Science.gov

Sample records for ammonia-oxidizing archaea diversity

  1. Diversity, Physiology, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, has been suggested to have been a central part of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle since the oxygenation of Earth. The cultivation of several ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as the discovery that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo)-like gene sequences are nearly ubiquitously distributed in the environment and outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many habitats fundamentally revised our understanding of nitrification. Surprising insights into the physiological distinctiveness of AOA are mirrored by the recognition of the phylogenetic uniqueness of these microbes, which fall within a novel archaeal phylum now known as Thaumarchaeota. The relative importance of AOA in nitrification, compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is still under debate. This minireview provides a synopsis of our current knowledge of the diversity and physiology of AOA, the factors controlling their ecology, and their role in carbon cycling as well as their potential involvement in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It emphasizes the importance of activity-based analyses in AOA studies and formulates priorities for future research. PMID:22923400

  2. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H.; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, and coffee hulls), which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase) and the finished product (mature phase). The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (group I.1b), in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have significant effects on its performance as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities) with nitrification in these systems. PMID:22787457

  3. Low temperature decreases the phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in aquarium biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Tajima, Yoshiyuki; Numata, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2008-02-01

    The phylogenetic diversity and species richness of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were examined with aquarium biofiltration systems. Species richness, deduced from rarefaction analysis, and diversity indices indicated that the phylogenetic diversity and species richness of AOA are greater than those of AOB; the diversity of AOA and of AOB is minimized in cold-water aquaria. This finding implies that temperature is a key factor influencing the population structure and diversity of AOA and AOB in aquarium biofiltration systems.

  4. Enhanced abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the Pearl River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Zhang, C. L.; Wang, P.; Zhou, X.; Guo, W.

    2014-12-01

    Thaumarchaeota are recently recognized as an important group of Archaea that can perform aerobic oxidation of ammonia in a wide range of environments. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes in abundance and diversity of planktonic ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (e.g., Thaumarchaeota) along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River to the northern South China Sea. Quantitative PCR and sequencing of total archaeal 16S rRNA gene and the archaeal amoA gene were performed on suspended particulate organic matter collected in different seasons from the freshwater to the ocean water. Total amoA gene copies and relative abundance of Thaumarchaeota all peaked in the estuary where salinity ranged between 4.5‰ and 26.7‰. The diversity of archaeal amoA gene was also highest in the estuary. Seasonality and SiO32- appear to be two major factors affecting the distribution of subclusters of archaeal amoA genes. For example, Nitrosopumilus subcluster 7.1 was most abundant in winter in fresh water, whereas Nitrososphaera were more abundant in summer. Samples collected from the area around Wanshan Island, which is located at the outermost part of the Pearl River estuary, had high abundance of unclassified archaeal amoA genes, suggesting some new groups of Thaumarchaeota might inhabit this water body. Overall, the high abundance and diversity of Thaumarchaeota in the Pearl River estuary may indicate enhanced role of AOA in nitrogen cycle in this dynamic ecosystem.

  5. [Diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in Tibetan Zoige plateau wetland ].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youkun; Wang, Xianbin; Gu, Yunfu; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    [ OBJECTIVE ] Investigation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nature environments is important to understand the global nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the AOA community in plateau wetland. Therefore, we studied the composition and diversity of AOA in Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil. [METHODS] Total DNA was extracted from the swamp soil of three typical wetlands including A'xi pastoral area, Maixi pastoral area and Fenqu pastoral area locate in Zoige plateau wetland, and amoA gene was amplified with universally AOA amoA gene primers and then cloned. Then 80 positive clones for each clone library were chosen for further restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the typical RFLP types were selected for sequencing and clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 98% cutoff using the Mothur software. The MEGA 5. 0 software was used for the amoA gene phylogeny analysis. [RESULTS] A total of 240 positive clones for all 3 libraries were used for RFLP analysis, and 15 specific amoA sequences were sequenced and clustered into 7 OTUs at 98% cutoff. Among them, OTU6 was detected in all of the 3 libraries and included 27% of the total specific clones. The phylogeny analysis showed that the 15 amoA sequences were grouped into 3 subgroups consisted of Zoige Wetland Clade 1 (4 OTUs), Zoige Wetland Clade 2 (2 OTUs) and Zoige Wetland Clade 3 (1 OTU). BLAST analysis showed that all OTUs were affiliated with the phylum Crenarchaeota. Correlation analysis showed that the Shannon diversity index (H') was significantly correlated with ammonia, nitrate/nitrite (P <0. 05). [ CONCLUSION] AOA in the Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil are all belonged to the Crenarchaeota, and their diversity is significantly correlated with soil ammonia, nitrate/nitrite content. PMID:25522598

  6. [Diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in Tibetan Zoige plateau wetland ].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youkun; Wang, Xianbin; Gu, Yunfu; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    [ OBJECTIVE ] Investigation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nature environments is important to understand the global nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the AOA community in plateau wetland. Therefore, we studied the composition and diversity of AOA in Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil. [METHODS] Total DNA was extracted from the swamp soil of three typical wetlands including A'xi pastoral area, Maixi pastoral area and Fenqu pastoral area locate in Zoige plateau wetland, and amoA gene was amplified with universally AOA amoA gene primers and then cloned. Then 80 positive clones for each clone library were chosen for further restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the typical RFLP types were selected for sequencing and clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 98% cutoff using the Mothur software. The MEGA 5. 0 software was used for the amoA gene phylogeny analysis. [RESULTS] A total of 240 positive clones for all 3 libraries were used for RFLP analysis, and 15 specific amoA sequences were sequenced and clustered into 7 OTUs at 98% cutoff. Among them, OTU6 was detected in all of the 3 libraries and included 27% of the total specific clones. The phylogeny analysis showed that the 15 amoA sequences were grouped into 3 subgroups consisted of Zoige Wetland Clade 1 (4 OTUs), Zoige Wetland Clade 2 (2 OTUs) and Zoige Wetland Clade 3 (1 OTU). BLAST analysis showed that all OTUs were affiliated with the phylum Crenarchaeota. Correlation analysis showed that the Shannon diversity index (H') was significantly correlated with ammonia, nitrate/nitrite (P <0. 05). [ CONCLUSION] AOA in the Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil are all belonged to the Crenarchaeota, and their diversity is significantly correlated with soil ammonia, nitrate/nitrite content.

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and ecological pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the surface sediments of the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was surveyed in the surface sediments from the northern part of the South China Sea (SCS). The distribution pattern of AOA in the western Pacific was discussed through comparing the SCS with other areas in the western Pacific including Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea where high input of anthropogenic nitrogen was evident, the tropical West Pacific Continental Margins close to the Philippines, the deep-sea methane seep sediments in the Okhotsk Sea, the cold deep sea of Northeastern Japan Sea, and the hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. These various environments provide a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions for a better understanding of the distribution pattern and diversities of AOA in the western Pacific. Under these different conditions, the distinct community composition between shallow and deep-sea sediments was clearly delineated based on the UniFrac PCoA and Jackknife Environmental Cluster analyses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that a few ammonia-oxidizing archaeal subclades in the marine water column/sediment clade and endemic lineages were indicative phylotypes for some environments. Higher phylogenetic diversity was observed in the Philippines while lower diversity in the hydrothermal vent habitat. Water depth and possibly with other environmental factors could be the main driving forces to shape the phylogenetic diversity of AOA observed, not only in the SCS but also in the whole western Pacific. The multivariate regression tree analysis also supported this observation consistently. Moreover, the functions of current and other climate factors were also discussed in comparison of phylogenetic diversity. The information collectively provides important insights into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultured ammonia-oxidizing archaeal lineages in the western Pacific Ocean. PMID:21748268

  8. Phylogenetic diversity and ecological pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the surface sediments of the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was surveyed in the surface sediments from the northern part of the South China Sea (SCS). The distribution pattern of AOA in the western Pacific was discussed through comparing the SCS with other areas in the western Pacific including Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea where high input of anthropogenic nitrogen was evident, the tropical West Pacific Continental Margins close to the Philippines, the deep-sea methane seep sediments in the Okhotsk Sea, the cold deep sea of Northeastern Japan Sea, and the hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. These various environments provide a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions for a better understanding of the distribution pattern and diversities of AOA in the western Pacific. Under these different conditions, the distinct community composition between shallow and deep-sea sediments was clearly delineated based on the UniFrac PCoA and Jackknife Environmental Cluster analyses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that a few ammonia-oxidizing archaeal subclades in the marine water column/sediment clade and endemic lineages were indicative phylotypes for some environments. Higher phylogenetic diversity was observed in the Philippines while lower diversity in the hydrothermal vent habitat. Water depth and possibly with other environmental factors could be the main driving forces to shape the phylogenetic diversity of AOA observed, not only in the SCS but also in the whole western Pacific. The multivariate regression tree analysis also supported this observation consistently. Moreover, the functions of current and other climate factors were also discussed in comparison of phylogenetic diversity. The information collectively provides important insights into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultured ammonia-oxidizing archaeal lineages in the western Pacific Ocean.

  9. Population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in a pollutants' receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-07-01

    The community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms is sensitive to various environmental factors, including pollutions. In this study, real-time PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were adopted to investigate the population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) temporally and spatially in the sediments of an industrial effluent receiving area in the Qiantang River's estuary, Hangzhou Bay. The abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes fluctuated in 10(5)-10(7) gene copies per gram of sediment; the ratio of AOA amoA/AOB amoA ranged in 0.39-5.52. The AOA amoA/archaeal 16S rRNA, AOB amoA/bacterial 16S rRNA, and AOA amoA/AOB amoA were found to positively correlate with NH4 (+)-N concentration of the seawater. Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrosomonas-like cluster were the dominant AOA and AOB, respectively. The community structures of both AOA and AOB in the sediments exhibited significant seasonal differences rather than spatial changes in the effluent receiving area. The phylogenetic distribution of AOB in this area was consistent with the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging the effluent but differed from the Qiantang River and other estuaries, which might be an outcome of long-term effluent discharge. PMID:26960319

  10. Nitrogen metabolism and kinetics of ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing mesophilic and thermophilic Group I archaea changed the century-old paradigm that aerobic ammonia oxidation is solely mediated by two small clades of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Group I archaea are extremely diverse and ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments, accounting for 20-30% of the microbial plankton in the global oceans. Recent studies indicated that many of these organisms carry putative ammonia monooxygenase genes and are more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in most natural environments suggesting a potentially significant role in the nitrogen cycle. The isolation of Nitrosopumilus maritimus strain SCM1 provided the first direct evidence that Group I archaea indeed gain energy from ammonia oxidation. To characterize the physiology of this archaeal nitrifier, we developed a respirometry setup particularly suited for activity measurements in dilute microbial cultures with extremely low oxygen uptake rates. Here, we describe the setup and review the kinetic experiments conducted with N. maritimus and other nitrifying microorganisms. These experiments demonstrated that N. maritimus is adapted to grow on ammonia concentrations found in oligotrophic open ocean environments, far below the survival threshold of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The described setup and experimental procedures should facilitate physiological studies on other nitrifying archaea and oligotrophic microorganisms in general.

  11. Abundance and diversity based on amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in ten wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingfeng; Luo, Xin; Wu, Guixia; Li, Ting; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-04-01

    The abundance and diversity of amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were investigated in ten wastewater treatment systems (WTSs) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The ten WTSs included four full-scale municipal WTSs, three full-scale industrial WTSs, and three lab-scale WTSs. AOB were present in all the WTSs, whereas AOA were detected in nine WTSs. QPCR data showed that AOB amoA genes (4.625 × 10(4)-9.99 × 10(9) copies g(-1) sludge) outnumbered AOA amoA genes (ammonia oxidization in WTSs. Interestingly, it was found that AOA and AOB coexisted with anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria in three anammox WTSs with relatively higher abundance. In a full-scale industrial WTS where effluent ammonia was higher than influent ammonia, both AOA and AOB showed higher abundance. The phylogenetic analysis of AOB amoA genes showed that genera Nitrosomonas was the most dominant species in the ten WTSs; Nitrosomonas europaea cluster was the dominant major cluster, followed by Nitrosomonas-like cluster and Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster; and AOB species showed higher diversity than AOA species. AOA were found to be affiliated with two major clusters: Nitrososphaera cluster and Nitrosopumilus cluster. Nitrososphaera cluster was the most dominant species in different samples and distributed worldwide.

  12. Shifts in Abundance and Diversity of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea Associated with Land Restoration in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wu, Wenliang; Shao, Xiaoming; Li, Li; Guo, Yanbin; Ding, Guochun

    2015-01-01

    The Grain to Green Project (GGP) is an unprecedented land restoration action in China. The project converted large areas (ca 10 million ha) of steep-sloped/degraded farmland and barren land into forest and grassland resulting in ecological benefits such as a reduction in severe soil erosion. It may also affect soil microorganisms involved in ammonia oxidization, which is a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. The methods for restoration that are typically adopted in semi-arid regions include abandoning farmland and growing drought tolerant grass (Lolium perenne L.) or shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). In the present study, the effects of these methods on the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analysis of amoA genes. Comparisons were made between soil samples from three restored lands and the adjacent farmland in Inner Mongolia. Both the abundance and community composition of AOB were significantly different between the restored lands and the adjacent control. Significantly lower nitrification activity was observed for the restored land. Clone library analysis revealed that all AOB amoA gene sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira. Abundance of the populations that were associated with Nitrosospira sp. Nv6 which had possibly adapted to high concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, decreased on the restored land. Only a slight difference in the AOB communities was observed between the restored land with and without the shrub (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). A minor effect of land restoration on AOA was observed. In summary, land restoration negatively affected the abundance of AOB and soil nitrification activities, suggesting the potential role of GGP in the leaching of nitrates, and in the emission of N2O in related terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26172994

  13. Shifts in Abundance and Diversity of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea Associated with Land Restoration in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wu, Wenliang; Shao, Xiaoming; Li, Li; Guo, Yanbin; Ding, Guochun

    2015-01-01

    The Grain to Green Project (GGP) is an unprecedented land restoration action in China. The project converted large areas (ca 10 million ha) of steep-sloped/degraded farmland and barren land into forest and grassland resulting in ecological benefits such as a reduction in severe soil erosion. It may also affect soil microorganisms involved in ammonia oxidization, which is a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. The methods for restoration that are typically adopted in semi-arid regions include abandoning farmland and growing drought tolerant grass (Lolium perenne L.) or shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). In the present study, the effects of these methods on the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analysis of amoA genes. Comparisons were made between soil samples from three restored lands and the adjacent farmland in Inner Mongolia. Both the abundance and community composition of AOB were significantly different between the restored lands and the adjacent control. Significantly lower nitrification activity was observed for the restored land. Clone library analysis revealed that all AOB amoA gene sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira. Abundance of the populations that were associated with Nitrosospira sp. Nv6 which had possibly adapted to high concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, decreased on the restored land. Only a slight difference in the AOB communities was observed between the restored land with and without the shrub (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). A minor effect of land restoration on AOA was observed. In summary, land restoration negatively affected the abundance of AOB and soil nitrification activities, suggesting the potential role of GGP in the leaching of nitrates, and in the emission of N2O in related terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Shifts in Abundance and Diversity of Soil Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea Associated with Land Restoration in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Wu, Wenliang; Shao, Xiaoming; Li, Li; Guo, Yanbin; Ding, Guochun

    2015-01-01

    The Grain to Green Project (GGP) is an unprecedented land restoration action in China. The project converted large areas (ca 10 million ha) of steep-sloped/degraded farmland and barren land into forest and grassland resulting in ecological benefits such as a reduction in severe soil erosion. It may also affect soil microorganisms involved in ammonia oxidization, which is a key step in the global nitrogen cycle. The methods for restoration that are typically adopted in semi-arid regions include abandoning farmland and growing drought tolerant grass (Lolium perenne L.) or shrubs (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). In the present study, the effects of these methods on the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library analysis of amoA genes. Comparisons were made between soil samples from three restored lands and the adjacent farmland in Inner Mongolia. Both the abundance and community composition of AOB were significantly different between the restored lands and the adjacent control. Significantly lower nitrification activity was observed for the restored land. Clone library analysis revealed that all AOB amoA gene sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira. Abundance of the populations that were associated with Nitrosospira sp. Nv6 which had possibly adapted to high concentrations of inorganic nitrogen, decreased on the restored land. Only a slight difference in the AOB communities was observed between the restored land with and without the shrub (Caragana korshinskii Kom.). A minor effect of land restoration on AOA was observed. In summary, land restoration negatively affected the abundance of AOB and soil nitrification activities, suggesting the potential role of GGP in the leaching of nitrates, and in the emission of N2O in related terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26172994

  15. Nitric oxide scavengers differentially inhibit ammonia oxidation in ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Laura A; Ross, Ashley A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2016-04-01

    Differential inhibitors are important for measuring the relative contributions of microbial groups, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), to biogeochemical processes in environmental samples. In particular, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) represents a nitric oxide scavenger used for the specific inhibition of AOA, implicating nitric oxide as an intermediate of thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation. This study investigated four alternative nitric oxide scavengers for their ability to differentially inhibit AOA and AOB in comparison to PTIO. Caffeic acid, curcumin, methylene blue hydrate and trolox were tested onNitrosopumilus maritimus, two unpublished AOA representatives (AOA-6f and AOA-G6) as well as the AOB representative Nitrosomonas europaea All four scavengers inhibited ammonia oxidation by AOA at lower concentrations than for AOB. In particular, differential inhibition of AOA and AOB by caffeic acid (100 μM) and methylene blue hydrate (3 μM) was comparable to carboxy-PTIO (100 μM) in pure and enrichment culture incubations. However, when added to aquarium sponge biofilm microcosms, both scavengers were unable to inhibit ammonia oxidation consistently, likely due to degradation of the inhibitors themselves. This study provides evidence that a variety of nitric oxide scavengers result in differential inhibition of ammonia oxidation in AOA and AOB, and provides support to the proposed role of nitric oxide as a key intermediate in the thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation pathway.

  16. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in sediments of trophic end members of the Laurentian Great Lakes, Erie and Superior.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Annette; Bullerjahn, George S; McKay, Robert Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step of nitrification carried out by ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB). Lake Superior and Erie are part of the Great Lakes system differing in trophic status with Lake Superior being oligotrophic and Lake Erie meso- to eutrophic. Sediment samples were collected from both lakes and used to characterize abundance and diversity of AOA and AOB based on the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene. Diversity was accessed by a pyro-sequencing approach and the obtained sequences were used to determine the phylogeny and alpha and beta diversity of the AOA and AOB populations. In Lake Erie copy numbers of bacterial amoA genes were in the same order of magnitude or even higher than the copy numbers of the archaeal amoA genes, while in Lake Superior up to 4 orders of magnitude more archaeal than bacterial amoA copies were detected. The AOB detected in the samples from Lake Erie belonged to AOB that are frequently detected in freshwater. Differences were detected between the phylogenetic affiliations of the AOA from the two lakes. Most sequences detected in Lake Erie clustered in the Nitrososphaera cluster (Thaumarchaeal soil group I.1b) where as most of the sequences in Lake Superior were found in the Nitrosopumilus cluster (Thaumarchaeal marine group I.1a) and the Nitrosotalea cluster. Pearson correlations and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the differences in abundance and diversity of AOA are very likely related to the sampling location and thereby to the different trophic states of the lakes.

  17. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have better adaptability in oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Hu, Baolan; He, Zhanfei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Guangming; Zheng, Ping; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia oxidation is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Few studies compared the adaptability of AOA and AOB for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in water-level-fluctuating zones. Here, using qPCR and 454 high-throughput sequencing of functional amoA genes of AOA and AOB, we examined the changes of abundances, diversities, and community structures of AOA and AOB in periodically flooded soils compared to the non-flooded soils in Three Gorges Reservoir. The increased AOA operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers and the higher ratios of abundance (AOA:AOB) in the periodically flooded soils suggested AOA have better adaptability for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in the water-level-fluctuating zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir and probably responsible for the ammonia oxidation there. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) had the most significant effect on the community distribution of AOA (p < 0.01). Pearson analysis also indicated that ORP was the most important factor influencing the abundances and diversities of ammonia-oxidizing microbes. ORP was significantly negatively correlated with AOA OTU numbers (p < 0.05), ratio of OTU numbers (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.01), and ratio of amoA gene abundances (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.05). ORP was also significantly positively correlated with AOB abundance (p < 0.05). PMID:26099334

  18. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have better adaptability in oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Hu, Baolan; He, Zhanfei; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Guangming; Zheng, Ping; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia oxidation is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Few studies compared the adaptability of AOA and AOB for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in water-level-fluctuating zones. Here, using qPCR and 454 high-throughput sequencing of functional amoA genes of AOA and AOB, we examined the changes of abundances, diversities, and community structures of AOA and AOB in periodically flooded soils compared to the non-flooded soils in Three Gorges Reservoir. The increased AOA operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers and the higher ratios of abundance (AOA:AOB) in the periodically flooded soils suggested AOA have better adaptability for oxygenated/hypoxic alternant conditions in the water-level-fluctuating zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir and probably responsible for the ammonia oxidation there. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) had the most significant effect on the community distribution of AOA (p < 0.01). Pearson analysis also indicated that ORP was the most important factor influencing the abundances and diversities of ammonia-oxidizing microbes. ORP was significantly negatively correlated with AOA OTU numbers (p < 0.05), ratio of OTU numbers (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.01), and ratio of amoA gene abundances (AOA:AOB) (p < 0.05). ORP was also significantly positively correlated with AOB abundance (p < 0.05).

  19. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on granular activated carbon and their fates during drinking water purification process.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jia; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki; Shigeeda, Takaaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is a precursor to trichloramine, which causes an undesirable chlorinous odor. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration is used to biologically oxidize ammonia during drinking water purification; however, little information is available regarding the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) associated with GAC. In addition, their sources and fates in water purification process remain unknown. In this study, six GAC samples were collected from five full-scale drinking water purification plants in Tokyo during summer and winter, and the abundance and community structure of AOA and AOB associated with GAC were studied in these two seasons. In summer, archaeal and bacterial amoA genes on GACs were present at 3.7 × 10(5)-3.9 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry and 4.5 × 10(6)-4.2 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry, respectively. In winter, archaeal amoA genes remained at the same level, while bacterial amoA genes decreased significantly for all GACs. No differences were observed in the community diversity of AOA and AOB from summer to winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high AOA diversity in group I.1a and group I.1b in raw water. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of processed water samples revealed that AOA diversity decreased dramatically to only two OTUs in group I.1a after ozonation, which were identical to those detected on GAC. It suggests that ozonation plays an important role in determining AOA diversity on GAC. Further study on the cell-specific activity of AOA and AOB is necessary to understand their contributions to in situ nitrification performance.

  20. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löscher, C. R.; Kock, A.; Könneke, M.; LaRoche, J.; Bange, H. W.; Schmitz, R. A.

    2012-07-01

    The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA) over their bacterial counterparts (AOB) in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) that occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been reported to produce N2O. Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were detectable throughout the water column of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) and eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) Oceans. Particularly in the ETNA, comparable patterns of abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes and N2O co-occurred in the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved oxygen in the ocean.

  1. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, C. R.; Kock, A.; Koenneke, M.; Laroche, J.; Bange, H. W.; Schmitz, R. A.

    2012-02-01

    The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA) over their bacterial counterparts (AOB) in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) which occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been described to produce N2O. Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA) were detectable throughout the water column of the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) and Eastern Tropical South Pacific Oceans (ETSP). Particularly in the ETNA, maxima in abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes correlated with the N2O maximum and the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved oxygen in the ocean.

  2. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria Rather than Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea were Widely Distributed in Animal Manure Composts from Field-Scale Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Nozomi; Oishi, Ryu; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in cattle, swine, and chicken manure compost was analyzed. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis-like sequence dominated in cattle manure compost, while few AOA were detected in other composts. In the case of AOB, Nitrosomonas-like sequences were detected with higher diversity in cattle and swine manure composts. The relative abundance of ammonia oxidizers by real-time PCR revealed that more AOB was present in compost except in one swine manure compost. Our results indicated that AOB rather than AOA are widely distributed in animal manure compost. PMID:22972386

  3. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g-1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments.

  4. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 10(4) to 8.5 × 10(9) copies g(-1)), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  5. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 10(4) to 8.5 × 10(9) copies g(-1)), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments.

  6. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to −25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g−1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  7. Temporal and Spatial Stability of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Aquarium Biofilters

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Laura A.; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D.; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4–5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ≥81–86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium

  8. Temporal and spatial stability of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in aquarium biofilters.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Samik; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Sauder, Laura A; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4-5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ≥ 81-86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium

  9. Archaea dominate ammonia oxidizers in the permian water ecosystem of midland basin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yiguo; Youshao, Wang; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the existence and characteristics of ammonia oxidizers in Permian water from Midland Basin. Molecular surveys targeting the amoA gene showed that only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) exist and have potential activity in this special environment. In contrast, no ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were detected in the water. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 72-89% of the total screened AOA clones were affiliated with those found in underground water, and 10-24% of the AOA clones were related to those found in marine water or sediments. Our results indicate AOA might be the most abundant ammonia-oxidizing microbes in this ecological niche.

  10. [Effect of dissolved oxygen on diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in enrichment culture from estuarine wetland surface sediments and ammonia-oxidizing rate].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhao-Zheng; Luo, Zhuan-Xi; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Yan, Chang-Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the important environmental factors influencing the ammonia oxidation process. In order to examine the effects of DO on ammonia oxidation process and its potential mechanisms, surface sediments from Jiulong River Estuarine Wetland were collected and cultured to obtain enrichment cultures. Then the enrichment cultures were inoculated under different levels of DO, and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms was analyzed using PCR-DGGE technique to determine the effect of DO on the ammonia oxidation rate and the ammonia-oxidizing microorganism diversity. Results showed that the Shannon index was 2. 00 and 2.05 for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) under saturated and aerobic conditions, respectively, and the values were 2.49 (saturated) and 2.03 (aerobic) for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). However, this index was 1.76 and 1.80 for AOB under hypoxia and anaerobic condition, and 1.27 and 2. 21 for AOA. Under saturated and aerobic conditions ( higher DO level), the ammonia-oxidizing rates were 14.20 mg.(L.d)-1 and 13.36 mg.(L.d)-1 and the related conversation rates of NH+4 -N were 93.8% and 88. 2% , respectively. In comparison, under hypoxia and anaerobic conditions (lower DO level), the ammonia-oxidizing rates were 7.82 mg.(L.d) -1 and 5.66 mg.(L.d)-1 and the related conversation rates of NH+4 -N were 51.7% and 37.4% , respectively. The correlation analysis showed that DO concentration was highly significantly positively correlated with the ammonia oxidation rate, and was significantly positively correlated with the AOB diversity index; DO and ammonia oxidation rate had no correlation with indices of AOA community.

  11. Vertical Segregation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Sediment of a Freshwater Aquaculture Pond.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shimin; Liu, Xingguo; Ma, Zhuojun; Liu, Qigen; Wu, Zongfan; Zeng, Xianlei; Shi, Xu; Gu, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Pond aquaculture is the major freshwater aquaculture method in China. Ammonia-oxidizing communities inhabiting pond sediments play an important role in controlling culture water quality. However, the distribution and activities of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along sediment profiles are poorly understood in this specific environment. Vertical variations in the abundance, transcription, potential ammonia oxidizing rate, and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in sediment samples (0-50 cm depth) collected from a freshwater aquaculture pond were investigated. The concentrations of the AOA amoA gene were higher than those of the AOB by an order of magnitude, which suggested that AOA, as opposed to AOB, were the numerically predominant ammonia-oxidizing organisms in the surface sediment. This could be attributed to the fact that AOA are more resistant to low levels of dissolved oxygen. However, the concentrations of the AOB amoA mRNA were higher than those of the AOA by 2.5- to 39.9-fold in surface sediments (0-10 cm depth), which suggests that the oxidation of ammonia was mainly performed by AOB in the surface sediments, and by AOA in the deeper sediments, where only AOA could be detected. Clone libraries of AOA and AOB amoA sequences indicated that the diversity of AOA and AOB decreased with increasing depth. The AOB community consisted of two groups: the Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas clusters, and Nitrosomonas were predominant in the freshwater pond sediment. All AOA amoA gene sequences in the 0-2 cm deep sediment were grouped into the Nitrososphaera cluster, while other AOA sequences in deeper sediments (10-15 and 20-25 cm depths) were grouped into the Nitrosopumilus cluster.

  12. Vertical Segregation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Sediment of a Freshwater Aquaculture Pond.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shimin; Liu, Xingguo; Ma, Zhuojun; Liu, Qigen; Wu, Zongfan; Zeng, Xianlei; Shi, Xu; Gu, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Pond aquaculture is the major freshwater aquaculture method in China. Ammonia-oxidizing communities inhabiting pond sediments play an important role in controlling culture water quality. However, the distribution and activities of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along sediment profiles are poorly understood in this specific environment. Vertical variations in the abundance, transcription, potential ammonia oxidizing rate, and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in sediment samples (0-50 cm depth) collected from a freshwater aquaculture pond were investigated. The concentrations of the AOA amoA gene were higher than those of the AOB by an order of magnitude, which suggested that AOA, as opposed to AOB, were the numerically predominant ammonia-oxidizing organisms in the surface sediment. This could be attributed to the fact that AOA are more resistant to low levels of dissolved oxygen. However, the concentrations of the AOB amoA mRNA were higher than those of the AOA by 2.5- to 39.9-fold in surface sediments (0-10 cm depth), which suggests that the oxidation of ammonia was mainly performed by AOB in the surface sediments, and by AOA in the deeper sediments, where only AOA could be detected. Clone libraries of AOA and AOB amoA sequences indicated that the diversity of AOA and AOB decreased with increasing depth. The AOB community consisted of two groups: the Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas clusters, and Nitrosomonas were predominant in the freshwater pond sediment. All AOA amoA gene sequences in the 0-2 cm deep sediment were grouped into the Nitrososphaera cluster, while other AOA sequences in deeper sediments (10-15 and 20-25 cm depths) were grouped into the Nitrosopumilus cluster. PMID:26834709

  13. Vertical Segregation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in the Sediment of a Freshwater Aquaculture Pond

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shimin; Liu, Xingguo; Ma, Zhuojun; Liu, Qigen; Wu, Zongfan; Zeng, Xianlei; Shi, Xu; Gu, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Pond aquaculture is the major freshwater aquaculture method in China. Ammonia-oxidizing communities inhabiting pond sediments play an important role in controlling culture water quality. However, the distribution and activities of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along sediment profiles are poorly understood in this specific environment. Vertical variations in the abundance, transcription, potential ammonia oxidizing rate, and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in sediment samples (0–50 cm depth) collected from a freshwater aquaculture pond were investigated. The concentrations of the AOA amoA gene were higher than those of the AOB by an order of magnitude, which suggested that AOA, as opposed to AOB, were the numerically predominant ammonia-oxidizing organisms in the surface sediment. This could be attributed to the fact that AOA are more resistant to low levels of dissolved oxygen. However, the concentrations of the AOB amoA mRNA were higher than those of the AOA by 2.5- to 39.9-fold in surface sediments (0–10 cm depth), which suggests that the oxidation of ammonia was mainly performed by AOB in the surface sediments, and by AOA in the deeper sediments, where only AOA could be detected. Clone libraries of AOA and AOB amoA sequences indicated that the diversity of AOA and AOB decreased with increasing depth. The AOB community consisted of two groups: the Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas clusters, and Nitrosomonas were predominant in the freshwater pond sediment. All AOA amoA gene sequences in the 0–2 cm deep sediment were grouped into the Nitrososphaera cluster, while other AOA sequences in deeper sediments (10–15 and 20–25 cm depths) were grouped into the Nitrosopumilus cluster. PMID:26834709

  14. Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Soil Treated with the Insecticide Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effect of imidacloprid on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in soil using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach. Analysis showed that AOA and AOB community members were affected by the insecticide treatment. However, the calculation of the richness (S) and the Shannon-Wiener index (H) values for soil treated with the field rate (FR) dosage of imidacloprid (1 mg/kg soil) showed no changes in measured indices for the AOA and AOB community members. In turn, the 10∗FR dosage of insecticide (10 mg/kg soil) negatively affected the AOA community, which was confirmed by the decrease of the S and H values in comparison with the values obtained for the control soil. In the case of AOB community, an initial decline followed by the increase of the S and H values was obtained. Imidacloprid decreased the nitrification rate while the ammonification process was stimulated by the addition of imidacloprid. Changes in the community structure of AOA and AOB could be due to an increase in the concentration of N-NH4+, known as the most important factor which determines the contribution of these microorganisms to soil nitrification. PMID:25705674

  15. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea respond positively to inorganic nitrogen addition in desert soils.

    PubMed

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Hall, Sharon J

    2015-02-01

    In soils, nitrogen (N) addition typically enhances ammonia oxidation (AO) rates and increases the population density of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but not that of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). We asked if long-term inorganic N addition also has similar consequences in arid land soils, an understudied yet spatially ubiquitous ecosystem type. Using Sonoran Desert top soils from between and under shrubs within a long-term N-enrichment experiment, we determined community concentration-response kinetics of AO and measured the total and relative abundance of AOA and AOB based on amoA gene abundance. As expected, N addition increased maximum AO rates and the abundance of bacterial amoA genes compared to the controls. Surprisingly, N addition also increased the abundance of archaeal amoA genes. We did not detect any major effects of N addition on ammonia-oxidizing community composition. The ammonia-oxidizing communities in these desert soils were dominated by AOA as expected (78% of amoA gene copies were related to Nitrososphaera), but contained unusually high contributions of Nitrosomonas (18%) and unusually low numbers of Nitrosospira (2%). This study highlights unique traits of ammonia oxidizers in arid lands, which should be considered globally in predictions of AO responses to changes in N availability.

  16. Composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and their contribution to nitrification in a high-temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Peng, X.-T.; Xu, H.-C.; Ta, K.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes and associated organisms has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrification in high-temperature environments remains unclear. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface sinter and bottom sediments were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Relative abundances of Crenarchaea in both samples were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", which represented the most abundant operation taxonomic units (OTU) in both sediments. Furthermore, bacterial amoA was not detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present in the range of 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 and 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 gene copies g-1 sediment. The cell-specific nitrification rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, which is consistent with earlier estimates in estuary environments. This study demonstrated that AOA were widely involved in nitrification in this hot spring. It further indicated the importance of archaea rather than bacteria in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  17. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity.

  18. Isotopic Signature of N2O Produced by Marine Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Alyson E.; Buchwald, Carolyn; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Casciotti, Karen L.

    2011-09-01

    The ocean is an important global source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone destruction. Bacterial nitrification and denitrification are thought to be the primary sources of marine N2O, but the isotopic signatures of N2O produced by these processes are not consistent with the marine contribution to the global N2O budget. Based on enrichment cultures, we report that archaeal ammonia oxidation also produces N2O. Natural-abundance stable isotope measurements indicate that the produced N2O had bulk δ15N and δ18O values higher than observed for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria but similar to the δ15N and δ18O values attributed to the oceanic N2O source to the atmosphere. Our results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea may be largely responsible for the oceanic N2O source.

  19. Isotopic signature of N(2)O produced by marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Alyson E; Buchwald, Carolyn; McIlvin, Matthew R; Casciotti, Karen L

    2011-09-01

    The ocean is an important global source of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), a greenhouse gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone destruction. Bacterial nitrification and denitrification are thought to be the primary sources of marine N(2)O, but the isotopic signatures of N(2)O produced by these processes are not consistent with the marine contribution to the global N(2)O budget. Based on enrichment cultures, we report that archaeal ammonia oxidation also produces N(2)O. Natural-abundance stable isotope measurements indicate that the produced N(2)O had bulk δ(15)N and δ(18)O values higher than observed for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria but similar to the δ(15)N and δ(18)O values attributed to the oceanic N(2)O source to the atmosphere. Our results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea may be largely responsible for the oceanic N(2)O source. PMID:21798895

  20. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flood, Matthew; Frabutt, Dylan; Floyd, Dalton; Powers, Ashley; Ezegwe, Uche; Devol, Allan; Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M

    2015-01-01

    The diversity (richness and community composition) of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) within sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction primers designed to specifically target the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase-subunit (amoA) gene and bacterial amoA gene, we found AOA and AOB to be present in all three sampling sites. Archaeal amoA libraries were dominated by a few widely distributed Nitrosopumilus-like sequence types, whereas AOB diversity showed significant variation in both richness and community composition. Majority of the bacterial amoA sequences recovered belong to Betaproteobacteria and very few belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Results suggest that water depth and nutrient availability were identified as potential drivers that affected the selection of the AOA and AOB communities. Besides influencing the abundance of individual taxa, these environmental factors also had an impact on the overall richness of the overall AOA and AOB communities. The richness and diversity of AOA and AOB genes were higher at the shallowest sediments (100 m depth) and the deepest sediments (1300 m depth). The reduced diversity in the deepest sediments could be explained by much lower nutrient availability.

  1. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flood, Matthew; Frabutt, Dylan; Floyd, Dalton; Powers, Ashley; Ezegwe, Uche; Devol, Allan; Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M

    2015-01-01

    The diversity (richness and community composition) of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) within sediments of the Gulf of Mexico was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction primers designed to specifically target the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase-subunit (amoA) gene and bacterial amoA gene, we found AOA and AOB to be present in all three sampling sites. Archaeal amoA libraries were dominated by a few widely distributed Nitrosopumilus-like sequence types, whereas AOB diversity showed significant variation in both richness and community composition. Majority of the bacterial amoA sequences recovered belong to Betaproteobacteria and very few belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Results suggest that water depth and nutrient availability were identified as potential drivers that affected the selection of the AOA and AOB communities. Besides influencing the abundance of individual taxa, these environmental factors also had an impact on the overall richness of the overall AOA and AOB communities. The richness and diversity of AOA and AOB genes were higher at the shallowest sediments (100 m depth) and the deepest sediments (1300 m depth). The reduced diversity in the deepest sediments could be explained by much lower nutrient availability. PMID:25409591

  2. Bacterial domination over archaea in ammonia oxidation in a monsoon-driven tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Puthiya Veettil, Vipindas; Abdulaziz, Anas; Chekidhenkuzhiyil, Jasmin; Kalanthingal Ramkollath, Lallu; Karayadi Hamza, Fausia; Kizhakkepat Kalam, Balachandran; Kallungal Ravunnikutty, Muraleedharan; Nair, Shanta

    2015-04-01

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms, which are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in most aquatic systems, have not been studied in tropical estuaries. Cochin estuary (CE) is one of the largest, productive, and monsoon-driven estuary in India opening into the southeast Arabian Sea. CE receives surplus quantities of ammonia through industrial and domestic discharges. The distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and their relative contribution to the process as well as the governing factors were examined and reported for the first time from CE. The order of occurrence of these assemblages was β-proteobacteria (0.79 to 2 × 10(5) cells ml(-1)) > γ-proteobacteria (0.9 to 4.6 × 10(4) cells ml(-1)) > anammox (0.49 to 1.9 × 10(4) cells ml(-1)) > AOA (0.56 to 6.3 × 10(3) cells ml(-1)). Phylogenetic analysis of DGGE bands showed major affiliation of AOB to β-proteobacteria, while AOA was affiliated to Crenarchaeota. The abundance of AOB was mostly influenced by ammonia concentrations. The recovered ammonia oxidation rate of AOB was in the range of 45-65%, whereas for AOA, it was 15-45%, indicating that AOB were mostly responsible for the ammonia oxidation in CE during the study period. Overall, the present study provides an insight into the relevance and contribution of different groups of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in CE and emphasizes the need for further in depth studies across space and on season scale.

  3. Seasonal changes in abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and their nitrification in sand of an eelgrass zone.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yoshifumi; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji; Yoshihara, Kiyoshi; Tokuyama, Tatsuaki

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) within the sand of an eelgrass (Zostera marina) zone were examined by a quantitative PCR of both crenarchaeotal and betaproteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit (amoA) genes together with temperature and concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate from May 2007 to June 2008 at Tanoura Bay, Shizuoka, Japan. The abundance of both amoAs in the sand between May and June 2007 and between January and March 2008 was 1.5 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the 10(4) copies g(-1) of estimated amoA between September and December. Archaeal amoA was more diverse than betaproteobacterial amoA. Betaproteobacterial amoA clone libraries were dominated by Nitrosospira-like sequence types. An incubation experiment was conducted with sands collected in February 2008 and community structure was analyzed based on reverse-transcribed amoAs. RNA was extracted from sand incubated for 12 days at 30°C, 17 days at 20°C, and 80 days at 10°C. Different amoA clones were detected from in situ sand and incubated sand. This study reveals clear evidence of seasonal change in the abundance of AOA and AOB within the sand of an eelgrass zone.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea use the most energy-efficient aerobic pathway for CO2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Schubert, Daniel M; Brown, Philip C; Hügler, Michael; Standfest, Sonja; Schwander, Thomas; Schada von Borzyskowski, Lennart; Erb, Tobias J; Stahl, David A; Berg, Ivan A

    2014-06-01

    Archaea of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant prokaryotes on Earth and are widely distributed in marine, terrestrial, and geothermal environments. All studied Thaumarchaeota couple the oxidation of ammonia at extremely low concentrations with carbon fixation. As the predominant nitrifiers in the ocean and in various soils, ammonia-oxidizing archaea contribute significantly to the global nitrogen and carbon cycles. Here we provide biochemical evidence that thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers assimilate inorganic carbon via a modified version of the autotrophic hydroxypropionate/hydroxybutyrate cycle of Crenarchaeota that is far more energy efficient than any other aerobic autotrophic pathway. The identified genes of this cycle were found in the genomes of all sequenced representatives of the phylum Thaumarchaeota, indicating the environmental significance of this efficient CO2-fixation pathway. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of proteins of this pathway suggests that the hydroxypropionate/hydroxybutyrate cycle emerged independently in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, thus supporting the hypothesis of an early evolutionary separation of both archaeal phyla. We conclude that high efficiency of anabolism exemplified by this autotrophic cycle perfectly suits the lifestyle of ammonia-oxidizing archaea, which thrive at a constantly low energy supply, thus offering a biochemical explanation for their ecological success in nutrient-limited environments.

  5. Hydroxylamine as an intermediate in ammonia oxidation by globally abundant marine archaea

    PubMed Central

    Vajrala, Neeraja; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Schauer, Andrew; Bottomley, Peter J.; Stahl, David A.; Arp, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing archaea have recently been recognized as a significant component of many microbial communities in the biosphere. Although the overall stoichiometry of archaeal chemoautotrophic growth via ammonia (NH3) oxidation to nitrite (NO2−) is superficially similar to the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, genome sequence analyses point to a completely unique biochemistry. The only genomic signature linking the bacterial and archaeal biochemistries of NH3 oxidation is a highly divergent homolog of the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). Although the presumptive product of the putative AMO is hydroxylamine (NH2OH), the absence of genes encoding a recognizable ammonia-oxidizing bacteria-like hydroxylamine oxidoreductase complex necessitates either a novel enzyme for the oxidation of NH2OH or an initial oxidation product other than NH2OH. We now show through combined physiological and stable isotope tracer analyses that NH2OH is both produced and consumed during the oxidation of NH3 to NO2− by Nitrosopumilus maritimus, that consumption is coupled to energy conversion, and that NH2OH is the most probable product of the archaeal AMO homolog. Thus, despite their deep phylogenetic divergence, initial oxidation of NH3 by bacteria and archaea appears mechanistically similar. They however diverge biochemically at the point of oxidation of NH2OH, the archaea possibly catalyzing NH2OH oxidation using a novel enzyme complex. PMID:23277575

  6. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea use the most energy-efficient aerobic pathway for CO2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Könneke, Martin; Schubert, Daniel M; Brown, Philip C; Hügler, Michael; Standfest, Sonja; Schwander, Thomas; Schada von Borzyskowski, Lennart; Erb, Tobias J; Stahl, David A; Berg, Ivan A

    2014-06-01

    Archaea of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant prokaryotes on Earth and are widely distributed in marine, terrestrial, and geothermal environments. All studied Thaumarchaeota couple the oxidation of ammonia at extremely low concentrations with carbon fixation. As the predominant nitrifiers in the ocean and in various soils, ammonia-oxidizing archaea contribute significantly to the global nitrogen and carbon cycles. Here we provide biochemical evidence that thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers assimilate inorganic carbon via a modified version of the autotrophic hydroxypropionate/hydroxybutyrate cycle of Crenarchaeota that is far more energy efficient than any other aerobic autotrophic pathway. The identified genes of this cycle were found in the genomes of all sequenced representatives of the phylum Thaumarchaeota, indicating the environmental significance of this efficient CO2-fixation pathway. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of proteins of this pathway suggests that the hydroxypropionate/hydroxybutyrate cycle emerged independently in Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, thus supporting the hypothesis of an early evolutionary separation of both archaeal phyla. We conclude that high efficiency of anabolism exemplified by this autotrophic cycle perfectly suits the lifestyle of ammonia-oxidizing archaea, which thrive at a constantly low energy supply, thus offering a biochemical explanation for their ecological success in nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24843170

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea versus bacteria in two soil aquifer treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Li, Yuyang; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Bing

    2015-02-01

    So far, the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia oxidation in wastewater treatment processes has not been well understood. In this study, two soil aquifer treatment (SATs) systems were built up to treat synthetic domestic wastewater (column 1) and secondary effluent (column 4), accomplishing an average of 95% ammonia removal during over 550 days of operation. Except at day 322, archaeal amoA genes always outnumbered bacterial amoA genes in both SATs as determined by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The ratios of archaeal amoA to 16S rRNA gene averaged at 0.70 ± 0.56 and 0.82 ± 0.62 in column 1 and column 4, respectively, indicating that all the archaea could be AOA carrying amoA gene in the SATs. The results of MiSeq-pyrosequencing targeting on archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes with the primer pair of modified 515R/806R indicated that Nitrososphaera cluster affiliated with thaumarchaeal group I.1b was the dominant AOA species, while Nitrosospira cluster was the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The statistical analysis showed significant relationship between AOA abundance (compared to AOB abundance) and inorganic and total nitrogen concentrations. Based on the mathematical model calculation for microbial growth, AOA had much greater capacity of ammonia oxidation as compared to the specific influent ammonia loading for AOA in the SATs, implying that a small fraction of the total AOA would actively work to oxidize ammonia chemoautotrophically whereas most of AOA would exhibit some level of functional redundancy. These results all pointed that AOA involved in microbial ammonia oxidation in the SATs.

  8. Impacts of Edaphic Factors on Communities of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrification in Tropical Soils

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Hickey, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is a key process in soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, but relatively little is known about it in tropical soils. In this study, we examined soils from Trinidad to determine the edaphic drivers affecting nitrification levels and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in non-managed soils. The soils were naturally vegetated, ranged in texture from sands to clays and spanned pH 4 to 8. The AOA were detected by qPCR in all soils (ca. 105 to 106 copies archaeal amoA g−1 soil), but AOB levels were low and bacterial amoA was infrequently detected. AOA abundance showed a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) with levels of soil organic carbon, clay and ammonium, but was not correlated to pH. Structures of AOA and AOB communities, as determined by amoA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis, differed significantly between soils (p<0.001). Variation in AOA TRF profiles was best explained by ammonium-N and either Kjeldahl N or total N (p<0.001) while variation in AOB TRF profiles was best explained by phosphorus, bulk density and iron (p<0.01). In clone libraries, phylotypes of archaeal amoA (predominantly Nitrososphaera) and bacterial amoA (predominanatly Nitrosospira) differed between soils, but variation was not correlated with pH. Nitrification potential was positively correlated with clay content and pH (p<0.001), but not to AOA or AOB abundance or community structure. Collectively, the study showed that AOA and AOB communities were affected by differing sets of edaphic factors, notably that soil N characteristics were significant for AOA, but not AOB, and that pH was not a major driver for either community. Thus, the effect of pH on nitrification appeared to mainly reflect impacts on AOA or AOB activity, rather than selection for AOA or AOB phylotypes differing in nitrifying capacity. PMID:24586878

  9. [Abundance and Community Composition of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Two Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite Systems].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-feng; Li, Ting; Zhang, Shu-jun; Fan, Xiao-yan; Pan, Kai-ling; Ma, Qian; Yuan, Ya-lin

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, which was thought to be only performed by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In recent years, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was also confirmed to take part in ammonia oxidation. The diversity and abundance of AOA have been investigated in various environments, however, little is known regarding the AOA in the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) wastewater treatment process. In this study, the abundance and diversity of AOA were investigated in the biofilm and flocculent activated sludge collected in a lab-scale (L) CANON system and a pilot-scale (P) CANON systems, respectively. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was applied to investigate the abundance of AOA and the diversity of AOA was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing. The qPCR results showed that the average abundance of AOA amoA gene of L and P was 2.42 x 10(6) copies x g(-1) dry sludge and 6.51 x 10(6) copies x g(-1) dry sludge, respectively. The abundance of AOA in biofilm was 10.1-14.1 times higher than that in flocculent activated sludge. For P system, the abundance of AOA in flocculent activated sludge was 1.8 times higher than that in biofilm. The results indicated that the abundance of AOA might be affected by different sludge morphology. The diversity of AOA in P system was extremely limited, only one OTU was observed, which was classified into Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2. The diversity of AOA in L system was higher, eight OTUs were observed, which were classified into five genera: Nitrososphaera subcluster 9, subcluster 8.1, subcluster 4.1, subcluster 1.1 and Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2. The diversity and abundance of AOA were different in CANON systems with different sludge morphology. AOA may play an important role in ammonia oxidation in CANON system.

