed by methane-methyl radical (CH{sub 3}) conversion. In the case of methane-free gas, the ammonia reacted very rapidly and complete decomposition was reached in the fuel rich region of the jet. In this case the necessary radicals for the ammonia conversion are generated from hydrogen (H{sub 2}) oxidation. (author)

  18. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  19. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  20. Ammonia and the Interior of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    Titan's surface will be very different from those of the Galileans, not just because of interactions with the atmosphere, but because the internal evolution will have been unique. The incorporation of ammonia in the ices making up Titan will make the evolution of Titan's interior structure very different. The presence of ammonia was previously only hinted at by formation models and the remarkably thick nitrogen atmosphere. However, recent radar observations showing Iapetus' bright face to be surprisingly radar-dark also point to incorporation of ammonia in the ices of the Saturnian satellites, explaining Titan's radar-darkness too. Ammonia will have several effects. As is well-known, its freezing-point depression to 176K makes a liquid layer ('internal ocean') more likely. A significant difference compared with the Galileans is that the greater expansivity of ammonia solutions compared with pure water causes the adiabat to be steeper, and thus a greater temperature difference prevails across the liquid layer. This in turn leads to a higher Carnot efficiency for the mantle heat engine - by an order of magnitude compared with Callisto - suggesting endogenic activity may be more manifest on Titan than on its Galilean cousins. The replenishment of methane in Titan's atmosphere against photolysis requires either surface lakes, or volcanic replenishment. If plausible methane contents of water-ammonia cryolavas are assumed, the heat flux associated with volcanism can be easily accommodated by the expected radiogenic heat production in the rocky core.

  1. Percolation of spatially constrained Erdős-Rényi networks with degree correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeltzer, C.; Soriano, J.; Sokolov, I. M.; Rüdiger, S.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by experiments on activity in neuronal cultures [J. Soriano, M. Rodríguez Martínez, T. Tlusty, and E. Moses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13758 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0707492105], we investigate the percolation transition and critical exponents of spatially embedded Erdős-Rényi networks with degree correlations. In our model networks, nodes are randomly distributed in a two-dimensional spatial domain, and the connection probability depends on Euclidian link length by a power law as well as on the degrees of linked nodes. Generally, spatial constraints lead to higher percolation thresholds in the sense that more links are needed to achieve global connectivity. However, degree correlations favor or do not favor percolation depending on the connectivity rules. We employ two construction methods to introduce degree correlations. In the first one, nodes stay homogeneously distributed and are connected via a distance- and degree-dependent probability. We observe that assortativity in the resulting network leads to a decrease of the percolation threshold. In the second construction methods, nodes are first spatially segregated depending on their degree and afterwards connected with a distance-dependent probability. In this segregated model, we find a threshold increase that accompanies the rising assortativity. Additionally, when the network is constructed in a disassortative way, we observe that this property has little effect on the percolation transition.

  2. Saturation Dependence of Transport in Porous Media Predicted by Percolation and Effective Medium Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Hunt, Allen G.; Skinner, Thomas E.; Ewing, Robert P.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate prediction of the saturation dependence of different modes of transport in porous media, such as those due to conductivity, air permeability, and diffusion, is of broad interest in engineering and natural resources management. Most current predictions use a "bundle of capillary tubes" concept, which, despite its widespread use, is a severely distorted idealization of natural porous media. In contrast, percolation theory provides a reliable and powerful means to model interconnectivity of disordered networks and porous materials. In this study, we invoke scaling concepts from percolation theory and effective medium theory to predict the saturation dependence of modes of transport — hydraulic and electrical conductivity, air permeability, and gas diffusion — in two disturbed soils. Universal scaling from percolation theory predicts the saturation dependence of air permeability and gas diffusion accurately, even when the percolation threshold for airflow is estimated from the porosity. We also find that the non-universal scaling obtained from the critical path analysis (CPA) of percolation theory can make excellent predictions of hydraulic and electrical conductivity under partially saturated conditions.