  10. Nitrification rates in Arctic soils are associated with functionally distinct populations of ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zappe, Anna; Richter, Andreas; Svenning, Mette M; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The functioning of Arctic soil ecosystems is crucially important for global climate, and basic knowledge regarding their biogeochemical processes is lacking. Nitrogen (N) is the major limiting nutrient in these environments, and its availability is strongly dependent on nitrification. However, microbial communities driving this process remain largely uncharacterized in Arctic soils, namely those catalyzing the rate-limiting step of ammonia (NH3) oxidation. Eleven Arctic soils were analyzed through a polyphasic approach, integrating determination of gross nitrification rates, qualitative and quantitative marker gene analyses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) and enrichment of AOA in laboratory cultures. AOA were the only NH3 oxidizers detected in five out of 11 soils and outnumbered AOB in four of the remaining six soils. The AOA identified showed great phylogenetic diversity and a multifactorial association with the soil properties, reflecting an overall distribution associated with tundra type and with several physico-chemical parameters combined. Remarkably, the different gross nitrification rates between soils were associated with five distinct AOA clades, representing the great majority of known AOA diversity in soils, which suggests differences in their nitrifying potential. This was supported by selective enrichment of two of these clades in cultures with different NH3 oxidation rates. In addition, the enrichments provided the first direct evidence for NH3 oxidation by an AOA from an uncharacterized Thaumarchaeota–AOA lineage. Our results indicate that AOA are functionally heterogeneous and that the selection of distinct AOA populations by the environment can be a determinant for nitrification activity and N availability in soils. PMID:23466705

  11. [Microbial diversity and ammonia-oxidizing microorganism of a soil sample near an acid mine drainage lake].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Li-Hua; Hao, Chun-Bo; Li, Lu; Li, Si-Yuan; Feng, Chuan-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The main physicochemical parameters of the soil sample which was collected near an acid mine drainage reservoir in Anhui province was analyzed. The microbial diversity and community structure was studied through the construction of bacteria and archaea 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and ammonia monooxygenase gene clone library of archaea. The functional groups which were responsible for the process of ammonia oxidation were also discussed. The results indicated that the soil sample had extreme low pH value (pH < 3) and high ions concentration, which was influenced by the acid mine drainage (AMD). All the 16S rRNA gene sequences of bacteria clone library fell into 11 phyla, and Acidobacteria played the most significant role in the ecosystem followed by Verrucomicrobia. A great number of acidophilic bacteria existed in the soil sample, such as Candidatus Koribacter versatilis and Holophaga sp.. The archaea clone library consisted of 2 phyla (Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The abundance of Thaumarchaeota was remarkably higher than Euryarchaeota. The ammonia oxidation in the soil environment was probably driven by ammonia-oxidizing archaea, and new species of ammonia-oxidizing archaea existed in the soil sample.

  12. Ammonia manipulates the ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the coastal sediment-water microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Sun, Renhua; Wen, Donghui

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia was observed as a potential significant factor to manipulate the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) in water environments. For the first time, this study confirmed this phenomenon by laboratory cultivation. In a series of estuarine sediment-coastal water microcosms, we investigated the AOM's phylogenetic composition and activity change in response to ammonia concentration. Increase of ammonia concentration promoted bacterial amoA gene abundance in a linear pattern. The ratio of transcribed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene/ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) amoA gene increased from 0.1 to 43 as NH4 (+)-N increased from less than 0.1 to 12 mg L(-1), and AOA amoA transcription was undetected under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). The incubation of stable isotope probing (SIP) microcosms revealed a faster (13)C-NaHCO3 incorporation rate of AOA amoA gene under 0.1 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) and a sole (13)C-NaHCO3 utilization of the AOB amoA gene under 20 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1). Our results indicate that ammonia concentration manipulates the structure of AOM. AOA prefers to live and perform higher amoA transcription activity than AOB in ammonia-limited water environments, and AOB tends to take the first contributor place in ammonia-rich ones.

  13. Urease gene-containing Archaea dominate autotrophic ammonia oxidation in two acid soils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Jia, Zhongjun

    2013-06-01

    The metabolic traits of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) interacting with their environment determine the nitrogen cycle at the global scale. Ureolytic metabolism has long been proposed as a mechanism for AOB to cope with substrate paucity in acid soil, but it remains unclear whether urea hydrolysis could afford AOA greater ecological advantages. By combining DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and high-throughput pyrosequencing, here we show that autotrophic ammonia oxidation in two acid soils was predominately driven by AOA that contain ureC genes encoding the alpha subunit of a putative archaeal urease. In urea-amended SIP microcosms of forest soil (pH 5.40) and tea orchard soil (pH 3.75), nitrification activity was stimulated significantly by urea fertilization when compared with water-amended soils in which nitrification resulted solely from the oxidation of ammonia generated through mineralization of soil organic nitrogen. The stimulated activity was paralleled by changes in abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes. Time-course incubations indicated that archaeal amoA genes were increasingly labelled by (13) CO2 in both microcosms amended with water and urea. Pyrosequencing revealed that archaeal populations were labelled to a much greater extent in soils amended with urea than water. Furthermore, archaeal ureC genes were successfully amplified in the (13) C-DNA, and acetylene inhibition suggests that autotrophic growth of urease-containing AOA depended on energy generation through ammonia oxidation. The sequences of AOB were not detected, and active AOA were affiliated with the marine Group 1.1a-associated lineage. The results suggest that ureolytic N metabolism could afford AOA greater advantages for autotrophic ammonia oxidation in acid soil, but the mechanism of how urea activates AOA cells remains unclear.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide detoxification is a key mechanism for growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Geol; Park, Soo-Je; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Jung, Man-Young; Kim, So-Jeong; Gwak, Joo-Han; Hong, Heeji; Si, Ok-Ja; Lee, SangHoon; Madsen, Eugene L.; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), that is, members of the Thaumarchaeota phylum, occur ubiquitously in the environment and are of major significance for global nitrogen cycling. However, controls on cell growth and organic carbon assimilation by AOA are poorly understood. We isolated an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (designated strain DDS1) from seawater and used this organism to study the physiology of ammonia oxidation. These findings were confirmed using four additional Thaumarchaeota strains from both marine and terrestrial habitats. Ammonia oxidation by strain DDS1 was enhanced in coculture with other bacteria, as well as in artificial seawater media supplemented with α-keto acids (e.g., pyruvate, oxaloacetate). α-Keto acid-enhanced activity of AOA has previously been interpreted as evidence of mixotrophy. However, assays for heterotrophic growth indicated that incorporation of pyruvate into archaeal membrane lipids was negligible. Lipid carbon atoms were, instead, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon, indicating strict autotrophic growth. α-Keto acids spontaneously detoxify H2O2 via a nonenzymatic decarboxylation reaction, suggesting a role of α-keto acids as H2O2 scavengers. Indeed, agents that also scavenge H2O2, such as dimethylthiourea and catalase, replaced the α-keto acid requirement, enhancing growth of strain DDS1. In fact, in the absence of α-keto acids, strain DDS1 and other AOA isolates were shown to endogenously produce H2O2 (up to ∼4.5 μM), which was inhibitory to growth. Genomic analyses indicated catalase genes are largely absent in the AOA. Our results indicate that AOA broadly feature strict autotrophic nutrition and implicate H2O2 as an important factor determining the activity, evolution, and community ecology of AOA ecotypes. PMID:27339136

  15. Isotopic signatures of N2O produced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea from soils.

    PubMed

    Jung, Man-Young; Well, Reinhard; Min, Deullae; Giesemann, Anette; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jong-Geol; Kim, So-Jeong; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-05-01

    N2O gas is involved in global warming and ozone depletion. The major sources of N2O are soil microbial processes. Anthropogenic inputs into the nitrogen cycle have exacerbated these microbial processes, including nitrification. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are major members of the pool of soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. This study investigated the isotopic signatures of N2O produced by soil AOA and associated N2O production processes. All five AOA strains (I.1a, I.1a-associated and I.1b clades of Thaumarchaeota) from soil produced N2O and their yields were comparable to those of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The levels of site preference (SP), δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(18)O -N2O of soil AOA strains were 13-30%, -13 to -35% and 22-36%, respectively, and strains MY1-3 and other soil AOA strains had distinct isotopic signatures. A (15)N-NH4(+)-labeling experiment indicated that N2O originated from two different production pathways (that is, ammonia oxidation and nitrifier denitrification), which suggests that the isotopic signatures of N2O from AOA may be attributable to the relative contributions of these two processes. The highest N2O production yield and lowest site preference of acidophilic strain CS may be related to enhanced nitrifier denitrification for detoxifying nitrite. Previously, it was not possible to detect N2O from soil AOA because of similarities between its isotopic signatures and those from AOB. Given the predominance of AOA over AOB in most soils, a significant proportion of the total N2O emissions from soil nitrification may be attributable to AOA. PMID:24225887

  16. Hydrogen peroxide detoxification is a key mechanism for growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Geol; Park, Soo-Je; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Jung, Man-Young; Kim, So-Jeong; Gwak, Joo-Han; Hong, Heeji; Si, Ok-Ja; Lee, SangHoon; Madsen, Eugene L; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2016-07-12

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), that is, members of the Thaumarchaeota phylum, occur ubiquitously in the environment and are of major significance for global nitrogen cycling. However, controls on cell growth and organic carbon assimilation by AOA are poorly understood. We isolated an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (designated strain DDS1) from seawater and used this organism to study the physiology of ammonia oxidation. These findings were confirmed using four additional Thaumarchaeota strains from both marine and terrestrial habitats. Ammonia oxidation by strain DDS1 was enhanced in coculture with other bacteria, as well as in artificial seawater media supplemented with α-keto acids (e.g., pyruvate, oxaloacetate). α-Keto acid-enhanced activity of AOA has previously been interpreted as evidence of mixotrophy. However, assays for heterotrophic growth indicated that incorporation of pyruvate into archaeal membrane lipids was negligible. Lipid carbon atoms were, instead, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon, indicating strict autotrophic growth. α-Keto acids spontaneously detoxify H2O2 via a nonenzymatic decarboxylation reaction, suggesting a role of α-keto acids as H2O2 scavengers. Indeed, agents that also scavenge H2O2, such as dimethylthiourea and catalase, replaced the α-keto acid requirement, enhancing growth of strain DDS1. In fact, in the absence of α-keto acids, strain DDS1 and other AOA isolates were shown to endogenously produce H2O2 (up to ∼4.5 μM), which was inhibitory to growth. Genomic analyses indicated catalase genes are largely absent in the AOA. Our results indicate that AOA broadly feature strict autotrophic nutrition and implicate H2O2 as an important factor determining the activity, evolution, and community ecology of AOA ecotypes. PMID:27339136

  17. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  18. Phylogenetically diverse denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in corals Alcyonium gracillimum and Tubastraea coccinea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-10-01

    To date, the association of coral-bacteria and the ecological roles of bacterial symbionts in corals remain largely unknown. In particular, little is known about the community components of bacterial symbionts of corals involved in the process of denitrification and ammonia oxidation. In this study, the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes were used as functional markers. Diverse bacteria with the potential to be active as denitrifiers and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found in two East China Sea corals: stony coral Alcyonium gracillimum and soft coral Tubastraea coccinea. The 16S rRNA gene library analysis demonstrated different communities of bacterial symbionts in these two corals of the same location. Nitrite reductase nirK gene was found only in T. coccinea, while both nirK and nirS genes were detected in A. gracillimum, which might be the result of the presence of different bacterial symbionts in these two corals. AOB rather than ammonia-oxidizing archaea were detected in both corals, suggesting that AOB might play an important role in the ammonia oxidation process of the corals. This study indicates that the coral bacterial symbionts with the potential for nitrite reduction and ammonia oxidation might have multiple ecological roles in the coral holobiont, which promotes our understanding of bacteria-mediated nitrogen cycling in corals. To our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the community structure and phylogenetic diversity of denitrifying bacteria and AOB in corals based on nirK, nirS, and amoA gene library analysis. PMID:23564007

  19. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning. PMID:25860433

  20. Ammonia oxidation driven by archaea rather than bacteria in the hot spring at Tengchong geothermal field, China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Li, Jiwei; Ta, Kaiwen

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of microbial mediated ammonia oxidation and these organisms are present in large numbers in natural environments indicated a potential biogeochemical role for them in the global nitrogen cycle. However, very little is understood about their role and contribution to nitrification in the high temperature extreme environments. Here we explore the ammonia oxidation rates and abundance of potential ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in upper and bottom sediments from Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The 15N-incorporating AOA cells and cell aggregated were detected with Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS). Ammonia oxidation rates measured using 15N-NO3- pool dilution in upper and bottom sediments (without NH4+ stimulated) were 4.8 and 5.3 nmol N g-1h-1, respectively. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both of the two spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Furthermore, it should be noted that no ammonia-oxidizing bacterial clones detected in this study. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that AOA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 2.75-9.80×105 and 0.128-1.96×108 gene copies g-1 sediment. Based on the reaction rates and AOA abundance, we estimated the cell-specific nitrification rates were 0.41 to 0.79 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, which are comparable to those observed in estuary environment. We suggest that AOA have the responsibility in nitrification in this hot spring, and these archaea rather than bacteria may be considered as a driver in nitrogen cycling in terrestrial hot ecosystems. Key words: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA); nitrification; ammonia-oxidizing rate; hot spring;

  1. The production of nitric oxide by marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea and inhibition of archaeal ammonia oxidation by a nitric oxide scavenger.

    PubMed

    Martens-Habbena, Willm; Qin, Wei; Horak, Rachel E A; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Schauer, Andrew J; Moffett, James W; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Devol, Allan H; Stahl, David A

    2015-07-01

    Nitrification is a critical process for the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, linking mineralization to the nitrogen loss processes of denitrification and anammox. Recent studies indicate a significant contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to nitrification. However, quantification of the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to in situ ammonia oxidation remains challenging. We show here the production of nitric oxide (NO) by Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. Activity of SCM1 was always associated with the release of NO with quasi-steady state concentrations between 0.05 and 0.08 μM. NO production and metabolic activity were inhibited by the nitrogen free radical scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). Comparison of marine and terrestrial AOB strains with SCM1 and the recently isolated marine AOA strain HCA1 demonstrated a differential sensitivity of AOB and AOA to PTIO and allylthiourea (ATU). Similar to the investigated AOA strains, bulk water column nitrification at coastal and open ocean sites with sub-micromolar ammonia/ammonium concentrations was inhibited by PTIO and insensitive to ATU. These experiments support predictions from kinetic, molecular and biogeochemical studies, indicating that marine nitrification at low ammonia/ammonium concentrations is largely driven by archaea and suggest an important role of NO in the archaeal metabolism.

  2. Symbiotic archaea in marine sponges show stability and host specificity in community structure and ammonia oxidation functionality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Pita, Lucía; Erwin, Patrick M; Abaid, Summara; López-Legentil, Susanna; Hill, Russell T

    2014-12-01

    Archaea associated with marine sponges are active and influence the nitrogen metabolism of sponges. However, we know little about their occurrence, specificity, and persistence. We aimed to elucidate the relative importance of host specificity and biogeographic background in shaping the symbiotic archaeal communities. We investigated these communities in sympatric sponges from the Mediterranean (Ircinia fasciculata and Ircinia oros, sampled in summer and winter) and from the Caribbean (Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima). PCR cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes showed that the archaeal community composition and structure were different from that in seawater and varied among sponge species. We found that the communities were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea closely related to Nitrosopumilus. The community in M. laxissima differed from that in Ircinia spp., including the sympatric sponge I. strobilina; yet, geographical clusters within Ircinia spp. were observed. Whereas archaeal phylotypes in Ircinia spp. were persistent and belong to 'sponge-enriched' clusters, archaea in M. laxissima were closely related with those from diverse habitats (i.e. seawater and sediments). For all four sponge species, the expression of the archaeal amoA gene was confirmed. Our results indicate that host-specific processes, such as host ecological strategy and evolutionary history, control the sponge-archaeal communities.

  3. Distribution and Abundance of Archaea in South China Sea Sponge Holoxea sp. and the Presence of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Sponge Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Han, Minqi; Zhang, Fengli; Zhang, Baohua; Li, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    Compared with bacterial symbionts, little is known about archaea in sponges especially about their spatial distribution and abundance. Understanding the distribution and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea will help greatly in elucidating the potential function of symbionts in nitrogen cycling in sponges. In this study, gene libraries of 16S rRNA gene and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study the spatial distribution and abundance of archaea in the South China Sea sponge Holoxea sp. As a result, Holoxea sp. specific AOA, mainly group C1a (marine group I: Crenarchaeota) were identified. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaea was observed for the first time within sponge cells. This study suggested a close relationship between sponge host and its archaeal symbionts as well as the archaeal potential contribution to sponge host in the ammonia-oxidizing process of nitrification.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea grow under contrasting soil nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; Shen, Ju-Pei; Winefield, Chris S; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Bowatte, Saman; He, Ji-Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Nitrification is a key process of the nitrogen (N) cycle in soil with major environmental implications. The recent discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) questions the traditional assumption of the dominant role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrification. We investigated AOB and AOA growth and nitrification rate in two different layers of three grassland soils treated with animal urine substrate and a nitrification inhibitor [dicyandiamide (DCD)]. We show that AOB were more abundant in the topsoils than in the subsoils, whereas AOA were more abundant in one of the subsoils. AOB grew substantially when supplied with a high dose of urine substrate, whereas AOA only grew in the Controls without the urine-N substrate. AOB growth and the amoA gene transcription activity were significantly inhibited by DCD. Nitrification rates were much higher in the topsoils than in the subsoils and were significantly related to AOB abundance, but not to AOA abundance. These results suggest that AOB and AOA prefer different soil N conditions to grow: AOB under high ammonia (NH(3)) substrate and AOA under low NH(3) substrate conditions.

  5. Distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in plateau soils across different land use types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Wang, Yilin; Wu, Zhen; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia oxidation is known to be performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), although their relative significance to nitrification process in soil ecosystems remains controversial. The distribution of AOA and AOB in plateau soils with different land use types and the influential factors remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance and structure of AOA and AOB communities in upland soils adjacent to Erhai Lake in the Yunnan Plateau (China). Quantitative PCR assays indicated a large variation in the community size of AOA and AOB communities, with the numerical dominance of AOA over AOB in most of soils. Clone library analysis illustrated a marked shift in the structure of soil AOA and AOB communities. A high abundance of Nitrososphaera- and Nitrosotalea-like AOA was observed, while Nitrosospira-like species predominated in AOB. AOA and AOB abundance was positively influenced by total nitrogen and moisture content, respectively. Moreover, moisture content might be a key determinant of AOA community composition, while C/N and nitrate nitrogen played an important role in shaping AOB community composition. However, further efforts will be necessary in order to elucidate the links between soil AOA and AOB and land use.

  6. Nitrification rates in Arctic soils are associated with functionally distinct populations of ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Ricardo J. E.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zappe, Anna; Richter, Andreas; Svenning, Mette M.; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The functioning of Arctic soil ecosystems is crucially important for global climate, although basic knowledge regarding their biogeochemical processes is lacking. Nitrogen (N) is the major limiting nutrient in these environments, and therefore it is particularly important to gain a better understanding of the microbial populations catalyzing transformations that influence N bioavailability. However, microbial communities driving this process remain largely uncharacterized in Arctic soils, namely those catalyzing the rate-limiting step of ammonia (NH3) oxidation. Eleven Arctic soils from Svalbard were analyzed through a polyphasic approach, including determination of gross nitrification rates through a 15N pool dilution method, qualitative and quantitative analyses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) populations based on the functional marker gene amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A), and enrichment of AOA in laboratory cultures. AOA were the only NH3 oxidizers detected in five out of 11 soils, and outnumbered AOB by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in most others. AOA showed a great overall phylogenetic diversity that was differentially distributed across soil ecosystems, and exhibited an uneven population composition that reflected the dominance of a single AOA phylotype in each population. Moreover, AOA populations showed a multifactorial association with the soil properties, which reflected an overall distribution associated with tundra type and with several physico-chemical parameters combined, namely pH and soil moisture and N contents (i.e., NO3- and dissolved organic N). Remarkably, the different gross in situ and potential nitrification rates between soils were associated with distinct AOA phylogenetic clades, suggesting differences in their nitrifying potential, both under the native NH3 conditions and as a response to higher NH3 availability. This was further supported by the selective enrichment of two AOA clades that exhibited

  7. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kalanetra, Karen M; Bano, Nasreen; Hollibaugh, James T

    2009-09-01

    We compared abundance, distributions and phylogenetic composition of Crenarchaeota and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in samples collected from coastal waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the summers of 2005 and 2006, with samples from the central Arctic Ocean collected during the summer of 1997. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Crenarchaeota abundances were estimated from quantitative PCR measurements of amoA and 16S rRNA gene abundances. Crenarchaeota and AOA were approximately fivefold more abundant at comparable depths in the Antarctic versus the Arctic Ocean. Crenarchaeota and AOA were essentially absent from the Antarctic Summer Surface Water (SSW) water mass (0-45 m depth). The ratio of Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA to archaeal amoA gene abundance in the Winter Water (WW) water mass (45-105 m depth) of the Southern Ocean was much lower (0.15) than expected and in sharp contrast to the ratio (2.0) in the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) water mass (105-3500 m depth) immediately below it. We did not observe comparable segregation of this ratio by depth or water mass in Arctic Ocean samples. A ubiquitous, abundant and polar-specific crenarchaeote was the dominant ribotype in the WW and important in the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean. Our data suggest that this organism does not contain an ammonia monooxygenase gene. In contrast to other studies where Crenarchaeota populations apparently lacking amoA genes are found in bathypelagic waters, this organism appears to dominate in well-defined, ammonium-rich, near-surface water masses in polar oceans. PMID:19601959

  8. Quantification of ammonia oxidation rates and the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in marine sediment depth profiles from Catalina Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Beman, J. M.; Bertics, Victoria J.; Braunschweiler, Thomas; Wilson, Jesse M.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities present in marine sediments play a central role in nitrogen biogeochemistry at local to global scales. Along the oxidation–reduction gradients present in sediment profiles, multiple nitrogen cycling processes (such as nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation) are active and actively coupled to one another – yet the microbial communities responsible for these transformations and the rates at which they occur are still poorly understood. We report pore water geochemical (O2, NH4+, and NO3−) profiles, quantitative profiles of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes, and ammonia oxidation rate measurements, from bioturbated marine sediments of Catalina Island, California. Across triplicate sediment cores collected offshore at Bird Rock (BR) and within Catalina Harbor (CH), oxygen penetration (0.24–0.5 cm depth) and the abundance of amoA genes (up to 9.30 × 107 genes g–1) varied with depth and between cores. Bacterial amoA genes were consistently present at depths of up to 10 cm, and archaeal amoA was readily detected in BR cores, and CH cores from 2008, but not 2007. Although detection of DNA is not necessarily indicative of active growth and metabolism, ammonia oxidation rate measurements made in 2008 (using isotope tracer) demonstrated the production of oxidized nitrogen at depths where amoA was present. Rates varied with depth and between cores, but indicate that active ammonia oxidation occurs at up to 10 cm depth in bioturbated CH sediments, where it may be carried out by either or both ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria. PMID:22837756

  9. Differential responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term fertilization in a New England salt marsh

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuefeng; Yando, Erik; Hildebrand, Erica; Dwyer, Courtney; Kearney, Anne; Waciega, Alex; Valiela, Ivan; Bernhard, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), new questions have arisen about population and community dynamics and potential interactions between AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on AOA and AOB in the Great Sippewissett Marsh, Falmouth, MA, USA to address some of these questions. Sediment samples were collected from low and high marsh habitats in July 2009 from replicate plots that received low (LF), high (HF), and extra high (XF) levels of a mixed NPK fertilizer biweekly during the growing season since 1974. Additional untreated plots were included as controls (C). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the amoA genes revealed distinct shifts in AOB communities related to fertilization treatment, but the response patterns of AOA were less consistent. Four AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs) predictably and significantly responded to fertilization, but only one AOA OTU showed a significant pattern. Betaproteobacterial amoA gene sequences within the Nitrosospira-like cluster dominated at C and LF sites, while sequences related to Nitrosomonas spp. dominated at HF and XF sites. We identified some clusters of AOA sequences recovered primarily from high fertilization regimes, but other clusters consisted of sequences recovered from all fertilization treatments, suggesting greater physiological diversity. Surprisingly, fertilization appeared to have little impact on abundance of AOA or AOB. In summary, our data reveal striking patterns for AOA and AOB in response to long-term fertilization, and also suggest a missing link between community composition and abundance and nitrogen processing in the marsh. PMID:23346081

  10. Environmental factors determining ammonia-oxidizing organism distribution and diversity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Eveillard, Damien; Chien, Diana; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2012-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in bridging the input of fixed nitrogen, through N-fixation and remineralization, to its loss by denitrification and anammox. Yet the major environmental factors determining AOB and AOA population dynamics are little understood, despite both groups having a wide environmental distribution. This study examined the relative abundance of both groups of ammonia-oxidizing organisms (AOO) and the diversity of AOA across large-scale gradients in temperature, salinity and substrate concentration and dissolved oxygen. The relative abundance of AOB and AOA varied across environments, with AOB dominating in the freshwater region of the Chesapeake Bay and AOA more abundant in the water column of the coastal and open ocean. The highest abundance of the AOA amoA gene was recorded in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and the Arabian Sea (AS). The ratio of AOA : AOB varied from 0.7 in the Chesapeake Bay to 1600 in the Sargasso Sea. Relative abundance of both groups strongly correlated with ammonium concentrations. AOA diversity, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of clone library sequences and archetype analysis from a functional gene DNA microarray, detected broad phylogenetic differences across the study sites. However, phylogenetic diversity within physicochemically congruent stations was more similar than would be expected by chance. This suggests that the prevailing geochemistry, rather than localized dispersal, is the major driving factor determining OTU distribution.

  11. Environmental factors determining ammonia-oxidizing organism distribution and diversity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Eveillard, Damien; Chien, Diana; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2012-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in bridging the input of fixed nitrogen, through N-fixation and remineralization, to its loss by denitrification and anammox. Yet the major environmental factors determining AOB and AOA population dynamics are little understood, despite both groups having a wide environmental distribution. This study examined the relative abundance of both groups of ammonia-oxidizing organisms (AOO) and the diversity of AOA across large-scale gradients in temperature, salinity and substrate concentration and dissolved oxygen. The relative abundance of AOB and AOA varied across environments, with AOB dominating in the freshwater region of the Chesapeake Bay and AOA more abundant in the water column of the coastal and open ocean. The highest abundance of the AOA amoA gene was recorded in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and the Arabian Sea (AS). The ratio of AOA : AOB varied from 0.7 in the Chesapeake Bay to 1600 in the Sargasso Sea. Relative abundance of both groups strongly correlated with ammonium concentrations. AOA diversity, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of clone library sequences and archetype analysis from a functional gene DNA microarray, detected broad phylogenetic differences across the study sites. However, phylogenetic diversity within physicochemically congruent stations was more similar than would be expected by chance. This suggests that the prevailing geochemistry, rather than localized dispersal, is the major driving factor determining OTU distribution. PMID:22050634

  12. Genomes of two new ammonia-oxidizing archaea enriched from deep marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Je; Ghai, Rohit; Martín-Cuadrado, Ana-Belén; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kwon, KaeKyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Madsen, Eugene L; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and abundant and contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean. In this study, we assembled AOA draft genomes from two deep marine sediments from Donghae, South Korea, and Svalbard, Arctic region, by sequencing the enriched metagenomes. Three major microorganism clusters belonging to Thaumarchaeota, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were deduced from their 16S rRNA genes, GC contents, and oligonucleotide frequencies. Three archaeal genomes were identified, two of which were distinct and were designated Ca. "Nitrosopumilus koreensis" AR1 and "Nitrosopumilus sediminis" AR2. AR1 and AR2 exhibited average nucleotide identities of 85.2% and 79.5% to N. maritimus, respectively. The AR1 and AR2 genomes contained genes pertaining to energy metabolism and carbon fixation as conserved in other AOA, but, conversely, had fewer heme-containing proteins and more copper-containing proteins than other AOA. Most of the distinctive AR1 and AR2 genes were located in genomic islands (GIs) that were not present in other AOA genomes or in a reference water-column metagenome from the Sargasso Sea. A putative gene cluster involved in urea utilization was found in the AR2 genome, but not the AR1 genome, suggesting niche specialization in marine AOA. Co-cultured bacterial genome analysis suggested that bacterial sulfur and nitrogen metabolism could be involved in interactions with AOA. Our results provide fundamental information concerning the metabolic potential of deep marine sedimentary AOA.

  13. Genomes of two new ammonia-oxidizing archaea enriched from deep marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Je; Ghai, Rohit; Martín-Cuadrado, Ana-Belén; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kwon, KaeKyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Madsen, Eugene L; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and abundant and contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean. In this study, we assembled AOA draft genomes from two deep marine sediments from Donghae, South Korea, and Svalbard, Arctic region, by sequencing the enriched metagenomes. Three major microorganism clusters belonging to Thaumarchaeota, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were deduced from their 16S rRNA genes, GC contents, and oligonucleotide frequencies. Three archaeal genomes were identified, two of which were distinct and were designated Ca. "Nitrosopumilus koreensis" AR1 and "Nitrosopumilus sediminis" AR2. AR1 and AR2 exhibited average nucleotide identities of 85.2% and 79.5% to N. maritimus, respectively. The AR1 and AR2 genomes contained genes pertaining to energy metabolism and carbon fixation as conserved in other AOA, but, conversely, had fewer heme-containing proteins and more copper-containing proteins than other AOA. Most of the distinctive AR1 and AR2 genes were located in genomic islands (GIs) that were not present in other AOA genomes or in a reference water-column metagenome from the Sargasso Sea. A putative gene cluster involved in urea utilization was found in the AR2 genome, but not the AR1 genome, suggesting niche specialization in marine AOA. Co-cultured bacterial genome analysis suggested that bacterial sulfur and nitrogen metabolism could be involved in interactions with AOA. Our results provide fundamental information concerning the metabolic potential of deep marine sedimentary AOA. PMID:24798206

  14. pH as a Driver for Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Forest Soils.

    PubMed

    Stempfhuber, Barbara; Engel, Marion; Fischer, Doreen; Neskovic-Prit, Ganna; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schöning, Ingo; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Rattei, Thomas; Welzl, Gerhard; Nicol, Graeme W; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, Francois; Prosser, James I; Schloter, Michael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of soil pH on the diversity and abundance of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in 27 different forest soils across Germany. DNA was extracted from topsoil samples, the amoA gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase, was amplified; and the amplicons were sequenced using a 454-based pyrosequencing approach. As expected, the ratio of archaeal (AOA) to bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidizers' amoA genes increased sharply with decreasing soil pH. The diversity of AOA differed significantly between sites with ultra-acidic soil pH (<3.5) and sites with higher pH values. The major OTUs from soil samples with low pH could be detected at each site with a soil pH <3.5 but not at sites with pH >4.5, regardless of geographic position and vegetation. These OTUs could be related to the Nitrosotalea group 1.1 and the Nitrososphaera subcluster 7.2, respectively, and showed significant similarities to OTUs described from other acidic environments. Conversely, none of the major OTUs typical of sites with a soil pH >4.6 could be found in the ultra- and extreme acidic soils. Based on a comparison with the amoA gene sequence data from a previous study performed on agricultural soils, we could clearly show that the development of AOA communities in soils with ultra-acidic pH (<3.5) is mainly triggered by soil pH and is not influenced significantly by the type of land use, the soil type, or the geographic position of the site, which was observed for sites with acido-neutral soil pH.

  15. Genomes of Two New Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Enriched from Deep Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Je; Ghai, Rohit; Martín-Cuadrado, Ana-Belén; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kwon, KaeKyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Madsen, Eugene L.; Rhee, Sung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and abundant and contribute significantly to the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean. In this study, we assembled AOA draft genomes from two deep marine sediments from Donghae, South Korea, and Svalbard, Arctic region, by sequencing the enriched metagenomes. Three major microorganism clusters belonging to Thaumarchaeota, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were deduced from their 16S rRNA genes, GC contents, and oligonucleotide frequencies. Three archaeal genomes were identified, two of which were distinct and were designated Ca. “Nitrosopumilus koreensis” AR1 and “Nitrosopumilus sediminis” AR2. AR1 and AR2 exhibited average nucleotide identities of 85.2% and 79.5% to N. maritimus, respectively. The AR1 and AR2 genomes contained genes pertaining to energy metabolism and carbon fixation as conserved in other AOA, but, conversely, had fewer heme-containing proteins and more copper-containing proteins than other AOA. Most of the distinctive AR1 and AR2 genes were located in genomic islands (GIs) that were not present in other AOA genomes or in a reference water-column metagenome from the Sargasso Sea. A putative gene cluster involved in urea utilization was found in the AR2 genome, but not the AR1 genome, suggesting niche specialization in marine AOA. Co-cultured bacterial genome analysis suggested that bacterial sulfur and nitrogen metabolism could be involved in interactions with AOA. Our results provide fundamental information concerning the metabolic potential of deep marine sedimentary AOA. PMID:24798206

  16. High Concentrations of the Antibiotic Spiramycin in Wastewater Lead to High Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Nitrifying Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Liu, Miaomiao; Shi, Zhou Jason; Hale, Lauren; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Min

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of antibiotics on ammonia-oxidizing microbes, multiple tools including quantitative PCR (qPCR), 454-pyrosequencing, and a high-throughput functional gene array (GeoChip) were used to reveal the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and archaeal amoA (Arch-amoA) genes in three wastewater treatment systems receiving spiramycin or oxytetracycline production wastewaters. The qPCR results revealed that the copy number ratios of Arch-amoA to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA genes were the highest in the spiramycin full-scale (5.30) and pilot-scale systems (1.49 × 10(-1)), followed by the oxytetracycline system (4.90 × 10(-4)), with no Arch-amoA genes detected in the control systems treating sewage or inosine production wastewater. The pyrosequencing result showed that the relative abundance of AOA affiliated with Thaumarchaeota accounted for 78.5-99.6% of total archaea in the two spiramycin systems, which was in accordance with the qPCR results. Mantel test based on GeoChip data showed that Arch-amoA gene signal intensity correlated with the presence of spiramycin (P < 0.05). Antibiotics explained 25.8% of variations in amoA functional gene structures by variance partitioning analysis. This study revealed the selection of AOA in the presence of high concentrations of spiramycin in activated sludge systems.

  17. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Marta Almeida, S.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  18. Enrichment of Thermophilic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from an Alkaline Hot Spring in the Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, H.; Wiegel, J.; Li, W.; Dong, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the major advances in the nitrogen cycle is the recent discovery of ammonia oxidation by archaea. While culture-independent studies have revealed occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nearly every surface niche on earth, most of these microorganisms have resisted isolation and so far only a few species have been identified. The Great Basin contains numerous hot springs, which are characterized by moderately high temperature (40-65 degree C) and circumneutral or alkaline pH. Unique thermophilic archaea have been identified based on molecular DNA and lipid biomarkers; some of which may be ammonia oxidizers. This study aims to isolate some of these archaea from a California hot spring that has pH around 9.0 and temperature around 42 degree C. Mat material was collected from the spring and transported on ice to the laboratory. A synthetic medium (SCM-5) was inoculated with the mat material and the culture was incubated under varying temperature (35-65 degree C) and pH (7.0-10.0) conditions using antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Growth of the culture was monitored by microscopy, decrease in ammonium and increase in nitrite, and increases in Crenarchaeota and AOA abundances over time. Clone libraries were constructed to compare archaeal community structures before and after the enrichment experiment. Temperature and pH profiles indicated that the culture grew optimally at pH 9.0 and temperature 45 degree C, which are consistent with the geochemical conditions of the natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the final OTU was distantly related to all known hyperthermophilic archaea. Analysis of the amoA genes showed two OTUs in the final culture; one of them was closely related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis. However, the enrichment culture always contained bacteria and attempts to separate them from archaea have failed. This highlights the difficulty in bringing AOA into pure culture and suggests that some of the AOA may

  19. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  20. Putative ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in an acidic red soil with different land utilization patterns.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2010-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizers play a key role in nitrification, which is important for nitrogen cycling and soil function. However, little is known about how vegetation successions and agricultural practices caused by human activities impact the ammonia-oxidizers and nitrification process. Putative ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) communities under different land utilization patterns of restoration (forest), degradation (pasture), cropland and pine plantation were analysed in an acidic red soil based on bacterial and archaeal amoA genes together with archaeal 16S rRNA gene. Real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing of clone libraries were conducted to study their abundance and community structure. Land utilization pattern showed significant effects on the copy numbers of all these genes, but only the bacterial amoA gene correlated significantly with potential nitrification rates (PNR). The cropland plot possessed the highest bacterial amoA gene copies and PNR, while the degradation plot was opposite to that. There were no significant variations in the bacterial amoA gene structure, which was dominated by Clusters 10 and 11 in Nitrosospira. However, archaeal amoA gene structure varied among different land utilization patterns especially for the cropland. The degradation plot was dominated by Crenarchaea 1.1c-related groups from which the amoA gene could not been amplified in this study, while other plots were dominated by Crenarchaea 1.1a/b group based on archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis. These results indicated significant effects of land utilization patterns on putative ammonia oxidizers, which were especially obvious in the degradation and cropland plots where frequent human disturbance occurred.

  1. Abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea under long-term maize cropping systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification involves the oxidation of ammonium and is an important component of the overall N cycle. Nitrification occurs in two steps; first by oxidizing ammonium to nitrite, and then to nitrate. The first step is often the rate limiting step. Until recently ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were though...

  2. Dominance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community induced by land use change from Masson pine to eucalypt plantation in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Qiu; Pan, Wen; Gu, Ji-Dong; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Bao-Zhu; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yong-Feng

    2016-08-01

    A considerable proportion of Masson pine forests have been converted into eucalypt plantations in the last 30 years in Guangdong Province, subtropical China, for economic reasons, which may affect the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) community and the process of ammonia transformation. In order to determine the effects of forest conversion on AOA community, AOA communities in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) plantation and a eucalypt (Eucalyptus urophylla) plantation, which was converted from the Masson pine, were compared. Results showed that the land use change from the Masson pine to the eucalypt plantation decreased soil nutrient levels. A significant decrease of the potential nitrification rates (PNR) was also observed after the forest conversion (p < 5 %, n = 6). AOA were the only ammonia oxidizers in both plantations (no ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected). The detected AOA are affiliated with the genera Nitrosotalea and Nitrososphaera. A decrease of AOA abundance and an increase of the diversity were evident with the plantation conversion in the surface layer. AOA amoA gene diversity was negatively correlated with organic C and total N, respectively (p < 0.05, n = 12). AOA amoA gene abundance was negatively correlated with NH4 (+) and available P, respectively (p < 0.05, n = 12). However, AOA abundance was positively correlated with PNR, but not significantly (p < 0.05, n = 6), indicating AOA community change was only a partial reason for the decrease of PNR. PMID:27094186

  3. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation by soil thaumarchaea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Offre, Pierre R; He, Ji-Zheng; Verhamme, Daniel T; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

    2010-10-01

    Nitrification plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle and is responsible for significant losses of nitrogen fertilizer, atmospheric pollution by the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, and nitrate pollution of groundwaters. Ammonia oxidation, the first step in nitrification, was thought to be performed by autotrophic bacteria until the recent discovery of archaeal ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidizers have been cultivated from marine and thermal spring environments, but the relative importance of bacteria and archaea in soil nitrification is unclear and it is believed that soil archaeal ammonia oxidizers may use organic carbon, rather than growing autotrophically. In this soil microcosm study, stable isotope probing was used to demonstrate incorporation of (13)C-enriched carbon dioxide into the genomes of thaumarchaea possessing two functional genes: amoA, encoding a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that catalyses the first step in ammonia oxidation; and hcd, a key gene in the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, which has been found so far only in archaea. Nitrification was accompanied by increases in archaeal amoA gene abundance and changes in amoA gene diversity, but no change was observed in bacterial amoA genes. Archaeal, but not bacterial, amoA genes were also detected in (13)C-labeled DNA, demonstrating inorganic CO(2) fixation by archaeal, but not bacterial, ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidation was further supported by coordinate increases in amoA and hcd gene abundance in (13)C-labeled DNA. The results therefore provide direct evidence for a role for archaea in soil ammonia oxidation and demonstrate autotrophic growth of ammonia oxidizing archaea in soil.

  4. Links between ammonia oxidizer species composition, functional diversity and nitrification kinetics in grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gordon; Embley, T Martin; Freitag, Thomas E; Smith, Zena; Prosser, James I

    2005-05-01

    Molecular approaches have revealed considerable diversity and uncultured novelty in natural prokaryotic populations, but not direct links between the new genotypes detected and ecosystem processes. Here we describe the influence of the structure of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on nitrogen cycling in microcosms containing natural and managed grasslands and amended with artificial sheep urine, a major factor determining local ammonia concentrations in these environments. Nitrification kinetics were assessed by analysis of changes in urea, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations and ammonia oxidizer communities were characterized by analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified from extracted DNA using ammonia oxidizer-specific primers. In natural soils, ammonia oxidizer community structure determined the delay preceding nitrification, which depended on the relative abundance of two Nitrosospira clusters, termed 3a and 3b. In batch cultures, pure culture and enrichment culture representatives of Nitrosospira 3a were sensitive to high ammonia concentration, while Nitrosospira cluster 3b representatives and Nitrosomonas europaea were tolerant. Delays in nitrification occurred in natural soils dominated by Nitrosospira cluster 3a and resulted from the time required for growth of low concentrations of Nitrosospira cluster 3b. In microcosms dominated by Nitrosospira cluster 3b and Nitrosomonas, no substantial delays were observed. In managed soils, no delays in nitrification were detected, regardless of initial ammonia oxidizer community structure, most probably resulting from higher ammonia oxidizer cell concentrations. The data therefore demonstrate a direct link between bacterial community structure, physiological diversity and ecosystem function.

  5. amoA Gene abundances and nitrification potential rates suggest that benthic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and not Archaea dominate N cycling in the Colne Estuary, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Nedwell, David B; Beddow, Jessica; Dumbrell, Alex J; McKew, Boyd A; Thorpe, Emma L; Whitby, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, mediated by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), is important in global nitrogen cycling. In estuaries where gradients of salinity and ammonia concentrations occur, there may be differential selections for ammonia-oxidizer populations. The aim of this study was to examine the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB in surface oxic sediments of a highly nutrified estuary that exhibits gradients of salinity and ammonium. AOB and AOA communities were investigated by measuring ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene abundance and nitrification potentials both spatially and temporally. Nitrification potentials differed along the estuary and over time, with the greatest nitrification potentials occurring mid-estuary (8.2 μmol N grams dry weight [gdw](-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 37.4 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January). At the estuary head, the nitrification potential was 4.3 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 11.7 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January. At the estuary head and mouth, nitrification potentials fluctuated throughout the year. AOB amoA gene abundances were significantly greater (by 100-fold) than those of AOA both spatially and temporally. Nitrosomonas spp. were detected along the estuary by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band sequence analysis. In conclusion, AOB dominated over AOA in the estuarine sediments, with the ratio of AOB/AOA amoA gene abundance increasing from the upper (freshwater) to lower (marine) regions of the Colne estuary. These findings suggest that in this nutrified estuary, AOB (possibly Nitrosomonas spp.) were of major significance in nitrification.

  6. Low-ammonia niche of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in rotating biological contactors of a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Laura A; Peterse, Francien; Schouten, Stefan; Neufeld, Josh D

    2012-01-01

    The first step of nitrification is catalysed by both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), but physicochemical controls on the relative abundance and function of these two groups are not yet fully understood, especially in freshwater environments. This study investigated ammonia-oxidizing populations in nitrifying rotating biological contactors (RBCs) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Individual RBC stages are arranged in series, with nitrification at each stage creating an ammonia gradient along the flowpath. This RBC system provides a valuable experimental system for testing the hypothesis that ammonia concentration determines the relative abundance of AOA and AOB. The results demonstrate that AOA increased as ammonium decreased across the RBC flowpath, as indicated by qPCR for thaumarchaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes, and core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL) crenarchaeol abundances. Overall, there was a negative logarithmic relationship (R2 = 0.51) between ammonium concentration and the relative abundance of AOA amoA genes. A single AOA population was detected in the RBC biofilms; this phylotype shared low amoA and 16S rRNA gene homology with existing AOA cultures and enrichments. These results provide evidence that ammonia availability influences the relative abundances of AOA and AOB, and that AOA are abundant in some municipal wastewater treatment systems. PMID:22639927

  7. Growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in cattle manure compost under various temperatures and ammonia concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Ryu; Tada, Chika; Asano, Ryoki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    A recent study showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) coexist in the process of cattle manure composting. To investigate their physiological characteristics, liquid cultures seeded with fermenting cattle manure compost were incubated at various temperatures (37°C, 46°C, or 60°C) and ammonium concentrations (0.5, 1, 4, or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N). The growth rates of the AOB and AOA were monitored using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A genes. AOB grew at 37°C and 4 or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N, whereas AOA grew at 46°C and 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N. Incubation with allylthiourea indicated that the AOB and AOA grew by oxidizing ammonia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing analyses revealed that a bacterium related to Nitrosomonas halophila and an archaeon related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis were the predominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the seed compost and in cultures after incubation. This is the first report to demonstrate that the predominant AOA in cattle manure compost can grow and can probably oxidize ammonia under moderately thermophilic conditions.

  8. Evaluation of revised polymerase chain reaction primers for more inclusive quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Kelley A; Bertagnolli, Anthony; Pannu, Manmeet W; Strand, Stuart E; Brown, Sally L; Stahl, David A

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) fill key roles in the nitrogen cycle. Thus, well-vetted methods for characterizing their distribution are essential for framing studies of their significance in natural and managed systems. Quantification of the gene coding for one subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) by polymerase chain reaction is frequently employed to enumerate the two groups. However, variable amplification of sequence variants comprising this conserved genetic marker for ammonia oxidizers potentially compromises within- and between-system comparisons. We compared the performance of newly designed non-degenerate quantitative polymerase chain reaction primer sets to existing primer sets commonly used to quantify the amoA of AOA and AOB using a collection of plasmids and soil DNA samples. The new AOA primer set provided improved quantification of model mixtures of different amoA sequence variants and increased detection of amoA in DNA recovered from soils. Although both primer sets for the AOB provided similar results for many comparisons, the new primers demonstrated increased detection in environmental application. Thus, the new primer sets should provide a useful complement to primers now commonly used to characterize the environmental distribution of AOA and AOB.

  9. High abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in coastal waters, determined using a modified DNA extraction method.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Stahl, David A

    2010-04-01

    Molecular characterizations of environmental microbial populations based on recovery and analysis of DNA generally assume efficient or unbiased extraction of DNA from different sample matrices and microbial groups. Appropriate controls to verify this basic assumption are rarely included. Here three different DNA extractions, performed with two commercial kits (FastDNA and UltraClean) and a standard phenol-chloroform method, and two alternative filtration methods (Sterivex and 25-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters) were evaluated, using the addition of Nitrosopumilus maritimus cells to track the recovery of DNA from marine Archaea. After the comparison, a simplified phenol-chloroform extraction method was developed and shown to be significantly superior, in terms of both the recovery and the purity of DNA, to other protocols now generally applied to environmental studies. The simplified and optimized method was used to quantify ammonia-oxidizing Archaea at different depth intervals in a fjord (Hood Canal) by quantitative PCR. The numbers of Archaea increased with depth, often constituting as much as 20% of the total bacterial community. PMID:20118363

  10. The ecological dichotomy of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the hyper-arid soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Catarina M.; Machado, Ana; Frank-Fahle, Béatrice; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are considered to be one of the most physically and chemically extreme terrestrial environments on the Earth. However, little is known about the organisms involved in nitrogen transformations in these environments. In this study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in four McMurdo Dry Valleys with highly variable soil geochemical properties and climatic conditions: Miers Valley, Upper Wright Valley, Beacon Valley and Battleship Promontory. The bacterial communities of these four Dry Valleys have been examined previously, and the results suggested that the extremely localized bacterial diversities are likely driven by the disparate physicochemical conditions associated with these locations. Here we showed that AOB and AOA amoA gene diversity was generally low; only four AOA and three AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from a total of 420 AOA and AOB amoA clones. Quantitative PCR analysis of amoA genes revealed clear differences in the relative abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes among samples from the four dry valleys. Although AOB amoA gene dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in soils from Miers Valley and Battleship Promontory, AOA amoA gene were more abundant in samples from Upper Wright and Beacon Valleys, where the environmental conditions are considerably harsher (e.g., extremely low soil C/N ratios and much higher soil electrical conductivity). Correlations between environmental variables and amoA genes copy numbers, as examined by redundancy analysis (RDA), revealed that higher AOA/AOB ratios were closely related to soils with high salts and Cu contents and low pH. Our findings hint at a dichotomized distribution of AOA and AOB within the Dry Valleys, potentially driven by environmental constraints. PMID:25324835

  11. The ecological dichotomy of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the hyper-arid soils of the Antarctic Dry Valleys.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Catarina M; Machado, Ana; Frank-Fahle, Béatrice; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig

    2014-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are considered to be one of the most physically and chemically extreme terrestrial environments on the Earth. However, little is known about the organisms involved in nitrogen transformations in these environments. In this study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in four McMurdo Dry Valleys with highly variable soil geochemical properties and climatic conditions: Miers Valley, Upper Wright Valley, Beacon Valley and Battleship Promontory. The bacterial communities of these four Dry Valleys have been examined previously, and the results suggested that the extremely localized bacterial diversities are likely driven by the disparate physicochemical conditions associated with these locations. Here we showed that AOB and AOA amoA gene diversity was generally low; only four AOA and three AOB operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from a total of 420 AOA and AOB amoA clones. Quantitative PCR analysis of amoA genes revealed clear differences in the relative abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes among samples from the four dry valleys. Although AOB amoA gene dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in soils from Miers Valley and Battleship Promontory, AOA amoA gene were more abundant in samples from Upper Wright and Beacon Valleys, where the environmental conditions are considerably harsher (e.g., extremely low soil C/N ratios and much higher soil electrical conductivity). Correlations between environmental variables and amoA genes copy numbers, as examined by redundancy analysis (RDA), revealed that higher AOA/AOB ratios were closely related to soils with high salts and Cu contents and low pH. Our findings hint at a dichotomized distribution of AOA and AOB within the Dry Valleys, potentially driven by environmental constraints.

  12. Diversity, Abundance, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Mud Deposits of the Eastern China Marginal Seas

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shaolan; Yao, Peng; Liu, Jiwen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Guiling; Zhao, Meixun; Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The eastern China marginal seas (ECMS) are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia, and silicate (SiO32-), was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ15NTN and SiO32-, and nitrate and δ13C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO32-. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits. PMID:26904010

  13. Diversity, Abundance, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Mud Deposits of the Eastern China Marginal Seas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaolan; Yao, Peng; Liu, Jiwen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Guiling; Zhao, Meixun; Yu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The eastern China marginal seas (ECMS) are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia, and silicate (SiO[Formula: see text]), was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ(15)NTN and SiO[Formula: see text], and nitrate and δ(13)C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO[Formula: see text]. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits.

  14. Distinct Responses in Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria after Addition of Biosolids to an Agricultural Soil▿

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John J.; Policht, Katherine; Grancharova, Tanya; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been suggested as contributors to the first step of nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, a role that was previously assigned exclusively to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The current study assessed the effects of agricultural management, specifically amendment of soil with biosolids or synthetic fertilizer, on nitrification rates and copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Anaerobically digested biosolids or synthetic fertilizer was applied annually for three consecutive years to field plots used for corn production. Biosolids were applied at two loading rates, a typical agronomic rate (27 Mg hectare−1 year−1) and double the agronomic rate (54 Mg hectare−1 year−1), while synthetic fertilizer was applied at an agronomic rate typical for the region (291 kg N hectare−1 year−1). Both biosolids amendments and synthetic fertilizer increased soil N and corn yield, but only the biosolids amendments resulted in significant increases in nitrification rates and increases in the copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. In addition, only archaeal amoA gene copy numbers increased in response to biosolids applied at the typical agronomic rate and showed a significant correlation with nitrification rates. Finally, copy numbers of archaeal amoA genes were significantly higher than copy numbers of bacterial amoA genes for all treatments. These results implicate AOA as being primarily responsible for the increased nitrification observed in an agricultural soil amended with biosolids. These results also support the hypothesis that physiological differences between AOA and AOB may enable them to occupy distinct ecological niches. PMID:21803892

  15. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Angela; Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists; however, their distributions are rarely determined in tandem. Here we have examined the vertical distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria through the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one of the most intense and vertically exaggerated OMZs in the global ocean, using a unique combination of intact polar lipid (IPL) and gene-based analyses, at both DNA and RNA levels. To screen for AOA-specific IPLs, we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method targeting hexose-phosphohexose (HPH) crenarchaeol, a common IPL of cultivated AOA. HPH-crenarchaeol showed highest abundances in the upper OMZ transition zone at oxygen concentrations of ca. 5  μM, coincident with peaks in both thaumarchaeotal 16S rDNA and amoA gene abundances and gene expression. In contrast, concentrations of anammox-specific IPLs peaked within the core of the OMZ at 600  m, where oxygen reached the lowest concentrations, and coincided with peak anammox 16S rDNA and the hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene abundances and their expression. Taken together, the data reveal a unique depth distribution of abundant AOA and anammox bacteria and the segregation of their respective niches by >400  m, suggesting no direct coupling of their metabolisms at the time and site of sampling in the Arabian Sea OMZ.

  16. Effects of bioaugmentation in para-nitrophenol-contaminated soil on the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiang-Qun; Liu, Kun; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3 mineralizes the priority pollutant para-nitrophenol (PNP) and releases nitrite (NO2 (-)), which is probably involved in the nitrification. In this study, the rate of PNP removal in soil bioaugmented with strain WBC-3 was more accelerated with more NO2 (-) accumulation than in uninoculated soils. Strain WBC-3 survived well and remained stable throughout the entire period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) indicated a higher abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) than ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), suggesting that AOB played a greater role in nitrification in the original sampled soil. Real-time PCR and multivariate analysis based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that PNP contamination did not significantly alter the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers except for inhibiting the AOB abundance. Bioaugmentation of PNP-contaminated soil showed a significant effect on AOB populations and community structure as well as AOA populations. In addition, ammonium (NH4 (+)) variation was found to be the primary factor affecting the AOB community structure, as determined by the correlation between the community structures of ammonia oxidizers and environmental factors. It is here proposed that the balance between archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation could be influenced significantly by the variation in NH4 (+) levels as caused by bioaugmentation of contaminated soil by a pollutant containing nitrogen.

  17. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hungate, Bruce A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2011-08-01

    Many thermophiles catalyse free energy-yielding redox reactions involving nitrogenous compounds; however, little is known about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in source water and sediments of two ≈ 80°C springs in the US Great Basin. Ammonia oxidation and denitrification occurred mainly in sediments. Ammonia oxidation rates measured using (15)N-NO(3)(-) pool dilution ranged from 5.5 ± 0.8 to 8.6 ± 0.9 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were unaffected or only mildly stimulated by amendment with NH(4) Cl. Denitrification rates measured using acetylene block ranged from 15.8 ± 0.7 to 51 ± 12 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were stimulated by amendment with NO(3)(-) and complex organic compounds. The DNRA rate in one spring sediment measured using an (15)N-NO(3)(-) tracer was 315 ± 48 nmol N g(-1) h(-1). Both springs harboured distinct planktonic and sediment microbial communities. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that 'Ca. N. yellowstonii'amoA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 3.5-3.9 × 10(8) and 6.4-9.0 × 10(8) copies g(-1) sediment. Potential denitrifiers included members of the Aquificales and Thermales. Thermus spp. comprised <1% of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags in both sediments and qPCR for T. thermophilus narG revealed sediment populations of 1.3-1.7 × 10(6) copies g(-1) sediment. These data indicate a highly active nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) in these springs and suggest that ammonia oxidation may be a major source of energy fuelling primary production.

  18. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Hungate, Bruce A; Hedlund, Brian P

    2011-08-01

    Many thermophiles catalyse free energy-yielding redox reactions involving nitrogenous compounds; however, little is known about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were measured in source water and sediments of two ≈ 80°C springs in the US Great Basin. Ammonia oxidation and denitrification occurred mainly in sediments. Ammonia oxidation rates measured using (15)N-NO(3)(-) pool dilution ranged from 5.5 ± 0.8 to 8.6 ± 0.9 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were unaffected or only mildly stimulated by amendment with NH(4) Cl. Denitrification rates measured using acetylene block ranged from 15.8 ± 0.7 to 51 ± 12 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) and were stimulated by amendment with NO(3)(-) and complex organic compounds. The DNRA rate in one spring sediment measured using an (15)N-NO(3)(-) tracer was 315 ± 48 nmol N g(-1) h(-1). Both springs harboured distinct planktonic and sediment microbial communities. Close relatives of the autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii' represented the most abundant OTU in both spring sediments by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that 'Ca. N. yellowstonii'amoA and 16S rRNA genes were present at 3.5-3.9 × 10(8) and 6.4-9.0 × 10(8) copies g(-1) sediment. Potential denitrifiers included members of the Aquificales and Thermales. Thermus spp. comprised <1% of 16S rRNA gene pyrotags in both sediments and qPCR for T. thermophilus narG revealed sediment populations of 1.3-1.7 × 10(6) copies g(-1) sediment. These data indicate a highly active nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) in these springs and suggest that ammonia oxidation may be a major source of energy fuelling primary production. PMID:21631688

  19. Spatial distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea abundance in subtropical forests at early and late successional stages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Lian, Juyu; Ye, Wanhui; Shen, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms is helpful in understanding the biogeochemical processes they perform, but has been less studied relative to those of macroorganisms. In this study, we investigated and compared the spatially explicit distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance and the influential factors between an early (ES) and a late successional (LS) subtropical forest stand. The average AOA abundance, vegetational attributes, and soil nutrient contents were mostly greater in the LS than the ES stand (P = 0.085 or smaller), but their spatial variations were more pronounced in the ES than the LS stand. The spatial distribution patches of AOA abundance were smaller and more irregular in the ES stand (patch size <50 m) than in the LS stand (patch size about 120 m). Edaphic and vegetational variables contributed more to the spatial variations of AOA abundance for the ES (9.3%) stand than for LS stand, whereas spatial variables (MEMs) were the main contributors (62%) for the LS stand. These results suggest that environmental filtering likely influence the spatial distribution of AOA abundance at early successional stage more than that at late successional stage, while spatial dispersal is dominant at late successional stage. PMID:26565069

  20. Spatial distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea abundance in subtropical forests at early and late successional stages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Lian, Juyu; Ye, Wanhui; Shen, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the spatial distribution patterns of soil microorganisms is helpful in understanding the biogeochemical processes they perform, but has been less studied relative to those of macroorganisms. In this study, we investigated and compared the spatially explicit distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) abundance and the influential factors between an early (ES) and a late successional (LS) subtropical forest stand. The average AOA abundance, vegetational attributes, and soil nutrient contents were mostly greater in the LS than the ES stand (P = 0.085 or smaller), but their spatial variations were more pronounced in the ES than the LS stand. The spatial distribution patches of AOA abundance were smaller and more irregular in the ES stand (patch size <50 m) than in the LS stand (patch size about 120 m). Edaphic and vegetational variables contributed more to the spatial variations of AOA abundance for the ES (9.3%) stand than for LS stand, whereas spatial variables (MEMs) were the main contributors (62%) for the LS stand. These results suggest that environmental filtering likely influence the spatial distribution of AOA abundance at early successional stage more than that at late successional stage, while spatial dispersal is dominant at late successional stage.

  1. Vascular plants mediate the effects of aridity and soil properties on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Gallardo, Antonio; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Maestre, Fernando T

    2013-08-01

    An integrated perspective of the most important factors driving the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in natural ecosystems is lacking, especially in drylands. We evaluated how different climatic, abiotic, and nutrient-related factors determine AOA and AOB abundance in bare and vegetated microsites from grasslands throughout the Mediterranean Basin. We found a strong negative relationship between the abundance of AOA genes and soil fertility (availability of C, N, and P). Aridity and other abiotic factors (pH, sand content, and electrical conductivity) were more important than soil fertility in modulating the AOA/AOB ratio. AOB were more abundant under vegetated microsites, while AOA, highly resistant to stressful conditions, were more abundant in bare ground areas. These results suggest that AOA may carry out nitrification in less fertile microsites, while AOB predominate under more fertile conditions. Our results indicate that the influence of aridity and pH on the relative dominance of AOA and AOB genes is ultimately determined by local-scale environmental changes promoted by perennial vegetation. Thus, in spatially heterogeneous ecosystems such as drylands, there is a mutual exclusion and niche division between these microorganisms, suggesting that they may be functionally complementary. PMID:23550964

  2. Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea from surface and anoxic depths of oceanic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuefeng; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been reported at high abundance in much of the global ocean, even in environments, such as pelagic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where conditions seem unlikely to support aerobic ammonium oxidation. Due to the lack of information on any potential alternative metabolism of AOA, the AOA community composition might be expected to differ between oxic and anoxic environments. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating AOA community composition using a functional gene microarray that targets the ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA). The relationship between environmental parameters and the biogeography of the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) AOA assemblages was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). In both the Arabian Sea and the ETSP, AOA communities within the core of the OMZ were not significantly different from those inhabiting the oxygenated surface waters above the OMZ. The AOA communities in the Arabian Sea were significantly different from those in the ETSP. In both oceans, the abundance of archaeal amoA gene in the core of the OMZ was higher than that in the surface waters. Our results indicate that AOA communities are distinguished by their geographic origin. RDA suggested that temperature (higher in the Arabian Sea than in the ETSP) was the main factor that correlated with the differences between the AOA communities. Physicochemical properties that characterized the different environments of the OMZ and surface waters played a less important role, than did geography, in shaping the AOA community composition.

  3. Diversity and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeal Nitrite Reductase (nirK) Genes in Estuarine Sediments of San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reji, L.; Lee, J. A.; Damashek, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrification, the microbially-mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an integral component of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation, is carried out by two distinct microbial groups: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Molecular ecological studies targeting the amoA gene have revealed the abundance and ubiquity of AOA in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. In addition to the ammonia oxidation machinery that includes the amoA gene, AOA also encode a gene for copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK). The distribution patterns and functional role of nirK in AOA remain mostly unknown; proposed functions include the indirect involvement in ammonia oxidation through the production of nitric oxide during nitrite reduction, and (2) nitrite detoxification. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing approaches. In sediment samples collected from the San Francisco Bay estuary, two archaeal nirK variants (AnirKa and AnirKb) were amplified using specific primer sets. Overall, AnirKa was observed to be significantly more abundant than AnirKb in the sediment samples, with variation in relative abundance spanning two to three orders of magnitude between sampling sites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a number of unique archaeal nirK sequence types, as well as many that clustered with sequences from previous estuarine studies and cultured AOA isolates, such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus. This study yielded new insights into the diversity and abundance of archaeal nirK genes in estuarine sediments, and highlights the importance of further investigating the physiological role of this gene in AOA, as well as its suitability as a marker gene for studying AOA in the environment.

  4. Combined Flux Chamber and Genomics Approach Links Nitrous Acid Emissions to Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Urban and Agricultural Soil.

    PubMed

    Scharko, Nicole K; Schütte, Ursel M E; Berke, Andrew E; Banina, Lauren; Peel, Hannah R; Donaldson, Melissa A; Hemmerich, Chris; White, Jeffrey R; Raff, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a photochemical source of hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide in the atmosphere that stems from abiotic and biogenic processes, including the activity of ammonia-oxidizing soil microbes. HONO fluxes were measured from agricultural and urban soil in mesocosm studies aimed at characterizing biogenic sources and linking them to indigenous microbial consortia. Fluxes of HONO from agricultural and urban soil were suppressed by addition of a nitrification inhibitor and enhanced by amendment with ammonium (NH4(+)), with peaks at 19 and 8 ng m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In addition, both agricultural and urban soils were observed to convert (15)NH4(+) to HO(15)NO. Genomic surveys of soil samples revealed that 1.5-6% of total expressed 16S rRNA sequences detected belonged to known ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Peak fluxes of HONO were directly related to the abundance of ammonia-oxidizer sequences, which in turn depended on soil pH. Peak HONO fluxes under fertilized conditions are comparable in magnitude to fluxes reported during field campaigns. The results suggest that biogenic HONO emissions will be important in soil environments that exhibit high nitrification rates (e.g., agricultural soil) although the widespread occurrence of ammonia oxidizers implies that biogenic HONO emissions are also possible in the urban and remote environment.

  5. Community structure and distribution of planktonic ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in the Dongjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Wang, Aijie

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are widely distributed in the natural environment and play crucial roles in the nitrification process and the removal of nitrogen (N). Although planktonic microbial community plays an important role in river biogeochemical cycles, few studies have attempted to address the characteristics of AOA and AOB in the water column of river ecosystems. This study examined the community structures, distributions and abundance of planktonic AOA and AOB in the Dongjiang River and their responses to the changes in environmental parameters through quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of ammonia mono-oxygenase (amoA). The abundance ratio of AOB to AOA varied from 0.07 to 9.4 along the river and was positively correlated with the concentration of ammonium. Significantly positive correlations were observed between the abundance of AOB and potential nitrification rates, which suggested that the contribution of AOB to nitrification was greater than that of AOA in the river. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AOA communities could be divided into three branches of Thaumarchaeota: Group 1.1a, Group 1.1a associated and Group 1.1b, with most sequences belonging to Group 1.1a. All AOB sequences fell within Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira species, and the majority of sequences were affiliated with the latter. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated that the community distributions of AOA and AOB were significantly correlated with the concentrations of nitrate and total suspended solids, respectively. These findings fundamentally improved our understanding of the role of planktonic AOA and AOB in nitrogen cycling and their responses to changes in environmental factors in the river ecosystem.

  6. Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea from surface and anoxic depths of oceanic oxygen minimum zones

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuefeng; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been reported at high abundance in much of the global ocean, even in environments, such as pelagic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where conditions seem unlikely to support aerobic ammonium oxidation. Due to the lack of information on any potential alternative metabolism of AOA, the AOA community composition might be expected to differ between oxic and anoxic environments. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating AOA community composition using a functional gene microarray that targets the ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA). The relationship between environmental parameters and the biogeography of the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) AOA assemblages was investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). In both the Arabian Sea and the ETSP, AOA communities within the core of the OMZ were not significantly different from those inhabiting the oxygenated surface waters above the OMZ. The AOA communities in the Arabian Sea were significantly different from those in the ETSP. In both oceans, the abundance of archaeal amoA gene in the core of the OMZ was higher than that in the surface waters. Our results indicate that AOA communities are distinguished by their geographic origin. RDA suggested that temperature (higher in the Arabian Sea than in the ETSP) was the main factor that correlated with the differences between the AOA communities. Physicochemical properties that characterized the different environments of the OMZ and surface waters played a less important role, than did geography, in shaping the AOA community composition. PMID:23847601

  7. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge.

  8. Effects of oxygenation on ammonia oxidation potential and microbial diversity in sediment from surface-flow wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer G; Beutel, Marc W; Call, Douglas R; Fischer, Allison M

    2010-02-01

    Addition of oxygen to surface-flow wetland mesocosms treating synthetic secondary effluent resulted in a significant increase in ammonia oxidation potential in sediment compared to non-oxygenated controls. Ammonia oxidation potential in oxygenated wetland sediment (1.2-3.5 mg N g dw(-1) d(-1)) was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those measured in sediment and soil systems reported in the literature. Phylogenic analysis of sediment from the two treatments revealed substantial differences in microbial diversity including the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas oligotropha) and denitrifying bacteria only in oxygenated sediment, and an increase in the diversity of aerobic phototrophs and methanotrophs in control sediment. These observations supported the contention by Palmer et al. (2009) that oxygenation 'activated' nitrifying bacteria in wetland sediment leading to high rates of biological ammonia oxidation.

  9. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M; Hozalski, Raymond M; Sadowksy, Michael J; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; <0.07%) and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were detected in the profiles. Quantitative PCR of amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB. PMID:26209671

  10. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M.; Hozalski, Raymond M.; Sadowksy, Michael J.; Hamilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; <0.07%) and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were detected in the profiles. Quantitative PCR of amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB. PMID:26209671

  11. The Bacterial Communities of Full-Scale Biologically Active, Granular Activated Carbon Filters Are Stable and Diverse and Potentially Contain Novel Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Hope Wilkinson, Katheryn; Strait, Jacqueline M; Hozalski, Raymond M; Sadowksy, Michael J; Hamilton, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial community composition of the full-scale biologically active, granular activated carbon (BAC) filters operated at the St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) was investigated using Illumina MiSeq analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. These bacterial communities were consistently diverse (Shannon index, >4.4; richness estimates, >1,500 unique operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) throughout the duration of the 12-month study period. In addition, only modest shifts in the quantities of individual bacterial populations were observed; of the 15 most prominent OTUs, the most highly variable population (a Variovorax sp.) modulated less than 13-fold over time and less than 8-fold from filter to filter. The most prominent population in the profiles was a Nitrospira sp., representing 13 to 21% of the community. Interestingly, very few of the known ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB; <0.07%) and no ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were detected in the profiles. Quantitative PCR of amoA genes, however, suggested that AOB were prominent in the bacterial communities (amoA/16S rRNA gene ratio, 1 to 10%). We conclude, therefore, that the BAC filters at the SPRWS potentially contained significant numbers of unidentified and novel ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms that possess amoA genes similar to those of previously described AOB.

  12. Responses of soil hydrolytic enzymes, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to nitrogen applications in a temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Yuqian; Shi, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Qiang; Zheng, Chunyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    We used a seven-year urea gradient applied field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) applications on soil N hydrolytic enzyme activity and ammonia-oxidizing microbial abundance in a typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that N additions inhibited the soil N-related hydrolytic enzyme activities, especially in 392 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1) treatment. As N additions increased, the amoA gene copy ratios of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) decreased from 1.13 to 0.65. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AOA gene copies were negatively related with NH4(+)-N content. However, the AOB gene copies were positively correlated with NO3(-)-N content. Moderate N application rates (56-224 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1)) accompanied by P additions are beneficial to maintaining the abundance of AOB, as opposed to the inhibition of highest N application rate (392 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1)) on the abundance of AOB. This study suggests that the abundance of AOB and AOA would not decrease unless N applications exceed 224 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1) in temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia. PMID:27596731

  13. Responses of soil hydrolytic enzymes, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to nitrogen applications in a temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Yuqian; Shi, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Qiang; Zheng, Chunyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen

    2016-09-01

    We used a seven-year urea gradient applied field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) applications on soil N hydrolytic enzyme activity and ammonia-oxidizing microbial abundance in a typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that N additions inhibited the soil N-related hydrolytic enzyme activities, especially in 392 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 treatment. As N additions increased, the amoA gene copy ratios of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) decreased from 1.13 to 0.65. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AOA gene copies were negatively related with NH4+-N content. However, the AOB gene copies were positively correlated with NO3‑-N content. Moderate N application rates (56–224 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1) accompanied by P additions are beneficial to maintaining the abundance of AOB, as opposed to the inhibition of highest N application rate (392 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1) on the abundance of AOB. This study suggests that the abundance of AOB and AOA would not decrease unless N applications exceed 224 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1 in temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia.

  14. Responses of soil hydrolytic enzymes, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to nitrogen applications in a temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Yuqian; Shi, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Qiang; Zheng, Chunyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen

    2016-09-06

    We used a seven-year urea gradient applied field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) applications on soil N hydrolytic enzyme activity and ammonia-oxidizing microbial abundance in a typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that N additions inhibited the soil N-related hydrolytic enzyme activities, especially in 392 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1) treatment. As N additions increased, the amoA gene copy ratios of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) decreased from 1.13 to 0.65. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AOA gene copies were negatively related with NH4(+)-N content. However, the AOB gene copies were positively correlated with NO3(-)-N content. Moderate N application rates (56-224 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1)) accompanied by P additions are beneficial to maintaining the abundance of AOB, as opposed to the inhibition of highest N application rate (392 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1)) on the abundance of AOB. This study suggests that the abundance of AOB and AOA would not decrease unless N applications exceed 224 kg N ha(-1 )yr(-1) in temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia.

  15. Responses of soil hydrolytic enzymes, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to nitrogen applications in a temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Tang, Yuqian; Shi, Yao; He, Nianpeng; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Qiang; Zheng, Chunyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    We used a seven-year urea gradient applied field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) applications on soil N hydrolytic enzyme activity and ammonia-oxidizing microbial abundance in a typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that N additions inhibited the soil N-related hydrolytic enzyme activities, especially in 392 kg N ha−1 yr−1 treatment. As N additions increased, the amoA gene copy ratios of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) decreased from 1.13 to 0.65. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the AOA gene copies were negatively related with NH4+-N content. However, the AOB gene copies were positively correlated with NO3−-N content. Moderate N application rates (56–224 kg N ha−1 yr−1) accompanied by P additions are beneficial to maintaining the abundance of AOB, as opposed to the inhibition of highest N application rate (392 kg N ha−1 yr−1) on the abundance of AOB. This study suggests that the abundance of AOB and AOA would not decrease unless N applications exceed 224 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia. PMID:27596731

  16. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in wastewater treatment plant sludge and nearby coastal sediment in an industrial area in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Wen, Donghui

    2015-05-01

    Under the increasing pressure of human activities, Hangzhou Bay has become one of the most seriously polluted waters along China's coast. Considering the excessive inorganic nitrogen detected in the bay, in this study, the impact of an effluent from a coastal industrial park on ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) of the receiving area was interpreted for the first time by molecular technologies. Revealed by real-time PCR, the ratio of archaeal amoA/bacterial amoA ranged from 5.68 × 10(-6) to 4.79 × 10(-5) in the activated sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 0.54-3.44 in the sediments from the effluent receiving coastal area. Analyzed by clone and pyrosequencing libraries, genus Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), but no ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was abundant enough for sequencing in the activated sludge from the WWTPs; genus Nitrosomonas and Nitrosopumilus were the dominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the coastal sediments. The different abundance of AOA but similar structure of AOB between the WWTPs and nearby coastal area probably indicated an anthropogenic impact on the microbial ecology in Hangzhou Bay.

  17. Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Patrick M; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Webster, Nicole; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    Ascidians are ecologically important components of marine ecosystems yet the ascidian microbiota remains largely unexplored beyond a few model species. We used 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive characterization of microbial symbionts in the tunic of 42 Great Barrier Reef ascidian samples representing 25 species. Results revealed high bacterial biodiversity (3 217 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU0.03) from 19 described and 14 candidate phyla) and the widespread occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in coral reef ascidians (24 of 25 host species). The ascidian microbiota was clearly differentiated from seawater microbial communities and included symbiont lineages shared with other invertebrate hosts as well as unique, ascidian-specific phylotypes. Several rare seawater microbes were markedly enriched (200-700 fold) in the ascidian tunic, suggesting that the rare biosphere of seawater may act as a conduit for horizontal symbiont transfer. However, most OTUs (71%) were rare and specific to single hosts and a significant correlation between host relatedness and symbiont community similarity was detected, indicating a high degree of host-specificity and potential role of vertical transmission in structuring these communities. We hypothesize that the complex ascidian microbiota revealed herein is maintained by the dynamic microenvironments within the ascidian tunic, offering optimal conditions for different metabolic pathways such as ample chemical substrate (ammonia-rich host waste) and physical habitat (high oxygen, low irradiance) for nitrification. Thus, ascidian hosts provide unique and fertile niches for diverse microorganisms and may represent an important and previously unrecognized habitat for nitrite/nitrate regeneration in coral reef ecosystems.

  18. Quantitative analyses of the composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in eight full-scale biological wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Luo, Xin; Wu, Gui-Xia; Li, Ting; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB amoA genes in eight full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Although the process principles and system operations of the eight WWTPs were different, quantitative real-time PCR measurements showed that AOB amoA genes outnumbered AOA amoA genes with the ratio varying from 2.56 to 2.41×10(3), and ammonia may be partially oxidized by AOA. Phylogenetic analyses based on cloning and sequencing showed that Nitrososphaera cluster was the most dominant AOA species and might be distributed worldwide, and Nitrosopumilis cluster was few. Statistical analysis indicated that there might be versatile AOA ecotypes and some AOA might be not obligate autotrophic. The Nitrosomonas europaea cluster and Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster were the two most dominant AOB species, and AOB species showed higher diversity than AOA species.

  19. Mathematical modeling of competition for ammonium among Bacteria, Archaea and cyanobacteria within cyanobacterial mats: Can ammonia-oxidizers force nitrogen fixation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyett, Matthew R.; Tavakkoli, Alireza; Sobolev, Dmitri

    2013-09-01

    Molecular analysis of cyanobacterial mat communities indicated that cyanobacteria, ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) coexist in those systems, competing for ammonium; this situation would imply competitive exclusion. We attempted to model how ammonia utilization niche partitioning occurs, and how ammonium levels can influence the interaction between those groups in a one-dimensional diffusionlimited system using Michaelis-Menten kinetics to describe ammonium consumption by each of those three groups. In our model, AOAs were able to dominate ammonium uptake by the community under most circumstances, except for unrealistically high (millimolar) levels of ammonium, where AOBs gained advantage. Cyanobacteria were unable to effectively compete for ammonium with either AOBs or AOAs throughout the mat at all ammonium concentrations and cell counts, suggesting that the presence of AOAs or AOBs forces cyanobacteria into nitrogen fixation mode. Such interaction can make cyanobacterial mats a net nitrogen source, as well as provide a carbon-independent energy transfer pathway from primary producers to the rest of the ecosystem.

  20. Identification and quantification of bacteria and archaea responsible for ammonia oxidation in different activated sludge of full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Sinthusith, Nutpornnapat; Terada, Akihiko; Hahn, Martha; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Figueroa, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the abundance and sequences of the amoA gene in ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) were defined in three wastewater treatment plants using activated sludge with biological nitrogen removal in different countries: Thailand, United States of America (USA), and Japan. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to find the comparative abundance and identity of AOB and AOA. The conditions at the Phuket WWTP in Thailand promoted the dominance of AOA amoA genes over AOB amoA genes, while conditions at the WWTPs in Japan and USA promoted growth of AOB. Three parameters that may have contributed to the AOA dominance in Phuket were longer SRT, higher temperature, and higher pH. The Phuket WWTP is a unique system that can be used to better understand the conditions that promote AOA growth and dominance over AOB. In addition, analysis of operational data in conjunction with AOA and AOB community structure from the Phuket WWTP may elucidate advantages of AOA in meeting stricter treatment standards.

  1. Temporal and spatial distributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria and their ratio as an indicator of oligotrophic conditions in natural wetlands.

    PubMed

    Sims, Atreyee; Horton, John; Gajaraj, Shashikanth; McIntosh, Steve; Miles, Randall J; Mueller, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing organisms play an important role in wetland water purification and nitrogen cycling. We determined soil nitrification rates and investigated the seasonal and spatial distributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in three freshwater wetlands by using specific primers targeting the amoA genes of AOA and AOB and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The nitrifying potentials of wetland soils ranged from 1.4 to 4.0 μg g(-1) day(-1). The specific rates of ammonia oxidation activity by AOA and AOB at the Bee Hollow wetlands were 1.9 fmol NH(3) cell(-1) day(-1) and 36.8 fmol NH(3) cell(-1) day(-1), respectively. Soil nitrification potential was positively correlated with both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance. However, the gene copies of AOA amoA were higher than those of AOB amoA by at least an order of magnitude in wetland soils and water in both summer and winter over a three year study period. AOB were more sensitive to low temperature than AOA. The amoA gene copy ratios of AOA to AOB in top soils (0-10 cm) ranged from 19 ± 4 to 100 ± 11 among the wetland sites. In contrast, the ratio of the wetland boundary soil was 10 ± 2, which was significantly lower than that of the wetland soils (P < 0.001). The NH(4)(+)-N concentrations in wetland water were lower than 2 mg/L throughout the study. The results suggest that ammonium concentration is a major factor influencing AOA and AOB population in wetlands, although other factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, and soil organic matter are involved. AOA are more persistent and more abundant than AOB in the nutrient-depleted oligotrophic wetlands. Therefore, ratio of AOA amoA gene copies to AOB amoA gene copies may serve as a new biological indicator for wetland condition assessment and wetland restoration applications.

  2. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB. PMID:27356769

  3. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB. PMID:27356769

  4. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB.

  5. Quantitative and compositional responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term field fertilization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia-oxidizer responses to long-term field fertilization in a Mollisol soil were assessed through pyrosequencing of amoA genes. Long-term fertilization treatments including chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM), and no fertilization over 23 years altered soil properties resulting in significant shifts in AOA and AOB community composition and abundance. NPK exhibited a strong influence on AOA and AOB composition while the addition of manure neutralized the community change induced by NPK. NPK also led to significant soil acidification and enrichment of Nitrosotalea. Nitrosospira cluster 9 and 3c were the most abundant AOB populations with opposing responses to fertilization treatments. NPKM had the largest abundance of ammonia-oxidizers and highest potential nitrification activity (PNA), suggesting high N loss potential due to a doubling of nutrient input compared to NPK. PNA was strongly correlated to AOA and AOB community composition indicating that both were important in ammonium oxidization in this Mollisol soil. Total N and organic C were the most important factors driving shifts in AOA and AOB community composition. The AOA community was strongly correlated to the activities of all sugar hydrolysis associated soil enzymes and was more responsive to C and N input than AOB.

  6. Inhabitancy of active Nitrosopumilus-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the sponge Theonella swinhoei

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guofang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrification directly contributes to the ammonia removal in sponges, and it plays an indispensable role in sponge-mediated nitrogen cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated genomic evidences of nitrifying lineages in the sponge Theonella swinhoei. However, little is known about the transcriptional activity of nitrifying community in this sponge. In this study, combined DNA- and transcript-based analyses were performed to reveal the composition and transcriptional activity of the nitrifiers in T. swinhoei from the South China Sea. Transcriptional activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in this sponge were confirmed by targeting their nitrifying genes,16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with RDP rRNA classification indicated that archaeal 16S rRNA genes, amoA (the subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrosopumilus-like AOA; whereas nitrifying bacterial 16S rRNA genes, nxrB (the subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrospira NOB. Quantitative assessment demonstrated relative higher abundances of nitrifying genes and transcripts of Nitrosopumilus-like AOA than those of Nitrospira NOB in this sponge. This study illustrated the transcriptional potentials of Nitrosopumilus-like archaea and Nitrospira bacteria that would predominantly contribute to the nitrification functionality in the South China Sea T. swinhoei. PMID:27113140

  7. Inhabitancy of active Nitrosopumilus-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guofang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrification directly contributes to the ammonia removal in sponges, and it plays an indispensable role in sponge-mediated nitrogen cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated genomic evidences of nitrifying lineages in the sponge Theonella swinhoei. However, little is known about the transcriptional activity of nitrifying community in this sponge. In this study, combined DNA- and transcript-based analyses were performed to reveal the composition and transcriptional activity of the nitrifiers in T. swinhoei from the South China Sea. Transcriptional activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in this sponge were confirmed by targeting their nitrifying genes,16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with RDP rRNA classification indicated that archaeal 16S rRNA genes, amoA (the subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrosopumilus-like AOA; whereas nitrifying bacterial 16S rRNA genes, nxrB (the subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrospira NOB. Quantitative assessment demonstrated relative higher abundances of nitrifying genes and transcripts of Nitrosopumilus-like AOA than those of Nitrospira NOB in this sponge. This study illustrated the transcriptional potentials of Nitrosopumilus-like archaea and Nitrospira bacteria that would predominantly contribute to the nitrification functionality in the South China Sea T. swinhoei. PMID:27113140

  8. Inhabitancy of active Nitrosopumilus-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guofang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Karthik, Loganathan; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrification directly contributes to the ammonia removal in sponges, and it plays an indispensable role in sponge-mediated nitrogen cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated genomic evidences of nitrifying lineages in the sponge Theonella swinhoei. However, little is known about the transcriptional activity of nitrifying community in this sponge. In this study, combined DNA- and transcript-based analyses were performed to reveal the composition and transcriptional activity of the nitrifiers in T. swinhoei from the South China Sea. Transcriptional activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in this sponge were confirmed by targeting their nitrifying genes,16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis coupled with RDP rRNA classification indicated that archaeal 16S rRNA genes, amoA (the subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrosopumilus-like AOA; whereas nitrifying bacterial 16S rRNA genes, nxrB (the subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase) genes and their transcripts were closely related to Nitrospira NOB. Quantitative assessment demonstrated relative higher abundances of nitrifying genes and transcripts of Nitrosopumilus-like AOA than those of Nitrospira NOB in this sponge. This study illustrated the transcriptional potentials of Nitrosopumilus-like archaea and Nitrospira bacteria that would predominantly contribute to the nitrification functionality in the South China Sea T. swinhoei.

  9. Community structure and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria after conversion from soybean to rice paddy in albic soils of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Weidong; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the albic soil grown with soybean and rice for different years was investigated by construction of clone libraries, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) by PCR amplification of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Soil samples were collected at two layers (0-5 and 20-25 cm) from a soybean field and four rice paddy fields with 1, 5, 9, and 17 years of continuous rice cultivation. Both the community structures and abundances of AOA and AOB showed detectable changes after conversion from soybean to rice paddy judged by clone library, DGGE, and q-PCR analyses. In general, the archaeal amoA gene abundance increased after conversion to rice cultivation, while bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased. The abundances of both AOA and AOB were higher in the surface layer than the bottom one in the soybean field, but a reverse trend was observed for AOB in all paddy samples regardless of the duration of paddy cultivation. Phylogenetic analysis identified nine subclusters of AOA and seven subclusters of AOB. Community composition of both AOA and AOB was correlated with available ammonium and increased pH value caused by flooding in multiple variance analysis. Community shift of AOB was also observed in different paddy fields, but the two layers did not show any detectable changes in DGGE analysis. Conversion from soybean to rice cultivation changed the community structure and abundance of AOA and AOB in albic agricultural soil, which requires that necessary cultivation practice be followed to manage the N utilization more effectively. PMID:24092004

  10. Responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and betaproteobacterial populations to wastewater salinity in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Whang, Liang-Ming; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2013-04-01

    The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and archaea were investigated in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant where the wastewater conductivity level varied considerably (due to seawater salinity intrusion) during this study between 2004 and 2007. Based on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, an increase in the ammonia oxidizing bacteria amoA gene copies occurred with a decrease in the wastewater salinity level. A corresponding decrease in the average ammonia-oxidizing archaea to bacteria ratio, from 1.22 (2004 and 2005), 0.17 (2006), and then to 0.07 (2007), was observed. Phylogenetic analyses on amoA gene sequences indicated that Nitrosomonas marina-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1a (marina group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea were dominant when the wastewater salinity level fluctuated at high values with an average of 4.83 practical salinity unit (psu), while Nitrosomonas urea-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1b (soil group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea became dominant when the wastewater salinity decreased to a more stable lower level with an average of 1.93 psu. Based on the amoA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, results from this study demonstrated that the observed shift in ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea populations is likely caused by a change of the wastewater salinity level. PMID:23232030

  11. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in relation to ammonium in a chinese shallow eutrophic urban lake

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shanlian; Chen, Guoyuan; Zhou, Yiyong

    2010-01-01

    The measures of most-probable-number and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to analyze the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in sediment of a Chinese shallow eutrophic urban lake (Lake Yuehu). Among the 5 sampling sites, ammonia concentration in interstitial water was positively proportional not only to the content of organic matter, but also to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria numbers (at a magnitude of 105 cells g-1 dry weight) in sediment significantly. Furthermore, the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were determined by means of PCR primers targeting the amoA gene with five gene libraries created and restriction pattern analysis. The 13 restriction patterns were recorded with 4 ones being common among all sampling sites. The 8 restriction patterns including 4 unique ones were found at the site with the highest NH4+ concentrations in interstitial water, while, there were only common patterns without unique ones at the site with the lowest NH4+ concentrations in interstitial water. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the amoA fragments retrieved belong to Nitrosomonas oligotropha & ureae lineage, N. europaea lineage, N. communis lineage and Nitrosospira lineage, most of which were affiliated with the genus Nitrosomonas. The N. oligotropha & ureae-like bacteria were the dominant species. Thus, the abundance and diversity of sediment AOB is closely linked to ammonium status in eutrophic lakes. PMID:24031484

  12. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in sediments from the coastal Pearl River estuary to the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    In the present study the diversity and abundance of nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and betaproteobacteria (beta-AOB) were investigated, along with the physicochemical parameters potentially affecting them, in a transect of surface sediments from the coastal margin adjacent to the Pearl River estuary to the slope in the deep South China Sea. Nitrifying microbial diversity was determined by detecting the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) gene. An obvious community structure shift for both AOA and beta-AOB from the coastal marginal areas to the slope in the deep-sea was detected, while the OTU numbers of AOA amoA were more stable than those of the beta-AOB. The OTUs of beta-AOB increased with the distance from the coastal margin areas to the slope in the deep-sea. Beta-AOB showed lower diversity with dominant strains in a polluted area but higher diversity without dominant strains in a clean area. Moreover, the diversity of beta-AOB was correlated with pH values, while no noticeable relationships were established between AOA and physicochemical parameters. Beta-AOB was more sensitive to transect environmental variability and might be a potential indicator for environmental changes. Additionally, the surface sediments surveyed in the South China Sea harboured diverse and distinct AOA and beta-AOB phylotypes different from other environments, suggesting the endemicity of some nitrifying prokaryotes in the South China Sea.

  13. Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Metabolism among Diverse Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Jessica A.; Kits, K. Dimitri; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have well characterized genes that encode and express nitrite reductases (NIR) and nitric oxide reductases (NOR). However, the connection between presence or absence of these and other genes for nitrogen transformations with the physiological production of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been tested across AOB isolated from various trophic states, with diverse phylogeny, and with closed genomes. It is therefore unclear if genomic content for nitrogen oxide metabolism is predictive of net N2O production. Instantaneous microrespirometry experiments were utilized to measure NO and N2O emitted by AOB during active oxidation of ammonia (NH3) or hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and through a period of anoxia. This data was used in concert with genomic content and phylogeny to assess whether taxonomic factors were predictive of nitrogen oxide metabolism. Results showed that two oligotrophic AOB strains lacking annotated NOR-encoding genes released large quantities of NO and produced N2O abiologically at the onset of anoxia following NH3-oxidation. Furthermore, high concentrations of N2O were measured during active O2-dependent NH2OH oxidation by the two oligotrophic AOB in contrast to non-oligotrophic strains that only produced N2O at the onset of anoxia. Therefore, complete nitrifier denitrification did not occur in the two oligotrophic strains, but did occur in meso- and eutrophic strains, even in Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 that lacks an annotated NIR-encoding gene. Regardless of mechanism, all AOB strains produced measureable N2O under tested conditions. This work further confirms that AOB require NOR activity to enzymatically reduce NO to N2O in the nitrifier denitrification pathway, and also that abiotic reactions play an important role in N2O formation, in oligotrophic AOB lacking NOR activity. PMID:27462312

  14. Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Metabolism among Diverse Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Jessica A; Kits, K Dimitri; Stein, Lisa Y

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have well characterized genes that encode and express nitrite reductases (NIR) and nitric oxide reductases (NOR). However, the connection between presence or absence of these and other genes for nitrogen transformations with the physiological production of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been tested across AOB isolated from various trophic states, with diverse phylogeny, and with closed genomes. It is therefore unclear if genomic content for nitrogen oxide metabolism is predictive of net N2O production. Instantaneous microrespirometry experiments were utilized to measure NO and N2O emitted by AOB during active oxidation of ammonia (NH3) or hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and through a period of anoxia. This data was used in concert with genomic content and phylogeny to assess whether taxonomic factors were predictive of nitrogen oxide metabolism. Results showed that two oligotrophic AOB strains lacking annotated NOR-encoding genes released large quantities of NO and produced N2O abiologically at the onset of anoxia following NH3-oxidation. Furthermore, high concentrations of N2O were measured during active O2-dependent NH2OH oxidation by the two oligotrophic AOB in contrast to non-oligotrophic strains that only produced N2O at the onset of anoxia. Therefore, complete nitrifier denitrification did not occur in the two oligotrophic strains, but did occur in meso- and eutrophic strains, even in Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 that lacks an annotated NIR-encoding gene. Regardless of mechanism, all AOB strains produced measureable N2O under tested conditions. This work further confirms that AOB require NOR activity to enzymatically reduce NO to N2O in the nitrifier denitrification pathway, and also that abiotic reactions play an important role in N2O formation, in oligotrophic AOB lacking NOR activity.

  15. Comparison of Nitrogen Oxide Metabolism among Diverse Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Jessica A; Kits, K Dimitri; Stein, Lisa Y

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have well characterized genes that encode and express nitrite reductases (NIR) and nitric oxide reductases (NOR). However, the connection between presence or absence of these and other genes for nitrogen transformations with the physiological production of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been tested across AOB isolated from various trophic states, with diverse phylogeny, and with closed genomes. It is therefore unclear if genomic content for nitrogen oxide metabolism is predictive of net N2O production. Instantaneous microrespirometry experiments were utilized to measure NO and N2O emitted by AOB during active oxidation of ammonia (NH3) or hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and through a period of anoxia. This data was used in concert with genomic content and phylogeny to assess whether taxonomic factors were predictive of nitrogen oxide metabolism. Results showed that two oligotrophic AOB strains lacking annotated NOR-encoding genes released large quantities of NO and produced N2O abiologically at the onset of anoxia following NH3-oxidation. Furthermore, high concentrations of N2O were measured during active O2-dependent NH2OH oxidation by the two oligotrophic AOB in contrast to non-oligotrophic strains that only produced N2O at the onset of anoxia. Therefore, complete nitrifier denitrification did not occur in the two oligotrophic strains, but did occur in meso- and eutrophic strains, even in Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 that lacks an annotated NIR-encoding gene. Regardless of mechanism, all AOB strains produced measureable N2O under tested conditions. This work further confirms that AOB require NOR activity to enzymatically reduce NO to N2O in the nitrifier denitrification pathway, and also that abiotic reactions play an important role in N2O formation, in oligotrophic AOB lacking NOR activity. PMID:27462312

  16. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in the root-rhizosphere complex of Miscanthus × giganteus grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Julien; Wanat, Nastasia; Austruy, Annabelle; Hitmi, Adnane; Joussein, Emmanuel; Welzl, Gerhard; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Mine wastes have been considered as a source of heavy metal (HM) contamination in the environment and negatively impact many important ecosystem services provided by soils. Plants like Miscanthus, which tolerate high HM concentrations in soil, are often used for phytoremediation and provide the possibility to use these soils at least for the production of energy crops. However, it is not clear if plant growth at these sites is limited by the availability of nutrients, mainly nitrogen, as microbes in soil might be affected by the contaminant. Therefore, in this study, we investigated in a greenhouse experiment the response of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in the root-rhizosphere complex of Miscanthus × giganteus grown in soils with different levels of long-term arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) contamination. Quantitative PCR of the ammonia monooxigenease gene (amoA) was performed to assess the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) at two different points of plant growth. Furthermore, bulk soil samples before planting were analyzed. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of archaeal amoA amplicons. Whereas high concentrations of As and Pb in soil (83 and 15 g/kg, respectively) resulted independent from plant growth in a clear reduction of AOA and AOB compared to the control soils with lower HM contents, in soils with contamination levels of 10 g/kg As and 0.2 g/kg Pb, only AOB were negatively affected in bulk soil samples. Diversity analysis of archaeal amoA genes revealed clear differences in T-RFLP patterns in response to the degree of HM contamination. Therefore, our results could clearly prove the different response patterns of AOA and AOB in HM-contaminated soils and the development of archaeal amoA phylotypes which are more tolerant towards HMs in soil samples from the areas that were impacted the most by mining waste, which could contribute to functional

  17. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in horizontal flow biofilm reactors treating ammonia-contaminated air at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Seán; Clifford, Eoghan; Kennelly, Colm; Collins, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of novel, Horizontal Flow Biofilm Reactor (HFBR) technology for the treatment of ammonia (NH3)-contaminated airstreams. Three laboratory-scale HFBRs were used for remediation of an NH3-containing airstream at 10 °C during a 90-d trial to test the efficacy of low-temperature treatment. Average ammonia removal efficiencies of 99.7 % were achieved at maximum loading rates of 4.8 g NH3 m(3) h(-1). Biological nitrification of ammonia to nitrite (NO2 (-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) was mediated by nitrifying bacterial and archaeal biofilm populations. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) vertically at each of seven sampling zones along the vertical HFBRs. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira, were the two most dominant bacterial genera detected in the HFBRs, while an uncultured archaeal clone dominated the AOA community. The bacterial community composition across the three HFBRs was highly conserved, although variations occurred between HFBR zones and were driven by physicochemical variables. The study demonstrates the feasibility of HFBRs for the treatment of ammonia-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures; identifies key nitrifying microorganisms driving the removal process; and provides insights for process optimisation and control. The findings are significant for industrial applications of gas oxidation technology in temperate climates. PMID:26879980

  18. Genome sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from group I.1b enriched from Everglades soil reveals novel genomic features of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna V; Dias, Raquel; Leonard, Michael T; Dorr de Quadros, Patricia; Camargo, Flavio A O; Drew, Jennifer C; Farmerie, William G; Daroub, Samira H; Triplett, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we describe the first complete genome of soil archaeon Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis, which has been reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a highly enriched culture obtained from an agricultural soil. The AOA enrichment was sequenced with the high throughput next generation sequencing platforms from Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent. The de novo assembly of sequences resulted in one 2.95 Mb contig. Annotation of the reconstructed genome revealed many similarities of the basic metabolism with the rest of sequenced AOA. Ca. N. evergladensis belongs to the group I.1b and shares only 40% of whole-genome homology with the closest sequenced relative Ca. N. gargensis. Detailed analysis of the genome revealed coding sequences that were completely absent from the group I.1a. These unique sequences code for proteins involved in control of DNA integrity, transporters, two-component systems and versatile CRISPR defense system. Notably, genomes from the group I.1b have more gene duplications compared to the genomes from the group I.1a. We suggest that the presence of these unique genes and gene duplications may be associated with the environmental versatility of this group.