  3. Percolative metal-insulator transition in LaMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, M.; Baldini, M.; Malavasi, L.; Satpathy, S.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the pressure-induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in LaMnO3 is fundamentally different from the Mott-Hubbard transition and is percolative in nature, with the measured resistivity obeying the percolation scaling laws. Using the Gutzwiller method to treat correlation effects in a model Hamiltonian that includes both Coulomb and Jahn-Teller interactions, we show, one, that the MIT is driven by a competition between electronic correlation and the electron-lattice interaction, an issue that has been long debated, and two, that with compressed volume, the system has a tendency towards phase separation into insulating and metallic regions, consisting, respectively, of Jahn-Teller distorted and undistorted octahedra. This tendency manifests itself in a mixed phase of intermixed insulating and metallic regions in the experiment. Conduction in the mixed phase occurs by percolation and the MIT occurs when the metallic volume fraction, steadily increasing with pressure, exceeds the percolation threshold vc≈0.29 . Measured high-pressure resistivity follows the percolation scaling laws quite well, and the temperature dependence follows the Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping behavior for granular materials.

  4. Quantum percolation and transition point of a directed discrete-time quantum walk

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, C. M.; Busch, Th.

    2014-01-01

    Quantum percolation describes the problem of a quantum particle moving through a disordered system. While certain similarities to classical percolation exist, the quantum case has additional complexity due to the possibility of Anderson localisation. Here, we consider a directed discrete-time quantum walk as a model to study quantum percolation of a two-state particle on a two-dimensional lattice. Using numerical analysis we determine the fraction of connected edges required (transition point) in the lattice for the two-state particle to percolate with finite (non-zero) probability for three fundamental lattice geometries, finite square lattice, honeycomb lattice, and nanotube structure and show that it tends towards unity for increasing lattice sizes. To support the numerical results we also use a continuum approximation to analytically derive the expression for the percolation probability for the case of the square lattice and show that it agrees with the numerically obtained results for the discrete case. Beyond the fundamental interest to understand the dynamics of a two-state particle on a lattice (network) with disconnected vertices, our study has the potential to shed light on the transport dynamics in various quantum condensed matter systems and the construction of quantum information processing and communication protocols. PMID:25301394

  5. Selective Laser Direct Patterning of Silver Nanowire Percolation Network Transparent Conductor for Capacitive Touch Panel.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Jinhwan; Lee, Habeom; Lee, Phillip; Lee, Seung S; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a facile method to enhance the functionality of a patterned metallic transparent conductor through selective laser ablation of metal nanowire percolation network. By scanning focused nanosecond pulsed laser on silver nanowire percolation network, silver nanowires are selectively ablated and patterned without using any conventional chemical etching or photolithography steps. Various arbitrary patterns of silver nanowire transparent conductors are readily created on the percolation network by changing various laser parameters such as repetition rate and power. The macroscopic optical and electrical properties of the percolation network transparent conductor can be easily tuned by changing the conductor pattern design via digital selective laser ablation. Further investigation on the silver nanowire based electrode line prepared by the ablation process substantiates that the general relation for a conducting thin film fails at a narrow width, which should be considered for the applications that requires a high resolution patterns. Finally, as a proof of concept, a capacitive touch sensor with diamond patterns has been demonstrated by selective laser ablation of metal nanowire percolation network.

  6. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  7. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-11-11

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  8. Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater.

  9. Importance of ammonia pressure in the kinetics of ammonia synthesis over supported Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Holzman, P.R.; Shiflett, W.K.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the ammonia dependence of the synthesis rate over supported (but unpromoted) ruthenium using data collected with a flow reactor coupled with effluent ammonia determination. Silica gel and ..gamma..-alumina powder were impregnated to Ca. 1.0 to 1.3 wt % ruthenium loading by incipient wetness using an aqueous solution of RuCl/sub 3/ . 3 H/sub 2/O. Following this impregnation, the samples were dried overnight in air at 380 K, and then a portion, 1.5 g in the case of the silica-supported sample and 2.2 g in the case of the alumina-supported sample, was loaded into a flow reactor for hydrogen reduction (at 700K for ca. 50h) and subsequent ammonia synthesis studies at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). This study has yielded ammonia synthesis turnover frequencies and apparent activation energies at constant flow rate that are in good agreement with the results of Ozaki et al. This study has also shown that the rate of ammonia synthesis does indeed exhibit an ammonia dependence in the same range of ammonia pressures studied by Ozaki et al. Apparent activation energies calculated at constant ammonia pressure are greater than those determined at constant flow rate. 6 figures, 1 table. (DP)