  19. Genome Sequence of Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis from Group I.1b Enriched from Everglades Soil Reveals Novel Genomic Features of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna V.; Dias, Raquel; Leonard, Michael T.; Dorr de Quadros, Patricia; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Drew, Jennifer C.; Farmerie, William G.; Daroub, Samira H.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) leads to the loss of nitrogen from soil, pollution of water sources and elevated emissions of greenhouse gas. To date, eight AOA genomes are available in the public databases, seven are from the group I.1a of the Thaumarchaeota and only one is from the group I.1b, isolated from hot springs. Many soils are dominated by AOA from the group I.1b, but the genomes of soil representatives of this group have not been sequenced and functionally characterized. The lack of knowledge of metabolic pathways of soil AOA presents a critical gap in understanding their role in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we describe the first complete genome of soil archaeon Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis, which has been reconstructed from metagenomic sequencing of a highly enriched culture obtained from an agricultural soil. The AOA enrichment was sequenced with the high throughput next generation sequencing platforms from Pacific Biosciences and Ion Torrent. The de novo assembly of sequences resulted in one 2.95 Mb contig. Annotation of the reconstructed genome revealed many similarities of the basic metabolism with the rest of sequenced AOA. Ca. N. evergladensis belongs to the group I.1b and shares only 40% of whole-genome homology with the closest sequenced relative Ca. N. gargensis. Detailed analysis of the genome revealed coding sequences that were completely absent from the group I.1a. These unique sequences code for proteins involved in control of DNA integrity, transporters, two-component systems and versatile CRISPR defense system. Notably, genomes from the group I.1b have more gene duplications compared to the genomes from the group I.1a. We suggest that the presence of these unique genes and gene duplications may be associated with the environmental versatility of this group. PMID:24999826

  20. Bacterial and archaea community present in the Pine Barrens Forest of Long Island, NY: unusually high percentage of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Kambhampati, Murty S; Ambrose, Jeffery; Smith, Nyesha; Dowd, Scot E; McDonnell, Kevin T; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Green, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Of the few preserved areas in the northeast of United States, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. In the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. Sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three horizons (sampling depths). The three horizons were 0-10 cm (Horizon O); 11-25 cm (Horizon A) and 26-40 cm (Horizon B). Based on the total microbial substrate utilization pattern and K-means clustering analysis, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forest can be classified into four distinct clusters at each of the three horizons. One soil sample from each of the four clusters were selected and archaeal and bacterial populations within the soil studied using pyrosequencing method. The results show the microbial communities present in each of these clusters are different. Within the microbial communities present, microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle occupy a major fraction of microbial community in the soil. High level of diversity was observed for nitrogen fixing bacteria. In contrast, Nitrosovibrio and Nitrosocaldus spp are the single bacterial and archaeal population respectively carrying out ammonia oxidation in the soil. PMID:22028845

  1. Bacterial and Archaea Community Present in the Pine Barrens Forest of Long Island, NY: Unusually High Percentage of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Kambhampati, Murty S.; Ambrose, Jeffery; Smith, Nyesha; Dowd, Scot E.; McDonnell, Kevin T.; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Green, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Of the few preserved areas in the northeast of United States, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. In the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. Sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three horizons (sampling depths). The three horizons were 0–10 cm (Horizon O); 11–25 cm (Horizon A) and 26–40 cm (Horizon B). Based on the total microbial substrate utilization pattern and K-means clustering analysis, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forest can be classified into four distinct clusters at each of the three horizons. One soil sample from each of the four clusters were selected and archaeal and bacterial populations within the soil studied using pyrosequencing method. The results show the microbial communities present in each of these clusters are different. Within the microbial communities present, microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle occupy a major fraction of microbial community in the soil. High level of diversity was observed for nitrogen fixing bacteria. In contrast, Nitrosovibrio and Nitrosocaldus spp are the single bacterial and archaeal population respectively carrying out ammonia oxidation in the soil. PMID:22028845

  2. Bacterial and archaea community present in the Pine Barrens Forest of Long Island, NY: unusually high percentage of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Kambhampati, Murty S; Ambrose, Jeffery; Smith, Nyesha; Dowd, Scot E; McDonnell, Kevin T; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Green, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Of the few preserved areas in the northeast of United States, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. In the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. Sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three horizons (sampling depths). The three horizons were 0-10 cm (Horizon O); 11-25 cm (Horizon A) and 26-40 cm (Horizon B). Based on the total microbial substrate utilization pattern and K-means clustering analysis, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forest can be classified into four distinct clusters at each of the three horizons. One soil sample from each of the four clusters were selected and archaeal and bacterial populations within the soil studied using pyrosequencing method. The results show the microbial communities present in each of these clusters are different. Within the microbial communities present, microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle occupy a major fraction of microbial community in the soil. High level of diversity was observed for nitrogen fixing bacteria. In contrast, Nitrosovibrio and Nitrosocaldus spp are the single bacterial and archaeal population respectively carrying out ammonia oxidation in the soil.

  3. Bacterial and Archaea Community Present in the Pine Barrens Forest of Long Island, NY: Unusually High Percentage of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.; Green, T.; Shah, V.; Shah, S.; Kambhampati, M.; Ambrose, J.; Smith, N.; Dowd, S.; McDonnell, K.; Panigrahi, B.

    2011-10-20

    Of the few preserved areas in the northeast of United States, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forests presents a harsh environment for the microorganisms to grow and survive. In the current study we report the use of clustering methods to scientifically select the sampling locations that would represent the entire forest and also report the microbial diversity present in various horizons of the soil. Sixty six sampling locations were selected across the forest and soils were collected from three horizons (sampling depths). The three horizons were 0-10 cm (Horizon O); 11-25 cm (Horizon A) and 26-40 cm (Horizon B). Based on the total microbial substrate utilization pattern and K-means clustering analysis, the soil in the Pine Barrens Forest can be classified into four distinct clusters at each of the three horizons. One soil sample from each of the four clusters were selected and archaeal and bacterial populations within the soil studied using pyrosequencing method. The results show the microbial communities present in each of these clusters are different. Within the microbial communities present, microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle occupy a major fraction of microbial community in the soil. High level of diversity was observed for nitrogen fixing bacteria. In contrast, Nitrosovibrio and Nitrosocaldus spp are the single bacterial and archaeal population respectively carrying out ammonia oxidation in the soil.

  4. Phylogenetic and functional marker genes to study ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Junier, Pilar; Molina, Verónica; Dorador, Cristina; Hadas, Ora; Kim, Ok-Sun; Junier, Thomas; Witzel, Jean-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of ammonia plays a significant role in the transformation of fixed nitrogen in the global nitrogen cycle. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is known in three groups of microorganisms. Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia into nitrite during nitrification. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) oxidize ammonia using nitrite as electron acceptor and producing atmospheric dinitrogen. The isolation and cultivation of all three groups in the laboratory are quite problematic due to their slow growth rates, poor growth yields, unpredictable lag phases, and sensitivity to certain organic compounds. Culture-independent approaches have contributed importantly to our understanding of the diversity and distribution of these microorganisms in the environment. In this review, we present an overview of approaches that have been used for the molecular study of ammonia oxidizers and discuss their application in different environments.

  5. Phylogenetic and functional marker genes to study ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOM) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Junier, Pilar; Molina, Verónica; Dorador, Cristina; Hadas, Ora; Kim, Ok-Sun; Junier, Thomas; Witzel, Jean-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of ammonia plays a significant role in the transformation of fixed nitrogen in the global nitrogen cycle. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation is known in three groups of microorganisms. Aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea convert ammonia into nitrite during nitrification. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) oxidize ammonia using nitrite as electron acceptor and producing atmospheric dinitrogen. The isolation and cultivation of all three groups in the laboratory are quite problematic due to their slow growth rates, poor growth yields, unpredictable lag phases, and sensitivity to certain organic compounds. Culture-independent approaches have contributed importantly to our understanding of the diversity and distribution of these microorganisms in the environment. In this review, we present an overview of approaches that have been used for the molecular study of ammonia oxidizers and discuss their application in different environments. PMID:19830422

  6. Relating the Diversity, Abundance, and Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeal Communities to Nitrification Rates in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolar, B. B.; Smith, J. M.; Chavez, F.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting first step of nitrification, is an important link between reduced (ammonia) and oxidized (nitrate) nitrogen, and controls the relative distribution of these forms of inorganic nitrogen. This process is catalyzed via the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme of both ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and Archaea (AOA); the α subunit of this enzyme is encoded by the amoA gene and has been used as the molecular marker to detect this process. In the ocean, AOA are typically 10-1000 times more and are likely more active than AOB, and thus are key players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Monterey Bay is a dynamic site to study nitrification, as seasonal upwelling brings deep water and nutrients into surface waters, which can promote phytoplankton blooms and impact biogeochemical processes such as the nitrogen cycle. We have sampled two sites within Monterey Bay bimonthly for two years as part of the ongoing Monterey Bay Time Series (MBTS) to quantify AOA genes, transcripts, and nitrification rates. Two ecotypes of AOA are routinely found in Monterey Bay - the 'shallow' water column A (WCA) and 'deep' water column B (WCB) clades, which are thought to have distinct physiological properties and can be distinguished based on the amoA gene sequence. Previous work has shown a strong relationship between nitrification rates in Monterey Bay with the abundance of WCA amoA genes and transcripts. Additionally, we found a correlation between the relative abundance of Marine Group I (MGI) Thaumarchaeota 16S rRNA reads (as % of total) and the absolute abundance of AOA amoA genes (determined via qPCR) in Monterey Bay and the California Current System. AOA 16S rRNA gene abundances in turn correlated significantly with changes in nitrification rate with depth, while the relative abundance of genes and transcripts binned to a single AOA (Nitrosopumilus maritimus) was not significantly correlated to nitrification rate. Further analysis of the sequenced AOA

  7. [Distribution and Diversity of Ammonium-oxidizing Archaea and Ammonium-oxidizing Bacteria in Surface Sediments of Oujiang River].

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Huang, Fu-yi; Su, Jian-qiang; Hong, You-wei; Yu, Shen

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play important roles in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Rivers are important ecosystems containing a large number of functional microbes in nitrogen cycle. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE ) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology were used to analyze the distribution and diversity of AOA and AOB in sediments from Oujiang. The results showed that the AOA community structure was similar among various sites, while the AOB community structure was significantly different, in which all detected AOB sequences were classified into Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, and 90% affiliated to Nitrosospira. The community composition of AOA was influenced by NH₄⁺ and TS, in addition, the AOB composition was affected by NH₄⁺, EC, pH, NO₃⁻, TC and TN. Total sulfur (TS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were the major factors influencing the diversity of AOA and AOB, respectively. AOA abundance was significantly higher than that of AOB. EC, NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N were the main environmental factors affecting the abundance of AOA and AOB. This study indicated that the community composition and diversity of AOA and AOB were significantly influenced by environmental factors, and AOA might be dominant drivers in the ammonia oxidation process in Oujiang surface sediment. PMID:27012006

  8. [Distribution and Diversity of Ammonium-oxidizing Archaea and Ammonium-oxidizing Bacteria in Surface Sediments of Oujiang River].

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Huang, Fu-yi; Su, Jian-qiang; Hong, You-wei; Yu, Shen

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play important roles in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Rivers are important ecosystems containing a large number of functional microbes in nitrogen cycle. In this study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE ) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology were used to analyze the distribution and diversity of AOA and AOB in sediments from Oujiang. The results showed that the AOA community structure was similar among various sites, while the AOB community structure was significantly different, in which all detected AOB sequences were classified into Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, and 90% affiliated to Nitrosospira. The community composition of AOA was influenced by NH₄⁺ and TS, in addition, the AOB composition was affected by NH₄⁺, EC, pH, NO₃⁻, TC and TN. Total sulfur (TS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were the major factors influencing the diversity of AOA and AOB, respectively. AOA abundance was significantly higher than that of AOB. EC, NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N were the main environmental factors affecting the abundance of AOA and AOB. This study indicated that the community composition and diversity of AOA and AOB were significantly influenced by environmental factors, and AOA might be dominant drivers in the ammonia oxidation process in Oujiang surface sediment.

  9. Distribution of ammonia oxidizers in relation to vegetation characteristics in the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.; Gao, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen is the major limiting nutrient in cold environments, and its availability is strongly dependent on nitrification. However, microbial communities driving this process remain largely uncharacterized in alpine meadow soils in northwestern China, namely those catalyzing the rate-limiting step of ammonia oxidation. In this study, ammonia-oxidizing communities in alpine meadow soils were characterized by real-time PCR and clone sequencing by targeting on amoA genes, which putatively encode ammonia monooxygenase subunit A. The results demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the alpine meadow soils. Most of the AOA phylotypes detected in the study region fell within typical Group I.1b of Thaumarchaeota. Interestingly, a new ammonia-oxidizing archaeal group named "Kobresia meadow soil group" was found. Phylogenetic analysis of AOB communities exhibited a dominance of Nitrosospira-like sequences affiliated to beta-Proteobacteria. Compared with other alpine environments, Qilian Mountains had a great phylogenetic diversity of ammonia oxidizers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis showed that distinct AOA/AOB phylotype groups were attributed to different meadow types, reflecting an overall distribution of ammonia-oxidizing communities associated with meadow types. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) analysis showed that Axis 1 (90.9%) together with Axis 2 (9.1%) explained all the variables while Axis 1 exhibited a significant explanatory power. So that vegetation coverage mostly correlated to Axis 1 was the most powerful environmental factor in the study region. Characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing communities showed a close association with vegetation coverage.

  10. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidation (amoA) and Nitrogen Fixation (nifH) Genes in Lava Caves of Terceira, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Jennifer J. Marshall; Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Dapkevicius, Maria De Lurdes N. E.; Northup, Diana E.

    2015-01-01

    Lava caves are an understudied ecosystem in the subterranean world, particularly in regard to nitrogen cycling. The diversity of ammonia oxidation (amoA) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) genes in bacterial mats collected from lava cave walls on the island of Terceira (Azores, Portugal) was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 55 samples were collected from 11 lava caves that were selected with regard to surface land use. Land use types above the lava caves were categorized into pasture, forested, and sea/urban, and used to determine if land use influenced the ammonia oxidizing and nitrogen fixing bacterial communities within the lava caves. The soil and water samples from each lava cave were analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, to determine if land use influences either the nutrient content entering the lava cave or the nitrogen cycling bacteria present within the cave. Nitrosospira-like sequences dominated the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community, and the majority of the diversity was found in lava caves under forested land. The nitrogen fixation community was dominated by Klebsiella pneumoniae-like sequences, and diversity was evenly distributed between pasture and forested land, but very little overlap in diversity was observed. The results suggest that land use is impacting both the AOB and the nitrogen fixing bacterial communities. PMID:26778867

  11. Abundances, diversity and seasonality of (non-extremophilic) Archaea in Alpine freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Reitschuler, Christoph; Hofmann, Katrin; Illmer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess abundances and community compositions of Archaea within a heterogeneous set of freshwater systems in the Austrian Alps. Seasonal changes and geographical differences within Archaea, considering abiotic and biotic factors (e.g. temperature, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), NH4 (+), bacteria, fungi), were analysed in this context. Water samples were collected from 8 lakes, 10 creeks and the river Inn in 2014. Qualitative-quantitative data were derived via a comprehensive set of (quantitative) PCR assays and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) based methodology, which was evaluated concerning specificity and reliability either previously or in this study. QPCR-derived archaeal abundances reached values of 10(3) copies mL(-1) on average, with a peak in winter-spring ('Cold Peak'), and covered 0-15 % (average: 1 %) of the microbial populations. This peak correlated with significantly raised TOC and low NH4 (+) levels during the cold seasons. Stagnant waters showed significantly higher archaeal abundances and diversities than flowing ones. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinales were the most common order. PCR-DGGE data showed that the archaeal communities were site-specific and could function as an ecological marker, in contrast to the more heterogeneous and unsteady bacterial and fungal community. This is attributable to the highly heterogeneous community of methanogenic Archaea (MA, Euryarchaeota), while only two species, Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Ca. Nitrososphaera gargensis, were found to be the ubiquitous representatives of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA, Thaumarchaeota) in Alpine freshwaters. This work emphasises the diversity, distribution and seasonality of non-extremophilic Archaea in Alpine freshwaters, with a first insight into their ecophysiological potential.

  12. Abundances, diversity and seasonality of (non-extremophilic) Archaea in Alpine freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Reitschuler, Christoph; Hofmann, Katrin; Illmer, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess abundances and community compositions of Archaea within a heterogeneous set of freshwater systems in the Austrian Alps. Seasonal changes and geographical differences within Archaea, considering abiotic and biotic factors (e.g. temperature, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), NH4 (+), bacteria, fungi), were analysed in this context. Water samples were collected from 8 lakes, 10 creeks and the river Inn in 2014. Qualitative-quantitative data were derived via a comprehensive set of (quantitative) PCR assays and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) based methodology, which was evaluated concerning specificity and reliability either previously or in this study. QPCR-derived archaeal abundances reached values of 10(3) copies mL(-1) on average, with a peak in winter-spring ('Cold Peak'), and covered 0-15 % (average: 1 %) of the microbial populations. This peak correlated with significantly raised TOC and low NH4 (+) levels during the cold seasons. Stagnant waters showed significantly higher archaeal abundances and diversities than flowing ones. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinales were the most common order. PCR-DGGE data showed that the archaeal communities were site-specific and could function as an ecological marker, in contrast to the more heterogeneous and unsteady bacterial and fungal community. This is attributable to the highly heterogeneous community of methanogenic Archaea (MA, Euryarchaeota), while only two species, Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Ca. Nitrososphaera gargensis, were found to be the ubiquitous representatives of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA, Thaumarchaeota) in Alpine freshwaters. This work emphasises the diversity, distribution and seasonality of non-extremophilic Archaea in Alpine freshwaters, with a first insight into their ecophysiological potential. PMID:27002962

  13. Molecular diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in disused tin-mining ponds located within Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sow, S L S; Khoo, G; Chong, L K; Smith, T J; Harrison, P L; Ong, H K A

    2014-02-01

    Disused tin-mining ponds make up a significant amount of water bodies in Malaysia particularly at the Kinta Valley in the state of Perak where tin-mining activities were the most extensive, and these abundantly available water sources are widely used in the field of aquaculture and agriculture. However, the natural ecology and physicochemical conditions of these ponds, many of which have been altered due to secondary post-mining activities, remains to be explored. As ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are directly related to the nutrient cycles of aquatic environments and are useful bioindicators of environmental variations, the focus of this study was to identify AOBs associated with disused tin-mining ponds that have a history of different secondary activities in comparison to ponds which were left untouched and remained as part of the landscape. The 16S rDNA gene was used to detect AOBs in the sediment and water sampled from the three types of disused mining ponds, namely ponds without secondary activity, ponds that were used for lotus cultivation and post-aquaculture ponds. When the varying pond types were compared with the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the AOB clone libraries, both Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira-like AOB were detected though Nitrosospira spp. was seen to be the most ubiquitous AOB as it was present in all ponds types. However, AOBs were not detected in the sediments of idle ponds. Based on rarefaction analysis and diversity indices, the disused mining pond with lotus culture indicated the highest richness of AOBs. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that among the physicochemical properties of the pond sites, TAN and nitrite were shown to be the main factors that influenced the community structure of AOBs in these disused tin-mining ponds.

  14. Influence of edaphic and management factors on the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeota and bacteria in soils of bioenergy crop cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Meinhardt, Kelley A; Pannu, Manmeet; Brown, Sally; Strand, Stuart; Fransen, Steven C; Stahl, David A

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing thaumarcheota (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) differentially influence soil and atmospheric chemistry, but soil properties that control their distributions are poorly understood. In this study, the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) was used to identify and quantify presumptive AOA and AOB and relate their distributions to soil properties in two experimental fields planted with different varieties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a potential bioenergy feedstock. Differences in ammonia oxidizer diversity were associated primarily with soil properties of the two field sites, with pH displaying significant correlations with both AOA and AOB population structure. Percent nitrogen (%N), carbon to nitrogen ratios (C : N), and pH were also correlated with shifts nitrifier population structure. Nitrosotalea-like and Nitrosospira cluster II populations were more highly represented in acidic soils, whereas populations affiliated with Nitrososphaera and Nitrosospira cluster 3A.1 were relatively more abundant in alkaline soils. AOA were the dominant functional group in all plots based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing analyses. These data suggest that AOA contribute significantly to nitrification rates in carbon and nitrogen rich soils influenced by perennial grasses. PMID:25504683

  15. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  16. Nitrification of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a high- temperature hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun; Peng, Xiaotong; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of ammonia by microbes has been shown to occur in diverse natural environments. However, the link of in situ nitrification activity to taxonomic identities of ammonia oxidizers in high-temperature environments remains poorly understood. Here, we studied in situ ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in surface and bottom sediments at 77 °C in the Gongxiaoshe hot spring, Tengchong, Yunnan, China. The in situ ammonia oxidation rates measured by the 15N-NO3- pool dilution technique in the surface and bottom sediments were 4.80 and 5.30 nmol N g-1 h-1, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the archaeal 16S rRNA genes and amoA genes were present in the range of 0.128 to 1.96 × 108 and 2.75 to 9.80 × 105 gene copies g-1 sediment, respectively, while bacterial amoA was not detected. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed high sequence similarity to thermophilic Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, which represented the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTU) in both surface and bottom sediments. The archaeal predominance was further supported by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) visualization. The cell-specific rate of ammonia oxidation was estimated to range from 0.410 to 0.790 fmol N archaeal cell-1 h-1, higher than those in the two US Great Basin hot springs. These results suggest the importance of archaeal rather than bacterial ammonia oxidation in driving the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  17. Abundance and Composition of Epiphytic Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers of Marine Red and Brown Macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Rosalia; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Sánchez, Noemí; López-Jurado, José Luis; Hallin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are important for nitrogen cycling in marine ecosystems. Little is known about the diversity and abundance of these organisms on the surface of marine macroalgae, despite the algae's potential importance to create surfaces and local oxygen-rich environments supporting ammonia oxidation at depths with low dissolved oxygen levels. We determined the abundance and composition of the epiphytic bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities on three species of macroalgae, Osmundaria volubilis, Phyllophora crispa, and Laminaria rodriguezii, from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean Sea). Quantitative PCR of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes was performed. In contrast to what has been shown for most other marine environments, the macroalgae's surfaces were dominated by bacterial amoA genes rather than those from the archaeal counterpart. On the basis of the sequences retrieved from AOB and AOA amoA gene clone libraries from each algal species, the bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities were related to Nitrosospira spp. and to Nitrosomonas europaea and only 6 out of 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were specific for the host species. Conversely, the AOA diversity was higher (43 OTUs) and algal species specific, with 17 OTUs specific for L. rodriguezii, 3 for O. volubilis, and 9 for P. crispa. Altogether, the results suggest that marine macroalgae may exert an ecological niche for AOB in marine environments, potentially through specific microbe-host interactions. PMID:22081571

  18. Shifts in the pelagic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities along the eutrophic estuary of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiufang; Tang, Fangyuan; Zhou, Yangjing; Xu, Jirong; Chen, Heping; Wang, Mingkuang; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic ammonia oxidation plays a key role in the nitrogen cycle, and the diversity of the responsible microorganisms is regulated by environmental factors. Abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in the surface waters along an environmental gradient of the Yong River in Ningbo, East China. Water samples were collected from three pelagic zones: (1) freshwaters in the urban canals of Ningbo, (2) brackish waters in the downstream Yong River, and (3) coastal marine water of Hangzhou Bay. Shifts in activity and diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms occurred simultaneously with changes in environmental factors, among which salinity and the availabilities of ammonium and oxygen. The AOA abundance was always higher than that of AOB and was related to the ammonia oxidation activity. The ratios of AOA/AOB in the brackish and marine waters were significantly higher than those found in freshwaters. Both AOA and AOB showed similar community compositions in brackish and marine waters, but only 31 and 35% similarity, respectively, between these waters and the urban inland freshwaters. Most of AOA-amoA sequences from freshwater were affiliated with sequences obtained from terrestrial environments and those collected from brackish and coastal areas were ubiquitous in marine, coastal, and terrestrial ecosystems. All AOB from freshwaters belonged to Nitrosomonas, and the AOB from brackish and marine waters mainly belonged to Nitrosospira. PMID:26579089

  19. Benthic ammonia oxidizers differ in community structure and biogeochemical potential across a riverine delta

    PubMed Central

    Damashek, Julian; Smith, Jason M.; Mosier, Annika C.; Francis, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution in coastal zones is a widespread issue, particularly in ecosystems with urban or agricultural watersheds. California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, at the landward reaches of San Francisco Bay, is highly impacted by both agricultural runoff and sewage effluent, leading to chronically high nutrient loadings. In particular, the extensive discharge of ammonium into the Sacramento River has altered this ecosystem by vastly increasing ammonium concentrations and thus changing the stoichiometry of inorganic nitrogen stocks, with potential effects throughout the food web. This debate surrounding ammonium inputs highlights the importance of understanding the rates of, and controls on, nitrogen (N) cycling processes across the delta. To date, however, there has been little research examining N biogeochemistry or N-cycling microbial communities in this system. We report the first data on benthic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities and potential nitrification rates for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, focusing on the functional gene amoA (which codes for the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase). There were stark regional differences in ammonia-oxidizing communities, with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) outnumbering ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) only in the ammonium-rich Sacramento River. High potential nitrification rates in the Sacramento River suggested these communities may be capable of oxidizing significant amounts of ammonium, compared to the San Joaquin River and the upper reaches of San Francisco Bay. Gene diversity also showed regional patterns, as well as phylogenetically unique ammonia oxidizers in the Sacramento River. The benthic ammonia oxidizers in this nutrient-rich aquatic ecosystem may be important players in its overall nutrient cycling, and their community structure and biogeochemical function appear related to nutrient loadings. Unraveling the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of N cycling pathways, including benthic

  20. Benthic ammonia oxidizers differ in community structure and biogeochemical potential across a riverine delta.

    PubMed

    Damashek, Julian; Smith, Jason M; Mosier, Annika C; Francis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution in coastal zones is a widespread issue, particularly in ecosystems with urban or agricultural watersheds. California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, at the landward reaches of San Francisco Bay, is highly impacted by both agricultural runoff and sewage effluent, leading to chronically high nutrient loadings. In particular, the extensive discharge of ammonium into the Sacramento River has altered this ecosystem by vastly increasing ammonium concentrations and thus changing the stoichiometry of inorganic nitrogen stocks, with potential effects throughout the food web. This debate surrounding ammonium inputs highlights the importance of understanding the rates of, and controls on, nitrogen (N) cycling processes across the delta. To date, however, there has been little research examining N biogeochemistry or N-cycling microbial communities in this system. We report the first data on benthic ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities and potential nitrification rates for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, focusing on the functional gene amoA (which codes for the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase). There were stark regional differences in ammonia-oxidizing communities, with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) outnumbering ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) only in the ammonium-rich Sacramento River. High potential nitrification rates in the Sacramento River suggested these communities may be capable of oxidizing significant amounts of ammonium, compared to the San Joaquin River and the upper reaches of San Francisco Bay. Gene diversity also showed regional patterns, as well as phylogenetically unique ammonia oxidizers in the Sacramento River. The benthic ammonia oxidizers in this nutrient-rich aquatic ecosystem may be important players in its overall nutrient cycling, and their community structure and biogeochemical function appear related to nutrient loadings. Unraveling the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of N cycling pathways, including benthic

  1. Diversity of oxygenase genes from methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Daniel P; Erickson, Issac K; Delwiche, Mark E; Colwell, Frederick S; Strap, Janice L; Crawford, Ronald L

    2005-04-01

    PCR amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic analysis of oxygenase genes were used for the characterization of in situ methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from free-living and attached communities in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The following three methane monooxygenase (MMO) PCR primer sets were used: A189-A682, which amplifies an internal region of both the pmoA gene of the MMO particulate form and the amoA gene of ammonia monooxygenase; A189-mb661, which specifically targets the pmoA gene; and mmoXA-mmoXB, which amplifies the mmoX gene of the MMO soluble form (sMMO). Whole-genome amplification (WGA) was used to amplify metagenomic DNA from each community to assess its applicability for generating unbiased metagenomic template DNA. The majority of sequences in each archive were related to oxygenases of type II-like methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis. A small subset of type I sequences found only in free-living communities possessed oxygenase genes that grouped nearest to Methylobacter and Methylomonas spp. Sequences similar to that of the amoA gene associated with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) most closely matched a sequence from the uncultured bacterium BS870 but showed no substantial alignment to known cultured AOB. Based on these functional gene analyses, bacteria related to the type II methanotroph Methylocystis sp. were found to dominate both free-living and attached communities. Metagenomic DNA amplified by WGA showed characteristics similar to those of unamplified samples. Overall, numerous sMMO-like gene sequences that have been previously associated with high rates of trichloroethylene cometabolism were observed in both free-living and attached communities in this basaltic aquifer.

  2. Communities of Archaea and Bacteria in a Subsurface Radioactive Thermal Spring in the Austrian Central Alps, and Evidence of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota▿

    PubMed Central

    Weidler, Gerhard W.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gerbl, Friedrich W.; Heinen, Wolfgang; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed great morphological diversity in biofilms from several largely unexplored subterranean thermal Alpine springs, which contain radium 226 and radon 222. A culture-independent molecular analysis of microbial communities on rocks and in the water of one spring, the “Franz-Josef-Quelle” in Bad Gastein, Austria, was performed. Four hundred fifteen clones were analyzed. One hundred thirty-two sequences were affiliated with 14 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 283 with four archaeal OTUs. Rarefaction analysis indicated a high diversity of bacterial sequences, while archaeal sequences were less diverse. The majority of the cloned archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the soil-freshwater-subsurface (1.1b) crenarchaeotic group; other representatives belonged to the freshwater-wastewater-soil (1.3b) group, except one clone, which was related to a group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota. These findings support recent reports that Crenarchaeota are not restricted to high-temperature environments. Most of the bacterial sequences were related to the Proteobacteria (α, β, γ, and δ), Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. One OTU was allied with Nitrospina sp. (δ-Proteobacteria) and three others grouped with Nitrospira. Statistical analyses suggested high diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analyses; the rarefaction plot of archaeal clones showed a plateau. Since Crenarchaeota have been implicated recently in the nitrogen cycle, the spring environment was probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Sequences were obtained which were related to crenarchaeotic amoA genes from marine and soil habitats. The data suggested that nitrification processes are occurring in the subterranean environment and that ammonia may possibly be an energy source for the resident communities. PMID:17085711

  3. Communities of archaea and bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps, and evidence of ammonia-oxidizing Crenarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Weidler, Gerhard W; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gerbl, Friedrich W; Heinen, Wolfgang; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed great morphological diversity in biofilms from several largely unexplored subterranean thermal Alpine springs, which contain radium 226 and radon 222. A culture-independent molecular analysis of microbial communities on rocks and in the water of one spring, the "Franz-Josef-Quelle" in Bad Gastein, Austria, was performed. Four hundred fifteen clones were analyzed. One hundred thirty-two sequences were affiliated with 14 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 283 with four archaeal OTUs. Rarefaction analysis indicated a high diversity of bacterial sequences, while archaeal sequences were less diverse. The majority of the cloned archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the soil-freshwater-subsurface (1.1b) crenarchaeotic group; other representatives belonged to the freshwater-wastewater-soil (1.3b) group, except one clone, which was related to a group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota. These findings support recent reports that Crenarchaeota are not restricted to high-temperature environments. Most of the bacterial sequences were related to the Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta), Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. One OTU was allied with Nitrospina sp. (delta-Proteobacteria) and three others grouped with Nitrospira. Statistical analyses suggested high diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analyses; the rarefaction plot of archaeal clones showed a plateau. Since Crenarchaeota have been implicated recently in the nitrogen cycle, the spring environment was probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Sequences were obtained which were related to crenarchaeotic amoA genes from marine and soil habitats. The data suggested that nitrification processes are occurring in the subterranean environment and that ammonia may possibly be an energy source for the resident communities.

  4. Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, Jennifer L; Burr, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Stein, Otto R; Camper, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands offer an effective means for treatment of wastewater from a variety of sources. An understanding of the microbial ecology controlling nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycles in constructed wetlands has been identified as the greatest gap for optimizing performance of these promising treatment systems. It is suspected that operational factors such as plant types and hydraulic operation influence the subsurface wetland environment, especially redox, and that the observed variation in effluent quality is due to shifts in the microbial populations and/or their activity. This study investigated the biofilm associated sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (using the dsrB and amoA genes, respectively) by examining a variety of surfaces within a model wetland (gravel, thick roots, fine roots, effluent), and the changes in activity (gene abundance) of these functional groups as influenced by plant species and season. Molecular techniques were used including quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), both with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. PMA treatment is a method for excluding from further analysis those cells with compromised membranes. Rigorous statistical analysis showed an interaction between the abundance of these two functional groups with the type of plant and season (p < 0.05). The richness of the sulfate reducing bacterial community, as indicated by DGGE profiles, increased in planted vs. unplanted microcosms. For ammonia oxidizing bacteria, season had the greatest impact on gene abundance and diversity (higher in summer than in winter). Overall, the primary influence of plant presence is believed to be related to root oxygen loss and its effect on rhizosphere redox.

  5. Bacteria dominate the ammonia-oxidizing community in a hydrothermal vent site at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Meng; Ding, Jie-Fei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, which is carried out by two groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and the recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). In this study, diversity and abundance of AOB and AOA were investigated in five rock samples from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene sequences obtained in this study were closely related to the sequences retrieved from deep-sea environments, indicating that AOB and AOA in this hydrothermal vent site showed typical deep ocean features. AOA were more diverse but less abundant than AOB. The ratios of AOA/AOB amoA gene abundance ranged from 1/3893 to 1/242 in all investigate samples, indicating that bacteria may be the major members responding to the aerobic ammonia oxidation in this hydrothermal vent site. Furthermore, diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB were significantly correlated with the contents of total nitrogen and total sulfur in investigated samples, suggesting that these two environmental factors exert strong influences on distribution of ammonia oxidizers in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment.

  6. Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses.

    PubMed

    Paul, Blair G; Bagby, Sarah C; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Arambula, Diego; Handa, Sumit; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ghosh, Partho; Miller, Jeff F; Valentine, David L

    2015-03-23

    In the evolutionary arms race between microbes, their parasites, and their neighbours, the capacity for rapid protein diversification is a potent weapon. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) use mutagenic reverse transcription and retrohoming to generate myriad variants of a target gene. Originally discovered in pathogens, these retroelements have been identified in bacteria and their viruses, but never in archaea. Here we report the discovery of intact DGRs in two distinct intraterrestrial archaeal systems: a novel virus that appears to infect archaea in the marine subsurface, and, separately, two uncultivated nanoarchaea from the terrestrial subsurface. The viral DGR system targets putative tail fibre ligand-binding domains, potentially generating >10(18) protein variants. The two single-cell nanoarchaeal genomes each possess ≥4 distinct DGRs. Against an expected background of low genome-wide mutation rates, these results demonstrate a previously unsuspected potential for rapid, targeted sequence diversification in intraterrestrial archaea and their viruses.

  7. Targeted diversity generation by intraterrestrial archaea and archaeal viruses

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Blair G.; Bagby, Sarah C.; Czornyj, Elizabeth; Arambula, Diego; Handa, Sumit; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ghosh, Partho; Miller, Jeff F.; Valentine, David L.

    2015-01-01

    In the evolutionary arms race between microbes, their parasites, and their neighbours, the capacity for rapid protein diversification is a potent weapon. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) use mutagenic reverse transcription and retrohoming to generate myriad variants of a target gene. Originally discovered in pathogens, these retroelements have been identified in bacteria and their viruses, but never in archaea. Here we report the discovery of intact DGRs in two distinct intraterrestrial archaeal systems: a novel virus that appears to infect archaea in the marine subsurface, and, separately, two uncultivated nanoarchaea from the terrestrial subsurface. The viral DGR system targets putative tail fibre ligand-binding domains, potentially generating >1018 protein variants. The two single-cell nanoarchaeal genomes each possess ≥4 distinct DGRs. Against an expected background of low genome-wide mutation rates, these results demonstrate a previously unsuspected potential for rapid, targeted sequence diversification in intraterrestrial archaea and their viruses. PMID:25798780

  8. Activity, abundance and structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in plateau soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhou, Qiheng; Zhao, Qun; Li, Ningning; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) can be involved in biotransformation of ammonia to nitrite in soil ecosystems. However, the distribution of AOA and AOB in plateau soils and influential factors remain largely unclear. In the present study, the activity, abundance and structure of ammonia oxidizers in different soils on the Yunnan Plateau were assessed using potential nitrification rates (PNRs), quantitative PCR assay and clone library analysis, respectively. Wide variation was found in both AOA and AOB communities in plateau soils. PNRs showed a significant positive correlation with AOB abundance. Both were determined by the ratio of organic carbon to nitrogen (C/N) and total phosphorous (TP). AOB could play a more important role in ammonia oxidation. AOB community diversity was likely affected by soil total nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC) and was usually higher than AOA community diversity. Moreover, Nitrososphaera- and Nitrosospira-like organisms, respectively, were the dominant AOA and AOB in plateau soils. AOA community structure was likely shaped by TP and C/N, while AOB community structure was determined by pH.

  9. Diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing β-proteobacteria in sediments from Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangyang; Zhen, Yu; He, Hui; Lu, Xinglan; Mi, Tiezhu; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-05-01

    Changjiang Estuary, the largest estuary in China, encompasses a wide range of nutrient loading and trophic levels from the rivers to the sea, providing an ideal natural environment to explore relationships between functional diversity, physical/chemical complexity, and ecosystem function. In this study, molecular biological techniques were used to analyze the community structure and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the sediments of Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters in East China Sea. The amoA gene (encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) libraries analysis revealed extensive diversity within the β-Proteobacteria group of AOB, which were grouped into Nitrosospira-like and Nitrosomonas-like lineages. The majority of amoA gene sequences fell within Nitrosospira-like clade, and only a few sequences were clustered with the Nitrosomonas-like clade, indicating that Nitrosospira-like lineage may be more adaptable than Nitrosomonas-like lineage in this area. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the sedimentary β-Proteobacterial amoA genotype assemblages correlated significantly with nitrate, nitrite, and salinity. The vertical profile of amoA gene copies in gravity cores showed that intense sediment resuspension led to a deeper mixing layer. The horizontal distribution pattern of amoA gene copies was nearly correlated with the clayey mud belt in Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent area in East China Sea, where higher β-Proteobacteria phylogenetic diversity was observed. Meanwhile, those areas with high amoA copies in the surface sediments nearly matched those with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ammonium in the bottom water.

  10. Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater.

  11. Wastewater effluent impacts ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes of the Grand River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Cejudo, Eduardo; Schiff, Sherry L; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-12-01

    The Grand River (Ontario, Canada) is impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release ammonia (NH3 and NH4+) into the river. In-river microbial communities help transform this ammonia into more oxidized compounds (e.g., NO3- or N2), although the spatial distribution and relative abundance of freshwater autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOP) are not well characterized. This study investigated freshwater N cycling within the Grand River, focusing on sediment and water columns, both inside and outside a WWTP effluent plume. The diversity, relative abundance, and nitrification activity of AOP were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR), targeting both 16S rRNA and functional genes, together with activity assays. The analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fingerprints showed that the WWTP effluent strongly affected autochthonous bacterial patterns in the water column but not those associated with sediment nucleic acids. Molecular and activity data demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were numerically and metabolically dominant in samples taken from outside the WWTP plume, whereas ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) dominated numerically within the WWTP effluent plume. Potential nitrification rate measurements supported the dominance of AOB activity in downstream sediment. Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were detected primarily in sediment nucleic acids. In-river AOA patterns were completely distinct from effluent AOA patterns. This study demonstrates the importance of combined molecular and activity-based studies for disentangling molecular signatures of wastewater effluent from autochthonous prokaryotic communities.

  12. Archaea.

    PubMed

    Eme, Laura; Doolittle, W Ford

    2015-10-01

    A headline on the front page of the New York Times for November 3, 1977, read "Scientists Discover a Way of Life That Predates Higher Organisms". The accompanying article described a spectacular claim by Carl Woese and George Fox to have discovered a third form of life, a new 'domain' that we now call Archaea. It's not that these microbes were unknown before, nor was it the case that their peculiarities had gone completely unnoticed. Indeed, Ralph Wolfe, in the same department at the University of Illinois as Woese, had already discovered how it was that methanogens (uniquely on the planet) make methane, and the bizarre adaptations that allow extremely halophilic archaea (then called halobacteria) and thermoacidophiles to live in the extreme environments where they do were already under investigation in many labs. But what Woese and Fox had found was that these organisms were related to each other not just in their 'extremophily' but also phylogenetically. And, most surprisingly, they were only remotely related to the rest of the prokaryotes, which we now call the domain Bacteria (Figure 1).

  13. The history of aerobic ammonia oxidizers: from the first discoveries to today.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria; Séneca, Joana; Magalhães, Catarina

    2014-07-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, has long been considered a central biological process in the global nitrogen cycle, with its first description dated 133 years ago. Until 2005, bacteria were considered the only organisms capable of nitrification. However, the recent discovery of a chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, changed our concept of the range of organisms involved in nitrification, highlighting the importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as potential players in global biogeochemical nitrogen transformations. The uniqueness of these archaea justified the creation of a novel archaeal phylum, Thaumarchaeota. These recent discoveries increased the global scientific interest within the microbial ecology society and have triggered an analysis of the importance of bacterial vs archaeal ammonia oxidation in a wide range of natural ecosystems. In this mini review we provide a chronological perspective of the current knowledge on the ammonia oxidation pathway of nitrification, based on the main physiological, ecological and genomic discoveries.

  14. The effect of human settlement on the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in tropical stream sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Mariana P.; Ávila, Marcelo P.; Keijzer, Rosalinde M.; Barbosa, Francisco A. R.; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M. A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are a diverse and functionally important group in the nitrogen cycle. Nevertheless, AOA and AOB communities driving this process remain uncharacterized in tropical freshwater sediment. Here, the effect of human settlement on the AOA and AOB diversity and abundance have been assessed by phylogenetic and quantitative PCR analyses, using archaeal and bacterial amoA and 16S rRNA genes. Overall, each environment contained specific clades of amoA and 16S rRNA genes sequences, suggesting that selective pressures lead to AOA and AOB inhabiting distinct ecological niches. Human settlement activities, as derived from increased metal and mineral nitrogen contents, appear to cause a response among the AOB community, with Nitrosomonas taking advantage over Nitrosospira in impacted environments. We also observed a dominance of AOB over AOA in mining-impacted sediments, suggesting that AOB might be the primary drivers of ammonia oxidation in these sediments. In addition, ammonia concentrations demonstrated to be the driver for the abundance of AOA, with an inversely proportional correlation between them. Our findings also revealed the presence of novel ecotypes of Thaumarchaeota, such as those related to the obligate acidophilic Nitrosotalea devanaterra at ammonia-rich places of circumneutral pH. These data add significant new information regarding AOA and AOB from tropical freshwater sediments, albeit future studies would be required to provide additional insights into the niche differentiation among these microorganisms. PMID:26379659

  15. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yuan, Chao-Lei; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75-1945 km apart) of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors.

  16. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yuan, Chao-Lei; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75–1945 km apart) of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors. PMID:26388866

  17. Habitat-associated phylogenetic community patterns of microbial ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms mediating ammonia oxidation play a fundamental role in the connection between biological nitrogen fixation and anaerobic nitrogen losses. Bacteria and Archaea ammonia oxidizers (AOB and AOA, respectively) have colonized similar habitats worldwide. Ammonia oxidation is the rate-limiting step in nitrification, and the ammonia monooxygenase (Amo) is the key enzyme involved. The molecular ecology of this process has been extensively explored by surveying the gene of the subunit A of the Amo (amoA gene). In the present study, we explored the phylogenetic community ecology of AOB and AOA, analyzing 5776 amoA gene sequences from >300 isolation sources, and clustering habitats by environmental ontologies. As a whole, phylogenetic richness was larger in AOA than in AOB, and sediments contained the highest phylogenetic richness whereas marine plankton the lowest. We also observed that freshwater ammonia oxidizers were phylogenetically richer than their marine counterparts. AOA communities were more dissimilar to each other than those of AOB, and consistent monophyletic lineages were observed for sediments, soils, and marine plankton in AOA but not in AOB. The diversification patterns showed a more constant cladogenesis through time for AOB whereas AOA apparently experienced two fast diversification events separated by a long steady-state episode. The diversification rate (γ statistic) for most of the habitats indicated γ(AOA) > γ(AOB). Soil and sediment experienced earlier bursts of diversification whereas habitats usually eutrophic and rich in ammonium such as wastewater and sludge showed accelerated diversification rates towards the present. Overall, this work shows for the first time a global picture of the phylogenetic community structure of both AOB and AOA assemblages following the strictest analytical standards, and provides an ecological view on the differential evolutionary paths experienced by widespread ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. The

  18. Diversity and Evolution of Type IV pili Systems in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2016-01-01

    Many surface structures in archaea including various types of pili and the archaellum (archaeal flagellum) are homologous to bacterial type IV pili systems (T4P). The T4P consist of multiple proteins, often with poorly conserved sequences, complicating their identification in sequenced genomes. Here we report a comprehensive census of T4P encoded in archaeal genomes using sensitive methods for protein sequence comparison. This analysis confidently identifies as T4P components about 5000 archaeal gene products, 56% of which are currently annotated as hypothetical in public databases. Combining results of this analysis with a comprehensive comparison of genomic neighborhoods of the T4P, we present models of organization of 10 most abundant variants of archaeal T4P. In addition to the differentiation between major and minor pilins, these models include extra components, such as S-layer proteins, adhesins and other membrane and intracellular proteins. For most of these systems, dedicated major pilin families are identified including numerous stand alone major pilin genes of the PilA family. Evidence is presented that secretion ATPases of the T4P and cognate TadC proteins can interact with different pilin sets. Modular evolution of T4P results in combinatorial variability of these systems. Potential regulatory or modulating proteins for the T4P are identified including KaiC family ATPases, vWA domain-containing proteins and the associated MoxR/GvpN ATPase, TFIIB homologs and multiple unrelated transcription regulators some of which are associated specific T4P. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that at least one T4P system was present in the last common ancestor of the extant archaea. Multiple cases of horizontal transfer and lineage-specific duplication of T4P loci were detected. Generally, the T4P of the archaeal TACK superphylum are more diverse and evolve notably faster than those of euryarchaea. The abundance and enormous diversity of T4P in hyperthermophilic archaea

  19. Responses of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial and Archaeal Populations to Organic Nitrogen Amendments in Low-Nutrient Groundwater ▿

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David W.; Smith, Jason M.; Francis, Christopher A.; Fujita, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for organic nitrogen addition to stimulate the in situ growth of ammonia oxidizers during a field scale bioremediation trial, samples collected from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho before, during, and after the addition of molasses and urea were subjected to PCR analysis of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were present in all of the samples tested, with AOA amoA genes outnumbering AOB amoA genes in all of the samples. Following urea addition, nitrate levels rose and bacterial amoA copy numbers increased dramatically, suggesting that urea hydrolysis stimulated nitrification. Bacterial amoA diversity was limited to two Nitrosomonas phylotypes, whereas archaeal amoA analyses revealed 20 distinct operational taxonomic units, including several that were markedly different from all previously reported sequences. Results from this study demonstrate the likelihood of stimulating ammonia-oxidizing communities during field scale manipulation of groundwater conditions to promote urea hydrolysis. PMID:20190081

  20. Responses of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal populations to organic nitrogen amendments in low-nutrient groundwater.

    PubMed

    Reed, David W; Smith, Jason M; Francis, Christopher A; Fujita, Yoshiko

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the potential for organic nitrogen addition to stimulate the in situ growth of ammonia oxidizers during a field scale bioremediation trial, samples collected from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho before, during, and after the addition of molasses and urea were subjected to PCR analysis of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were present in all of the samples tested, with AOA amoA genes outnumbering AOB amoA genes in all of the samples. Following urea addition, nitrate levels rose and bacterial amoA copy numbers increased dramatically, suggesting that urea hydrolysis stimulated nitrification. Bacterial amoA diversity was limited to two Nitrosomonas phylotypes, whereas archaeal amoA analyses revealed 20 distinct operational taxonomic units, including several that were markedly different from all previously reported sequences. Results from this study demonstrate the likelihood of stimulating ammonia-oxidizing communities during field scale manipulation of groundwater conditions to promote urea hydrolysis.

  1. Spatial distribution and factors shaping the niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in the Qiantang River, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Shen, Lidong; Lou, Liping; Tian, Guangming; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Baolan

    2013-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, the current knowledge of the distribution, diversity, and relative abundance of these two microbial groups in freshwater sediments is insufficient. We examined the spatial distribution and analyzed the possible factors leading to the niche segregation of AOA and AOB in the sediments of the Qiantang River, using clone library construction and quantitative PCR for both archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. pH and NH4(+)-N content had a significant effect on AOA abundance and AOA operational taxonomy unit (OTU) numbers. pH and organic carbon content influenced the ratio of AOA/AOB OTU numbers significantly. The influence of these factors showed an obvious spatial trend along the Qiantang River. This result suggested that AOA may contribute more than AOB to the upstream reaches of the Qiantang River, where the pH is lower and the organic carbon and NH4(+)-N contents are higher, but AOB were the principal driver of nitrification downstream, where the opposite environmental conditions were present.

  2. Response of Ammonia-oxidizing Bacterial and Archaeal Populations to Organic Nitrogen Amendments in Low-Nutrient Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Reed; Yoshiko Fujita; Jason M. Smith; Christopher A. Francis

    2010-02-01

    To better understand the fate of ammonia introduced into low-nutrient groundwater as a result of the application of a novel remediation approach for trace metal contaminants, the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) were examined in samples collected during a field trial of the approach. The ammonia is derived from microbial urea hydrolysis, which has the potential to induce the formation of calcite and remove contaminants by coprecipitation in the calcite. The in situ oxidation of the ammonia by AOB and AOA could, however, potentially destabilize the calcite and lead to elevated nitrate levels in the groundwater. To evaluate the potential for stimulating ammonia oxidation by addition of urea, samples were collected from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho before, during, and after the addition of molasses and urea, and subjected to PCR analysis of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes. AOB and AOA were present in all of the samples tested, with the AOA amoA genes more numerous in all of the samples except those collected following urea addition, when AOB genes were slightly more abundant. Following urea addition, nitrate levels rose and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOB + AOA) increased relative to the total microbial population, evidence that nitrification was stimulated by urea hydrolysis. Bacterial amoA diversity was limited to two sequence types, whereas the archaeal amoA analyses revealed 20 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including several that were significantly different from any reported previously from other environments. In view of the results from this study, the potential for stimulation of ammonia-oxidizing communities should be considered in field-scale engineering activities involving microbial urea hydrolysis in groundwater.

  3. Autotrophic Growth of Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in Freshwater Sediment Microcosms Incubated at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yucheng; Ke, Xiubin; Hernández, Marcela; Wang, Baozhan; Dumont, Marc G.; Jia, Zhongjun

    2013-01-01

    Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to ammonia oxidation, but their roles in freshwater sediments are still poorly understood. Seasonal differences in the relative activities of these groups might exist, since cultivated archaeal ammonia oxidizers have higher temperature optima than their bacterial counterparts. In this study, sediment collected from eutrophic freshwater Lake Taihu (China) was incubated at different temperatures (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C) for up to 8 weeks. We examined the active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in these sediment microcosms by using combined stable isotope probing (SIP) and molecular community analysis. The results showed that accumulation of nitrate in microcosms correlated negatively with temperature, although ammonium depletion was the same, which might have been related to enhanced activity of other nitrogen transformation processes. Incubation at different temperatures significantly changed the microbial community composition, as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. After 8 weeks of incubation, [13C]bicarbonate labeling of bacterial amoA genes, which encode the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A, and an observed increase in copy numbers indicated the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in all microcosms. Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79A3 and Nitrosomonas communis lineages dominated the heavy fraction of CsCl gradients at low and high temperatures, respectively, indicating a niche differentiation of active bacterial ammonia oxidizers along the temperature gradient. The 13C labeling of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in microcosms incubated at 4 to 25°C was minor. In contrast, significant 13C labeling of Nitrososphaera-like archaea and changes in the abundance and composition of archaeal amoA genes were observed at 37°C, implicating autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea under warmer conditions. PMID:23455342

  4. Bacterial and archaeal symbionts in the South China Sea sponge Phakellia fusca: community structure, relative abundance, and ammonia-oxidizing populations.

    PubMed

    Han, Minqi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong; Lin, Houwen

    2012-12-01

    Many biologically active natural products have been isolated from Phakellia fusca, an indigenous sponge in the South China Sea; however, the microbial symbionts of Phakellia fusca remain unknown. The present investigations on sponge microbial community are mainly based on qualitative analysis, while quantitative analysis, e.g., relative abundance, is rarely carried out, and little is known about the roles of microbial symbionts. In this study, the community structure and relative abundance of bacteria, actinobacteria, and archaea associated with Phakellia fusca were revealed by 16S rRNA gene library-based sequencing and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The ammonia-oxidizing populations were investigated based on amoA gene and anammox-specific 16S rRNA gene libraries. As a result, it was found that bacterial symbionts of sponge Phakellia fusca consist of Proteobacteria including Gamma-, Alpha-, and Delta-proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria with Gamma-proteobacteria as the predominant components. In particular, the diversity of actinobacterial symbionts in Phakellia fusca is high, which is composed of Corynebacterineae, Acidimicrobidae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, and Streptosporangineae. All the observed archaea in sponge Phakellia fusca belong to Crenarchaeota, and the detected ammonia-oxidizing populations are ammonia-oxidizing archaea, suggesting the nitrification function of sponge archaeal symbionts. According to qRT-PCR analysis, bacterial symbionts dominated the microbial community, while archaea represented the second predominant symbionts, followed by actinobacteria. The revealed diverse prokaryotic symbionts of Phakellia fusca are valuable for the understanding and in-depth utilization of Phakellia fusca microbial symbionts. This study extends our knowledge of the community, especially the relative abundance of microbial symbionts in sponges.

  5. Ammonia oxidation rates and nitrification in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Silvia E.; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrification rates, as well as the relationships between rates and ammonia oxidizer abundance (both archaeal and bacterial), were investigated in the Arabian Sea. Ammonia oxidation rates were measured directly using 15N-NH4+stable isotope additions in gas-impermeable, trace metal clean trilaminate bags (500 mL) at in situ temperature. Tracer incubations were performed at three stations at depths above, below, and within the oxycline of the open-ocean oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Ammonia oxidation rates were similar to previous open-ocean measurements, ranging from undetectable to 21.6 ± 0.1 nmol L-1 d-1. The highest rates at each station occurred at the primary nitrite maximum (above the OMZ), and rates were very low at depths greater than 900 m. The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were estimated using theamoA gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Both AOA and AOB amoA were detected above, within, and below the OMZ, although the AOA were always more abundant than the AOB, by a factor of 35-216. Nitrification rates were not directly correlated to AOA or AOB amoA abundance. These rates offer new insight into the role of nitrification in the mesopelagic zone. The abundance of AOA amoA genes at 1000 m suggests that ˜50% of the microbial biomass could be autotrophic. Additionally, the integrated nitrification rate at depth implies that nitrification could consume most of the ammonium produced by the flux of organic carbon in the mesopelagic zone.

  6. [Characteristics of soil ammonia-oxidation microbial communities in different subtropical forests, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Chun; Liu, Bu-Rong; Guo, Shuai; Wu, Qi-Feng; Qin, Hua; Wu, Jia-Sen; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different forest stands in subtropical China on the communities of soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, we characterized the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and the community structure of AOA in soils under stands of broad-leaved (BF) , Chinese fir (CF) , Pinus massoniana (PF) and moso bamboo (MB) forests using real-time quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that the AOA gene copy numbers (1.62 x 10(6)-1.88 x 10(7) per gram of dry soil) were significantly higher than those of AOB genes (2.41 x 10(5)-4.36 x 10(5) per gram of dry soil). Significantly higher soil AOA abundance was detected in the MB than that in the CF (P < 0.05), and the latter was significantly higher than that in the BF and PF soils (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the soil AOB abundance among the four forest stands. As indicated by DGGE pattern, soil AOA species varied among the four forest stands. There was a difference in the soil AOA communities between the CF and MB stands. The AOA demonstrated a competitive advantage over the AOB in the soils under these major subtropical forests. Soil pH, concentrations of soil available potassium and organic carbon as well as the forest type were the main factors that influence the variation of AOA community structure and diversity.

  7. Diversity of the DNA replication system in the Archaea domain.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Felipe; Long, Feng; Cann, Isaac; Whitman, William B

    2014-01-01

    The precise and timely duplication of the genome is essential for cellular life. It is achieved by DNA replication, a complex process that is conserved among the three domains of life. Even though the cellular structure of archaea closely resembles that of bacteria, the information processing machinery of archaea is evolutionarily more closely related to the eukaryotic system, especially for the proteins involved in the DNA replication process. While the general DNA replication mechanism is conserved among the different domains of life, modifications in functionality and in some of the specialized replication proteins are observed. Indeed, Archaea possess specific features unique to this domain. Moreover, even though the general pattern of the replicative system is the same in all archaea, a great deal of variation exists between specific groups.

  8. Tropical Archaea: Diversity associated with the surface microlayer of corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent 16S rDNA studies have focused on detecting uncultivated bacteria associated with Caribbean reef corals in an effort to address the ecological roles of coral-associated microbes. Reports of Archaea associated with fishes and marine invertebrates raised the question of whether Archaea might also be part of the coral-associated microbial community. DNA analysis of mucus from 3 reef-building species of Caribbean corals, Montastraea annularis complex, Diploria strigosa and D. labyrinthiformis in the US Virgin Islands yielded 34 groups of archaeal 16S ribotypes (defined at the level of 97% similarity). The majority (75%) was most closely matched by BLAST searches to sequences derived from marine water column samples, whereas the remaining ribotypes were most similar to sequences isolated from anoxic environments (15%) and hydrothermal vents (9%). Unlike previous 16S studies of coral-associated Bacteria, the results do not suggest specific associations between particular archaeal sequences and individual coral species. Marine Archaea (Groups I, II and III) in addition to Thermoplasma-like, methanogen, and marine benthic crenarchaeote phylotypes, were detected in the mucus of tropical corals. The finding of sequences from coral-associated Archaea that are closely related to strict and facultative anaerobes, as well as to uncultivated Archaea from other types of anoxic environments, suggests that anaerobic micro-niches may exist in coral mucus layers. Archaea, with their unique biogeochemical capabilities, broaden the scope of possible interactions between corals and their associated microbial communities.

  9. Identifying Potential Mechanisms Enabling Acidophily in the Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra”

    PubMed Central

    Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Gallois, Nicolas; Schouten, Stefan; Stein, Lisa Y.; Prosser, James I.; Nicol, Graeme W.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is dominated by two distinct groups of microorganisms in soil: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). AOA are often more abundant than AOB and dominate activity in acid soils. The mechanism of ammonia oxidation under acidic conditions has been a long-standing paradox. While high rates of ammonia oxidation are frequently measured in acid soils, cultivated ammonia oxidizers grew only at near-neutral pH when grown in standard laboratory culture. Although a number of mechanisms have been demonstrated to enable neutrophilic AOB growth at low pH in the laboratory, these have not been demonstrated in soil, and the recent cultivation of the obligately acidophilic ammonia oxidizer “Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra” provides a more parsimonious explanation for the observed high rates of activity. Analysis of the sequenced genome, transcriptional activity, and lipid content of “Ca. Nitrosotalea devanaterra” reveals that previously proposed mechanisms used by AOB for growth at low pH are not essential for archaeal ammonia oxidation in acidic environments. Instead, the genome indicates that “Ca. Nitrosotalea devanaterra” contains genes encoding both a predicted high-affinity substrate acquisition system and potential pH homeostasis mechanisms absent in neutrophilic AOA. Analysis of mRNA revealed that candidate genes encoding the proposed homeostasis mechanisms were all expressed during acidophilic growth, and lipid profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) demonstrated that the membrane lipids of “Ca. Nitrosotalea devanaterra” were not dominated by crenarchaeol, as found in neutrophilic AOA. This study for the first time describes a genome of an obligately acidophilic ammonia oxidizer and identifies potential mechanisms enabling this unique phenotype for future biochemical characterization. PMID:26896134

  10. Identifying Potential Mechanisms Enabling Acidophily in the Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra".

    PubMed

    Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Gallois, Nicolas; Schouten, Stefan; Stein, Lisa Y; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step in nitrification and is dominated by two distinct groups of microorganisms in soil: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). AOA are often more abundant than AOB and dominate activity in acid soils. The mechanism of ammonia oxidation under acidic conditions has been a long-standing paradox. While high rates of ammonia oxidation are frequently measured in acid soils, cultivated ammonia oxidizers grew only at near-neutral pH when grown in standard laboratory culture. Although a number of mechanisms have been demonstrated to enable neutrophilic AOB growth at low pH in the laboratory, these have not been demonstrated in soil, and the recent cultivation of the obligately acidophilic ammonia oxidizer "Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra" provides a more parsimonious explanation for the observed high rates of activity. Analysis of the sequenced genome, transcriptional activity, and lipid content of "Ca Nitrosotalea devanaterra" reveals that previously proposed mechanisms used by AOB for growth at low pH are not essential for archaeal ammonia oxidation in acidic environments. Instead, the genome indicates that "Ca Nitrosotalea devanaterra" contains genes encoding both a predicted high-affinity substrate acquisition system and potential pH homeostasis mechanisms absent in neutrophilic AOA. Analysis of mRNA revealed that candidate genes encoding the proposed homeostasis mechanisms were all expressed during acidophilic growth, and lipid profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) demonstrated that the membrane lipids of "Ca Nitrosotalea devanaterra" were not dominated by crenarchaeol, as found in neutrophilic AOA. This study for the first time describes a genome of an obligately acidophilic ammonia oxidizer and identifies potential mechanisms enabling this unique phenotype for future biochemical characterization. PMID:26896134

  11. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A O; Triplett, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA.

  12. Diversity, Abundance, and Spatial Distribution of Sediment Ammonia-Oxidizing Betaproteobacteria in Response to Environmental Gradients and Coastal Eutrophication in Jiaozhou Bay, China▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hongyue; Li, Jing; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Lin; Guo, Lizhong; Zhang, Zhinan; Klotz, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing anthropogenic eutrophication of Jiaozhou Bay offers an opportunity to study the influence of human activity on bacterial communities that drive biogeochemical cycling. Nitrification in coastal waters appears to be a sensitive indicator of environmental change, suggesting that function and structure of the microbial nitrifying community may be associated closely with environmental conditions. In the current study, the amoA gene was used to unravel the relationship between sediment aerobic obligate ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria (Beta-AOB) and their environment in Jiaozhou Bay. Protein sequences deduced from amoA gene sequences grouped within four distinct clusters in the Nitrosomonas lineage, including a putative new cluster. In addition, AmoA sequences belonging to three newly defined clusters in the Nitrosospira lineage were also identified. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated that the studied Beta-AOB community structures correlated with environmental parameters, of which nitrite-N and sediment sand content had significant impact on the composition, structure, and distribution of the Beta-AOB community. Both amoA clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that continental input from the nearby wastewater treatment plants and polluted rivers may have significant impact on the composition and abundance of the sediment Beta-AOB assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay. Our work is the first report of a direct link between a sedimentological parameter and the composition and distribution of the sediment Beta-AOB and indicates the potential for using the Beta-AOB community composition in general and individual isolates or environmental clones in the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage in particular as bioindicators and biotracers of pollution or freshwater or wastewater input in coastal environments. PMID:20511433

  13. Spatial and temporal dynamics of ammonia oxidizers in the sediments of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vetterli, Adrien; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) nitrifying communities in the sediments of the eutrophic Gulf of Finland (GoF) were investigated. Using clone libraries of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), we found a low richness of both AOB and AOA. The AOB amoA phylogeny matched that of AOB 16S ribosomal genes from the same samples. AOA communities were characterized by strong spatial variation while AOB communities showed notable temporal patterns. At open sea sites, where transient anoxic conditions prevail, richness of both AOA and AOB was lowest and communities were dominated by organisms with gene signatures unique to the GoF. Given the importance of nitrification as a link between the fixation of nitrogen and its removal from aquatic environments, the low diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microbes across the GoF could be of relevance for ecosystem resilience in the face of rapid global environmental changes. PMID:26722795

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of ammonia oxidizers in the sediments of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Vetterli, Adrien; Hietanen, Susanna; Leskinen, Elina

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) nitrifying communities in the sediments of the eutrophic Gulf of Finland (GoF) were investigated. Using clone libraries of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), we found a low richness of both AOB and AOA. The AOB amoA phylogeny matched that of AOB 16S ribosomal genes from the same samples. AOA communities were characterized by strong spatial variation while AOB communities showed notable temporal patterns. At open sea sites, where transient anoxic conditions prevail, richness of both AOA and AOB was lowest and communities were dominated by organisms with gene signatures unique to the GoF. Given the importance of nitrification as a link between the fixation of nitrogen and its removal from aquatic environments, the low diversity of ammonia-oxidizing microbes across the GoF could be of relevance for ecosystem resilience in the face of rapid global environmental changes.

  15. Exploring the diversity of extremely halophilic archaea in food-grade salts.

    PubMed

    Henriet, Olivier; Fourmentin, Jeanne; Delincé, Bruno; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-17

    Salting is one of the oldest means of food preservation: adding salt decreases water activity and inhibits microbial development. However, salt is also a source of living bacteria and archaea. The occurrence and diversity of viable archaea in this extreme environment were assessed in 26 food-grade salts from worldwide origin by cultivation on four culture media. Additionally, metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene was performed on nine salts. Viable archaea were observed in 14 salts and colony counts reached more than 10(5)CFU per gram in three salts. All archaeal isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the Halobacteriaceae family and were related to 17 distinct genera among which Haloarcula, Halobacterium and Halorubrum were the most represented. High-throughput sequencing generated extremely different profiles for each salt. Four of them contained a single major genus (Halorubrum, Halonotius or Haloarcula) while the others had three or more genera of similar occurrence. The number of distinct genera per salt ranged from 21 to 27. Halorubrum had a significant contribution to the archaeal diversity in seven salts; this correlates with its frequent occurrence in crystallization ponds. On the contrary, Haloquadratum walsbyi, the halophilic archaea most commonly found in solar salterns, was a minor actor of the food-grade salt diversity. Our results indicate that the occurrence and diversity of viable halophilic archaea in salt can be important, while their fate in the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion remains largely unknown. PMID:25217724

  16. Exploring the diversity of extremely halophilic archaea in food-grade salts.

    PubMed

    Henriet, Olivier; Fourmentin, Jeanne; Delincé, Bruno; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-17

    Salting is one of the oldest means of food preservation: adding salt decreases water activity and inhibits microbial development. However, salt is also a source of living bacteria and archaea. The occurrence and diversity of viable archaea in this extreme environment were assessed in 26 food-grade salts from worldwide origin by cultivation on four culture media. Additionally, metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene was performed on nine salts. Viable archaea were observed in 14 salts and colony counts reached more than 10(5)CFU per gram in three salts. All archaeal isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the Halobacteriaceae family and were related to 17 distinct genera among which Haloarcula, Halobacterium and Halorubrum were the most represented. High-throughput sequencing generated extremely different profiles for each salt. Four of them contained a single major genus (Halorubrum, Halonotius or Haloarcula) while the others had three or more genera of similar occurrence. The number of distinct genera per salt ranged from 21 to 27. Halorubrum had a significant contribution to the archaeal diversity in seven salts; this correlates with its frequent occurrence in crystallization ponds. On the contrary, Haloquadratum walsbyi, the halophilic archaea most commonly found in solar salterns, was a minor actor of the food-grade salt diversity. Our results indicate that the occurrence and diversity of viable halophilic archaea in salt can be important, while their fate in the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion remains largely unknown.

  17. Aquarium Nitrification Revisited: Thaumarchaeota Are the Dominant Ammonia Oxidizers in Freshwater Aquarium Biofilters

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Laura A.; Engel, Katja; Stearns, Jennifer C.; Masella, Andre P.; Pawliszyn, Richard; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in many terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although nitrification is the primary function of aquarium biofilters, very few studies have investigated the microorganisms responsible for this process in aquaria. This study used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Thaumarchaeota in freshwater aquarium biofilters, in addition to assessing the diversity of AOA amoA genes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries. AOA were numerically dominant in 23 of 27 freshwater biofilters, and in 12 of these biofilters AOA contributed all detectable amoA genes. Eight saltwater aquaria and two commercial aquarium nitrifier supplements were included for comparison. Both thaumarchaeal and bacterial amoA genes were detected in all saltwater samples, with AOA genes outnumbering AOB genes in five of eight biofilters. Bacterial amoA genes were abundant in both supplements, but thaumarchaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes could not be detected. For freshwater aquaria, the proportion of amoA genes from AOA relative to AOB was inversely correlated with ammonium concentration. DGGE of AOA amoA genes revealed variable diversity across samples, with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) indicating separation of freshwater and saltwater fingerprints. Composite clone libraries of AOA amoA genes revealed distinct freshwater and saltwater clusters, as well as mixed clusters containing both freshwater and saltwater amoA gene sequences. These results reveal insight into commonplace residential biofilters and suggest that aquarium biofilters may represent valuable biofilm microcosms for future studies of AOA ecology. PMID:21858055

  18. Aquarium nitrification revisited: Thaumarchaeota are the dominant ammonia oxidizers in freshwater aquarium biofilters.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Laura A; Engel, Katja; Stearns, Jennifer C; Masella, Andre P; Pawliszyn, Richard; Neufeld, Josh D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) outnumber ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in many terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although nitrification is the primary function of aquarium biofilters, very few studies have investigated the microorganisms responsible for this process in aquaria. This study used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantify the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Thaumarchaeota in freshwater aquarium biofilters, in addition to assessing the diversity of AOA amoA genes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries. AOA were numerically dominant in 23 of 27 freshwater biofilters, and in 12 of these biofilters AOA contributed all detectable amoA genes. Eight saltwater aquaria and two commercial aquarium nitrifier supplements were included for comparison. Both thaumarchaeal and bacterial amoA genes were detected in all saltwater samples, with AOA genes outnumbering AOB genes in five of eight biofilters. Bacterial amoA genes were abundant in both supplements, but thaumarchaeal amoA and 16S rRNA genes could not be detected. For freshwater aquaria, the proportion of amoA genes from AOA relative to AOB was inversely correlated with ammonium concentration. DGGE of AOA amoA genes revealed variable diversity across samples, with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) indicating separation of freshwater and saltwater fingerprints. Composite clone libraries of AOA amoA genes revealed distinct freshwater and saltwater clusters, as well as mixed clusters containing both freshwater and saltwater amoA gene sequences. These results reveal insight into commonplace residential biofilters and suggest that aquarium biofilters may represent valuable biofilm microcosms for future studies of AOA ecology.

  19. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborne, Brooke B; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many high elevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidizer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  20. Enrichment of a novel marine ammonia-oxidizing archaeon obtained from sand of an eelgrass zone.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Naoki; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Nakamura, Kyoko; Takahashi, Reiji; Yoshihara, Kiyoshi; Tokuyama, Tatsuaki

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are generally cultivated at ammonium concentrations of less than 2 mM. The physiology and abundance in the environment of AOA suggest an important role in the nitrogen cycle. We report here a novel marine ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, strain NM25 belonged to 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus', that was enriched from coastal sand of an eelgrass zone and grew in a medium containing 15 mM ammonium at 30°C. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed this crenarchaeote was related to the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus' strain SCM1, with 98.5% identity. The ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene of strain NM25 was less closely related to that of known cultivable AOA (>95%) and environmental clones (>97%). This finding suggests the existence of AOA adapted to high ammonium-containing environments.

  1. Nitrogen isotope fractionation during archaeal ammonia oxidation: Coupled estimates from isotopic measurements of ammonium and nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Bayer, Barbara; Jochum, Lara; Melcher, Michael; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments and knowledge about the nitrogen (N) isotope effect associated with their ammonia oxidation activity will allow a better understanding of natural abundance isotope ratios, and therefore N transformation processes, in the environment. Here we examine the kinetic isotope effect for ammonia oxidation in a pure soil AOA culture (Ca. Nitrososphaera viennensis) and a marine AOA enrichment culture. We estimated the isotope effect from both isotopic signatures of ammonium and nitrite over the course of ammonia oxidation. Estimates of the isotope effect based on the change in the isotopic signature of ammonium give valuable insight, because these estimates are not subject to the same concerns (e.g., accumulation of an intermediate) as estimates based on isotopic measurements of nitrite. Our results show that both the pure soil AOA culture and a marine AOA enrichment culture have similar but substantial isotope effect during ammonia consumption (31-34 per mill; based on ammonium) and nitrite production (43-45 per mill; based on nitrite). The 15N fractionation factors of both cultures tested fell in the upper range of the reported isotope effects for archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation (10-41 per mill) or were even higher than those. The isotope fractionation for nitrite production was significantly larger than for ammonium consumption, indicating that (1) some intermediate (e.g., hydroxylamine) of ammonia oxidation accumulates, allowing for a second 15N fractionation step to be expressed, (2) a fraction of ammonia oxidized is lost via gaseous N forms (e.g., NO or N2O), which is 15N-enriched or (3) a fraction of ammonium is assimilated into AOA biomass, biomass becoming 15N-enriched. The significance of these mechanisms will be explored in more detail for the soil AOA culture, based on isotope modeling and isotopic measurements of biomass and N2O.

  2. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Colin M.; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J. Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions. PMID:25506762

  3. [Distribution of Aerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments from Adjacent Waters of Rushan Bay].

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-zhu; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Lu-lu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen cycle is a key process in material circulation of marine ecosystem, which plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance. The ammonia oxidation process promoted by aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganism (AOM) is a rate-limiting step of nitrification. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR ), along with the determination of potential nitrification rates (PNR) was carried out in this study to understand the distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. The results indicated that the abundance of total ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was always greater than that of total ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the three sampling stations; the ratio of active AOB to total AOB was less than 1%, while no active AOA was detected in this study; the PNR significantly decreased after adding ampicillin which could inhibit the activity of AOB (P < 0.05). It was speculated that AOB might play a more important role in the ammonia oxidation in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. Dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature and ammonium concentrations played a significant role in distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Colin M; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions.

  5. Temperature responses of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in freshwater sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Dayong; Yu, Zhongbo; Huang, Rui; Wu, Qinglong L

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of temperature on the abundances and community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), lake microcosms were constructed and incubated at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 40 days, respectively. Temperature exhibited different effects on the abundance and diversity of archaeal and bacterial amoA gene. The elevated temperature increased the abundance of archaeal amoA gene, whereas the abundance of bacterial amoA gene decreased. The highest diversity of bacterial amoA gene was found in the 25°C treatment sample. However, the 25°C treatment sample maintained the lowest diversity of archaeal amoA gene. Most of the archaeal amoA sequences obtained in this study affiliated with the Nitrosopumilus cluster. Two sequences obtained from the 15°C treatment samples were affiliated with the Nitrosotalea cluster. N. oligotropha lineage was the most dominant bacterial amoA gene group. Several sequences affiliated to Nitrosospira and undefined N. europaea/NC. mobilis like lineage were found in the pre-incubation and 25°C treatment groups.

  6. Temperature Responses of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Freshwater Sediment Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhongbo; Huang, Rui; Wu, Qinglong L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of temperature on the abundances and community compositions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), lake microcosms were constructed and incubated at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 40 days, respectively. Temperature exhibited different effects on the abundance and diversity of archaeal and bacterial amoA gene. The elevated temperature increased the abundance of archaeal amoA gene, whereas the abundance of bacterial amoA gene decreased. The highest diversity of bacterial amoA gene was found in the 25°C treatment sample. However, the 25°C treatment sample maintained the lowest diversity of archaeal amoA gene. Most of the archaeal amoA sequences obtained in this study affiliated with the Nitrosopumilus cluster. Two sequences obtained from the 15°C treatment samples were affiliated with the Nitrosotalea cluster. N. oligotropha lineage was the most dominant bacterial amoA gene group. Several sequences affiliated to Nitrosospira and undefined N. europaea/NC. mobilis like lineage were found in the pre-incubation and 25°C treatment groups. PMID:24959960

  7. Diversity and dynamics of Archaea in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The activated sludge process is one of the most widely used methods for treatment of wastewater and the microbial community composition in the sludge is important for the process operation. While the bacterial communities have been characterized in various activated sludge systems little is known about archaeal communities in activated sludge. The diversity and dynamics of the Archaea community in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results The Archaea community was dominated by Methanosaeta-like species. During a 15 month period major changes in the community composition were only observed twice despite seasonal variations in environmental and operating conditions. Water temperature appeared to be the process parameter that affected the community composition the most. Several terminal restriction fragments also showed strong correlations with sludge properties and effluent water properties. The Archaea were estimated to make up 1.6% of total cell numbers in the activated sludge and were present both as single cells and colonies of varying sizes. Conclusions The results presented here show that Archaea can constitute a constant and integral part of the activated sludge and that it can therefore be useful to include Archaea in future studies of microbial communities in activated sludge. PMID:22784022

  8. High abundance and diversity of archaea from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Li, T.; Hu, A.; Zhang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Archaea communities from two subseafloor sediment core MD05-2896 and MD05-2902 from the south china sea were evaluated by molecular analysis. Archaea abundances determined by FISH and DAPI were over 109 cells/gram along two cores and the portion of archaea to microbial community ranged from 29% to 57% in our study, indicating the important role of archaea in South China Sea. The most of Shannon index of two sites were over 1.5, indicating the high diversity of archaea in South China Sea. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the spatial community structure of two cores were different and the geographical position, TON were the main factors for the difference. A. Depth profiles of total prokaryotic cells in sediment cores. Open square (DAPI for MD05-2896), closed square (FISH: EUB338+ARC915 for MD05-2896); open triangle (DAPI for MD05-2902), closed triangle (FISH: EUB338+ARC915 for MD05-2902) B. Archaeal percentage of total prokaryotic cells (FISH: EUB338+ARC915) in sediment cores. Open circle (MD05-2896), closed circle (MD05-2902)

  9. Responses of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to soil organic and fertilizer amendments under long-term management

    SciTech Connect

    Wessen, E.; Nyberg, K.; Jansson, J.K.; Hallin, S.

    2010-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) co-exist in soil, but their relative distribution may vary depending on the environmental conditions. Effects of changes in soil organic matter and nutrient content on the AOB and AOA are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare effects of long-term soil organic matter depletion and amendments with labile (straw) and more recalcitrant (peat) organic matter, with and without easily plant-available nitrogen, on the activities, abundances and community structures of AOB and AOA. Soil was sampled from a long-term field site in Sweden that was established in 1956. The potential ammonia oxidation rates, the AOB and AOA amoA gene abundances and the community structures of both groups based on T-RFLP of amoA genes were determined. Straw amendment during 50 years had not altered any of the measured soil parameters, while the addition of peat resulted in a significant increase of soil organic carbon as well as a decrease in pH. Nitrogen fertilization alone resulted in a small decrease in soil pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen, but an increase in primary production. Type and amount of organic matter had an impact on the AOB and AOA community structures and the AOA abundance. Our findings confirmed that AOA are abundant in soil, but showed that under certain conditions the AOB dominate, suggesting niche differentiation between the two groups at the field site. The large differences in potential rates between treatments correlated to the AOA community size, indicating that they were functionally more important in the nitrification process than the AOB. The AOA abundance was positively related to addition of labile organic carbon, which supports the idea that AOA could have alternative growth strategies using organic carbon. The AOB community size varied little in contrast to that of the AOA. This indicates that the bacterial ammonia oxidizers as a group have a greater ecophysiological diversity and

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of Archaea in the intestinal tract of termites from different lineages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhou; Han, Shuai; Fan, Shuo; Yang, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Termites are among the few arthropods that emit methane to the atmosphere, which is a significant source of global greenhouse gas due to their huge biomass on earth. In this study, phylogenetic diversity of Archaea of five termite species from different lineages were analyzed based on 16S rRNA genes. Archaea associated with wood-feeding lower termite, R. chinensis were exclusively Methanobrevibacter in the order Methanobacteriales. This type of methanogens was also found in Nasutitermes sp. and Microcerotermes sp. but not in the fungus-cultivating termites, Odontotermes formosanus and Macrotermes barneyi, which harbor Archaea of the order Methanoplasmatales and Methanosarcinales in their guts. Archaeal diversity of wood-feeding higher termites was higher than wood-feeding lower termites. The highest archaeal diversity was found in Nasutitermes sp. In addition to methanogens affiliated with the orders Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanoplasmatales, 37% of archaeal clones were affiliated with non-methanogenic Thaumarchaeota. The results of this study will be significant for further understanding of symbiotic relationship between intestinal microbiota and termites.

  11. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in estuarine and oceanic environments assessed using a functional gene microarray.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bess B; Eveillard, Damien; Kirshtein, Julie D; Nelson, Joshua D; Voytek, Mary A; Jackson, George A

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and functional gene diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated across a transect from the freshwater portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Choptank River out into the Sargasso Sea. Oligonucleotide probes (70-bp) designed to represent the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes from Chesapeake Bay clone libraries and cultivated AOB were used to construct a glass slide microarray. Hybridization patterns among the probes in 14 samples along the transect showed clear variations in amoA community composition. Probes representing uncultivated members of the Nitrosospira-like AOB dominated the probe signal, especially in the more marine samples. Of the cultivated species, only Nitrosospira briensis was detected at appreciable levels. Discrimination analysis of hybridization signals detected two guilds. Guild 1 was dominated by the marine Nitrosospira-like probe signal, and Guild 2's largest contribution was from upper bay (freshwater) sediment probes. Principal components analysis showed that Guild 1 was positively correlated with salinity, temperature and chlorophyll a concentration, while Guild 2 was positively correlated with concentrations of oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate nitrogen and carbon, suggesting that different amoA sequences represent organisms that occupy different ecological niches within the estuarine/marine environment. The trend from most diversity of AOB in the upper estuary towards dominance of a single type in the polyhaline region of the Bay is consistent with the declining importance of AOB with increasing salinity, and with the idea that AO-Archaea are the more important ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. PMID:17803777

  12. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in estuarine and oceanic environments assessed using a functional gene microarray

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, B.B.; Eveillard, D.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Nelson, J.D.; Voytek, M.A.; Jackson, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and functional gene diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated across a transect from the freshwater portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Choptank River out into the Sargasso Sea. Oligonucleotide probes (70-bp) designed to represent the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes from Chesapeake Bay clone libraries and cultivated AOB were used to construct a glass slide microarray. Hybridization patterns among the probes in 14 samples along the transect showed clear variations in amoA community composition. Probes representing uncultivated members of the Nitrosospira-like AOB dominated the probe signal, especially in the more marine samples. Of the cultivated species, only Nitrosospira briensis was detected at appreciable levels. Discrimination analysis of hybridization signals detected two guilds. Guild 1 was dominated by the marine Nitrosospira-like probe signal, and Guild 2???s largest contribution was from upper bay (freshwater) sediment probes. Principal components analysis showed that Guild 1 was positively correlated with salinity, temperature and chlorophyll a concentration, while Guild 2 was positively correlated with concentrations of oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate nitrogen and carbon, suggesting that different amoA sequences represent organisms that occupy different ecological niches within the estuarine/marine environment. The trend from most diversity of AOB in the upper estuary towards dominance of a single type in the polyhaline region of the Bay is consistent with the declining importance of AOB with increasing salinity, and with the idea that AO-Archaea are the more important ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. Sediment Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Two Plateau Freshwater Lakes at Different Trophic States.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhao, Qun; Zhou, Qiheng; Li, Ningning; Wang, Yilin; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) can contribute to ammonia biotransformation in freshwater lake ecosystems. However, the factors shaping the distribution of sediment AOA and AOB in plateau freshwater lake remains unclear. The present study investigated sediment AOA and AOB communities in two freshwater lakes (hypertrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake) on the Yunnan Plateau (China). A remarkable difference in the abundance, diversity, and composition of sediment AOA and AOB communities was observed between Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. AOB usually outnumbered AOA in Dianchi Lake, but AOA showed the dominance in Erhai Lake. Organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) might be the key determinants of AOB abundance, while AOA abundance was likely influenced by the ration of OM to TN (C/N). AOA or AOB community structure was found to be relatively similar in the same lake. TN and TP might play important roles in shaping sediment AOA and AOB compositions in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. Moreover, Nitrososphaera-like AOA were detected in Dianchi Lake. Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-like AOB were dominant in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake, respectively. Sediment AOA and AOB communities in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake were generally regulated by trophic state. PMID:26111964

  14. Sediment Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Two Plateau Freshwater Lakes at Different Trophic States.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhao, Qun; Zhou, Qiheng; Li, Ningning; Wang, Yilin; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) can contribute to ammonia biotransformation in freshwater lake ecosystems. However, the factors shaping the distribution of sediment AOA and AOB in plateau freshwater lake remains unclear. The present study investigated sediment AOA and AOB communities in two freshwater lakes (hypertrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake) on the Yunnan Plateau (China). A remarkable difference in the abundance, diversity, and composition of sediment AOA and AOB communities was observed between Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. AOB usually outnumbered AOA in Dianchi Lake, but AOA showed the dominance in Erhai Lake. Organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) might be the key determinants of AOB abundance, while AOA abundance was likely influenced by the ration of OM to TN (C/N). AOA or AOB community structure was found to be relatively similar in the same lake. TN and TP might play important roles in shaping sediment AOA and AOB compositions in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. Moreover, Nitrososphaera-like AOA were detected in Dianchi Lake. Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-like AOB were dominant in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake, respectively. Sediment AOA and AOB communities in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake were generally regulated by trophic state.

  15. Biotransformation of Two Pharmaceuticals by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon Nitrososphaera gargensis.

    PubMed

    Men, Yujie; Han, Ping; Helbling, Damian E; Jehmlich, Nico; Herbold, Craig; Gulde, Rebekka; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Gu, April Z; Johnson, David R; Wagner, Michael; Fenner, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    The biotransformation of some micropollutants has previously been observed to be positively associated with ammonia oxidation activities and the transcript abundance of the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) in nitrifying activated sludge. Given the increasing interest in and potential importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), we investigated the capabilities of an AOA pure culture, Nitrososphaera gargensis, to biotransform ten micropollutants belonging to three structurally similar groups (i.e., phenylureas, tertiary amides, and tertiary amines). N. gargensis was able to biotransform two of the tertiary amines, mianserin (MIA) and ranitidine (RAN), exhibiting similar compound specificity as two ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) strains that were tested for comparison. The same MIA and RAN biotransformation reactions were carried out by both the AOA and AOB strains. The major transformation product (TP) of MIA, α-oxo MIA was likely formed via a two-step oxidation reaction. The first hydroxylation step is typically catalyzed by monooxygenases. Three RAN TP candidates were identified from nontarget analysis. Their tentative structures and possible biotransformation pathways were proposed. The biotransformation of MIA and RAN only occurred when ammonia oxidation was active, suggesting cometabolic transformations. Consistently, a comparative proteomic analysis revealed no significant differential expression of any protein-encoding gene in N. gargensis grown on ammonium with MIA or RAN compared with standard cultivation on ammonium only. Taken together, this study provides first important insights regarding the roles played by AOA in micropollutant biotransformation. PMID:27046099

  16. Biotransformation of Two Pharmaceuticals by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon Nitrososphaera gargensis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The biotransformation of some micropollutants has previously been observed to be positively associated with ammonia oxidation activities and the transcript abundance of the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) in nitrifying activated sludge. Given the increasing interest in and potential importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), we investigated the capabilities of an AOA pure culture, Nitrososphaera gargensis, to biotransform ten micropollutants belonging to three structurally similar groups (i.e., phenylureas, tertiary amides, and tertiary amines). N. gargensis was able to biotransform two of the tertiary amines, mianserin (MIA) and ranitidine (RAN), exhibiting similar compound specificity as two ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) strains that were tested for comparison. The same MIA and RAN biotransformation reactions were carried out by both the AOA and AOB strains. The major transformation product (TP) of MIA, α-oxo MIA was likely formed via a two-step oxidation reaction. The first hydroxylation step is typically catalyzed by monooxygenases. Three RAN TP candidates were identified from nontarget analysis. Their tentative structures and possible biotransformation pathways were proposed. The biotransformation of MIA and RAN only occurred when ammonia oxidation was active, suggesting cometabolic transformations. Consistently, a comparative proteomic analysis revealed no significant differential expression of any protein-encoding gene in N. gargensis grown on ammonium with MIA or RAN compared with standard cultivation on ammonium only. Taken together, this study provides first important insights regarding the roles played by AOA in micropollutant biotransformation. PMID:27046099

  17. Effects of 30 Years of Crop Rotation and Tillage on Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Jake W; McCormick, Ian; Deen, William; Dunfield, Kari E

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) both mediate soil nitrification and may have specialized niches in the soil. Little is understood of how these microorganisms are affected by long-term crop rotation and tillage practices. In this study, we assessed abundance and gene expression of AOB and AOA under two contrasting crop rotations and tillage regimes at a 30-yr-old long-term experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Continuous corn ( L.) (CC) was compared with a corn-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat ( L.) rotation under-seeded with red clover ( L.) (RC), with conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) as subplot treatments. Soil sampling was performed during the first corn year at four time points throughout the 2010 season and at three discrete depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm). Overall, AOA abundance was found to be more than 10 times that of AOB, although AOA transcriptional activity was below detectable levels across all treatments. Crop rotation had a marginally significant effect on AOB abundance, with 1.3 times as many gene copies under the simpler CC rotation than under the more diverse RC rotation. More pronounced effects of depth on AOB abundance and gene expression were observed under NT versus CT management, and NT supported higher abundances of total archaea and AOA than CT across the growing season. We suggest that AOB may be more functionally important than AOA in this high-input agricultural soil but that NT management can promote enhanced soil archaeal populations. PMID:27136161

  18. Effects of 30 Years of Crop Rotation and Tillage on Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Jake W; McCormick, Ian; Deen, William; Dunfield, Kari E

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) both mediate soil nitrification and may have specialized niches in the soil. Little is understood of how these microorganisms are affected by long-term crop rotation and tillage practices. In this study, we assessed abundance and gene expression of AOB and AOA under two contrasting crop rotations and tillage regimes at a 30-yr-old long-term experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Continuous corn ( L.) (CC) was compared with a corn-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat ( L.) rotation under-seeded with red clover ( L.) (RC), with conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) as subplot treatments. Soil sampling was performed during the first corn year at four time points throughout the 2010 season and at three discrete depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm). Overall, AOA abundance was found to be more than 10 times that of AOB, although AOA transcriptional activity was below detectable levels across all treatments. Crop rotation had a marginally significant effect on AOB abundance, with 1.3 times as many gene copies under the simpler CC rotation than under the more diverse RC rotation. More pronounced effects of depth on AOB abundance and gene expression were observed under NT versus CT management, and NT supported higher abundances of total archaea and AOA than CT across the growing season. We suggest that AOB may be more functionally important than AOA in this high-input agricultural soil but that NT management can promote enhanced soil archaeal populations.

  19. Macroecological patterns of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Ouillon, Natascha; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2015-10-01

    Macroecological patterns are found in animals and plants, but also in micro-organisms. Macroecological and biogeographic distribution patterns in marine Archaea, however, have not been studied yet. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) show a bipolar distribution (i.e. similar communities in the northernmost and the southernmost locations, separated by distinct communities in the tropical and gyral regions) throughout the Atlantic, detectable from epipelagic to upper bathypelagic layers (<2000 m depth). This tentatively suggests an influence of the epipelagic conditions of organic matter production on bathypelagic AOA communities. The AOA communities below 2000 m depth showed a less pronounced biogeographic distribution pattern than the upper 2000 m water column. Overall, AOA in the surface and deep Atlantic waters exhibit distance-decay relationships and follow the Rapoport rule in a similar way as bacterial communities and macroorganisms. This indicates a major role of environmental conditions in shaping the community composition and assembly (species sorting) and no, or only weak limits for dispersal in the oceanic thaumarchaeal communities. However, there is indication of a different strength of these relationships between AOA and Bacteria, linked to the intrinsic differences between these two domains.

  20. Methanogenic archaea diversity in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream.

    PubMed

    Brablcová, Lenka; Buriánková, Iva; Badurová, Pavlína; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Rulík, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abundance and diversity of methanogenic archaea were studied at five localities along a longitudinal profile of a Sitka stream (Czech Republic). Samples of hyporheic sediments were collected from two sediment depths (0-25 cm and 25-50 cm) by freeze-core method. Methanogen community was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing method. The proportion of methanogens to the DAPI-stained cells varied among all localities and depths with an average value 2.08 × 10(5) per g of dry sediment with the range from 0.37 to 4.96 × 10(5) cells per g of dry sediment. A total of 73 bands were detected at 19 different positions on the DGGE gel and the highest methanogen diversity was found at the downstream located sites. There was no relationship between methanogen diversity and sediment depth. Cluster analysis of DGGE image showed three main clusters consisting of localities that differed in the number and similarity of the DGGE bands. Sequencing analysis of representative DGGE bands revealed phylotypes affiliated with members belonging to the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales. The knowledge about occurrence and diversity of methanogenic archaea in freshwater ecosystems are essential for methane dynamics in river sediments and can contribute to the understanding of global warming process.

  1. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group are abundant, diverse and widespread in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Kyoko; Lloyd, Karen G; F Biddle, Jennifer; Amann, Rudolf; Teske, Andreas; Knittel, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Members of the highly diverse Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are globally distributed in various marine and continental habitats. In this study, we applied a polyphasic approach (rRNA slot blot hybridization, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and catalyzed reporter deposition FISH) using newly developed probes and primers for the in situ detection and quantification of MCG crenarchaeota in diverse types of marine sediments and microbial mats. In general, abundance of MCG (cocci, 0.4 μm) relative to other archaea was highest (12–100%) in anoxic, low-energy environments characterized by deeper sulfate depletion and lower microbial respiration rates (P=0.06 for slot blot and P=0.05 for qPCR). When studied in high depth resolution in the White Oak River estuary and Hydrate Ridge methane seeps, changes in MCG abundance relative to total archaea and MCG phylogenetic composition did not correlate with changes in sulfate reduction or methane oxidation with depth. In addition, MCG abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.1) between seep sites (with high rates of methanotrophy) and non-seep sites (with low rates of methanotrophy). This suggests that MCG are likely not methanotrophs. MCG crenarchaeota are highly diverse and contain 17 subgroups, with a range of intragroup similarity of 82 to 94%. This high diversity and widespread distribution in subsurface sediments indicates that this group is globally important in sedimentary processes. PMID:22551871

  2. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and protozoa in a perchlorate treating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Anupama, V N; Prajeesh, P V G; Anju, S; Priya, P; Krishnakumar, B

    2015-08-01

    A microbial consortium reducing high level of perchlorate was developed and in a fed batch bioreactor using acetate as substrate perchlorate was reduced at 0.25 g/g vss. day. Under stable performance, the microbial community structure of the reactor was analyzed through molecular and phenotypic methods. The diversity of bacteria and archaea were analyzed through whole cell Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), whereas higher trophic community was analyzed phenotypically. FISH analysis revealed the presence of alpha, beta, gamma and delta proteobacteria in the sludge, dominated by beta proteobacteria (68.7%). DGGE analysis of bacteria revealed the presence of a single known perchlorate reducing bacterium-Dechloromonas, nitrate reducers like Thaeura and Azoarcus and a number of other genera so far not reported as perchlorate or nitrate reducing. The archaea community was represented by an acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta harundinacea. We have also observed the presence of an acetate consuming flagellate, Polytomella sp. in significant number in the reactor. Archaea and protozoa community in perchlorate treating bioreactor is reported first time in this study and point out further the significance of non perchlorate reducing but acetate scavenging microbial groups in acetate fed perchlorate treating reactors.