  10. Effects of bile salts on percolation and size of AOT reversed micelles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Erford, Karen; Kiserow, Douglas J; McGown, Linda B

    2003-06-15

    The effects of two trihydroxy bile salts, sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and 3-[(3-cholamidylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), on the size, shape and percolation temperature of reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane were studied. The percolation temperature of the reversed micelles decreased upon inclusion of bile salts, indicating increased water uptake. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed consistent enlargement of reversed micelles upon addition of the bile salts; the hydrodynamic radius increased sixfold in the presence of 10 mM CHAPS and doubled in the presence of 5 mM NaTC. Inclusion of the enzyme yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) increased the percolation temperature and distorted the spherical structure of the AOT reversed micelles. The spherical structure was restored upon addition of bile salt. These results may help to explain the increase in activity of YADH in AOT reversed micelles upon addition of bile salts.

  11. k-core percolation on complex networks: Comparing random, localized, and targeted attacks.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin; Dai, Yang; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2016-06-01

    The type of malicious attack inflicting on networks greatly influences their stability under ordinary percolation in which a node fails when it becomes disconnected from the giant component. Here we study its generalization, k-core percolation, in which a node fails when it loses connection to a threshold k number of neighbors. We study and compare analytically and by numerical simulations of k-core percolation the stability of networks under random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA) and targeted attacks (TA), respectively. By mapping a network under LA or TA into an equivalent network under RA, we find that in both single and interdependent networks, TA exerts the greatest damage to the core structure of a network. We also find that for Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, LA and RA exert equal damage to the core structure, whereas for scale-free (SF) networks, LA exerts much more damage than RA does to the core structure. PMID:27415275

  12. Point-to-point connectivity prediction in porous media using percolation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavagh-Mohammadi, Behnam; Masihi, Mohsen; Ganjeh-Ghazvini, Mostafa

    2016-10-01

    The connectivity between two points in porous media is important for evaluating hydrocarbon recovery in underground reservoirs or toxic migration in waste disposal. For example, the connectivity between a producer and an injector in a hydrocarbon reservoir impact the fluid dispersion throughout the system. The conventional approach, flow simulation, is computationally very expensive and time consuming. Alternative method employs percolation theory. Classical percolation approach investigates the connectivity between two lines (representing the wells) in 2D cross sectional models whereas we look for the connectivity between two points (representing the wells) in 2D aerial models. In this study, site percolation is used to determine the fraction of permeable regions connected between two cells at various occupancy probabilities and system sizes. The master curves of mean connectivity and its uncertainty are then generated by finite size scaling. The results help to predict well-to-well connectivity without need to any further simulation.

  13. Rapid separation of Arabidopsis male gametophyte developmental stages using a Percoll gradient.

    PubMed

    Dupl'áková, Nikoleta; Dobrev, Petre I; Reňák, David; Honys, David

    2016-10-01

    Research investigating the dynamics of male gametophyte (MG) development has proven to be challenging for the plant science community. Here we describe our protocol for separating Arabidopsis MG developmental stages, which is based on the centrifugation of pollen through a discontinuous Percoll concentration gradient. This Percoll gradient can be formed using a pipette, and it does not require a gradient maker. The purity of the isolated developing spores is as high as 70%, and in most separations it is well above 80%. Using this protocol, we can separate four different stages of pollen development-uninucleate microspore (UNM), bicellular pollen (BCP), tricellular immature pollen (TCP) and mature pollen grain (MPG). The duration of the separation procedure, excluding the cutting of flower inflorescences, is 6 h. This is reduced to 4 h when using a vacuum cleaning method to remove the MPGs before the Percoll density separation. PMID:27583643

  14. 3D self-consistent percolative model for networks of randomly aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colasanti, S.; Deep Bhatt, V.; Abdellah, A.; Lugli, P.