  3. Archaea on human skin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna K; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  4. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Brooke B.; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many highelevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidzer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  5. Molecular analysis of enrichment cultures of ammonia oxidizers from the Salar de Huasco, a high altitude saline wetland in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Dorador, Cristina; Busekow, Annika; Vila, Irma; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed enrichment cultures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) collected from different areas of Salar de Huasco, a high altitude, saline, pH-neutral water body in the Chilean Altiplano. Samples were inoculated into mineral media with 10 mM NH4+ at five different salt concentrations (10, 200, 400, 800 and 1,400 mM NaCl). Low diversity (up to three phylotypes per enrichment) of beta-AOB was detected using 16S rDNA and amoA clone libraries. Growth of beta-AOB was only recorded in a few enrichment cultures and varied according to site or media salinity. In total, five 16S rDNA and amoA phylotypes were found which were related to Nitrosomonas europaea/Nitrosococcus mobilis, N. marina and N. communis clusters. Phylotype 1-16S was 97% similar with N. halophila, previously isolated from Mongolian soda lakes, and phylotypes from amoA sequences were similar with yet uncultured beta-AOB from different biofilms. Sequences related to N. halophila were frequently found at all salinities. Neither gamma-AOB nor ammonia-oxidizing Archaea were recorded in these enrichment cultures. PMID:18305895

  6. Quantitative assessment of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in the epiphyton of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    Coci, M; Nicol, G W; Pilloni, G N; Schmid, M; Kamst-van Agterveld, M P; Bodelier, P L E; Laanbroek, H J

    2010-03-01

    In addition to the benthic and pelagic habitats, the epiphytic compartment of submerged macrophytes in shallow freshwater lakes offers a niche to bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities. However, the diversity, numbers, and activity of epiphytic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have long been overlooked. In the present study, we analyzed quantitatively the epiphytic communities of three shallow lakes by a potential nitrification assay and by quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes. On the basis of the m(2) of the lake surface, the gene copy numbers of epiphytic ammonia oxidizers were not significantly different from those in the benthic and pelagic compartments. The potential ammonia-oxidizing activities measured in the epiphytic compartment were also not significantly different from the activities determined in the benthic compartment. No potential ammonia-oxidizing activities were observed in the pelagic compartment. No activity was detected in the epiphyton of Chara aspera, the dominant submerged macrophyte in Lake Nuldernauw in The Netherlands. The presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial cells in the epiphyton of Potamogeton pectinatus was also demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization microscopy images. By comparing the community composition as assessed by the 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, it was concluded that the epiphytic ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted of cells that were also present in the benthic and pelagic compartments. Of the environmental parameters examined, only the water retention time, the Kjeldahl nitrogen content, and the total phosphorus content correlated with potential ammonia-oxidizing activities. None of these parameters correlated with the numbers of gene copies related to ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria.

  7. Marine ammonia-oxidizing archaeal isolates display obligate mixotrophy and wide ecotypic variation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Amin, Shady A.; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Walker, Christopher B.; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Devol, Allan H.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Moffett, James W.; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Stahl, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are now implicated in exerting significant control over the form and availability of reactive nitrogen species in marine environments. Detailed studies of specific metabolic traits and physicochemical factors controlling their activities and distribution have not been well constrained in part due to the scarcity of isolated AOA strains. Here, we report the isolation of two new coastal marine AOA, strains PS0 and HCA1. Comparison of the new strains to Nitrosopumilus maritimus strain SCM1, the only marine AOA in pure culture thus far, demonstrated distinct adaptations to pH, salinity, organic carbon, temperature, and light. Strain PS0 sustained nearly 80% of ammonia oxidation activity at a pH as low as 5.9, indicating that coastal strains may be less sensitive to the ongoing reduction in ocean pH. Notably, the two novel isolates are obligate mixotrophs that rely on uptake and assimilation of organic carbon compounds, suggesting a direct coupling between chemolithotrophy and organic matter assimilation in marine food webs. All three isolates showed only minor photoinhibition at 15 µE⋅m−2⋅s−1 and rapid recovery of ammonia oxidation in the dark, consistent with an AOA contribution to the primary nitrite maximum and the plausibility of a diurnal cycle of archaeal ammonia oxidation activity in the euphotic zone. Together, these findings highlight an unexpected adaptive capacity within closely related marine group I Archaea and provide new understanding of the physiological basis of the remarkable ecological success reflected by their generally high abundance in marine environments. PMID:25114236

  8. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  9. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers respond to soil factors at smaller spatial scales than the overall archaeal community does in a high Arctic polar oasis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Samiran; Kennedy, Nabla; Richardson, Alan E; Egger, Keith N; Siciliano, Steven D

    2016-06-01

    Archaea are ubiquitous and highly abundant in Arctic soils. Because of their oligotrophic nature, archaea play an important role in biogeochemical processes in nutrient-limited Arctic soils. With the existing knowledge of high archaeal abundance and functional potential in Arctic soils, this study employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) profiling and geostatistical analysis to explore spatial dependency and edaphic determinants of the overall archaeal (ARC) and ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities in a high Arctic polar oasis soil. ARC communities were spatially dependent at the 2-5 m scale (P < 0.05), whereas AOA communities were dependent at the ∼1 m scale (P < 0.0001). Soil moisture, pH, and total carbon content were key edaphic factors driving both the ARC and AOA community structure. However, AOA evenness had simultaneous correlations with dissolved organic nitrogen and mineral nitrogen, indicating a possible niche differentiation for AOA in which dry mineral and wet organic soil microsites support different AOA genotypes. Richness, evenness, and diversity indices of both ARC and AOA communities showed high spatial dependency along the landscape and resembled scaling of edaphic factors. The spatial link between archaeal community structure and soil resources found in this study has implications for predictive understanding of archaea-driven processes in polar oases. PMID:27045904

  10. Spatial distribution and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Xu, Wei; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Zhong, Tian-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is performed by nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). In the current study, the phylogenetic diversity and abundance of AOB and AOA in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean were investigated using ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) coding genes as molecular markers. The study uncovered 3 AOB unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined at sequence groups that differ by ≤5 %), which indicates lower diversity than AOA (13 OTUs obtained). All AOB amoA gene sequences were phylogenetically related to amoA sequences similar to those found in marine Nitrosospira species, and all AOA amoA gene sequences were affiliated with the marine sediment clade. Quantitative PCR revealed similar archaeal amoA gene abundances [1.68 × 10(5)-1.89 × 10(6) copies/g sediment (wet weight)] among different sites. Bacterial amoA gene abundances ranged from 5.28 × 10(3) to 2.29 × 10(6) copies/g sediment (wet weight). The AOA/AOB amoA gene abundance ratios ranged from 0.012 to 162 and were negatively correlated with total C and C/N ratio. These results suggest that organic loading may be a key factor regulating the relative abundance of AOA and AOB in deep-sea environments of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:26014493

  11. Spatial distribution and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Xu, Wei; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Zhong, Tian-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is performed by nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). In the current study, the phylogenetic diversity and abundance of AOB and AOA in deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean were investigated using ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) coding genes as molecular markers. The study uncovered 3 AOB unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined at sequence groups that differ by ≤5 %), which indicates lower diversity than AOA (13 OTUs obtained). All AOB amoA gene sequences were phylogenetically related to amoA sequences similar to those found in marine Nitrosospira species, and all AOA amoA gene sequences were affiliated with the marine sediment clade. Quantitative PCR revealed similar archaeal amoA gene abundances [1.68 × 10(5)-1.89 × 10(6) copies/g sediment (wet weight)] among different sites. Bacterial amoA gene abundances ranged from 5.28 × 10(3) to 2.29 × 10(6) copies/g sediment (wet weight). The AOA/AOB amoA gene abundance ratios ranged from 0.012 to 162 and were negatively correlated with total C and C/N ratio. These results suggest that organic loading may be a key factor regulating the relative abundance of AOA and AOB in deep-sea environments of the Pacific Ocean.

  12. Effect of vortex flows on ammonia oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Beskov, V.S.; Shpinel', E.E.

    1988-09-01

    The oxidation of ammonia over platinum sieve catalysts was investigated given the vortex flows found in industrial contact units. Mathematical and physical models were used to assess the influence of vortices on ammonia oxidation. The flow pattern of the ammonia-air mixture in the reactor was modeled as a stream with a partial recycle. It is shown that vortex flows reduce the conversion of ammonia to nitrogen monoxide and increase the passage of unconverted ammonia through the catalyst sieve. Over long contact periods, the main effect of vortices is to increase the passage of unconverted ammonia, which may lead to the formation of explosive compounds.

  13. Expanding diversity of potential bacterial partners of the methanotrophic ANME archaea using Magneto-FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembath-Reichert, E.; Green-Saxena, A.; Steele, J. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfate-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is the major sink for methane in the oceans. This process is believed to be catalyzed by as yet uncultured syntrophic consortia of ANME archaea (affiliated with the Methanosarcinales) and sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus and Desulfobulbaceae. These syntrophic consortia have been described from methane-rich habitats worldwide and appear to be most concentrated in areas of high methane flux, such as cold seeps along continental margins. The extent of the diversity and ecophysiological potential of these microbial associations is still poorly constrained. In an effort to better characterize the diversity of microorganisms forming associations with different clades of methanotrophic ANME archaea (ANME-1, ANME-2a/b/c, ANME-3) and link these organisms to potentially diagnostic metabolic genes (e.g. mcrA, dsrAB, aprA), we employed a unique culture-independent whole cell capture technique which combines Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with immuno-magnetic cell capture (Magneto-FISH). We used Magneto-FISH for targeted enrichment of specific ANME groups and their associated bacteria directly from formalin- and ethanol-fixed methane seep sediment. The identity and metabolic gene diversity of captured microorganisms were then assessed by clone library construction and sequencing. Diversity recovered from Magneto-FISH experiments using general and clade-specific ANME targeted probes show both the expected selectivity of the FISH probes (i.e. predominately ANME-2c subclade captured with an ANME-2c probe and multiple ANME groups recovered with the general probe targeting most ANME). Follow up FISH experiments were conducted to confirm physical associations between ANME and unique bacterial members (deltaproteobacteria and other non-sulfate reducing groups) that were common to multiple Magneto-FISH capture experiments. Analyses of metabolic gene diversity for archaeal

  14. Diversity of deep-sea hydrothermal vent Archaea from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Craig L.; Tiedje, James M.; Dobbs, Fred C.; Karl, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Through an examination of SSU rDNA (genes coding for SSU rRNA), the molecular phylogeny of the domain Archaea (e.g. one of the three major lineages of life) was analyzed from a microbial mat at an active, deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem located at Pele's Vents on the summit of Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. These SSU rDNAs were amplified from extracted microbial mat genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into a plasmid vector, and sequenced. The derived archaeal sequences were then used to infer the evolutionary relationships between these microbial mat community members and their closest known relatives. Of the four clones initially chosen for sequence analysis, a cluster of three phylogenetically similar PV A (Pele's Vents Archaea) clones all contained in the archaeal group I lineage of the marine Crenarchaeota were detected. A single PV A clone was contained in the archaeal group II lineage of the marine Euryarchaeota. All four of the PV A clones are novel and constitute the discovery of new archaeal taxa. From further rarefaction results of 75 archaeal SSU rDNA clones, we estimate the organismal diversity of this domain from the microbial mats located at Pele's Vents to be significantly greater than that of the bacterial domain from this same ecosystem. Analyses of archaeal diversity at both the organismal (i.e. rarefaction) and phylogenetic level suggest that hydrothermal vents, such as Pele's Vents, are intimately linked with marine archaeoplankton (a recently discovered component of marine picoplankton) detected from oceans around the world.

  15. Differential contributions of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers to nitrification in four paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baozhan; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Zhiying; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Jia, Zhongjun

    2015-05-01

    Rice paddy fields are characterized by regular flooding and nitrogen fertilization, but the functional importance of aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers under unique agricultural management is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to nitrification in four paddy soils from different geographic regions (Zi-Yang (ZY), Jiang-Du (JD), Lei-Zhou (LZ) and Jia-Xing (JX)) that are representative of the rice ecosystems in China. In urea-amended microcosms, nitrification activity varied greatly with 11.9, 9.46, 3.03 and 1.43 μg NO3(-)-N g(-1) dry weight of soil per day in the ZY, JD, LZ and JX soils, respectively, over the course of a 56-day incubation period. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed significant increases in the AOA population to various extents, suggesting that their relative contributions to ammonia oxidation activity decreased from ZY to JD to LZ. The opposite trend was observed for AOB, and the JX soil stimulated only the AOB populations. DNA-based stable-isotope probing further demonstrated that active AOA numerically outcompeted their bacterial counterparts by 37.0-, 10.5- and 1.91-fold in (13)C-DNA from ZY, JD and LZ soils, respectively, whereas AOB, but not AOA, were labeled in the JX soil during active nitrification. NOB were labeled to a much greater extent than AOA and AOB, and the addition of acetylene completely abolished the assimilation of (13)CO2 by nitrifying populations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal ammonia oxidation was predominantly catalyzed by soil fosmid 29i4-related AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage. Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB performed most bacterial ammonia oxidation in the ZY, LZ and JX soils, whereas the majority of the (13)C-AOB in the JD soil was affiliated with the Nitrosomona communis lineage. The (13)C-NOB was

  16. Differential contributions of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers to nitrification in four paddy soils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baozhan; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Zhiying; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Jia, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Rice paddy fields are characterized by regular flooding and nitrogen fertilization, but the functional importance of aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers under unique agricultural management is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to nitrification in four paddy soils from different geographic regions (Zi-Yang (ZY), Jiang-Du (JD), Lei-Zhou (LZ) and Jia-Xing (JX)) that are representative of the rice ecosystems in China. In urea-amended microcosms, nitrification activity varied greatly with 11.9, 9.46, 3.03 and 1.43 μg NO3−-N g−1 dry weight of soil per day in the ZY, JD, LZ and JX soils, respectively, over the course of a 56-day incubation period. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed significant increases in the AOA population to various extents, suggesting that their relative contributions to ammonia oxidation activity decreased from ZY to JD to LZ. The opposite trend was observed for AOB, and the JX soil stimulated only the AOB populations. DNA-based stable-isotope probing further demonstrated that active AOA numerically outcompeted their bacterial counterparts by 37.0-, 10.5- and 1.91-fold in 13C-DNA from ZY, JD and LZ soils, respectively, whereas AOB, but not AOA, were labeled in the JX soil during active nitrification. NOB were labeled to a much greater extent than AOA and AOB, and the addition of acetylene completely abolished the assimilation of 13CO2 by nitrifying populations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal ammonia oxidation was predominantly catalyzed by soil fosmid 29i4-related AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage. Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB performed most bacterial ammonia oxidation in the ZY, LZ and JX soils, whereas the majority of the 13C-AOB in the JD soil was affiliated with the Nitrosomona communis lineage. The 13C-NOB was overwhelmingly

  17. Evaluation of autotrophic growth of ammonia-oxidizers associated with granular activated carbon used for drinking water purification by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jia; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki; Shigeeda, Takaaki

    2013-12-01

    Nitrification is an important biological function of granular activated carbon (GAC) used in advanced drinking water purification processes. Newly discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have challenged the traditional understanding of ammonia oxidation, which considered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) as the sole ammonia-oxidizers. Previous studies demonstrated the predominance of AOA on GAC, but the contributions of AOA and AOB to ammonia oxidation remain unclear. In the present study, DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) was used to investigate the autotrophic growth of AOA and AOB associated with GAC at two different ammonium concentrations (0.14 mg N/L and 1.4 mg N/L). GAC samples collected from three full-scale drinking water purification plants in Tokyo, Japan, had different abundance of AOA and AOB. These samples were fed continuously with ammonium and (13)C-bicarbonate for 14 days. The DNA-SIP analysis demonstrated that only AOA assimilated (13)C-bicarbonate at low ammonium concentration, whereas AOA and AOB exhibited autotrophic growth at high ammonium concentration. This indicates that a lower ammonium concentration is preferable for AOA growth. Since AOA could not grow without ammonium, their autotrophic growth was coupled with ammonia oxidation. Overall, our results point towards an important role of AOA in nitrification in GAC filters treating low concentration of ammonium.

  18. Effects of drought on nitrogen turnover and abundances of ammonia-oxidizers in mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Kastl, E.-M.; Bauer, F.; Kienzl, S.; Hasibeder, R.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Schloter, M.; Richter, A.; Szukics, U.

    2014-06-01

    Future climate scenarios suggest an increased frequency of summer drought periods in the European Alpine Region. Drought can affect soil nitrogen (N) cycling, by altering N transformation rates, as well as the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. However, the extent to which drought affects N cycling under in situ conditions is still controversial. The goal of this study was to analyse effects of drought on soil N turnover and ammonia-oxidizer abundances. To this end we conducted a rain-exclusion experiment at two differently managed mountain grassland sites, an annually mown and occasionally fertilized meadow and an abandoned grassland. Soils were sampled before, during and after drought and were analysed for gross rates of N mineralization, microbial uptake of inorganic N, nitrification, and the abundances of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers based on gene copy numbers of the amoA gene (AOB and AOA, respectively). Our results showed that the response to drought differed between the two sites. Effects were stronger at the managed meadow, where NH4+ immobilization rates increased and AOA abundances decreased. At the abandoned site gross nitrification and NO3- immobilization rates decreased during drought, while neither AOB, nor AOA abundances were affected. The different responses of the two sites to drought were likely related to site specific differences, such as soil organic matter content, nitrogen pools and absolute soil water content, resulting from differences in land-management. At both sites rewetting after drought had only minor short-term effects on the parameters that had been affected by drought, and seven weeks after the drought no effects of drought were detectable anymore. Thus, our findings indicate that drought can have distinct transient effects on soil nitrogen cycling and ammonia-oxidizer abundances in mountain grasslands and that the effect strength could be modulated by grassland management.

  19. Effects of drought on nitrogen turnover and abundances of ammonia-oxidizers in mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Kastl, E.-M.; Bauer, F.; Kienzl, S.; Hasibeder, R.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Schloter, M.; Richter, A.; Szukics, U.

    2014-11-01

    Future climate scenarios suggest an increased frequency of summer drought periods in the European Alpine Region. Drought can affect soil nitrogen (N) cycling, by altering N transformation rates, as well as the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. However, the extent to which drought affects N cycling under in situ conditions is still controversial. The goal of this study was to analyse effects of drought on soil N turnover and ammonia-oxidizer abundances in soil without drought history. To this end we conducted rain-exclusion experiments at two differently managed mountain grassland sites, an annually mown and occasionally fertilized meadow and an abandoned grassland. Soils were sampled before, during and after drought and were analysed for potential gross rates of N mineralization, microbial uptake of inorganic N, nitrification, and the abundances of bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidizers based on gene copy numbers of the amoA gene (AOB and AOA, respectively). Drought induced different responses at the two studied sites. At the managed meadow drought increased NH4+ immobilization rates and NH4+ concentrations in the soil water solution, but led to a reduction of AOA abundance compared to controls. At the abandoned site gross nitrification and NO3- immobilization rates decreased during drought, while AOB and AOA abundances remained stable. Rewetting had only minor, short-term effects on the parameters that had been affected by drought. Seven weeks after the end of drought no differences to control plots could be detected. Thus, our findings demonstrated that in mountain grasslands drought had distinct transient effects on soil nitrogen cycling and ammonia-oxidizers, which could have been related to a niche differentiation of AOB and AOA with increasing NH4+ levels. However, the effect strength of drought was modulated by grassland management.

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea in the Mangrove Sediment of Sundarbans

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Anish; Majumder, Niladri Shekhar; Basak, Pijush; Mukherji, Shayantan; Roy, Debojyoti; Nag, Sudip; Haldar, Anwesha; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Mitra, Suparna; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most diverse and productive coastal ecosystems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental conditions particular to this biome make mangroves hotspots for microbial diversity, and the resident microbial communities play essential roles in maintenance of the ecosystem. Recently, there has been increasing interest to understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of archaea in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing resulted in approximately 142 Mb of data from three distinct mangrove areas (Godkhali, Bonnie camp, and Dhulibhashani). The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I) within our dataset. The distribution of different archaeal taxa and respective statistical analysis (SIMPER, NMDS) revealed a clear community shift along the sampling stations. The sampling stations (Godkhali and Bonnie camp) with history of higher hydrocarbon/oil pollution showed different archaeal community pattern (dominated by haloarchaea) compared to station (Dhulibhashani) with nearly pristine environment (dominated by methanogens). It is indicated that sediment archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions. PMID:26346219

  1. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea in the Mangrove Sediment of Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anish; Majumder, Niladri Shekhar; Basak, Pijush; Mukherji, Shayantan; Roy, Debojyoti; Nag, Sudip; Haldar, Anwesha; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Mitra, Suparna; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most diverse and productive coastal ecosystems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental conditions particular to this biome make mangroves hotspots for microbial diversity, and the resident microbial communities play essential roles in maintenance of the ecosystem. Recently, there has been increasing interest to understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of archaea in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing resulted in approximately 142 Mb of data from three distinct mangrove areas (Godkhali, Bonnie camp, and Dhulibhashani). The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I) within our dataset. The distribution of different archaeal taxa and respective statistical analysis (SIMPER, NMDS) revealed a clear community shift along the sampling stations. The sampling stations (Godkhali and Bonnie camp) with history of higher hydrocarbon/oil pollution showed different archaeal community pattern (dominated by haloarchaea) compared to station (Dhulibhashani) with nearly pristine environment (dominated by methanogens). It is indicated that sediment archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions. PMID:26346219

  2. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea in the Mangrove Sediment of Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anish; Majumder, Niladri Shekhar; Basak, Pijush; Mukherji, Shayantan; Roy, Debojyoti; Nag, Sudip; Haldar, Anwesha; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Mitra, Suparna; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most diverse and productive coastal ecosystems in the tropical and subtropical regions. Environmental conditions particular to this biome make mangroves hotspots for microbial diversity, and the resident microbial communities play essential roles in maintenance of the ecosystem. Recently, there has been increasing interest to understand the composition and contribution of microorganisms in mangroves. In the present study, we have analyzed the diversity and distribution of archaea in the tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing resulted in approximately 142 Mb of data from three distinct mangrove areas (Godkhali, Bonnie camp, and Dhulibhashani). The taxonomic analysis revealed the dominance of phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota (Marine Group I) within our dataset. The distribution of different archaeal taxa and respective statistical analysis (SIMPER, NMDS) revealed a clear community shift along the sampling stations. The sampling stations (Godkhali and Bonnie camp) with history of higher hydrocarbon/oil pollution showed different archaeal community pattern (dominated by haloarchaea) compared to station (Dhulibhashani) with nearly pristine environment (dominated by methanogens). It is indicated that sediment archaeal community patterns were influenced by environmental conditions.

  3. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  4. Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers Dominate in Numbers, but Bacteria Drive Gross Nitrification in N-amended Grassland Soil.

    PubMed

    Sterngren, Anna E; Hallin, Sara; Bengtson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play an important role in nitrification in terrestrial environments. Most often AOA outnumber AOB, but the relative contribution of AOA and AOB to nitrification rates remains unclear. The aim of this experiment was to test the hypotheses that high nitrogen availability would favor AOB and result in high gross nitrification rates, while high carbon availability would result in low nitrogen concentrations that favor the activity of AOA. The hypotheses were tested in a microcosm experiment where sugars, ammonium, or amino acids were added regularly to a grassland soil for a period of 33 days. The abundance of amoA genes from AOB increased markedly in treatments that received nitrogen, suggesting that AOB were the main ammonia oxidizers here. However, AOB could not account for the entire ammonia oxidation activity observed in treatments where the soil was deficient in available nitrogen. The findings suggest that AOA are important drivers of nitrification under nitrogen-poor conditions, but that input of easily available nitrogen results in increased abundance, activity, and relative importance of AOB for gross nitrification in grassland soil.

  5. Effect of Different Ammonia Concentrations on Community Succession of Ammonia-oxidizing Microorganisms in a Simulated Paddy Soil Column

    PubMed Central

    Baolan, Hu; Shuai, Liu; Lidong, Shen; Ping, Zheng; Xiangyang, Xu; Liping, Lou

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is performed by both ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). To explore the effect of ammonia concentration on the population dynamic changes of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, we examined changes in the abundance and community composition of AOA and AOB in different layers. Most of the archaeal amoA sequences were Nitrosotalea-related and the proportion that Nitrosotalea cluster occupied decreased in the surface layer and increased in the deep layer during the cultivation process. Nitrosopumilus-related sequences were only detected in the deep layer in the first stage and disappeared later. Both phylogenetic and quantitative analysis showed that there were increased Nitrosomonas-related sequences appeared in the surface layer where the ammonia concentration was the highest. Both AOA and AOB OTU numbers in different layers decreased under selective pressure and then recovered. The potential nitrification rates were 25.06 µg·N·L−1·g−1 dry soil·h−1 in the mid layer which was higher than the other two layers. In general, obvious population dynamic changes were found for both AOA and AOB under the selective pressure of exogenous ammonia and the changes were different in three layers of the soil column. PMID:22952893

  6. Methanogenic archaea diversity in hyporheic sediments of a small lowland stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brablcova, Lenka; Buriánková, Iva; Rulík, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Abundance and diversity of methanogenic archaea were studied at five localities along a longitudinal profile of a Sitka stream (Czech Republic). Samples of hyporheic sediments were collected from two sediment depths (0-25 cm and 25-50 cm) by freeze-core method. Methanogen community was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing method. The proportion of methanogens to the DAPI-stained cells varied among all localities and depths with an average value 2.08 × 105 per g of dry sediment. A total of 73 bands were detected at 19 different positions on the DGGE gel and the highest methanogen diversity was found at the downstream located sites. Cluster analysis of DGGE image showed three main clusters consisting of localities that differed in the number and similarity of the DGGE bands. Sequencing analysis of representative DGGE bands revealed phylotypes affiliated with members belonging to the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales. The authors are thankful to the European Social Fund and state budget of the Czech Republic for providing the financial support during this study. This work is a part of the POSTUP II project CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0041, which is mutually financed by the previously stated funding agencies.

  7. Effects of agronomic treatments on structure and function of ammonia-oxidizing communities.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J; Harris, D; Dollhopf, S L; Gross, K L; Prosser, J I; Paul, E A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different agricultural treatments and plant communities on the diversity of ammonia oxidizer populations in soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), coupled with specific oligonucleotide probing, was used to analyze 16S rRNA genes of ammonia oxidizers belonging to the beta subgroup of the division Proteobacteria by use of DNA extracted from cultivated, successional, and native deciduous forest soils. Community profiles of the different soil types were compared with nitrification rates and most-probable-number (MPN) counts. Despite significant variation in measured nitrification rates among communities, there were no differences in the DGGE banding profiles of DNAs extracted from these soils. DGGE profiles of DNA extracted from samples of MPN incubations, cultivated at a range of ammonia concentrations, showed the presence of bands not amplified from directly extracted DNA. Nitrosomonas-like bands were seen in the MPN DNA but were not detected in the DNA extracted directly from soils. These bands were detected in some samples taken from MPN incubations carried out with medium containing 1,000 microg of NH(4)(+)-N ml(-1), to the exclusion of bands detected in the native DNA. Cell concentrations of ammonia oxidizers determined by MPN counts were between 10- and 100-fold lower than those determined by competitive PCR (cPCR). Although no differences were seen in ammonia oxidizer MPN counts from the different soil treatments, cPCR revealed higher numbers in fertilized soils. The use of a combination of traditional and molecular methods to investigate the activities and compositions of ammonia oxidizers in soil demonstrates differences in fine-scale compositions among treatments that may be associated with changes in population size and function.

  8. Diversity of cultivable halophilic archaea and bacteria from superficial hypersaline sediments of Tunisian solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Boujelben, Ines; Martínez-García, Manuel; van Pelt, Jos; Maalej, Sami

    2014-10-01

    Prokaryotes in the superficial sediments are ecologically important microorganisms that are responsible for the decomposition, mineralization and subsequent recycling of organic matter. The aim of this study was to explore the phylogenetic and functional diversity of halophilic archaea and bacteria isolated from the superficial sediments of solar salterns at Sfax, Tunisia. Sixty four strains were isolated from crystallizer (TS18) and non-crystallizer (M1) ponds and submitted to genotypic characterization and evaluation by amplified ribosomal RNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) techniques. Our findings revealed that the archaeal diversity observed for 29 isolates generated five distinct patterns from the non-crystallizer M1 pond, with Halorubrum chaoviator as the most prevalent cultivable species. However, in the TS18 crystallizer pond, ten restriction patterns were observed, with the prevalence of haloarchaea EB27K, a not yet identified genotype. The construction of a neighbour-joining tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the division of the potential new species into two major groups, with four strains closely related to the sequence of the unculturable haloarchaeon EB27K and one strain to the recently described Halovenus aranensis strain. The 35 bacterial strains observed in this work were present only in the non-crystallizer pond (M1) and presented two distinct ARDRA patterns. These strains belonged to the γ-proteobacteria subdivision, with members of Salicola marasensis (83%) being the most predominant species among the isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that Salicola strains displayed different degrees of homogeneity. The results from pulsed field gel electrophoresis assays showed that the Salicola isolates could be clustered in two distinct groups with different genome sizes.

  9. Archaeal dominated ammonia-oxidizing communities in Icelandic grassland soils are moderately affected by long-term N fertilization and geothermal heating

    PubMed Central

    Daebeler, Anne; Abell, Guy C. J.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Bodrossy, Levente; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively) to the net oxidation of ammonia varies greatly between terrestrial environments. To better understand, predict and possibly manage terrestrial nitrogen turnover, we need to develop a conceptual understanding of ammonia oxidation as a function of environmental conditions including the ecophysiology of associated organisms. We examined the discrete and combined effects of mineral nitrogen deposition and geothermal heating on ammonia-oxidizing communities by sampling soils from a long-term fertilization site along a temperature gradient in Icelandic grasslands. Microarray, clone library and quantitative PCR analyses of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene accompanied by physico-chemical measurements of the soil properties were conducted. In contrast to most other terrestrial environments, the ammonia-oxidizing communities consisted almost exclusively of archaea. Their bacterial counterparts proved to be undetectable by quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggesting AOB are only of minor relevance for ammonia oxidation in these soils. Our results show that fertilization and local, geothermal warming affected detectable ammonia-oxidizing communities, but not soil chemistry: only a subset of the detected AOA phylotypes was present in higher temperature soils and AOA abundance was increased in the fertilized soils, while soil physio-chemical properties remained unchanged. Differences in distribution and structure of AOA communities were best explained by soil pH and clay content irrespective of temperature or fertilizer treatment in these grassland soils, suggesting that these factors have a greater potential for ecological niche-differentiation of AOA in soil than temperature and N fertilization. PMID:23060870

  10. [Inhibition of aromatics on ammonia-oxidizing activity of sediment].

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-hong; Hu, Hong-ying; Wei, Dong-bin; Huang, Xia; Qian, Yi

    2004-03-01

    The inhibition of 24 aromatics on ammonia-oxidizing activity of nitrifying bacteria in sediment was measured. The effects of the kind, number and position of substituted groups on ammonia-oxidizing activity of nitrifying bacteria were discussed. The inhibition of mono-substituted benzenes on ammonia-oxidizing activity of nitrifying bacteria were in order of -OH > -NO2 > -NH2 > -Cl > -CH3 > -H. The position of substituted groups of di-substituted benzenes also affected the inhibition, and the inhibitions of dimethylbenzenes(xylene) were in order of meta-> ortho-> para-. The increase in number of substituted group on benzene-ring enhanced the inhibition of aromatics studied in this study on nitrifying bacteria. There was a linear relationship between inhibition (IC50, mumol.L-1) of aromatics on ammonia-oxidizing activity and total electronegativity (sigma E) of aromatics: lgIC50 = 14.72 - 0.91 sigma E.

  11. Biogeography of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are able to oxidize ammonia and reduce nitrite to produce N2 gas. After being discovered in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), anammox bacteria were subsequently characterized in natural environments, including marine, estuary, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. Although anammox bacteria play an important role in removing fixed N from both engineered and natural ecosystems, broad scale anammox bacterial distributions have not yet been summarized. The objectives of this study were to explore global distributions and diversity of anammox bacteria and to identify factors that influence their biogeography. Over 6000 anammox 16S rRNA gene sequences from the public database were analyzed in this current study. Data ordinations indicated that salinity was an important factor governing anammox bacterial distributions, with distinct populations inhabiting natural and engineered ecosystems. Gene phylogenies and rarefaction analysis demonstrated that freshwater environments and the marine water column harbored the highest and the lowest diversity of anammox bacteria, respectively. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated that Ca. Scalindua strongly connected with other Ca. Scalindua taxa, whereas Ca. Brocadia co-occurred with taxa from both known and unknown anammox genera. Our survey provides a better understanding of ecological factors affecting anammox bacterial distributions and provides a comprehensive baseline for understanding the relationships among anammox communities in global environments. PMID:25147546

  12. Active Ammonia Oxidizers in an Acidic Soil Are Phylogenetically Closely Related to Neutrophilic Archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu

    2014-01-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the “heavy” DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that 13CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both 13C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated. PMID:24375137

  13. Active ammonia oxidizers in an acidic soil are phylogenetically closely related to neutrophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baozhan; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Dongmei; He, Yuanqiu; Jia, Zhongjun

    2014-03-01

    All cultivated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the Nitrososphaera cluster (former soil group 1.1b) are neutrophilic. Molecular surveys also indicate the existence of Nitrososphaera-like phylotypes in acidic soil, but their ecological roles are poorly understood. In this study, we present molecular evidence for the chemolithoautotrophic growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in an acidic soil with pH 4.92 using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Soil microcosm incubations demonstrated that nitrification was stimulated by urea fertilization and accompanied by a significant increase in the abundance of AOA rather than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Real-time PCR analysis of amoA genes as a function of the buoyant density of the DNA gradient following the ultracentrifugation of the total DNA extracted from SIP microcosms indicated a substantial growth of soil AOA during nitrification. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes in the "heavy" DNA fractions suggested that archaeal communities were labeled to a much greater extent than soil AOB. Acetylene inhibition further showed that (13)CO2 assimilation by nitrifying communities depended solely on ammonia oxidation activity, suggesting a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis of both (13)C-labeled amoA and 16S rRNA genes revealed that most of the active AOA were phylogenetically closely related to the neutrophilic strains Nitrososphaera viennensis EN76 and JG1 within the Nitrososphaera cluster. Our results provide strong evidence for the adaptive growth of Nitrososphaera-like AOA in acidic soil, suggesting a greater metabolic versatility of soil AOA than previously appreciated.

  14. Diversity and space-time dynamics of endophytic archaea from sugar beet in the north slope of Tianshan Mountain revealed by 454 pyrosequencing and T-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Shi, YingWu; TaPa, MuSi; Li, Chun; Yang, HongMei; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yan; Sun, Jian; Zeng, Jun; Lin, Qing; Cao, ZhenHua; OuTi, KuEr; Li, YuGuo; Lou, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Plants harbor complex and variable microbial communities. Using molecular-based techniques targeting the 16S rRNA gene, we studied the developmental stages and geographical location diversity of endophytic archaea in two locations (Shihezi and Changji) and four periods (the seedling growth, rosette formation, tuber growth and sucrose accumulation sampling periods) in the north slope of Tianshan Mountain, China. Community structure of mixed sample from 60 sugar beet plants was examined using PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In total, 5290 archaea 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from all sugar beet samples. The most abundant archaea groups in all sugar beet were Methanococci, the miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group and Thermoplasmata. There was a marked difference in diversity of endophytic archaea in sugar beet for different growth periods. The greatest number of Operational T-RFLP Units (OTUs) was detected during sucrose accumulation (298) and rosette formation (282). Endophytic archaea diversity was reduced during seedling growth (128 OTUs) and tuber growth (55 OTUs). Nine OTUs were common to all four periods of growth. There were more OTUs in Shihezi than in Changji. Clustering analysis and principal component analysis of T-RFLP data revealed distinct shifts in endophytic archaea community profiles that corresponded to plant growth stage rather than geographical location. The dynamics of endophytic archaea communities were influenced by plant growth stage. To our knowledge, this is the first report that archaea has been identified as endophytes associated with sugar beet by the culture-independent approach. The results suggest that the diversity of endophytic archaea is abundant in sugar beet.

  15. Temperature and moisture effects on ammonia oxidizer communities in cryoturbated Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsdorfer, Stefanie; Alves, Ricardo J. E.; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Bošková, Hana; Diáková, Katerina; Čapek, Petr; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Mooshammer, Maria; Urich, Tim; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Mikutta, Robert; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Schleper, Christa

    2014-05-01

    Arctic permafrost-affected soils contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) and are expected to experience drastic changes in environmental conditions, such as moisture and temperature, due to the high surface temperature increase predicted for these regions. Although the SOC decomposition processes driven by the microbiota are considered to be nitrogen (N) limited, little information about the microbial groups involved in N cycle is currently available, including their reactions to environmental changes. Here, we investigate the presence of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in distinct soil horizons from the Taymyr peninsula (Siberia, Russia), and investigate their activities under changing temperature and moisture regimes. These two groups of organisms perform the first step in nitrification, an important and rate limiting process in the global N cycle, which involves the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. The soil samples were separated into different horizons: organic topsoil (O) and subducted organic topsoil (Ajj). The samples were incubated for 18 weeks at 4, 12 and 20° C and 50, 80 and 100 % water holding capacity (WHC). AOA and AOB abundances were quantified by quantitative PCR targeting genes of the key metabolic enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase. AOA diversity was analyzed in-depth by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the same gene. Additionally, gross and net nitrification and mineralization rates were determined in order to investigate potential relationships between AOA and AOB populations and these processes, in response to the incubation treatments. We found higher abundances of AOA than AOB in the organic topsoil, whereas AOB dominated in the subducted organic topsoil. Increased temperature resulted in higher numbers of both groups at low WHC %, with AOB showing a more pronounced response. However, these effects were not observed under anaerobic conditions (100 % WHC). Deep sequencing of AOA amoA genes revealed

  16. Diverse antimicrobial interactions of halophilic archaea and bacteria extend over geographical distances and cross the domain barrier.

    PubMed

    Atanasova, Nina S; Pietilä, Maija K; Oksanen, Hanna M

    2013-10-01

    The significance of antimicrobial substances, halocins, produced by halophilic archaea and bacteria thriving in hypersaline environments is relatively unknown. It is suggested that their production might increase species diversity and give transient competitive advances to the producer strain. Halocin production is considered to be common among halophilic archaea, but there is a lack of information about halocins produced by bacteria in highly saline environments. We studied the antimicrobial activity of 68 halophilic archaea and 22 bacteria isolated from numerous geographically distant hypersaline environments. Altogether 144 antimicrobial interactions were found between the strains and aside haloarchaea, halophilic bacteria from various genera were identified as halocin producers. Close to 80% of the interactions were detected between microorganisms from different genera and in few cases, even across the domain boundary. Several of the strains produced halocins with a wide inhibitory spectrum as has been observed before. Most of the antimicrobial interactions were found between strains from distant sampling sites indicating that hypersaline environments around the world have similar microorganisms with the potential to produce wide activity range antimicrobials.

  17. Diversity of bacteria and archaea in hypersaline sediment from Death Valley National Park, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to phylogenetically analyze microorganisms from the domains Bacteria and Archaea in hypersaline sediment from Death Valley National Park. Using domain-specific primers, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using PCR, and the product was subsequently used to cr...

  18. Thaumarchaeotes abundant in refinery nitrifying sludges express amoA but are not obligate autotrophic ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Mussmann, Marc; Brito, Ivana; Pitcher, Angela; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Müller, Anneliese; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael; Head, Ian M

    2011-10-01

    Nitrification is a core process in the global nitrogen cycle that is essential for the functioning of many ecosystems. The discovery of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) within the phylum Thaumarchaeota has changed our perception of the microbiology of nitrification, in particular since their numerical dominance over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in many environments has been revealed. These and other data have led to a widely held assumption that all amoA-encoding members of the Thaumarchaeota (AEA) are autotrophic nitrifiers. In this study, 52 municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants were screened for the presence of AEA and AOB. Thaumarchaeota carrying amoA were detected in high abundance only in four industrial plants. In one plant, thaumarchaeotes closely related to soil group I.1b outnumbered AOB up to 10,000-fold, and their numbers, which can only be explained by active growth in this continuous culture system, were two to three orders of magnitude higher than could be sustained by autotrophic ammonia oxidation. Consistently, (14)CO(2) fixation could only be detected in AOB but not in AEA in actively nitrifying sludge from this plant via FISH combined with microautoradiography. Furthermore, in situ transcription of archaeal amoA, and very weak in situ labeling of crenarchaeol after addition of (13)CO(2), was independent of the addition of ammonium. These data demonstrate that some amoA-carrying group I.1b Thaumarchaeota are not obligate chemolithoautotrophs.

  19. Genomic and transcriptomic evidence for scavenging of diverse organic compounds by widespread deep-sea archaea.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Baker, Brett J; Anantharaman, Karthik; Jain, Sunit; Breier, John A; Dick, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Microbial activity is one of the most important processes to mediate the flux of organic carbon from the ocean surface to the seafloor. However, little is known about the microorganisms that underpin this key step of the global carbon cycle in the deep oceans. Here we present genomic and transcriptomic evidence that five ubiquitous archaeal groups actively use proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids and lipids as sources of carbon and energy at depths ranging from 800 to 4,950 m in hydrothermal vent plumes and pelagic background seawater across three different ocean basins. Genome-enabled metabolic reconstructions and gene expression patterns show that these marine archaea are motile heterotrophs with extensive mechanisms for scavenging organic matter. Our results shed light on the ecological and physiological properties of ubiquitous marine archaea and highlight their versatile metabolic strategies in deep oceans that might play a critical role in global carbon cycling.

  20. Genomic and transcriptomic evidence for scavenging of diverse organic compounds by widespread deep-sea archaea.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Baker, Brett J; Anantharaman, Karthik; Jain, Sunit; Breier, John A; Dick, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Microbial activity is one of the most important processes to mediate the flux of organic carbon from the ocean surface to the seafloor. However, little is known about the microorganisms that underpin this key step of the global carbon cycle in the deep oceans. Here we present genomic and transcriptomic evidence that five ubiquitous archaeal groups actively use proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids and lipids as sources of carbon and energy at depths ranging from 800 to 4,950 m in hydrothermal vent plumes and pelagic background seawater across three different ocean basins. Genome-enabled metabolic reconstructions and gene expression patterns show that these marine archaea are motile heterotrophs with extensive mechanisms for scavenging organic matter. Our results shed light on the ecological and physiological properties of ubiquitous marine archaea and highlight their versatile metabolic strategies in deep oceans that might play a critical role in global carbon cycling. PMID:26573375

  1. Genomic and transcriptomic evidence for scavenging of diverse organic compounds by widespread deep-sea archaea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Baker, Brett J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Jain, Sunit; Breier, John A.; Dick, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial activity is one of the most important processes to mediate the flux of organic carbon from the ocean surface to the seafloor. However, little is known about the microorganisms that underpin this key step of the global carbon cycle in the deep oceans. Here we present genomic and transcriptomic evidence that five ubiquitous archaeal groups actively use proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids and lipids as sources of carbon and energy at depths ranging from 800 to 4,950 m in hydrothermal vent plumes and pelagic background seawater across three different ocean basins. Genome-enabled metabolic reconstructions and gene expression patterns show that these marine archaea are motile heterotrophs with extensive mechanisms for scavenging organic matter. Our results shed light on the ecological and physiological properties of ubiquitous marine archaea and highlight their versatile metabolic strategies in deep oceans that might play a critical role in global carbon cycling. PMID:26573375

  2. Changes in N-Transforming Archaea and Bacteria in Soil during the Establishment of Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yuejian; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread adaptation of biomass production for bioenergy may influence important biogeochemical functions in the landscape, which are mainly carried out by soil microbes. Here we explore the impact of four potential bioenergy feedstock crops (maize, switchgrass, Miscanthus X giganteus, and mixed tallgrass prairie) on nitrogen cycling microorganisms in the soil by monitoring the changes in the quantity (real-time PCR) and diversity (barcoded pyrosequencing) of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA and nosZ) and 16S rRNA genes over two years after bioenergy crop establishment. The quantities of these N-cycling genes were relatively stable in all four crops, except maize (the only fertilized crop), in which the population size of AOB doubled in less than 3 months. The nitrification rate was significantly correlated with the quantity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) not bacteria (AOB), indicating that archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers. Deep sequencing revealed high diversity of nifH, archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nosZ and 16S rRNA genes, with 229, 309, 330, 331 and 8989 OTUs observed, respectively. Rarefaction analysis revealed the diversity of archaeal amoA in maize markedly decreased in the second year. Ordination analysis of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing results showed that the N-transforming microbial community structures in the soil under these crops gradually differentiated. Thus far, our two-year study has shown that specific N-transforming microbial communities develop in the soil in response to planting different bioenergy crops, and each functional group responded in a different way. Our results also suggest that cultivation of maize with N-fertilization increases the abundance of AOB and denitrifiers, reduces the diversity of AOA, and results in significant changes in the structure of denitrification community. PMID:21935454

  3. Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, J.; Stein, L. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are key microorganisms in the transformation of nitrogen intermediates in most all environments. Until recently there was very little work done to elucidate the physiology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria cultivated from variable trophic state environments. With a greater variety of ammonia-oxidizers now in pure culture the importance of comparative physiological and genomic analysis is crucial. Nearly all known physiology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria lies within the Nitrosomonas genus with Nitrosomonas europaea strain ATCC 19718 as the model. To more broadly characterize and understand the nature of obligate ammonia chemolithotrophy and the contribution of AOB to production of nitrogen oxides, Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrosospira spp. isolated from variable trophic states and with sequenced genomes, were utilized. Instantaneous ammonia- and hydroxylamine-oxidation kinetics as a function of oxygen and substrate concentration were measured using an oxygen micro-sensor. The pathway intermediates nitric oxide and nitrous oxide were measured in real time using substrate-specific micro-sensors to elucidate whether production of these molecules is stoichiometric with rates of substrate oxidation. Genomic inventory was compared among the strains to identify specific pathways and modules to explain physiological differences in kinetic rates and production of N-oxide intermediates as a condition of their adaptation to different ammonium concentrations. This work provides knowledge of how nitrogen metabolism is differentially controlled in AOB that are adapted to different concentrations of ammonium. Overall, this work will provide further insight into the control of ammonia oxidizing chemolithotrophy across representatives of the Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira genus, which can then be applied to examine additional genome-sequenced AOB isolates.

  4. Physiological plasticity of the thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii in response to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, T.; Johnson, A.; Gelsinger, D.; de la Torre, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in high temperature environments underwent a dramatic revision with the discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). The importance of AOA to the global nitrogen cycle came to light when recent studies of marine AOA demonstrated the dominance of these organisms in the ocean microbiome and their role as producers of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Understanding how AOA respond to fluctuating environments is crucial to fully comprehending their contribution to global biogeochemical cycling and climate change. In this study we use the thermophilic AOA Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii strain HL72 to explore the physiological plasticity of energy metabolism in these organisms. Previous studies have shown that HL72 grows autotrophically by aerobically oxidizing ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-). Unlike studies of marine AOA, we find that HL72 can grow over a wide ammonia concentration range (0.25 - 10 mM NH4Cl) with comparable generation times when in the presence of 0.25 to 4 mM NH4Cl. However, preliminary data indicate that amoA, the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), is upregulated at low ammonia concentrations (<50 μM) compared to growth at 1 mM. Although the ammonia oxidation pathway has not been fully elucidated, we have shown that nitric oxide (NO) appears to be a key intermediate: exponentially growing HL72 produces significant NO and the removal of NO using a scavenger reversibly inhibits growth. In addition to AMO, the HL72 genome also contains sequences for a urease encoded by subunits ureABC and an active urea transporter. Urea ((NH2)2CO) is an organic compound ubiquitous to aquatic and soil habitats that, when hydrolyzed, forms NH3 and CO2. We examined urea as an alternate source of ammonia for the ammonia oxidation pathway. HL72 grows over a wide range of urea concentrations (0.25 - 10 mM) at rates comparable to growth on ammonia. In a substrate competition experiment HL72 preferentially

  5. Localization of Methyl-Coenzyme M reductase as metabolic marker for diverse methanogenic Archaea.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Christoph; Walbaum, Ulrike; Ducki, Andrea; Heieren, Iris; Hoppert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Methyl-Coenzyme M reductase (MCR) as key enzyme for methanogenesis as well as for anaerobic oxidation of methane represents an important metabolic marker for both processes in microbial biofilms. Here, the potential of MCR-specific polyclonal antibodies as metabolic marker in various methanogenic Archaea is shown. For standard growth conditions in laboratory culture, the cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme in Methanothermobacter marburgensis, Methanothermobacter wolfei, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanosarcina mazei, and in anaerobically methane-oxidizing biofilms is demonstrated. Under growth limiting conditions on nickel-depleted media, at low linear growth of cultures, a fraction of 50-70% of the enzyme was localized close to the cytoplasmic membrane, which implies "facultative" membrane association of the enzyme. This feature may be also useful for assessment of growth-limiting conditions in microbial biofilms.

  6. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiful Alam, M.; Ren, G.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X.; Jia, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  7. Diversity of methane-cycling archaea in hydrothermal sediment investigated by general and group-specific PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Lever, Mark A; Teske, Andreas P

    2015-02-01

    The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primerpairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) and by new group specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. The mcrIRD primer pair outperformed the other general mcrA primer pairs indetection sensitivity and phylogenetic coverage. Methanotrophic ANME-1 Archaea were the only group detected with group specific primers only. The detection of 14 mcrA lineages surpasses the diversity previously found in this location. Most phylotypes have high sequence similarities to hydrogenotrophs, methylotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs previously detected at Guaymas Basin or at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and oil reservoirs worldwide. Additionally, five mcrA phylotypes belonging to newly defined lineages are detected. Two of these belong to deeply branching new orders, while the others are new species or genera of Methanopyraceae and Methermicoccaceae. Downcore diversity decreases from all groups detected in the upper 6 cm(2 to 40 °C, sulfate measurable to 4 cm) to only two groups below 6 cm (>40 °C). Despite the presence of hyperthermophilic genera (Methanopyrus, Methanocaldococcus) in cooler surface strata, no genes were detected below 10 cm (>60 °C). While mcrAbased and 16S rRNA gene-based community compositions are generally congruent, the deeply branching mcrA cannot be assigned to specific 16S rRNA gene lineages. Our study indicates that even among well-studied metabolic groups and in previously characterized model environments, major evolutionary branches are overlooked. Detecting these groups by improved molecular biological methods is a crucial first step toward understanding their roles in nature.

  8. Diversity of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Hydrothermal Sediment Investigated by General and Group-Specific PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primer pairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) and by new group-specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. The mcrIRD primer pair outperformed the other general mcrA primer pairs in detection sensitivity and phylogenetic coverage. Methanotrophic ANME-1 Archaea were the only group detected with group-specific primers only. The detection of 14 mcrA lineages surpasses the diversity previously found in this location. Most phylotypes have high sequence similarities to hydrogenotrophs, methylotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs previously detected at Guaymas Basin or at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and oil reservoirs worldwide. Additionally, five mcrA phylotypes belonging to newly defined lineages are detected. Two of these belong to deeply branching new orders, while the others are new species or genera of Methanopyraceae and Methermicoccaceae. Downcore diversity decreases from all groups detected in the upper 6 cm (∼2 to 40°C, sulfate measurable to 4 cm) to only two groups below 6 cm (>40°C). Despite the presence of hyperthermophilic genera (Methanopyrus, Methanocaldococcus) in cooler surface strata, no genes were detected below 10 cm (≥60°C). While mcrA-based and 16S rRNA gene-based community compositions are generally congruent, the deeply branching mcrA cannot be assigned to specific 16S rRNA gene lineages. Our study indicates that even among well-studied metabolic groups and in previously characterized model environments, major evolutionary branches are overlooked. Detecting these groups by improved molecular biological methods is a crucial first step toward understanding their roles in nature. PMID:25527539

  9. Factors Driving Potential Ammonia Oxidation in Canadian Arctic Ecosystems: Does Spatial Scale Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Samiran

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is a major process in nitrogen cycling, and it plays a key role in nitrogen limited soil ecosystems such as those in the arctic. Although mm-scale spatial dependency of ammonia oxidizers has been investigated, little is known about the field-scale spatial dependency of aerobic ammonia oxidation processes and ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial communities, particularly in arctic soils. The purpose of this study was to explore the drivers of ammonia oxidation at the field scale in cryosols (soils with permafrost within 1 m of the surface). We measured aerobic ammonia oxidation potential (both autotrophic and heterotrophic) and functional gene abundance (bacterial amoA and archaeal amoA) in 279 soil samples collected from three arctic ecosystems. The variability associated with quantifying genes was substantially less than the spatial variability observed in these soils, suggesting that molecular methods can be used reliably evaluate spatial dependency in arctic ecosystems. Ammonia-oxidizing archaeal and bacterial communities and aerobic ammonia oxidation were spatially autocorrelated. Gene abundances were spatially structured within 4 m, whereas biochemical processes were structured within 40 m. Ammonia oxidation was driven at small scales (<1m) by moisture and total organic carbon, whereas gene abundance and other edaphic factors drove ammonia oxidation at medium (1 to 10 m) and large (10 to 100 m) scales. In these arctic soils heterotrophs contributed between 29 and 47% of total ammonia oxidation potential. The spatial scale for aerobic ammonia oxidation genes differed from potential ammonia oxidation, suggesting that in arctic ecosystems edaphic, rather than genetic, factors are an important control on ammonia oxidation. PMID:22081570

  10. Diversity of Bacteria and Archaea in hypersaline sediment from Death Valley National Park, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Shik; Makama, Mfundi; Petito, Janine; Park, Nyun-Ho; Cohan, Frederick M; Dungan, Robert S

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to phylogenetically analyze microorganisms from the domains Bacteria and Archaea in hypersaline sediment from Death Valley National Park. Using domain-specific primers, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the product was subsequently used to create a clone library. A total of 243 bacterial clones, 99 archaeal clones, and 209 bacterial isolates were examined. The 243 clones from Bacteria were affiliated with the following groups: the Bacilli (59 clones) and Clostridia (1) of the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes (90), Proteobacteria (27), Cyanobacteria (18), Gemmatimonadetes (41), candidate division OP1 (5), Actinobacteria (1), and the Deinococcus-Thermus division (1). Within the class Bacilli, 46 of 59 clones were tentatively identified as 10 unclassified species. The majority of bacterial isolates (130 of 209) were more closely related to the Bacillus subtilis-B. licheniformis clade than to any other recognized taxon, and an Ecotype Simulation analysis of B. subtilis relatives identified four previously unknown ecotypes. Several new genera were discovered within the Bacteroidetes (4) and the Gemmatimonadetes (2). Of the 99 archaeal clones, 94 were tentatively identified as belonging to 3 new genera within the Halobacteriaceae; other clones represented novel species within each of 4 established genera.

  11. [Characteristics of sulfate reduction-ammonia oxidation reaction].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Huang, Yong; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Li; Pan, Yang; Liu, Fu-Xin

    2013-11-01

    The sulfate reduction-ammonia oxidation reaction with ANAMMOX sludge at autotrophic condition was implemented. It was found that the pH level decreased during the reaction. Elemental sulfur and nitrogen gas were the final products, while NO3(-) -N was the intermediate product during the sulfate reduction-ammonia oxidation reaction. The conversion ratio of NH4(+) -N/SO4(2-) -S decreased with the decrease in n(N)/n(S) (molar ratio) of raw water. n(N)/n(S) of raw water had little effect on the ammonia conversion ratio. Lower n(N)/n(S) could improve the SO4(2-)-S conversion ratio, but with more NH4(+) -N oxidized into NO3(-) -N, resulting in decreased n(TN)/n(TS) removal ratio. This indicates that the sulfate reduction-ammonia oxidation reaction is not an elementary reaction. Ammonia can be oxidized into NO2(-) -N or NO3(-) -N by sulfate. Shortening the reaction time would be conducive to nitrogen losses, because the reaction of NO3(-) -N production is the rate-limiting step.

  12. Diversity, biological roles and biosynthetic pathways for sugar-glycerate containing compatible solutes in bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Empadinhas, Nuno; da Costa, Milton S

    2011-08-01

    A decade ago the compatible solutes mannosylglycerate (MG) and glucosylglycerate (GG) were considered to be rare in nature. Apart from two species of thermophilic bacteria, Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and a restricted group of hyperthermophilic archaea, the Thermococcales, MG had only been identified in a few red algae. Glucosylglycerate was considered to be even rarer and had only been detected as an insignificant solute in two halophilic microorganisms, a cyanobacterium, as a component of a polysaccharide and of a glycolipid in two actinobacteria. Unlike the hyper/thermophilic MG-accumulating microorganisms, branching close to the root of the Tree of Life, those harbouring GG shared a mesophilic lifestyle. Exceptionally, the thermophilic bacterium Persephonella marina was reported to accumulate GG. However, and especially owing to the identification of the key-genes for MG and GG synthesis and to the escalating numbers of genomes available, a plethora of new organisms with the resources to synthesize these solutes has been recognized. The accumulation of GG as an 'emergency' compatible solute under combined salt stress and nitrogen-deficient conditions now seems to be a disseminated survival strategy from enterobacteria to marine cyanobacteria. In contrast, the thermophilic and extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus is the only actinobacterium known to accumulate MG, and under all growth conditions tested. This review addresses the environmental factors underlying the accumulation of MG, GG and derivatives in bacteria and archaea and their roles during stress adaptation or as precursors for more elaborated macromolecules. The diversity of pathways for MG and GG synthesis as well as those for some of their derivatives is also discussed. The importance of glycerate-derived organic solutes in the microbial world is only now being recognized. Their stress-dependent accumulation and the molecular aspects of their

  13. Effects of different fertilizers on the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in a yellow clay soil.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huaiying; Huang, Sha; Qiu, Qiongfen; Li, Yaying; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Dai, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Yellow clay paddy soil (Oxisols) is a typical soil with low productivity in southern China. Nitrification inhibitors and slow release fertilizers have been used to improve nitrogen fertilizer utilization and reduce environmental impaction of the paddy soil. However, their effects on ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in paddy soil have rarely been investigated. In the present work, we compared the influences of several slow release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors on the community structure and activities of the ammonia oxidizers in yellow clay soil. The abundances and community compositions of AOA and AOB were determined with qPCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and clone library approaches. Our results indicated that the potential nitrification rate (PNR) of the soil was significantly related to the abundances of both AOA and AOB. Nitrogen fertilizer application stimulated the growth of AOA and AOB, and the combinations of nitrapyrin with urea (NPU) and urea-formaldehyde (UF) inhibited the growth of AOA and AOB, respectively. Compared with other treatments, the applications of NPU and UF also led to significant shifts in the community compositions of AOA and AOB, respectively. NPU showed an inhibitory effect on AOA T-RF 166 bp that belonged to Nitrosotalea. UF had a negative effect on AOB T-RF 62 bp that was assigned to Nitrosospira. These results suggested that NPU inhibited PNR and increased nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by inhibiting the growth of AOA and altering AOA community. UF showed no effect on NUE but decreased AOB abundance and shifted AOB community.

  14. Genome of a Low-Salinity Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon Determined by Single-Cell and Metagenomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potanina, Anastasia; Francis, Christopher A.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be among the most abundant microorganisms on Earth and may significantly impact the global nitrogen and carbon cycles. We sequenced the genome of AOA in an enrichment culture from low-salinity sediments in San Francisco Bay using single-cell and metagenomic genome sequence data. Five single cells were isolated inside an integrated microfluidic device using laser tweezers, the cells' genomic DNA was amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) in 50 nL volumes and then sequenced by high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing. This microscopy-based approach to single-cell genomics minimizes contamination and allows correlation of high-resolution cell images with genomic sequences. Statistical properties of coverage across the five single cells, in combination with the contrasting properties of the metagenomic dataset allowed the assembly of a high-quality draft genome. The genome of this AOA, which we designate Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia SFB1, is ∼1.77 Mb with >2100 genes and a G+C content of 32%. Across the entire genome, the average nucleotide identity to Nitrosopumilus maritimus, the only AOA in pure culture, is ∼70%, suggesting this AOA represents a new genus of Crenarchaeota. Phylogenetically, the 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes of this AOA are most closely related to sequences reported from a wide variety of freshwater ecosystems. Like N. maritimus, the low-salinity AOA genome appears to have an ammonia oxidation pathway distinct from ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In contrast to other described AOA, these low-salinity AOA appear to be motile, based on the presence of numerous motility- and chemotaxis-associated genes in the genome. This genome data will be used to inform targeted physiological and metabolic studies of this novel group of AOA, which may ultimately advance our understanding of AOA metabolism and their impacts on the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. PMID

  15. Genome of a low-salinity ammonia-oxidizing archaeon determined by single-cell and metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Blainey, Paul C; Mosier, Annika C; Potanina, Anastasia; Francis, Christopher A; Quake, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are thought to be among the most abundant microorganisms on Earth and may significantly impact the global nitrogen and carbon cycles. We sequenced the genome of AOA in an enrichment culture from low-salinity sediments in San Francisco Bay using single-cell and metagenomic genome sequence data. Five single cells were isolated inside an integrated microfluidic device using laser tweezers, the cells' genomic DNA was amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) in 50 nL volumes and then sequenced by high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing. This microscopy-based approach to single-cell genomics minimizes contamination and allows correlation of high-resolution cell images with genomic sequences. Statistical properties of coverage across the five single cells, in combination with the contrasting properties of the metagenomic dataset allowed the assembly of a high-quality draft genome. The genome of this AOA, which we designate Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia SFB1, is ∼1.77 Mb with >2100 genes and a G+C content of 32%. Across the entire genome, the average nucleotide identity to Nitrosopumilus maritimus, the only AOA in pure culture, is ∼70%, suggesting this AOA represents a new genus of Crenarchaeota. Phylogenetically, the 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes of this AOA are most closely related to sequences reported from a wide variety of freshwater ecosystems. Like N. maritimus, the low-salinity AOA genome appears to have an ammonia oxidation pathway distinct from ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In contrast to other described AOA, these low-salinity AOA appear to be motile, based on the presence of numerous motility- and chemotaxis-associated genes in the genome. This genome data will be used to inform targeted physiological and metabolic studies of this novel group of AOA, which may ultimately advance our understanding of AOA metabolism and their impacts on the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. PMID

  16. Phylogenetic Diversity of Archaea and the Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Gene in Uranium Mining-Impacted Locations in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Radeva, Galina; Kenarova, Anelia; Bachvarova, Velina; Popov, Ivan; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling activities adversely affect the microbial populations of impacted sites. The negative effects of uranium on soil bacteria and fungi are well studied, but little is known about the effects of radionuclides and heavy metals on archaea. The composition and diversity of archaeal communities inhabiting the waste pile of the Sliven uranium mine and the soil of the Buhovo uranium mine were investigated using 16S rRNA gene retrieval. A total of 355 archaeal clones were selected, and their 16S rDNA inserts were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) discriminating 14 different RFLP types. All evaluated archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences belong to the 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster of Crenarchaeota. The composition of the archaeal community is distinct for each site of interest and dependent on environmental characteristics, including pollution levels. Since the members of 1.1b/Nitrososphaera cluster have been implicated in the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal communities from these sites were probed for the presence of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). Our data indicate that amoA gene sequences are distributed in a similar manner as in Crenarchaeota, suggesting that archaeal nitrification processes in uranium mining-impacted locations are under the control of the same key factors controlling archaeal diversity. PMID:24711725

  17. Diversity of Archaea in Icelandic hot springs based on 16S rRNA and chaperonin genes.

    PubMed

    Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; González-Pastor, Jose E

    2011-07-01

    The diversity of archaeal communities growing in four hot springs (65-90 °C, pH 6.5) was assessed with 16S rRNA gene primers specific for the domain Archaea. Overall, mainly uncultured members of the Desulfurococcales, the Thermoproteales and the Korarchaeota, were identified. Based on this diversity, a set of chaperonin heat-shock protein (Hsp60) gene sequences from different archaeal species were aligned to design two degenerate primer sets for the amplification of the chaperonin gene: Ths and Kor (which can also detect the korarchaeotal chaperonin gene from one of the samples). A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the chaperonin sequences retrieved and other sequences from cultured representatives. The Alpha and Beta paralogs of the chaperonin gene were observed within the main clades and orthologs among them. Cultivated representatives from these clades were assigned to either paralog in the chaperonin tree. Uncultured representatives observed in the 16S rRNA gene analysis were found to be related to the Desulfurococcales. The topologies of the 16S rRNA gene and chaperonin phylogenetic trees were compared, and similar phylogenetic relationships were observed. Our results suggest that the chaperonin Hsp60 gene may be used as a phylogenetic marker for the clades found in this extreme environment.

  18. Patterns and Determinants of Halophilic Archaea (Class Halobacteria) Diversity in Tunisian Endorheic Salt Lakes and Sebkhet Systems

    PubMed Central

    Najjari, Afef; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Cherif, Ameur

    2015-01-01

    We examined the diversity and community structure of members of the halophilic Archaea (class Halobacteria) in samples from central and southern Tunisian endorheic salt lakes and sebkhet (also known as sebkha) systems using targeted 16S rRNA gene diversity survey and quantitative PCR (qPCR) approaches. Twenty-three different samples from four distinct locations exhibiting a wide range of salinities (2% to 37%) and physical characteristics (water, salt crust, sediment, and biofilm) were examined. A total of 4,759 operational taxonomic units at the 0.03 (species-level) cutoff (OTU0.03s) belonging to 45 currently recognized genera were identified, with 8 to 43 genera (average, 30) identified per sample. In spite of the large number of genera detected per sample, only a limited number (i.e., 2 to 16) usually constituted the majority (≥80%) of encountered sequences. Halobacteria diversity showed a strong negative correlation to salinity (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.92), and community structure analysis identified salinity, rather than the location or physical characteristics of the sample, as the most important factor shaping the Halobacteria community structure. The relative abundance of genera capable of biosynthesis of the compatible solute(s) trehalose or 2-sulfotrehalose decreased with increasing salinities (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.80). Indeed, qPCR analysis demonstrated that the Halobacteria otsB (trehalose-6-phosphatase)/16S rRNA gene ratio decreases with increasing salinities (Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.87). The results highlight patterns and determinants of Halobacteria diversity at a previously unexplored ecosystem and indicate that genera lacking trehalose biosynthetic capabilities are more adapted to growth in and colonization of hypersaline (>25% salt) ecosystems than trehalose producers. PMID:25911472

  19. Simazine biodegradation and community structures of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in bioaugmented soil: impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rui; Yang, Yuyin; Sun, Weimin; Wang, Zhao; Xie, Shuguang

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources on simazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain SD1 and the community structures of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in non-agricultural soil. Soil microcosms with different treatments were constructed for herbicide biodegradation test. The relative abundance of the strain SD1 and the structures of AOA and AOB communities were assessed using quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), respectively. The co-existence of two inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonia and nitrate) had certain impact on simazine dissipation by the strain SD1. Bioaugmentation could induce a shift in the community structures of both AOA and AOB, but AOA were more responsive. Nitrogen application had significant impacts on AOA and AOB communities in bioaugmented soils. Moreover, in non-bioaugmented soil, the community structure of AOA, instead of AOB, could be quickly recovered after herbicide application. This study could add some new insights towards the impacts of nitrogen sources on s-triazine bioremediation and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil ecosystem.

  20. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from hypersaline Mono Lake, California, on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ward, B B; Martino, D P; Diaz, M C; Joye, S B

    2000-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from filtered water samples throughout the water column of Mono Lake, California. Ammonia-oxidizing members of the beta subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (beta-subdivision Proteobacteria) were detected using previously characterized PCR primers; target sequences were detected by direct amplification in both surface water and below the chemocline. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated the presence of at least four different beta-subdivision ammonia oxidizers in some samples. Subsequent sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA fragments verified the presence of sequences very similar to those of cultured Nitrosomonas strains. Two separate analyses, carried out under different conditions (different reagents, locations, PCR machines, sequencers, etc.), 2 years apart, detected similar ranges of sequence diversity in these samples. It seems likely that the physiological diversity of nitrifiers exceeds the diversity of their ribosomal sequences and that these sequences represent members of the Nitrosomonas europaea group that are acclimated to alkaline, high-salinity environments. Primers specific for Nitrosococcus oceanus, a marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria, did not amplify target from any samples. PMID:10877781

  1. Differential contributions of archaeal ammonia oxidizer ecotypes to nitrification in coastal surface waters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason M; Casciotti, Karen L; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

    2014-08-01

    The occurrence of nitrification in the oceanic water column has implications extending from local effects on the structure and activity of phytoplankton communities to broader impacts on the speciation of nitrogenous nutrients and production of nitrous oxide. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea, responsible for carrying out the majority of nitrification in the sea, are present in the marine water column as two taxonomically distinct groups. Water column group A (WCA) organisms are detected at all depths, whereas Water column group B (WCB) are present primarily below the photic zone. An open question in marine biogeochemistry is whether the taxonomic definition of WCA and WCB organisms and their observed distributions correspond to distinct ecological and biogeochemical niches. We used the natural gradients in physicochemical and biological properties that upwelling establishes in surface waters to study their roles in nitrification, and how their activity--ascertained from quantification of ecotype-specific ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and transcripts--varies in response to environmental fluctuations. Our results indicate a role for both ecotypes in nitrification in Monterey Bay surface waters. However, their respective contributions vary, due to their different sensitivities to surface water conditions. WCA organisms exhibited a remarkably consistent level of activity and their contribution to nitrification appears to be related to community size. WCB activity was less consistent and primarily constrained to colder, high nutrient and low chlorophyll waters. Overall, the results of our characterization yielded a strong, potentially predictive, relationship between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the rate of nitrification.

  2. A novel ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from wastewater treatment plant: Its enrichment, physiological and genomic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyang; Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are recently found to participate in the ammonia removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), similar to their bacterial counterparts. However, due to lack of cultivated AOA strains from WWTPs, their functions and contributions in these systems remain unclear. Here we report a novel AOA strain SAT1 enriched from activated sludge, with its physiological and genomic characteristics investigated. The maximal 16S rRNA gene similarity between SAT1 and other reported AOA strain is 96% (with “Ca. Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis”), and it is affiliated with Wastewater Cluster B (WWC-B) based on amoA gene phylogeny, a cluster within group I.1a and specific for activated sludge. Our strain is autotrophic, mesophilic (25 °C–33 °C) and neutrophilic (pH 5.0–7.0). Its genome size is 1.62 Mb, with a large fragment inversion (accounted for 68% genomic size) inside. The strain could not utilize urea due to truncation of the urea transporter gene. The lack of the pathways to synthesize usual compatible solutes makes it intolerant to high salinity (>0.03%), but could adapt to low salinity (0.005%) environments. This adaptation, together with possibly enhanced cell-biofilm attachment ability, makes it suitable for WWTPs environment. We propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae” for the strain SAT1.

  3. A novel ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from wastewater treatment plant: Its enrichment, physiological and genomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuyang; Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are recently found to participate in the ammonia removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), similar to their bacterial counterparts. However, due to lack of cultivated AOA strains from WWTPs, their functions and contributions in these systems remain unclear. Here we report a novel AOA strain SAT1 enriched from activated sludge, with its physiological and genomic characteristics investigated. The maximal 16S rRNA gene similarity between SAT1 and other reported AOA strain is 96% (with "Ca. Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis"), and it is affiliated with Wastewater Cluster B (WWC-B) based on amoA gene phylogeny, a cluster within group I.1a and specific for activated sludge. Our strain is autotrophic, mesophilic (25 °C-33 °C) and neutrophilic (pH 5.0-7.0). Its genome size is 1.62 Mb, with a large fragment inversion (accounted for 68% genomic size) inside. The strain could not utilize urea due to truncation of the urea transporter gene. The lack of the pathways to synthesize usual compatible solutes makes it intolerant to high salinity (>0.03%), but could adapt to low salinity (0.005%) environments. This adaptation, together with possibly enhanced cell-biofilm attachment ability, makes it suitable for WWTPs environment. We propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae" for the strain SAT1. PMID:27030530

  4. A novel ammonia-oxidizing archaeon from wastewater treatment plant: Its enrichment, physiological and genomic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuyang; Ding, Kun; Wen, Xianghua; Zhang, Bing; Shen, Bo; Yang, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are recently found to participate in the ammonia removal processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), similar to their bacterial counterparts. However, due to lack of cultivated AOA strains from WWTPs, their functions and contributions in these systems remain unclear. Here we report a novel AOA strain SAT1 enriched from activated sludge, with its physiological and genomic characteristics investigated. The maximal 16S rRNA gene similarity between SAT1 and other reported AOA strain is 96% (with “Ca. Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis”), and it is affiliated with Wastewater Cluster B (WWC-B) based on amoA gene phylogeny, a cluster within group I.1a and specific for activated sludge. Our strain is autotrophic, mesophilic (25 °C–33 °C) and neutrophilic (pH 5.0–7.0). Its genome size is 1.62 Mb, with a large fragment inversion (accounted for 68% genomic size) inside. The strain could not utilize urea due to truncation of the urea transporter gene. The lack of the pathways to synthesize usual compatible solutes makes it intolerant to high salinity (>0.03%), but could adapt to low salinity (0.005%) environments. This adaptation, together with possibly enhanced cell-biofilm attachment ability, makes it suitable for WWTPs environment. We propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis cloacae” for the strain SAT1. PMID:27030530

  5. Diverse, uncultivated bacteria and archaea underlying the cycling of dissolved protein in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William D; Smith, Jason M; Liu, Shuting; Liu, Zhanfei; Sakamoto, Carole M; Wilken, Susanne; Poirier, Camille; Richards, Thomas A; Keeling, Patrick J; Worden, Alexandra Z; Santoro, Alyson E

    2016-09-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) supports a significant amount of heterotrophic production in the ocean. Yet, to date, the identity and diversity of microbial groups that transform DON are not well understood. To better understand the organisms responsible for transforming high molecular weight (HMW)-DON in the upper ocean, isotopically labeled protein extract from Micromonas pusilla, a eukaryotic member of the resident phytoplankton community, was added as substrate to euphotic zone water from the central California Current system. Carbon and nitrogen remineralization rates from the added proteins ranged from 0.002 to 0.35 μmol C l(-1) per day and 0.03 to 0.27 nmol N l(-1) per day. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes linked the activity of 77 uncultivated free-living and particle-associated bacterial and archaeal taxa to the utilization of Micromonas protein extract. The high-throughput DNA-SIP method was sensitive in detecting isotopic assimilation by individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as substrate assimilation was observed after only 24 h. Many uncultivated free-living microbial taxa are newly implicated in the cycling of dissolved proteins affiliated with the Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Marine Group II (MGII) Euryarchaeota. In addition, a particle-associated community actively cycling DON was discovered, dominated by uncultivated organisms affiliated with MGII, Flavobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Bdellovibrionaceae. The number of taxa assimilating protein correlated with genomic representation of TonB-dependent receptor (TBDR)-encoding genes, suggesting a possible role of TBDR in utilization of dissolved proteins by marine microbes. Our results significantly expand the known microbial diversity mediating the cycling of dissolved proteins in the ocean.

  6. Diverse communities of active Bacteria and Archaea along oxygen gradients in coral reef sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, A.; Hannides, A. K.; Gaidos, E.

    2009-03-01

    Microbial communities inhabiting highly permeable sediments of Checker Reef in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, were characterized in relation to porewater geochemistry (O2, NO3 -, NO2 -, NH4 +, phosphate). The physiologically active part of the population, assessed by sequencing cDNA libraries of 16S rRNA amplicons, was very diverse, with an estimated ribotype richness ≥1,380 in anoxic sediment. Quantitative analysis of community structure by rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the archaeal population (9-18%) was dominated by marine Crenarchaeota (5-9%). Planctomycetales were the most abundant group in the oxic and interfacial habitat (17-19%) but were a minority (<5%) in anoxic reef sediment, where γ-Proteobacteria were numerically dominant (18%). Another 9-14% of the microbial benthos belonged to β-Proteobacteria, predominantly within the order Nitrosomonadales, many cultured representatives of which are NH4 + oxidizers. The results of this study contribute to the phylogenetic characterization of benthic microbial communities that are important in organic matter degradation and nutrient recycling in coral reef ecosystems.

  7. Enrichment and Genome Sequence of the Group I.1a Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon “Ca. Nitrosotenuis uzonensis” Representing a Clade Globally Distributed in Thermal Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Eric; Schuster, Nathalie; Hauzmayer, Sandra; Bulaev, Aleksandr; Grigor’eva, Nadezhda V.; Galushko, Alexander; Schmid, Markus; Palatinszky, Marton; Le Paslier, Denis; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum Thaumarchaeota and the high abundance of archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A encoding gene sequences in many environments have extended our perception of nitrifying microbial communities. Moreover, AOA are the only aerobic ammonia oxidizers known to be active in geothermal environments. Molecular data indicate that in many globally distributed terrestrial high-temperature habits a thaumarchaeotal lineage within the Nitrosopumilus cluster (also called “marine” group I.1a) thrives, but these microbes have neither been isolated from these systems nor functionally characterized in situ yet. In this study, we report on the enrichment and genomic characterization of a representative of this lineage from a thermal spring in Kamchatka. This thaumarchaeote, provisionally classified as “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis uzonensis”, is a moderately thermophilic, non-halophilic, chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer. The nearly complete genome sequence (assembled into a single scaffold) of this AOA confirmed the presence of the typical thaumarchaeotal pathways for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation, and indicated its ability to produce coenzyme F420 and to chemotactically react to its environment. Interestingly, like members of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum, “Candidatus N. uzonensis” also possesses a putative artubulin-encoding gene. Genome comparisons to related AOA with available genome sequences confirmed that the newly cultured AOA has an average nucleotide identity far below the species threshold and revealed a substantial degree of genomic plasticity with unique genomic regions in “Ca. N. uzonensis”, which potentially include genetic determinants of ecological niche differentiation. PMID:24278328

  8. Characterization and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in eutrophic coastal marine sediments using polyphasic molecular approaches and immunofluorescence staining.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Kurata, Shinya; Fujiwara, Taketomo; Kuroiwa, Daisuke; Maki, Hideaki; Kawabata, Sumiko; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Ando, Haruo; Kawai, Toshio; Watanabe, Masataka; Kohata, Kunio

    2006-05-01

    Tokyo Bay, a eutrophic bay in Japan, receives nutrients from wastewater plants and other urban diffuse sources via river input. A transect was conducted along a line from the Arakawa River into Tokyo Bay to investigate the ecological relationship between the river outflow and the distribution, abundance and population structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Five surficial marine sediments were collected and analysed with polyphasic approaches. Heterogeneity and genetic diversity of beta-AOB populations were examined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and amoA genes. A shift of the microbial community was detected in samples along the transect. Both 16S rRNA and amoA genes generated polymorphisms in the restriction profiles that were distinguishable at each sampling site. Two 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to determine the major ammonia oxidizers maintaining high cellular rRNA content. Two major groups were observed in the Nitrosomonas lineage; no Nitrosospira were detected. The effort to isolate novel AOB was successful; the isolate dominated in the gene libraries. For quantitative analysis, a real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed. The population sizes of beta-AOB ranged from 1.6 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(8) cells g(-1) in dry sediments, which corresponded to 0.1-1.1% of the total bacterial population. An immunofluorescence staining using anti-hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) antibody was also tested to obtain complementary data. The population sizes of ammonia oxidizers ranged between 2.4 x 10(8) and 1.2 x 10(9) cells g(-1) of dry sediments, which corresponded to 1.2-4.3% of the total bacterial fraction. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria cell numbers deduced by the two methods were correlated (R = 0.79, P < 0.01). In both methods, the number of AOB increased with the distance from the river mouth; ammonia-oxidizing

  9. Archaea in symbioses.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Christoph; Dreier, Anne; Kokoschka, Sebastian; Hoppert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, the analysis of microbial diversity in various habitats greatly increased our knowledge on the kingdom Archaea. At the same time, we became aware of the multiple ways in which Archaea may interact with each other and with organisms of other kingdoms. The large group of euryarchaeal methanogens and their methane oxidizing relatives, in particular, take part in essential steps of the global methane cycle. Both of these processes, which are in reverse to each other, are partially conducted in a symbiotic interaction with different partners, either ciliates and xylophagous animals or sulfate reducing bacteria. Other symbiotic interactions are mostly of unknown ecological significance but depend on highly specific mechanisms. This paper will give an overview on interactions between Archaea and other organisms and will point out the ecological relevance of these symbiotic processes, as long as these have been already recognized.

  10. Archaea in Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Wrede, Christoph; Dreier, Anne; Kokoschka, Sebastian; Hoppert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During the last few years, the analysis of microbial diversity in various habitats greatly increased our knowledge on the kingdom Archaea. At the same time, we became aware of the multiple ways in which Archaea may interact with each other and with organisms of other kingdoms. The large group of euryarchaeal methanogens and their methane oxidizing relatives, in particular, take part in essential steps of the global methane cycle. Both of these processes, which are in reverse to each other, are partially conducted in a symbiotic interaction with different partners, either ciliates and xylophagous animals or sulfate reducing bacteria. Other symbiotic interactions are mostly of unknown ecological significance but depend on highly specific mechanisms. This paper will give an overview on interactions between Archaea and other organisms and will point out the ecological relevance of these symbiotic processes, as long as these have been already recognized. PMID:23326206

  11. Microsite Differentiation Drives the Abundance of Soil Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria along Aridity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Soil ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are responsible for nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, and play important roles in ecosystem functioning by modulating the rates of N losses to ground water and the atmosphere. Vascular plants have been shown to modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands, the largest biome on Earth. Like plants, biotic and abiotic features such as insect nests and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique biogeochemical attributes (e.g., nutrient availability) that may modify the local abundance of AOA and AOB. However, little is known about how these biotic and abiotic features and their interactions modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands. Here, we evaluate the abundance of amoA genes from AOB and AOA within six microsites commonly found in drylands (open areas, biocrusts, ant nests, grasses, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and trees) at 21 sites from eastern Australia, including arid and mesic ecosystems that are threatened by predicted increases in aridity. Our results from structural equation modeling suggest that soil microsite differentiation alters the abundance of AOB (but not AOA) in both arid and mesic ecosystems. While the abundance of AOA sharply increased with increasing aridity in all microsites, the response of AOB abundance was microsite-dependent, with increases (nitrogen-fixing shrubs, ant nests), decreases (open areas) or no changes (grasses, biocrusts, trees) in abundance with increasing aridity. Microsites supporting the highest abundance of AOB were trees, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and ant nests. These results are linked to particular soil characteristics (e.g., total carbon and ammonium) under these microsites. Our findings advance our understanding of key drivers of functionally important microbial communities and N availability in highly heterogeneous ecosystems such as drylands, which may be obscured when different soil microsites are not explicitly considered.

  12. Microsite Differentiation Drives the Abundance of Soil Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria along Aridity Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David J.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Soil ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are responsible for nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, and play important roles in ecosystem functioning by modulating the rates of N losses to ground water and the atmosphere. Vascular plants have been shown to modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands, the largest biome on Earth. Like plants, biotic and abiotic features such as insect nests and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique biogeochemical attributes (e.g., nutrient availability) that may modify the local abundance of AOA and AOB. However, little is known about how these biotic and abiotic features and their interactions modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands. Here, we evaluate the abundance of amoA genes from AOB and AOA within six microsites commonly found in drylands (open areas, biocrusts, ant nests, grasses, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and trees) at 21 sites from eastern Australia, including arid and mesic ecosystems that are threatened by predicted increases in aridity. Our results from structural equation modeling suggest that soil microsite differentiation alters the abundance of AOB (but not AOA) in both arid and mesic ecosystems. While the abundance of AOA sharply increased with increasing aridity in all microsites, the response of AOB abundance was microsite-dependent, with increases (nitrogen-fixing shrubs, ant nests), decreases (open areas) or no changes (grasses, biocrusts, trees) in abundance with increasing aridity. Microsites supporting the highest abundance of AOB were trees, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and ant nests. These results are linked to particular soil characteristics (e.g., total carbon and ammonium) under these microsites. Our findings advance our understanding of key drivers of functionally important microbial communities and N availability in highly heterogeneous ecosystems such as drylands, which may be obscured when different soil microsites are not explicitly considered. PMID:27148194

  13. Differential contributions of archaeal ammonia oxidizer ecotypes to nitrification in coastal surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jason M; Casciotti, Karen L; Chavez, Francisco P; Francis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of nitrification in the oceanic water column has implications extending from local effects on the structure and activity of phytoplankton communities to broader impacts on the speciation of nitrogenous nutrients and production of nitrous oxide. The ammonia-oxidizing archaea, responsible for carrying out the majority of nitrification in the sea, are present in the marine water column as two taxonomically distinct groups. Water column group A (WCA) organisms are detected at all depths, whereas Water column group B (WCB) are present primarily below the photic zone. An open question in marine biogeochemistry is whether the taxonomic definition of WCA and WCB organisms and their observed distributions correspond to distinct ecological and biogeochemical niches. We used the natural gradients in physicochemical and biological properties that upwelling establishes in surface waters to study their roles in nitrification, and how their activity—ascertained from quantification of ecotype-specific ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and transcripts—varies in response to environmental fluctuations. Our results indicate a role for both ecotypes in nitrification in Monterey Bay surface waters. However, their respective contributions vary, due to their different sensitivities to surface water conditions. WCA organisms exhibited a remarkably consistent level of activity and their contribution to nitrification appears to be related to community size. WCB activity was less consistent and primarily constrained to colder, high nutrient and low chlorophyll waters. Overall, the results of our characterization yielded a strong, potentially predictive, relationship between archaeal amoA gene abundance and the rate of nitrification. PMID:24553472

  14. Microsite Differentiation Drives the Abundance of Soil Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria along Aridity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Soil ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are responsible for nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, and play important roles in ecosystem functioning by modulating the rates of N losses to ground water and the atmosphere. Vascular plants have been shown to modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands, the largest biome on Earth. Like plants, biotic and abiotic features such as insect nests and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) have unique biogeochemical attributes (e.g., nutrient availability) that may modify the local abundance of AOA and AOB. However, little is known about how these biotic and abiotic features and their interactions modulate the abundance of AOA and AOB in drylands. Here, we evaluate the abundance of amoA genes from AOB and AOA within six microsites commonly found in drylands (open areas, biocrusts, ant nests, grasses, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and trees) at 21 sites from eastern Australia, including arid and mesic ecosystems that are threatened by predicted increases in aridity. Our results from structural equation modeling suggest that soil microsite differentiation alters the abundance of AOB (but not AOA) in both arid and mesic ecosystems. While the abundance of AOA sharply increased with increasing aridity in all microsites, the response of AOB abundance was microsite-dependent, with increases (nitrogen-fixing shrubs, ant nests), decreases (open areas) or no changes (grasses, biocrusts, trees) in abundance with increasing aridity. Microsites supporting the highest abundance of AOB were trees, nitrogen-fixing shrubs, and ant nests. These results are linked to particular soil characteristics (e.g., total carbon and ammonium) under these microsites. Our findings advance our understanding of key drivers of functionally important microbial communities and N availability in highly heterogeneous ecosystems such as drylands, which may be obscured when different soil microsites are not explicitly considered. PMID:27148194

  15. Habitat specialization along a wetland moisture gradient differs between ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ariane L; Matthews, Jeffrey W; Kent, Angela D

    2014-08-01

    Gradients in abiotic parameters, such as soil moisture,can strongly influence microbial community structure and function. Denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms,in particular, have contrasting physiological responses to abiotic factors such as oxygen concentration and soil moisture. Identifying abiotic factors that govern the composition and activity of denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing communities is critical for understanding the nitrogen cycle.The objectives of this study were to (i) examine denitrifier andarchaeal ammonia oxidizer community composition and (ii) assess the taxa occurring within each functional group related to soil conditions along an environmental gradient. Soil was sampled across four transects at four locations along a dry to saturated environmental gradient at a restored wetland. Soil pH and soil organic matter content increased from dry to saturated plots. Composition of soil denitrifier and ammonia oxidizer functional groups was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community analysis, and local soil factors were also characterized. Microbial community composition of denitrifiers and ammonia oxidizers differed along the moisture gradient (denitrifier:ANOSIM R = 0.739, P < 0.001; ammonia oxidizers: ANOSIMR = 0.760, P < 0.001). Individual denitrifier taxa were observed over a larger range of moisture levels than individual archaeal ammonia oxidizer taxa (Wilcoxon rank sum, W = 2413, P value = 0.0002). Together, our data suggest that variation in environmental tolerance of microbial taxa have potential to influence nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. Spatial Interaction of Archaeal Ammonia-Oxidizers and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in an Unfertilized Grassland Soil.

    PubMed

    Stempfhuber, Barbara; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Regan, Kathleen M; Kölbl, Angelika; Wüst, Pia K; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Friedrich, Michael W; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Interrelated successive transformation steps of nitrification are performed by distinct microbial groups - the ammonia-oxidizers, comprising ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira, which are the dominant genera in the investigated soils. Hence, not only their presence and activity in the investigated habitat is required for nitrification, but also their temporal and spatial interactions. To demonstrate the interdependence of both groups and to address factors promoting putative niche differentiation within each group, temporal and spatial changes in nitrifying organisms were monitored in an unfertilized grassland site over an entire vegetation period at the plot scale of 10 m(2). Nitrifying organisms were assessed by measuring the abundance of marker genes (amoA for AOA and AOB, nxrA for Nitrobacter, 16S rRNA gene for Nitrospira) selected for the respective sub-processes. A positive correlation between numerically dominant AOA and Nitrospira, and their co-occurrence at the same spatial scale in August and October, suggests that the nitrification process is predominantly performed by these groups and is restricted to a limited timeframe. Amongst nitrite-oxidizers, niche differentiation was evident in observed seasonally varying patterns of co-occurrence and spatial separation. While their distributions were most likely driven by substrate concentrations, oxygen availability may also have played a role under substrate-limited conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed temporal shifts in Nitrospira community composition with an increasing relative abundance of OTU03 assigned to sublineage V from August onward, indicating its important role in nitrite oxidation. PMID:26834718

  17. Coupling Between and Among Ammonia Oxidizers and Nitrite Oxidizers in Grassland Mesocosms Submitted to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Supply.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Marie; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck; Lerondelle, Catherine; Hungate, Bruce A; Nunan, Naoise; Niboyet, Audrey

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have assessed the responses of soil microbial functional groups to increases in atmospheric CO2 or N deposition alone and more rarely in combination. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and N on the (de)coupling between different microbial functional groups (e.g., different groups of nitrifiers) have been barely studied, despite potential consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigated the short-term combined effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on the abundances of the four main microbial groups involved in soil nitrification: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (belonging to the genera Nitrobacter and Nitrospira) in grassland mesocosms. AOB and AOA abundances responded differently to the treatments: N addition increased AOB abundance, but did not alter AOA abundance. Nitrobacter and Nitrospira abundances also showed contrasted responses to the treatments: N addition increased Nitrobacter abundance, but decreased Nitrospira abundance. Our results support the idea of a niche differentiation between AOB and AOA, and between Nitrobacter and Nitrospira. AOB and Nitrobacter were both promoted at high N and C conditions (and low soil water content for Nitrobacter), while AOA and Nitrospira were favored at low N and C conditions (and high soil water content for Nitrospira). In addition, Nitrobacter abundance was positively correlated to AOB abundance and Nitrospira abundance to AOA abundance. Our results suggest that the couplings between ammonia and nitrite oxidizers are influenced by soil N availability. Multiple environmental changes may thus elicit rapid and contrasted responses between and among the soil ammonia and nitrite oxidizers due to their different ecological requirements.

  18. Spatial Interaction of Archaeal Ammonia-Oxidizers and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in an Unfertilized Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Stempfhuber, Barbara; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Regan, Kathleen M.; Kölbl, Angelika; Wüst, Pia K.; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Overmann, Jörg; Friedrich, Michael W.; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Interrelated successive transformation steps of nitrification are performed by distinct microbial groups – the ammonia-oxidizers, comprising ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizers such as Nitrobacter and Nitrospira, which are the dominant genera in the investigated soils. Hence, not only their presence and activity in the investigated habitat is required for nitrification, but also their temporal and spatial interactions. To demonstrate the interdependence of both groups and to address factors promoting putative niche differentiation within each group, temporal and spatial changes in nitrifying organisms were monitored in an unfertilized grassland site over an entire vegetation period at the plot scale of 10 m2. Nitrifying organisms were assessed by measuring the abundance of marker genes (amoA for AOA and AOB, nxrA for Nitrobacter, 16S rRNA gene for Nitrospira) selected for the respective sub-processes. A positive correlation between numerically dominant AOA and Nitrospira, and their co-occurrence at the same spatial scale in August and October, suggests that the nitrification process is predominantly performed by these groups and is restricted to a limited timeframe. Amongst nitrite-oxidizers, niche differentiation was evident in observed seasonally varying patterns of co-occurrence and spatial separation. While their distributions were most likely driven by substrate concentrations, oxygen availability may also have played a role under substrate-limited conditions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed temporal shifts in Nitrospira community composition with an increasing relative abundance of OTU03 assigned to sublineage V from August onward, indicating its important role in nitrite oxidation. PMID:26834718

  19. Urease-Encoding Genes in Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Teresa E.; El-Sheikh, Amal F.; Norton, Jeanette M.; Klotz, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    Many but not all ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) produce urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) and are capable of using urea for chemolithotrophic growth. We sequenced the urease operons from two AOB, the β-proteobacterium Nitrosospira sp. strain NpAV and the γ-proteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani. In both organisms, all seven urease genes were contiguous: the three structural urease genes ureABC were preceded and succeeded by the accessory genes ureD and ureEFG, respectively. Green fluorescent protein reporter gene fusions revealed that the ure genes were under control of a single operon promoter upstream of the ureD gene in Nitrosococcus oceani. Southern analyses revealed two copies of ureC in the Nitrosospira sp. strain NpAV genome, while a single copy of the ure operon was detected in the genome of Nitrosococcus oceani. The ureC gene encodes the alpha subunit protein containing the active site and conserved nickel binding ligands; these conserved regions were suitable primer targets for obtaining further ureC sequences from additional AOB. In order to develop molecular tools for detecting the ureolytic ecotype of AOB, ureC genes were sequenced from several β-proteobacterial AOB. Pairwise identity values ranged from 80 to 90% for the UreC peptides of AOB within a subdivision. UreC sequences deduced from AOB urease genes and available UreC sequences in the public databases were used to construct alignments and make phylogenetic inferences. The UreC proteins from β-proteobacterial AOB formed a distinct monophyletic group. Unexpectedly, the peptides from AOB did not group most closely with the UreC proteins from other β-proteobacteria. Instead, it appears that urease in β-proteobacterial autotrophic ammonia oxidizers is the product of divergent evolution in the common ancestor of γ- and β-proteobacteria that was initiated before their divergence during speciation. Sequence motifs conserved for the proteobacteria and variable regions possibly

  20. Vertical Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota and Methanogens in the Epipelagic Waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (∼50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake. PMID:20802065

  1. Gastrointestinal Bacterial and Methanogenic Archaea Diversity Dynamics Associated with Condensed Tannin-Containing Pine Bark Diet in Goats Using 16S rDNA Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byeng R.; Solaiman, Sandra; Shange, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats (n = 6) were used to collect gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria and methanogenic archaea for diversity measures when fed condensed tannin-containing pine bark (PB). Three dietary treatments were tested: control diet (0% PB and 30% wheat straw (WS); 0.17% condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)); 15% PB and 15% WS (1.6% CT DM), and 30% PB and 0% WS (3.2% CT DM). A 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing technique was used to characterize and elucidate changes in GI bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity among the diets. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in goats with mean relative abundance values ranging from 39.7 (30% PB) to 46.5% (control) and 47.1% (15% PB). Other phyla individually accounted for fewer than 25% of the relative abundance observed. Predominant methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively. Among methanogens, Methanobrevibacter was linearly decreased (P = 0.05) with increasing PB supplementation. These results indicate that feeding PB selectively altered bacteria and methanogenic archaeal populations in the GI tract of goats. PMID:24669219

  2. Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Biofilters Removing Trihalomethanes Are Related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrifying biofilters degrading the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) trichloromethane (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and tribromomethane (TBM) -were analyzed for the presence and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Biofilter perfor...

  3. Bioenergetics of the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Günter; Engelhard, Martin; Müller, Volker

    1999-01-01

    In the late 1970s, on the basis of rRNA phylogeny, Archaea (archaebacteria) was identified as a distinct domain of life besides Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya. Though forming a separate domain, archaea display an enormous diversity of lifestyles and metabolic capabilities. Many archaeal species are adapted to extreme environments with respect to salinity, temperatures around the boiling point of water, and/or extremely alkaline or acidic pH. This has posed the challenge of studying the molecular and mechanistic bases on which these organisms can cope with such adverse conditions. This review considers our cumulative knowledge on archaeal mechanisms of primary energy conservation, in relationship to those of bacteria and eucarya. Although the universal principle of chemiosmotic energy conservation also holds for Archaea, distinct features have been discovered with respect to novel ion-transducing, membrane-residing protein complexes and the use of novel cofactors in bioenergetics of methanogenesis. From aerobically respiring archaea, unusual electron-transporting supercomplexes could be isolated and functionally resolved, and a proposal on the organization of archaeal electron transport chains has been presented. The unique functions of archaeal rhodopsins as sensory systems and as proton or chloride pumps have been elucidated on the basis of recent structural information on the atomic scale. Whereas components of methanogenesis and of phototrophic energy transduction in halobacteria appear to be unique to archaea, respiratory complexes and the ATP synthase exhibit some chimeric features with respect to their evolutionary origin. Nevertheless, archaeal ATP synthases are to be considered distinct members of this family of secondary energy transducers. A major challenge to future investigations is the development of archaeal genetic transformation systems, in order to gain access to the regulation of bioenergetic systems and to overproducers of archaeal membrane

  4. Thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidation in an acidic forest peat soil is not influenced by ammonium amendment.