    2015-10-01

    A numerical percolative model for simulations of random networks of carbon nanotubes is presented. This algorithm takes into account the real 3D nature of these networks, allowing for a better understanding of their electrical properties. The nanotubes are modeled as non-rigid bendable cylinders with geometrical properties derived according to some statistical distributions inferred from the experiments. For the transport mechanisms we refer to the theory of one-dimensional ballistic channels which is based on the computation of the density of states. The behavior of the entire network is then simulated by coupling a SPICE program with an iterative algorithm that calculates self-consistently the electrostatic potential and the current flow in each node of the network. We performed several simulations on the resistivity of networks with different thicknesses and over different simulation domains. Our results confirm the percolative nature of the electrical transport, which are more pronounced in films close to their percolation threshold.

  15. The resistivity of grain boundary of K-doped ruthenates in percolative conduction regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhat, Hoang Nam; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2006-09-01

    Percolation theory has been involved to explain the temperature dependence of conductivity in the K-doped perovskite ruthenates and to estimate the resistivity of grain boundary in the percolative conduction regime. Using the two-layer simple effective medium model [A. Gupta, G.Q. Gong, G. Xiao, P.R. Duncombe, P. Lecoeur, P. Trouilloud, Y.Y. Wang, V.P. Dravis, J.Z. Sun, Phys. Rev. B 54 (1996) R15629] and assuming the scaling property of grain boundary system, we have obtained the new formula for grain boundary resistivity, which contains important factors for the grain size, boundary thickness, and boundary fractal dimension. The numerical results for the system A 0.5K 0.5RuO 3 (A=La, Y, Nd, Pr) are in very good agreement with the experiment. Importantly, it reveals that the percolative conduction plays a significant role in ceramic compounds containing polycrystalline grains and grain boundaries.

  16. A novel class of strain gauges based on layered percolative films of 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Marek; Nezich, Daniel; Kong, Jing; Hofmann, Mario

    2012-11-14

    Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a novel type of strain gauge based on percolative networks of 2D materials. The high sensitivity of the percolative carrier transport to strain induced morphology changes was exploited in strain sensors that can be produced from a wide variety of materials. Highly reliable and sensitive graphene-based thin film strain gauges were produced from solution processed graphene flakes by spray deposition. Control of the gauge sensitivity could be exerted through deposition-induced changes to the film morphology. This exceptional property was explained through modeling of the strain induced changes to the flake-flake overlap for different percolation networks. The ability to directly deposit strain gauges on complex-shaped and transparent surfaces was presented. The demonstrated scalable fabrication, superior sensitivity over conventional sensors, and unique properties of the described strain gauges have the potential to improve existing technology and open up new fields of applications for strain sensors.

  17. Invariance Under Quasi-isometries of Subcritical and Supercritical Behavior in the Boolean Model of Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Cristian F.; Miranda, Daniel; Mussini, Filipe

    2016-02-01

    In this work we study the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in locally compact Polish metric spaces and we prove the invariance of subcritical and supercritical phases under mm-quasi-isometries. More precisely, we prove that if a metric space M is mm-quasi-isometric to another metric space N and the Poisson Boolean model in M exhibits any of the following: (a) a subcritical phase; (b) a supercritical phase; or (c) a phase transition, then respectively so does the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in N. Then we use these results in order to understand the phase transition phenomenon in a large family of metric spaces. Indeed, we study the Poisson Boolean model of percolation in the context of Riemannian manifolds, in a large family of nilpotent Lie groups and in Cayley graphs. Also, we prove the existence of a subcritical phase in Gromov spaces with bounded growth at some scale.

  18. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 < q < q 1 , we observe a hybrid order phase transition phenomenon. 3) We study the robustness of n interdependent networks with partially support-dependent relationship both analytically and numerically. We study a starlike network of n Erdos-Renyi (ER), SF networks and a looplike network of n ER networks, and we find for starlike networks, their phase transition regions change with n, but for looplike networks the phase regions change with average degree k . In part II, we apply concepts and methods developed in statistical physics to study economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange

  19. Serpentinization of Sintered Olivine during Seawater Percolation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Andreani, M.; Godard, M.; Gouze, P.; Gibert, B.; Lods, G.

    2010-12-01

    Hydration of the mantle lithosphere exposed at slow spreading ridges leads to significant changes of the rock rheological, geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical properties, and to the production of large amounts of H2 and CH4, and of complex carbon molecules that support primitive ecosystems. The onset and efficiency of these hydrothermal processes requires penetration and renewal of fluids at the mineral-fluid interface. However, the mechanisms and the depth of fluid penetration are still poorly understood. Moreover, serpentinization is exovolumic, if a mass-conservative system is assumed, or chemical elements are leached out to conserve rock volume. Thus, the durability and extent of serpentinisation depends of the system capacity to create space and/or to drive mass transfers. In order to investigate these hydrodynamic and chemical mechanisms, we did a series of laboratory experiments during which seawater was injected in sintered San Carlos olivine samples at conditions representative of low temperature ultramafic hydrothermal systems. The percolation-reaction experiments were carried out using the ICARE 2 experimental bench at a confined pressure of 19 MPa and a temperature of 190°C; water flow was set at a constant specific discharge of 0.06 mL/h. During experiments (up to 23 days), permeability decreases continuously although the high Si concentrations in outlet fluids indicate steady olivine dissolution. Fluids are also depleted in Fe and Mg, suggesting precipitation of Fe- and Mg-rich mineral phases; SEM and AEM/TEM analyses of the reacted samples allowed to characterize hematite and poorly crystallized serpentine, both formed at the expense of olivine. Mass balance calculations indicate that, on average, 15 wt. % olivine was dissolved while the same mass of serpentine (+/- brucite) was formed; concurrently, porosity decreased from ~ 12% to 5 %. We infer that the structure of the newly formed serpentine resulted in the clogging of fluid paths and

  20. Percolation and jamming transitions in particulate systems with and without cohesion.

    PubMed

    Kovalcinova, L; Goullet, A; Kondic, L

    2015-09-01

    We consider percolation and jamming transitions for particulate systems exposed to compression. For the systems built of particles interacting by purely repulsive forces in addition to friction and viscous damping, it is found that these transitions are influenced by a number of effects, and in particular by the compression rate. In a quasistatic limit, we find that for the considered type of interaction between the particles, percolation and jamming transitions coincide. For cohesive systems, however, or for any system exposed to even slow dynamics, the differences between the considered transitions are found and quantified. PMID:26465466

  1. Physarum polycephalum percolation as a paradigm for topological phase transitions in transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Fessel, Adrian; Oettmeier, Christina; Bernitt, Erik; Gauthier, Nils C; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther

    2012-08-17

    We study the formation of transportation networks of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum after fragmentation by shear. Small fragments, called microplasmodia, fuse to form macroplasmodia in a percolation transition. At this topological phase transition, one single giant component forms, connecting most of the previously isolated microplasmodia. Employing the configuration model of graph theory for small link degree, we have found analytically an exact solution for the phase transition. It is generally applicable to percolation as seen, e.g., in vascular networks. PMID:23006405

  2. Flat-band ferromagnetism as a Pauli-correlated percolation problem.

    PubMed

    Maksymenko, M; Honecker, A; Moessner, R; Richter, J; Derzhko, O

    2012-08-31

    We investigate the location and nature of the para-ferro transition of interacting electrons in dispersionless bands using the example of the Hubbard model on the Tasaki lattice. This case can be analyzed as a geometric site-percolation problem where different configurations appear with nontrivial weights. We provide a complete exact solution for the one-dimensional case and develop a numerical algorithm for the two-dimensional case. In two dimensions the paramagnetic phase persists beyond the uncorrelated percolation point, and the grand-canonical transition is via a first-order jump to an unsaturated ferromagnetic phase.

  3. Unveiling robustness and heterogeneity through percolation triggered by random-link breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yilun

    2014-09-01

    It has been commonly recognized that heterogeneously connected networks are robust against random decays but vulnerable to malicious attacks. However, little is known about measures of heterogeneity geared towards robustness of complex networks. Here, we propose two types of percolation on general networks triggered by random-link errors, where occupied links support the nodes to be alive. Rich resilience behaviors are observed in terms of the percolation threshold and the (integrated) fraction of giant cluster. The discrepancy unraveled between the two models allows us to dynamically define compact measures that have acute discrimination in gauging network heterogeneity. The results provide a connection between network performance, structure, and dynamics.

  4. The mean cluster size near the surface of a percolating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1989-04-01

    The bond percolation on a three-dimensional semi-infinite simple cubic lattice is considered. It is assumed that the probability of a bond being present in the surface layer may be different from the probability of a bond inside the lattice. The mean size of finite clusters is studied. Using the relation between the Potts model and the bond percolation process, and applying the mean-field approximation, analytical formulae for the mean cluster size near the ordinary, surface-bulk, extraordinary and surface second-order phase transitions are obtained. The effect of the surface on the mean cluster size is discussed.

  5. Diffusion of lattice gases without double occupancy on three-dimensional percolation lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, O.

    1990-10-01

    We examined the diffusion of lattice gases, where double occupancy of sites is excluded, on three-dimensional percolation lattices at the percolation threshold p c . The critical exponent for the root-mean-square displacement was determined to be k=0.183±0.010, which is similiar to the result of Roman for the problem of the "ant in the labyrinth." Furthermore, we found a plateau value for k at intermediate times for systems with higher concentrations of lattice gas particles.

  6. Percolation and jamming transitions in particulate systems with and without cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalcinova, L.; Goullet, A.; Kondic, L.

    2015-09-01

    We consider percolation and jamming transitions for particulate systems exposed to compression. For the systems built of particles interacting by purely repulsive forces in addition to friction and viscous damping, it is found that these transitions are influenced by a number of effects, and in particular by the compression rate. In a quasistatic limit, we find that for the considered type of interaction between the particles, percolation and jamming transitions coincide. For cohesive systems, however, or for any system exposed to even slow dynamics, the differences between the considered transitions are found and quantified.

  7. Grain boundary resistivity of the percolative conduction regime in ruthenium doped manganates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, P. Q.; Nhat, H. N.; Chinh, H. D.

    The excellent agreement with experimental data has been achieved in fitting the resistivity of doped manganate-ruthenates for whole temperature range. The analysis interpreted the resistivity in terms of percolation of carriers through the system of grain boundaries, having been assumed as the conductive fractal medium. The percolative conduction regime has been shown substantial for the K-doped ruthenates [H.N. Nhat, H.D. Chinh and M.H. Phan, Solid State Commun. 139 (2006) 456], and we confirm here that this approach also correctly discusses the unusual semiconductor-like behaviours of the doped manganate-ruthenates.

  8. Percolation and anomalous transport as tools in analyzing parallel processing interconnection networks

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.D.; Schellenberg, J.J. ); Hortensius, P.D. )

    1990-04-01

    It is quite apparent that much of the future advances in computation will be derived through the exploitation of parallel processing. Although a wide variety of topologies have been studied and proposed for both general-purpose and algorithm specific applications, there is still considerable discussion over which architectures are better and why. In this paper the authors discuss the application of percolation theory and anomalous transport to the issues of defective computer arrays. Percolation theory is used to discuss the static properties of the defective arrays and anomalous transport theory is used to discuss the dynamics of message passing on the defective array.

  9. Percolation flux and Transport velocity in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    The percolation flux for borehole USW UZ-14 was calculated from 14C residence times of pore water and water content of cores measured in the laboratory. Transport velocity is calculated from the depth interval between two points divided by the difference in 14C residence times. Two methods were used to calculate the flux and velocity. The first method uses the 14C data and cumulative water content data directly in the incremental intervals in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit and the Topopah Spring welded unit. The second method uses the regression relation for 14C data and cumulative water content data for the entire Paintbrush nonwelded unit and the Topopah Spring Tuff/Topopah Spring welded unit. Using the first method, for the Paintbrush nonwelded unit in boreholeUSW UZ-14 percolation flux ranges from 2.3 to 41.0 mm/a. Transport velocity ranges from 1.2 to 40.6 cm/a. For the Topopah Spring welded unit percolation flux ranges from 0.9 to 5.8 mm/a in the 8 incremental intervals calculated. Transport velocity ranges from 1.4 to 7.3 cm/a in the 8 incremental intervals. Using the second method, average percolation flux in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit for 6 boreholes ranges from 0.9 to 4.0 mm/a at the 95% confidence level. Average transport velocity ranges from 0.6 to 2.6 cm/a. For the Topopah Spring welded unit and Topopah Spring Tuff, average percolation flux in 5 boreholes ranges from 1.3 to 3.2 mm/a. Average transport velocity ranges from 1.6 to 4.0 cm/a. Both the average percolation flux and average transport velocity in the PTn are smaller than in the TS/TSw. However, the average minimum and average maximum values for the percolation flux in the TS/TSw are within the PTn average range. Therefore, differences in the percolation flux in the two units are not significant. On the other hand, average, average minimum, and average maximum transport velocities in the TS/TSw unit are all larger than the PTn values, implying a larger transport velocity for the TS

  10. Possible origin of the smaller-than-universal percolation-conductivity exponent in the continuum.

    PubMed

    Balberg, I; Azulay, D; Goldstein, Y; Jedrzejewski, J

    2016-06-01

    For quite a few systems in the continuum, such as carbon nanotube polymer composites and segregated composites, percolation electrical conductivity exponents that are much smaller than the universal value have been reported. This is unexpected in view of the classical lattice percolation theory. Here we provide a simple general phenomenological model that accounts for such observations within the framework of universality. We suggest that these small value exponents are due to the interplay between the connectivity and the structural variations that follow the increase of the fractional volume content of the conducting phase. PMID:27415233

  11. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  12. The Ammonia-Hydrogen System under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, Bethany A; Strobel, Timothy A

    2012-01-20

    Binary mixtures of hydrogen and ammonia were compressed in diamond anvil cells to 15 GPa at room temperature over a range of compositions. The phase behavior was characterized using optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Below 1.2 GPa we observed two-phase coexistence between liquid ammonia and fluid hydrogen phases with limited solubility of hydrogen within the ammonia-rich phase. Complete immiscibility was observed subsequent to the freezing of ammonia phase III at 1.2 GPa, although hydrogen may become metastably trapped within the disordered face-centered-cubic lattice upon rapid solidification. For all compositions studied, the phase III to phase IV transition of ammonia occurred at ~3.8 GPa and hydrogen solidified at ~5.5 GPa, transition pressures equivalent to those observed for the pure components. A P-x phase diagram for the NH3-H2 system is proposed on the basis of these observations with implications for planetary ices, molecular compound formation, and possible hydrogen storage materials.

  13. Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Morris, Steve; Towle, David W

    2004-12-01

    The excretory transport of toxic ammonia across epithelia is not fully understood. This review presents data combined with models of ammonia excretion derived from studies on decapod crabs, with a view to providing new impetus to investigation of this essential issue. The majority of crabs preserve ammonotely regardless of their habitat, which varies from extreme hypersaline to freshwater aquatic environments, and ranges from transient air exposure to obligate air breathing. Important components in the excretory process are the Na+/K+(NH4+)-ATPase and other membrane-bound transport proteins identified in many species, an exocytotic ammonia excretion mechanism thought to function in gills of aquatic crabs such as Carcinus maenas, and gaseous ammonia release found in terrestrial crabs, such as Geograpsus grayi and Ocypode quadrata. In addition, this review presents evidence for a crustacean Rhesus-like protein that shows high homology to the human Rhesus-like ammonia transporter both in its amino acid sequence and in its predicted secondary structure. PMID:15579545

  14. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  15. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles.

  16. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  17. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  18. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  19. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  20. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...