    PubMed

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Höfferle, Spela; Nicol, Graeme W; Mandic-Mulec, Ines; Prosser, James I

    2010-11-01

    Both bacteria and thaumarchaea contribute to ammonia oxidation, the first step in nitrification. The abundance of putative ammonia oxidizers is estimated by quantification of the functional gene amoA, which encodes ammonia monooxygenase subunit A. In soil, thaumarchaeal amoA genes often outnumber the equivalent bacterial genes. Ecophysiological studies indicate that thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers may have a selective advantage at low ammonia concentrations, with potential adaptation to soils in which mineralization is the major source of ammonia. To test this hypothesis, thaumarchaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers were investigated during nitrification in microcosms containing an organic, acidic forest peat soil (pH 4.1) with a low ammonium concentration but high potential for ammonia release during mineralization. Net nitrification rates were high but were not influenced by addition of ammonium. Bacterial amoA genes could not be detected, presumably because of low abundance of bacterial ammonia oxidizers. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that dominant populations belonged to group 1.1c, 1.3, and "deep peat" lineages, while known amo-containing lineages (groups 1.1a and 1.1b) comprised only a small proportion of the total community. Growth of thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers was indicated by increased abundance of amoA genes during nitrification but was unaffected by addition of ammonium. Similarly, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of amoA gene transcripts demonstrated small temporal changes in thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizer communities but no effect of ammonium amendment. Thaumarchaea therefore appeared to dominate ammonia oxidation in this soil and oxidized ammonia arising from mineralization of organic matter rather than added inorganic nitrogen.

  5. The influence of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities in grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Shahid; Prosser, James I

    2006-06-01

    In grazed, grassland soils, sheep urine generates heterogeneity in ammonia concentrations, with potential impact on ammonia oxidizer community structure and soil N cycling. The influence of different levels of synthetic sheep urine on ammonia oxidizers was studied in grassland soil microcosms. 'Total' and active ammonia oxidizers were distinguished by comparing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles following PCR and RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, targeting DNA and RNA, respectively. The RNA-based approach indicated earlier, more reproducible and finer scale qualitative shifts in ammonia oxidizing communities than DNA-based analysis, but led to amplification of a small number of nonammonia oxidizer sequences. Qualitative changes in RNA-derived DGGE profiles were related to changes in nitrate accumulation. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed that ammonia oxidizing communities in synthetic sheep urine-treated soils consisted mainly of Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3 and 4. Nitrosospira cluster 2 increased in relative abundance in microcosms treated with all levels of synthetic sheep urine. Low levels additionally led to increased relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 4 and medium and high levels increased relative abundance of cluster 3. Synthetic sheep urine is therefore likely to influence the spatial distribution and composition of ammonia oxidizer communities, with consequent effects on nitrate accumulation.

  6. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation at low pH through urea hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, S A; Prosser, J I

    2001-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation in laboratory liquid batch cultures of autotrophic ammonia oxidizers rarely occurs at pH values less than 7, due to ionization of ammonia and the requirement for ammonium transport rather than diffusion of ammonia. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence for autotrophic nitrification in acid soils, which may be carried out by ammonia oxidizers capable of using urea as a source of ammonia. To determine the mechanism of urea-linked ammonia oxidation, a ureolytic autotrophic ammonia oxidizer, Nitrosospira sp. strain NPAV, was grown in liquid batch culture at a range of pH values with either ammonium or urea as the sole nitrogen source. Growth and nitrite production from ammonium did not occur at pH values below 7. Growth on urea occurred at pH values in the range 4 to 7.5 but ceased when urea hydrolysis was complete, even though ammonia, released during urea hydrolysis, remained in the medium. The results support a mechanism whereby urea enters the cells by diffusion and intracellular urea hydrolysis and ammonia oxidation occur independently of extracellular pH in the range 4 to 7.5. A proportion of the ammonia produced during this process diffuses from the cell and is not subsequently available for growth if the extracellular pH is less than 7. Ureolysis therefore provides a mechanism for nitrification in acid soils, but a proportion of the ammonium produced is likely to be released from the cell and may be used by other soil organisms.

  7. A sensitive crude oil bioassay indicates that oil spills potentially induce a change of major nitrifying prokaryotes from the archaea to the bacteria.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Garcia, Juan C; Barreto, Patricia D; Molina, Gabriela A; Barreto, Jose C

    2012-05-01

    The sensitivity of nitrifiers to crude oil released by the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in Gulf of Mexico was examined using characterized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to develop a bioassay and to gain further insight into the ecological response of these two groups of microorganisms to marine oil spills. Inhibition of nitrite production was observed among all the tested ammonia-oxidizing organisms at 100 ppb crude oil. Nitrosopumilus maritimus, a cultured representative of the abundant Marine Group I Archaea, showed 20% inhibition at 1 ppb, a much greater degree of sensitivity to petroleum than the tested ammonia-oxidizing and heterotrophic bacteria. The differing susceptibility may have ecological significance since a shift to bacterial dominance in response to an oil spill could potentially persist and alter trophic interactions influenced by availability of different nitrogen species. PMID:22327114

  8. A sensitive crude oil bioassay indicates that oil spills potentially induce a change of major nitrifying prokaryotes from the archaea to the bacteria.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Garcia, Juan C; Barreto, Patricia D; Molina, Gabriela A; Barreto, Jose C

    2012-05-01

    The sensitivity of nitrifiers to crude oil released by the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in Gulf of Mexico was examined using characterized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea to develop a bioassay and to gain further insight into the ecological response of these two groups of microorganisms to marine oil spills. Inhibition of nitrite production was observed among all the tested ammonia-oxidizing organisms at 100 ppb crude oil. Nitrosopumilus maritimus, a cultured representative of the abundant Marine Group I Archaea, showed 20% inhibition at 1 ppb, a much greater degree of sensitivity to petroleum than the tested ammonia-oxidizing and heterotrophic bacteria. The differing susceptibility may have ecological significance since a shift to bacterial dominance in response to an oil spill could potentially persist and alter trophic interactions influenced by availability of different nitrogen species.

  9. Effects of nitrogen application rate and a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on ammonia oxidizers and N2O emissions in a grazed pasture soil.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Di, Hong J; Cameron, Keith C; He, Ji-Zheng

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia oxidizers, including ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are important drivers of a key step of the nitrogen cycle - nitrification, which affects the production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen application rates and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on the abundance of AOB and AOA and on N2O emissions in a grazed pasture soil. Nitrogen (N) was applied at four different rates, with urea applied at 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1) and animal urine at 300 and 600 kg N ha(-1). DCD was applied to some of the N treatments at 10 kg ha(-1). The results showed that the AOB amoA gene copy numbers were greater than those of AOA. The highest ratio of the AOB to AOA amoA gene copy numbers was 106.6 which occurred in the urine-N 600 treatment. The AOB amoA gene copy numbers increased with increasing nitrogen application rates. DCD had a significant impact in reducing the AOB amoA gene copy numbers especially in the high nitrogen application rates. N2O emissions increased with the N application rates. DCD had the most significant effect in reducing the daily and total N2O emissions in the highest nitrogen application rate. The greatest reduction of total N2O emissions by DCD was 69% in the urine-N 600 treatment. The reduction in the N2O emission factor by DCD ranged from 58% to 83%. The N2O flux and NO3(-)-N concentrations were significantly correlated to the growth of AOB, rather than AOA. This study confirms the importance of AOB in nitrification and the effect of DCD in inhibiting AOB growth and in decreasing N2O emissions in grazed pasture soils under field conditions.

  10. Diversity and Distribution of Archaea Community along a Stratigraphic Permafrost Profile from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongpeng; He, Hao; Hu, Fei; Su, Xin; Zhu, Youhai

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying the thawing permafrost expected to result from the climate change, microbial decomposition of the massive amounts of frozen organic carbon stored in permafrost is a potential emission source of greenhouse gases, possibly leading to positive feedbacks to the greenhouse effect. In this study, the community composition of archaea in stratigraphic soils from an alpine permafrost of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was investigated. Phylogenic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the community was predominantly constituted by Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. The active layer contained a proportion of Crenarchaeota at 51.2%, with the proportion of Euryarchaeota at 48.8%, whereas the permafrost contained 41.2% Crenarchaeota and 58.8% Euryarchaeota, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. OTU1 and OTU11, affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A within Crenarchaeota and the unclassified group within Euryarchaeota, respectively, were widely distributed in all sediment layers. However, OTU5 affiliated to Group 1.3b/MCG-A was primarily distributed in the active layers. Sequence analysis of the DGGE bands from the 16S rRNAs of methanogenic archaea showed that the majority of methanogens belonged to Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales affiliated to Euryarchaeota and the uncultured ZC-I cluster affiliated to Methanosarcinales distributed in all the depths along the permafrost profile, which indicated a dominant group of methanogens occurring in the cold ecosystems. PMID:25525409

  11. Distribution and Abundance of Archaeal and Bacterial Ammonia Oxidizers in the Sediments of the Dongjiang River, a Drinking Water Supply for Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrification. However, limited information about the characteristics of AOA and AOB in the river ecosystem is available. The distribution and abundance of AOA and AOB in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source for Hong Kong, were investigated by clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Group 1.1b-and Group 1.1b-associated sequences of AOA predominated in sediments with comparatively high carbon and nitrogen contents (e.g. total carbon (TC) >13 g kg−1 sediment, NH4+-N >144 mg kg−1 sediment), while Group 1.1a- and Group 1.1a-associated sequences were dominant in sediments with opposite conditions (e.g. TC <4 g kg−1 sediment, NH4+-N <93 mg kg−1 sediment). Although Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-related sequences of AOB were detected in the sediments, nearly 70% of the sequences fell into the Nitrosomonas-like B cluster, suggesting similar sediment AOB communities along the river. Higher abundance of AOB than AOA was observed in almost all of the sediments in the Dongjiang River, while significant correlations were only detected between the distribution of AOA and the sediment pH and TC, which suggested that AOA responded more sensitively than AOB to variations of environmental factors. These results extend our knowledge about the environmental responses of ammonia oxidizers in the river ecosystem. PMID:24256973

  12. Selective isolation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from autotrophic nitrifying granules by applying cell-sorting and sub-culturing of microcolonies.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Hirotsugu; Kumagai, Asami; Ushiki, Norisuke; Momiuchi, Kengo; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification is a key process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and biological wastewater treatment that consists of two stepwise reactions, ammonia oxidation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) or archaea followed by nitrite oxidation by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. One of the representatives of the AOB group is Nitrosomonas mobilis species. Although a few pure strains of this species have been isolated so far, approaches to their preservation in pure culture have not been established. Here, we report isolation of novel members of the N. mobilis species from autotrophic nitrifying granules used for ammonia-rich wastewater treatment. We developed an isolation method focusing on microcolonies formation of nitrifying bacteria. Two kinds of distinctive light scattering signatures in a cell-sorting system enabled to separate microcolonies from single cells and heterogeneous aggregates within granule samples. Inoculation of a pure microcolony into 96-well microtiter plates led to successful sub-culturing and increased probability of isolation. Obtained strain Ms1 is cultivated in the liquid culture with relatively high ammonia or nitrite concentration, not extremely slow growing. Considering environmental clones that were closely related to N. mobilis and detected in various environments, the availability of this novel strain would facilitate to reveal this member's ecophysiology in a variety of habitats. PMID:26528282

  13. Distribution and abundance of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water supply for Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrification. However, limited information about the characteristics of AOA and AOB in the river ecosystem is available. The distribution and abundance of AOA and AOB in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source for Hong Kong, were investigated by clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Group 1.1b- and Group 1.1b-associated sequences of AOA predominated in sediments with comparatively high carbon and nitrogen contents (e.g. total carbon (TC) >13 g kg(-1) sediment, NH4(+)-N >144 mg kg(-1) sediment), while Group 1.1a- and Group 1.1a-associated sequences were dominant in sediments with opposite conditions (e.g. TC <4 g kg(-1) sediment, NH4(+)-N <93 mg kg(-1) sediment). Although Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-related sequences of AOB were detected in the sediments, nearly 70% of the sequences fell into the Nitrosomonas-like B cluster, suggesting similar sediment AOB communities along the river. Higher abundance of AOB than AOA was observed in almost all of the sediments in the Dongjiang River, while significant correlations were only detected between the distribution of AOA and the sediment pH and TC, which suggested that AOA responded more sensitively than AOB to variations of environmental factors. These results extend our knowledge about the environmental responses of ammonia oxidizers in the river ecosystem.

  14. Bioturbation determines the response of benthic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Laverock, B; Kitidis, V; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), caused by the dissolution of increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater, is projected to cause significant changes to marine ecology and biogeochemistry. Potential impacts on the microbially driven cycling of nitrogen are of particular concern. Specifically, under seawater pH levels approximating future OA scenarios, rates of ammonia oxidation (the rate-limiting first step of the nitrification pathway) have been shown to dramatically decrease in seawater, but not in underlying sediments. However, no prior study has considered the interactive effects of microbial ammonia oxidation and macrofaunal bioturbation activity, which can enhance nitrogen transformation rates. Using experimental mesocosms, we investigated the responses to OA of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms inhabiting surface sediments and sediments within burrow walls of the mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura. Seawater was acidified to one of four target pH values (pHT 7.90, 7.70, 7.35 and 6.80) in comparison with a control (pHT 8.10). At pHT 8.10, ammonia oxidation rates in burrow wall sediments were, on average, fivefold greater than in surface sediments. However, at all acidified pH values (pH ≤ 7.90), ammonia oxidation rates in burrow sediments were significantly inhibited (by 79-97%; p < 0.01), whereas rates in surface sediments were unaffected. Both bacterial and archaeal abundances increased significantly as pHT declined; by contrast, relative abundances of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidation (amoA) genes did not vary. This research suggests that OA could cause substantial reductions in total benthic ammonia oxidation rates in coastal bioturbated sediments, leading to corresponding changes in coupled nitrogen cycling between the benthic and pelagic realms.

  15. Evaluation of PCR primer selectivity and phylogenetic specificity by using amplification of 16S rRNA genes from betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Junier, Pilar; Kim, Ok-Sun; Hadas, Ora; Imhoff, Johannes F; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2008-08-01

    The effect of primer specificity for studying the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (betaAOB) was evaluated. betaAOB represent a group of phylogenetically related organisms for which the 16S rRNA gene approach is especially suitable. We used experimental comparisons of primer performance with water samples, together with an in silico analysis of published sequences and a literature review of clone libraries made with four specific PCR primers for the betaAOB 16S rRNA gene. With four aquatic samples, the primers NitA/NitB produced the highest frequency of ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-like sequences compared to clone libraries with products amplified with the primer combinations betaAMOf/betaAMOr, betaAMOf/Nso1255g, and NitA/Nso1225g. Both the experimental examination of ammonia-oxidizing-bacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene primers and the literature search showed that neither specificity nor sensitivity of primer combinations can be evaluated reliably only by sequence comparison. Apparently, the combination of sequence comparison and experimental data is the best approach to detect possible biases of PCR primers. Although this study focused on betaAOB, the results presented here more generally exemplify the importance of primer selection and potential primer bias when analyzing microbial communities in environmental samples.

  16. Salinity-dominated change in community structure and ecological function of Archaea from the lower Pearl River to coastal South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhou, Xuedan; Wang, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Archaea have multiple roles in global biogeochemical cycles. However, we still have limited knowledge about how environmental factors affect the diversity and function of different archaeal lineages. The goal of this study was to examine the change in the abundance and community structure of Archaea in the sediments collected from the lower Pearl River (mainly North River tributary), its estuary, and coastal South China Sea (SCS) in order to evaluate how archaeal ecological function might change along the salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of Archaea was performed on sediment samples from Feilaixia Dam on the North River tributary to Wanshan islands, which have a salinity range of 0.1 to 31.2‰. Consistent with the salt tolerance of cultivated representatives, methanogens in the genera Methanoregula, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina and Nitrososphaera within Thaumarchaeota of the ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were abundant in freshwater sediments of the North River tributary, whereas the marine-associated genera Methanococcoides and Nitrosopumilus were the most abundant methanogens and AOA, respectively, in the estuary and coastal SCS. However, the percentages of total methanogens decreased and Thaumarchaeota increased with salinity, respectively. The phylum Crenarchaeota was largely represented by class-level lineages with no cultivated representatives, which collectively were more abundant in the estuary and coastal SCS in comparison to freshwater sites. This study indicates that salinity is the dominating factor affecting archaeal community structure and ecological function from the North River tributary of the Pearl River, its estuary, and coastal SCS, which is consistent with salinity control on microbial diversity in other regions of the world.

  17. [Element Sulfur Autotrophic Denitrification Combined Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Yong; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Yi; Li Xiang; Wangyan, De-qing; Ding, Liang; Shao, Jing-wei; Zhao, Rong

    2016-03-15

    A novel element sulfur autotrophic denitrification combined anaerobic ammonia oxidation process, reacted in CSTR, was used to investigate the sulfate production and alkalinity consumption during the whole process. The element sulfur dosage was 50 g · L⁻¹. The inoculation volume of ANAMMOX granular sludge was 100 g · L⁻¹. The agitation rate and environment reaction temperature of the CSTR were set to 120 r · min⁻¹ and 35°C ± 0.5°C, respectively. The pH of influent was maintained in range of 8. 0-8. 4. During the start-up stage of sulfur based autotrophic denitrification, the nitrogen removal loading rate could reach 0.56-0.71 kg · (m³ · d) ⁻¹ in the condition of 5.3 h hydrogen retention time and 200 mg · L⁻¹ nitrate nitrogen. After the addition of 60 mg · L⁻¹ ammonia nitrogen, Δn(SO₄²⁻):Δn(NO₃⁻) decreased from 1.21 ± 0.06 to 1.01 ± 0.10, Δ(IC): Δ(NO₃⁻-N) decreased from 0.72 ± 0.1 to 0.51 ± 0.11, and the effluent pH increased from 6.5 to 7.2. During the combined stage, the ammonia concentration of effluent was 10.1-19.2 mg · L⁻¹, and the nitrate-nitrogen removal loading rate could be maintained in range of 0.66-0.88 kg · (m³ · d)⁻¹. The Δn (NH₄⁺): Δn (NO₃⁻) ratio reached 0.43, and the NO₃⁻ removal rate was increased by 60% in the simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal reaction under the condition of G(T) = 22-64 s⁻¹ and pH = 8.08, while improper conditions reduced the efficiency of simultaneous reaction.

  18. [Element Sulfur Autotrophic Denitrification Combined Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Yong; Liu, Xin; Yuan, Yi; Li Xiang; Wangyan, De-qing; Ding, Liang; Shao, Jing-wei; Zhao, Rong

    2016-03-15

    A novel element sulfur autotrophic denitrification combined anaerobic ammonia oxidation process, reacted in CSTR, was used to investigate the sulfate production and alkalinity consumption during the whole process. The element sulfur dosage was 50 g · L⁻¹. The inoculation volume of ANAMMOX granular sludge was 100 g · L⁻¹. The agitation rate and environment reaction temperature of the CSTR were set to 120 r · min⁻¹ and 35°C ± 0.5°C, respectively. The pH of influent was maintained in range of 8. 0-8. 4. During the start-up stage of sulfur based autotrophic denitrification, the nitrogen removal loading rate could reach 0.56-0.71 kg · (m³ · d) ⁻¹ in the condition of 5.3 h hydrogen retention time and 200 mg · L⁻¹ nitrate nitrogen. After the addition of 60 mg · L⁻¹ ammonia nitrogen, Δn(SO₄²⁻):Δn(NO₃⁻) decreased from 1.21 ± 0.06 to 1.01 ± 0.10, Δ(IC): Δ(NO₃⁻-N) decreased from 0.72 ± 0.1 to 0.51 ± 0.11, and the effluent pH increased from 6.5 to 7.2. During the combined stage, the ammonia concentration of effluent was 10.1-19.2 mg · L⁻¹, and the nitrate-nitrogen removal loading rate could be maintained in range of 0.66-0.88 kg · (m³ · d)⁻¹. The Δn (NH₄⁺): Δn (NO₃⁻) ratio reached 0.43, and the NO₃⁻ removal rate was increased by 60% in the simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal reaction under the condition of G(T) = 22-64 s⁻¹ and pH = 8.08, while improper conditions reduced the efficiency of simultaneous reaction. PMID:27337901

  19. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  20. Abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Feng-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Chen, Jin-Quan; Zhou, En-Min; Liang, Feng; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that archaea carrying the accA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the acetyl CoA carboxylase, autotrophically fix CO2 using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway in low-temperature environments (e.g., soils, oceans). However, little new information has come to light regarding the occurrence of archaeal accA genes in high-temperature ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of archaeal accA gene in hot springs in Yunnan Province, China, using DNA- and RNA-based phylogenetic analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that archaeal accA genes were present and expressed in the investigated Yunnan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (66-96 °C) and pH (4.3-9.0). The majority of the amplified archaeal accA gene sequences were affiliated with the ThAOA/HWCG III [thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)/hot water crenarchaeotic group III]. The archaeal accA gene abundance was very close to that of AOA amoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. These data suggest that AOA in terrestrial hot springs might acquire energy from ammonia oxidation coupled with CO2 fixation using the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway.

  1. Methanogenic archaea diversity in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) rumen fluid, rectal dung, and barn floor manure using a culture-independent method based on mcrA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Daquiado, Aileen Rose; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Tae Young; Kim, Sam Churl; Chang, Hong-Hee; Lee, Yong Bok

    2014-06-01

    The diversity of methanogenic archaea associated with Korean Hanwoo cattle was analyzed using mcrA gene sequences from samples of rumen fluid (RF), rectal dung (RD), and barn floor manure (BFM). The predominant species were Methanobrevibacter ruminantium in RF and BFM(63.6% and 62.4%, respectively) and Methanocorpusculum labreanum in RD (53.2%).

  2. Archaea--timeline of the third domain.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The Archaea evolved as one of the three primary lineages several billion years ago, but the first archaea to be discovered were described in the scientific literature about 130 years ago. Moreover, the Archaea were formally proposed as the third domain of life only 20 years ago. Over this very short period of investigative history, the scientific community has learned many remarkable things about the Archaea--their unique cellular components and pathways, their abundance and critical function in diverse natural environments, and their quintessential role in shaping the evolutionary path of life on Earth. This Review charts the 'archaea movement', from its genesis through to key findings that, when viewed together, illustrate just how strongly the field has built on new knowledge to advance our understanding not only of the Archaea, but of biology as a whole. PMID:21132019

  3. Evidence of novel plant-species specific ammonia oxidizing bacterial clades in acidic South African fynbos soils.

    PubMed

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Lako, Joseph D W; Stafford, William H L; Tuffin, Marla I; Cowan, Don A

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are essential in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen as they catalyze the rate-limiting oxidation of ammonia into nitrite. Since their first isolation in the late 19th century, chemolithoautotrophic AOBs have been identified in a wide range of natural (e.g., soils, sediments, estuarine, and freshwaters) and man created or impacted habitats (e.g., wastewater treatment plants and agricultural soils). However, little is known on the plant-species association of AOBs, particularly in the nutrient-starved fynbos terrestrial biome. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of AOBs in the plant canopy of three South African fynbos-specific plant species, namely Leucadendron xanthoconus, Leucospermum truncatulum and Leucadendron microcephalum, through the construction of amoA-gene clone libraries. Our results clearly demonstrate that plant-species specific and monophyletic AOB clades are present in fynbos canopy soils.

  4. Response of performance and ammonia oxidizing bacteria community to high salinity stress in membrane bioreactor with elevated ammonia loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Luo, Gan; Li, Jun; Chen, Shi-Yu; Li, Yan; Li, Wen-Tao; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-09-01

    Effect of elevated ammonia loading rate (ALR) and increasing salinity on the operation of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the response of microbial community were investigated. Results showed that MBR started up with 1% NaCl stress achieved amazing nitrification performance at high salinity up to 4% when treating wastewater containing 1000mg/L NH(+)4-N. Further increasing salinity to 7% led to failure of MBR unrecoverably. Steep decline of sludge activity contributed to the extremely worse performance. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that both ALR and salinity had selective effects on the microbial community structure. In genus level, Methyloversatilis and Maribacter were enriched during the operation. Survival of salt-resistant microbes contributed to the rising of richness and diversity at 2% and 4% NaCl stress. Analysis of amoA-gene-based cloning revealed Nitrosomonas marina are chiefly responsible for catalyzing ammonia oxidation in high ALR at high salinity stress. PMID:27290667

  5. Conversion of upland to paddy field specifically alters the community structure of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Ren, G. D.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X. H.; Jia, Z. J.

    2013-08-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the major energy-generating compounds (i.e., ammonia and oxygen). The diversification of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in a complex environment have been much debated but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB upon conversion of an upland field to a paddy field and long-term field fertilization in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils for more than 100 yr, whereas a slight decline in AOB numbers was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in the community compositions of AOA after conversion of aerobic upland to flooded paddy field. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, whereas the marine group 1.1a-associated lineage predominated in AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of whether the soil was upland or paddy soil, long-term field fertilization led to increased abundance of amoA genes in AOA and AOB compared with control treatments (no fertilization), whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterparts in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster-3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatment. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a-associated AOA will be better adapted to the flooded paddy field than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and indicate that long-term flooding is the dominant selective force driving the

  6. Autotrophic Ammonia Oxidation at Low pH through Urea Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Simon A. Q.; Prosser, Jim I.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation in laboratory liquid batch cultures of autotrophic ammonia oxidizers rarely occurs at pH values less than 7, due to ionization of ammonia and the requirement for ammonium transport rather than diffusion of ammonia. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence for autotrophic nitrification in acid soils, which may be carried out by ammonia oxidizers capable of using urea as a source of ammonia. To determine the mechanism of urea-linked ammonia oxidation, a ureolytic autotrophic ammonia oxidizer, Nitrosospira sp. strain NPAV, was grown in liquid batch culture at a range of pH values with either ammonium or urea as the sole nitrogen source. Growth and nitrite production from ammonium did not occur at pH values below 7. Growth on urea occurred at pH values in the range 4 to 7.5 but ceased when urea hydrolysis was complete, even though ammonia, released during urea hydrolysis, remained in the medium. The results support a mechanism whereby urea enters the cells by diffusion and intracellular urea hydrolysis and ammonia oxidation occur independently of extracellular pH in the range 4 to 7.5. A proportion of the ammonia produced during this process diffuses from the cell and is not subsequently available for growth if the extracellular pH is less than 7. Ureolysis therefore provides a mechanism for nitrification in acid soils, but a proportion of the ammonium produced is likely to be released from the cell and may be used by other soil organisms. PMID:11425707

  7. Diversity and community structure of Archaea inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting plants from an acidic bog.

    PubMed

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H; Thies, Janice E

    2010-05-01

    Plant root exudates increase nutrient availability and influence microbial communities including archaeal members. We examined the archaeal community inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting vascular plants, Dulichium arundinaceum and Sarracenia purpurea, from an acidic bog in upstate NY. Multiple archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that methanogenic Archaea were dominant in the rhizoplane of both plants. In addition, the community structure (evenness) of the rhizoplane was found markedly different from the bulk peat. The archaeal community in peat from the same site has been found dominated by the E2 group, meanwhile the rhizoplane communities on both plants were co-dominated by Methanosarcinaceae (MS), rice cluster (RC)-I, and E2. Complementary T-RFLP analysis confirmed the difference between bulk peat and rhizoplane, and further characterized the dominance pattern of MS, RC-I, and E2. In the rhizoplane, MS was dominant on both plants although as a less variable fraction in S. purpurea. RC-I was significantly more abundant than E2 on S. purpurea, while the opposite was observed on D. arundinaceum, suggesting a plant-specific enrichment. Also, the statistical analyses of T-RFLP data showed that although both plants overlap in their community structure, factors such as plant type, patch location, and time could explain nearly a third of the variability in the dataset. Other factors such as water table, plant replicate, and root depth had a low contribution to the observed variance. The results of this study illustrate the general effects of roots and the specific effects of plant types on their nearby archaeal communities which in bog-inhabiting plants were mainly composed by methanogenic groups.

  8. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biofilters removing trihalomethanes are related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying biofilters degrading four regulated trihalomethanes-trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and tribromomethane-were related to Nitrosomonas oligotropha. N. oligotropha is associated with chloraminated drinking water systems, and its presence in the biofilters might indicate that trihalomethane tolerance is another reason that this bacterium is dominant in chloraminated systems.

  9. Empowering a mesophilic inoculum for thermophilic nitrification: Growth mode and temperature pattern as critical proliferation factors for archaeal ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vandekerckhove, Tom; Prat, Delphine; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-04-01

    Cost-efficient biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters requires the development of thermophilic nitrogen removal processes. Only one thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor was described so far, achieving 200 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after more than 300 days of enrichment from compost samples. From the practical point of view in which existing plants would be upgraded, however, a more time-efficient development strategy based on mesophilic nitrifying sludge is preferred. This study evaluated the adaptive capacities of mesophilic nitrifying sludge for two linear temperature increase patterns (non-oscillating vs. oscillating), two different slopes (0.25 vs. 0.08 °C d(-1)) and two different reactor types (floc vs. biofilm growth). The oscillating temperature pattern (0.25 °C d(-1)) and the moving bed biofilm reactor (0.08 °C d(-1)) could not reach nitrification at temperatures higher than 46 °C. However, nitrification rates up to 800 mg N L(-1) d(-1) and 150 mg N g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1) were achieved at a temperature as high as 49 °C by imposing the slowest linear temperature increase to floccular sludge. Microbial community analysis revealed that this successful transition was related with a shift in ammonium oxidizing archaea dominating ammonia oxidizing bacteria, while for nitrite oxidation Nitrospira spp. was constantly more abundant than Nitrobacter spp.. This observation was accompanied with an increase in observed sludge yield and a shift in maximal optimum temperature, determined with ex-situ temperature sensitivity measurements, predicting an upcoming reactor failure at higher temperature. Overall, this study achieved nitrification at 49 °C within 150 days by gradual adaptation of mesophilic sludge, and showed that ex-situ temperature sensitivity screening can be used to monitor and steer the transition process. PMID:26841233

  10. Empowering a mesophilic inoculum for thermophilic nitrification: Growth mode and temperature pattern as critical proliferation factors for archaeal ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vandekerckhove, Tom; Prat, Delphine; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-04-01

    Cost-efficient biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters requires the development of thermophilic nitrogen removal processes. Only one thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor was described so far, achieving 200 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after more than 300 days of enrichment from compost samples. From the practical point of view in which existing plants would be upgraded, however, a more time-efficient development strategy based on mesophilic nitrifying sludge is preferred. This study evaluated the adaptive capacities of mesophilic nitrifying sludge for two linear temperature increase patterns (non-oscillating vs. oscillating), two different slopes (0.25 vs. 0.08 °C d(-1)) and two different reactor types (floc vs. biofilm growth). The oscillating temperature pattern (0.25 °C d(-1)) and the moving bed biofilm reactor (0.08 °C d(-1)) could not reach nitrification at temperatures higher than 46 °C. However, nitrification rates up to 800 mg N L(-1) d(-1) and 150 mg N g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1) were achieved at a temperature as high as 49 °C by imposing the slowest linear temperature increase to floccular sludge. Microbial community analysis revealed that this successful transition was related with a shift in ammonium oxidizing archaea dominating ammonia oxidizing bacteria, while for nitrite oxidation Nitrospira spp. was constantly more abundant than Nitrobacter spp.. This observation was accompanied with an increase in observed sludge yield and a shift in maximal optimum temperature, determined with ex-situ temperature sensitivity measurements, predicting an upcoming reactor failure at higher temperature. Overall, this study achieved nitrification at 49 °C within 150 days by gradual adaptation of mesophilic sludge, and showed that ex-situ temperature sensitivity screening can be used to monitor and steer the transition process.

  11. Aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichloroethene by methane and ammonia oxidizing microorganisms naturally associated with Carex comosa roots.

    PubMed

    Powell, C L; Nogaro, G; Agrawal, A

    2011-06-01

    The degradation potential of trichloroethene by the aerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms naturally associated with wetland plant (Carex comosa) roots was examined in this study. In bench-scale microcosm experiments with washed (soil free) Carex comosa roots, the activity of root-associated methane- and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms, which were naturally present on the root surface and/or embedded within the roots, was investigated. Significant methane and ammonia oxidation were observed reproducibly in batch reactors with washed roots incubated in growth media, where methane oxidation developed faster (2 weeks) compared to ammonia oxidation (4 weeks) in live microcosms. After enrichment, the methane oxidizers demonstrated their ability to degrade 150 μg l(-1) TCE effectively at 1.9 mg l(-1) of aqueous CH(4). In contrast, ammonia oxidizers showed a rapid and complete inhibition of ammonia oxidation with 150 μg l(-1) TCE at 20 mg l(-1) of NH(4)(+)-N, which may be attributed to greater sensitivity of ammonia oxidizers to TCE or its degradation product. No such inhibitory effect of TCE degradation was detected on methane oxidation at the above experimental conditions. The results presented here suggest that microorganisms associated with wetland plant roots can assist in the natural attenuation of TCE in contaminated aquatic environments.

  12. Multi-year and short-term responses of soil ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes to zinc bacitracin, monensin, and ivermectin, singly or in combination.

    PubMed

    Magda, Konopka; Hugh A L, Henry; Romain, Marti; Edward, Topp

    2015-03-01

    A field experiment was initiated whereby a series of replicated plots received annual applications of ivermectin, monensin, and zinc bacitracin, either singly or in a mixture. Pharmaceuticals were added at concentrations of 0.1 mg/kg soil or 10 mg/kg soil. The authors collected soil samples in 2013, before and after the fourth annual application of pharmaceuticals. In addition, a 30-d laboratory experiment was undertaken with the same soil and same pharmaceuticals, but at concentrations of 100 mg/kg soil. The impact of the pharmaceuticals on nitrification rates, on the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and on the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was assessed. None of the pharmaceuticals at 0.1 mg/kg had any effect on nitrification. Referenced to control soil, nitrification was accelerated in soil exposed to 100 mg/kg zinc bacitracin or 10 mg/kg of the pharmaceutical mixture, but none of the treatments inhibited nitrification. Neither AOB abundance nor AOA abundance was affected by the pharmaceuticals at 0.1 mg/kg. At 10 mg/kg, monensin, zinc bacitracin, and a mixture of all 3 pharmaceuticals suppressed the abundance of AOB, and zinc bacitracin and the mixture increased AOA abundance. The decrease in AOB abundance and increase in AOA abundance when exposed to 10 mg/kg soil suggests that AOB are more sensitive to these chemicals and that AOA populations can expand to occupy the partially vacated niche.

  13. Land Spreading of Wastewaters from the Fruit-Packaging Industry and Potential Effects on Soil Microbes: Effects of the Antioxidant Ethoxyquin and Its Metabolites on Ammonia Oxidizers

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Evangelia S.; Tsachidou, Bella; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2015-01-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA), and ethoxyquin (EQ) are used in fruit-packaging plants (FPP) with the stipulation that wastewaters produced by their application would be depurated on site. However, no such treatment systems are currently in place, leading FPP to dispose of their effluents in agricultural land. We investigated the dissipation of those pesticides and their impact on soil microbes known to have a key role on ecosystem functioning. OPP and DPA showed limited persistence (50% dissipation time [DT50], 0.6 and 1.3 days) compared to TBZ and IMZ (DT50, 47.0 and 150.8 days). EQ was rapidly transformed to the short-lived quinone imine (QI) (major metabolite) and the more persistent 2,4-dimethyl-6-ethoxyquinoline (EQNL) (minor metabolite). EQ and OPP exerted significant inhibition of potential nitrification, with the effect of the former being more persistent. This was not reflected in the abundance (determined by quantitative PCR [qPCR]) of the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Considering the above discrepancy and the metabolic pattern of EQ, we further investigated the hypothesis that its metabolites and not only EQ were toxic to ammonia oxidizers. Potential nitrification, amoA gene abundance, and amoA gene transcripts of AOB and AOA showed that QI was probably responsible for the inhibition of nitrification. Our findings have serious ecological and practical implications for soil productivity and N conservation in agriculturally impacted ecosystems and stress the need to include metabolites and RNA-based methods when the soil microbial toxicity of pesticides is assessed. PMID:26590271

  14. Land Spreading of Wastewaters from the Fruit-Packaging Industry and Potential Effects on Soil Microbes: Effects of the Antioxidant Ethoxyquin and Its Metabolites on Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Tsachidou, Bella; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-11-20

    Thiabendazole (TBZ), imazalil (IMZ), ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), diphenylamine (DPA), and ethoxyquin (EQ) are used in fruit-packaging plants (FPP) with the stipulation that wastewaters produced by their application would be depurated on site. However, no such treatment systems are currently in place, leading FPP to dispose of their effluents in agricultural land. We investigated the dissipation of those pesticides and their impact on soil microbes known to have a key role on ecosystem functioning. OPP and DPA showed limited persistence (50% dissipation time [DT50], 0.6 and 1.3 days) compared to TBZ and IMZ (DT50, 47.0 and 150.8 days). EQ was rapidly transformed to the short-lived quinone imine (QI) (major metabolite) and the more persistent 2,4-dimethyl-6-ethoxyquinoline (EQNL) (minor metabolite). EQ and OPP exerted significant inhibition of potential nitrification, with the effect of the former being more persistent. This was not reflected in the abundance (determined by quantitative PCR [qPCR]) of the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Considering the above discrepancy and the metabolic pattern of EQ, we further investigated the hypothesis that its metabolites and not only EQ were toxic to ammonia oxidizers. Potential nitrification, amoA gene abundance, and amoA gene transcripts of AOB and AOA showed that QI was probably responsible for the inhibition of nitrification. Our findings have serious ecological and practical implications for soil productivity and N conservation in agriculturally impacted ecosystems and stress the need to include metabolites and RNA-based methods when the soil microbial toxicity of pesticides is assessed.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Nitrosomonas sp. Is79, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium adapted to low ammonium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bollmann, Annette; Sedlacek, Christopher J; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Suwa, Yuichi; Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G; Arp, D J; Sayavedra-Soto, LA; Lu, Megan; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Lucas, Susan; Pitluck, Sam; Pennacchio, Len; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam L; Huntemann, Marcel; Deshpande, Shweta; Han, Cliff; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Markowitz, Victor; Szeto, Ernest; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium that belongs to the family Nitrosomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria. Ammonia oxidation is the first step of nitrification, an important process in the global nitrogen cycle ultimately resulting in the production of nitrate. Nitrosomonas sp. Is79 is an ammonia oxidizer of high interest because it is adapted to low ammonium and can be found in freshwater environments around the world. The 3,783,444-bp chromosome with a total of 3,553 protein coding genes and 44 RNA genes was sequenced by the DOE-Joint Genome Institute Program CSP 2006.

  16. PSORTdb: expanding the bacteria and archaea protein subcellular localization database to better reflect diversity in cell envelope structures

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, Michael A.; Laird, Matthew R.; Vlasschaert, Caitlyn; Lo, Raymond; Brinkman, Fiona S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization (SCL) is important for understanding protein function, genome annotation, and has practical applications such as identification of potential vaccine components or diagnostic/drug targets. PSORTdb (http://db.psort.org) comprises manually curated SCLs for proteins which have been experimentally verified (ePSORTdb), as well as pre-computed SCL predictions for deduced proteomes from bacterial and archaeal complete genomes available from NCBI (cPSORTdb). We now report PSORTdb 3.0. It features improvements increasing user-friendliness, and further expands both ePSORTdb and cPSORTdb with a focus on improving protein SCL data in cases where it is most difficult—proteins associated with non-classical Gram-positive/Gram-negative/Gram-variable cell envelopes. ePSORTdb data curation was expanded, including adding in additional cell envelope localizations, and incorporating markers for cPSORTdb to automatically computationally identify if new genomes to be analysed fall into certain atypical cell envelope categories (i.e. Deinococcus-Thermus, Thermotogae, Corynebacteriales/Corynebacterineae, including Mycobacteria). The number of predicted proteins in cPSORTdb has increased from 3 700 000 when PSORTdb 2.0 was released to over 13 000 000 currently. PSORTdb 3.0 will be of wider use to researchers studying a greater diversity of monoderm or diderm microbes, including medically, agriculturally and industrially important species that have non-classical outer membranes or other cell envelope features. PMID:26602691

  17. ArchaeaTF: an integrated database of putative transcription factors in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinyu; Wang, Shengqin; Bai, Jie; Shi, Liang; Li, Dong; Xu, Zuyuan; Niu, Yuxin; Lu, Jianxin; Bao, Qiyu

    2008-01-01

    Identification of all the transcription factors (TFs) encoded in a given genome is a prerequisite for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Archaea are prokaryotes that constitute one of the three main branches of organisms with an astounding diversity of habitats. In this report, we establish the ArchaeaTF database to provide an integrated information resource about TFs in Archaea, such as basic characteristics, domain architectures, and sequence similarities against the linked databases. Through its Web interface, ArchaeaTF provides three different ways for users to retrieve the data: simple browse, keyword search, and BLAST search. Moreover, ArchaeaTF can serve as a useful platform for comparative genomics analysis of archaeal TFs since it implements a series of tools, including MUSCLE for multiple sequence alignments of the DNA-binding domains, QuickTree for phylogenetic tree construction, and OrthoMCL for ortholog identification. The released ArchaeaTF 1.0 contains 2135 putative TFs from 37 completed archaeal genomes. In conclusion, we believe that ArchaeaTF will be a useful resource and convenient platform for researchers working on TFs and transcriptional regulatory networks to retrieve information from TFs in Archaea rapidly. ArchaeaTF is accessible at http://bioinformatics.zj.cn/archaeatf.

  18. Evaluating Primers for Profiling Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria within Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r

  19. Evaluating primers for profiling anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria within freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r

  20. Influence of ammonia oxidation rate on thaumarchaeal lipid composition and the TEX86 temperature proxy.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Sarah J; Elling, Felix J; Könneke, Martin; Buchwald, Carolyn; Wankel, Scott D; Santoro, Alyson E; Lipp, Julius Sebastian; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Pearson, Ann

    2016-07-12

    Archaeal membrane lipids known as glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the basis of the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy. Because GDGTs preserved in marine sediments are thought to originate mainly from planktonic, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, the basis of the correlation between TEX86 and sea surface temperature (SST) remains unresolved: How does TEX86 predict surface temperatures, when maximum thaumarchaeal activity occurs below the surface mixed layer and TEX86 does not covary with in situ growth temperatures? Here we used isothermal studies of the model thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to investigate how GDGT composition changes in response to ammonia oxidation rate. We used continuous culture methods to avoid potential confounding variables that can be associated with experiments in batch cultures. The results show that the ring index scales inversely (R(2) = 0.82) with ammonia oxidation rate (ϕ), indicating that GDGT cyclization depends on available reducing power. Correspondingly, the TEX86 ratio decreases by an equivalent of 5.4 °C of calculated temperature over a 5.5 fmol·cell(-1)·d(-1) increase in ϕ. This finding reconciles other recent experiments that have identified growth stage and oxygen availability as variables affecting TEX86 Depth profiles from the marine water column show minimum TEX86 values at the depth of maximum nitrification rates, consistent with our chemostat results. Our findings suggest that the TEX86 signal exported from the water column is influenced by the dynamics of ammonia oxidation. Thus, the global TEX86-SST calibration potentially represents a composite of regional correlations based on nutrient dynamics and global correlations based on archaeal community composition and temperature. PMID:27357675

  1. Underestimation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria abundance by amplification bias in amoA-targeted qPCR.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Musovic, Sanin; Palomo, Alejandro; Diwan, Vaibhav; Smets, Barth F

    2016-07-01

    Molecular methods to investigate functional groups in microbial communities rely on the specificity and selectivity of the primer set towards the target. Here, using rapid sand filters for drinking water production as model environment, we investigated the consistency of two commonly used quantitative PCR methods to enumerate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB): one targeting the phylogenetic gene 16S rRNA and the other, the functional gene amoA. Cloning-sequencing with both primer sets on DNA from two waterworks revealed contrasting images of AOB diversity. The amoA-based approach preferentially recovered sequences belonging to Nitrosomonas Cluster 7 over Cluster 6A ones, while the 16S rRNA one yielded more diverse sequences belonging to three AOB clusters, but also a few non-AOB sequences, suggesting broader, but partly unspecific, primer coverage. This was confirmed by an in silico coverage analysis against sequences of AOB (both isolates and high-quality environmental sequences). The difference in primer coverage significantly impacted the estimation of AOB abundance at the waterworks with high Cluster 6A prevalence, with estimates up to 50-fold smaller for amoA than for 16S rRNA. In contrast, both approaches performed very similarly at waterworks with high Cluster 7 prevalence. Our results highlight that caution is warranted when comparing AOB abundances obtained using different qPCR primer sets. PMID:27166579

  2. Enhanced sulfamethoxazole degradation through ammonia oxidizing bacteria co-metabolism and fate of transformation products.

    PubMed

    Kassotaki, Elissavet; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of the widely-used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SFX) in wastewaters and surface waters has been reported in a large number of studies. However, the results obtained up-to-date have pointed out disparities in its removal. This manuscript explores the enhanced biodegradation potential of an enriched culture of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) towards SFX. Several sets of batch tests were conducted to establish a link between SFX degradation and specific ammonia oxidation rate. The occurrence, degradation and generation of SFX and some of its transformation products (4-Nitro SFX, Desamino-SFX and N(4)-Acetyl-SFX) was also monitored. A clear link between the degradation of SFX and the nitrification rate was found, resulting in an increased SFX removal at higher specific ammonia oxidation rates. Moreover, experiments conducted under the presence of allylthiourea (ATU) did not present any removal of SFX, suggesting a connection between the AMO enzyme and SFX degradation. Long term experiments (up to 10 weeks) were also conducted adding two different concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) of SFX in the influent of a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor, resulting in up to 98% removal. Finally, the formation of transformation products during SFX degradation represented up to 32%, being 4-Nitro-SFX the most abundant.

  3. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Haberleitner, Elisabeth; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo), exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization.

  4. Geographic Distribution of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizing Ecotypes in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Haberleitner, Elisabeth; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-01-01

    In marine ecosystems, Thaumarchaeota are most likely the major ammonia oxidizers. While ammonia concentrations vary by about two orders of magnitude in the oceanic water column, archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOA) vary by only one order of magnitude from surface to bathypelagic waters. Thus, the question arises whether the key enzyme responsible for ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase (amo), exhibits different affinities to ammonia along the oceanic water column and consequently, whether there are different ecotypes of AOA present in the oceanic water column. We determined the abundance and phylogeny of AOA based on their amoA gene. Two ecotypes of AOA exhibited a distribution pattern reflecting the reported availability of ammonia and the physico-chemical conditions throughout the Atlantic, and from epi- to bathypelagic waters. The distinction between these two ecotypes was not only detectable at the nucleotide level. Consistent changes were also detected at the amino acid level. These changes include substitutions of polar to hydrophobic amino acid, and glycine substitutions that could have an effect on the configuration of the amo protein and thus, on its activity. Although we cannot identify the specific effect, the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) between the two ecotypes indicates a strong positive selection between them. Consequently, our results point to a certain degree of environmental selection on these two ecotypes that have led to their niche specialization. PMID:26903961

  5. Enhanced sulfamethoxazole degradation through ammonia oxidizing bacteria co-metabolism and fate of transformation products.

    PubMed

    Kassotaki, Elissavet; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of the widely-used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SFX) in wastewaters and surface waters has been reported in a large number of studies. However, the results obtained up-to-date have pointed out disparities in its removal. This manuscript explores the enhanced biodegradation potential of an enriched culture of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) towards SFX. Several sets of batch tests were conducted to establish a link between SFX degradation and specific ammonia oxidation rate. The occurrence, degradation and generation of SFX and some of its transformation products (4-Nitro SFX, Desamino-SFX and N(4)-Acetyl-SFX) was also monitored. A clear link between the degradation of SFX and the nitrification rate was found, resulting in an increased SFX removal at higher specific ammonia oxidation rates. Moreover, experiments conducted under the presence of allylthiourea (ATU) did not present any removal of SFX, suggesting a connection between the AMO enzyme and SFX degradation. Long term experiments (up to 10 weeks) were also conducted adding two different concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) of SFX in the influent of a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor, resulting in up to 98% removal. Finally, the formation of transformation products during SFX degradation represented up to 32%, being 4-Nitro-SFX the most abundant. PMID:26938496

  6. Response of Nitrosospira sp. Strain AF-Like Ammonia Oxidizers to Changes in Temperature, Soil Moisture Content, and Fertilizer Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the ecology of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, a unique group of ammonia oxidizers within the Betaproteobacteria. We studied the response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changing environmental conditions by applying molecular methods and physiological measurements to Californian grassland soil manipulated in the laboratory. This soil is naturally high in Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria relative to the much-better-studied Nitrosospira multiformis-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Increases in temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer interacted to reduce the relative abundance of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, although they remained numerically dominant. The overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased with increasing soil moisture and decreased with increasing temperature. Potential nitrification activity was altered by interactions among temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer, with activity tending to be higher when soil moisture and temperature were increased. The increase in potential nitrification activity with increased temperature was surprising, given that the overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased significantly under these conditions. This observation suggests that (i) Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria may respond to increased temperature with an increase in activity, despite a decrease in abundance, or (ii) that potential nitrification activity in these soils may be due to organisms other than bacteria (e.g., archaeal ammonia oxidizers), at least under conditions of increased temperature. PMID:17158615

  7. Response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changes in temperature, soil moisture content, and fertilizer concentration.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2007-02-01

    Very little is known regarding the ecology of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, a unique group of ammonia oxidizers within the Betaproteobacteria. We studied the response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changing environmental conditions by applying molecular methods and physiological measurements to Californian grassland soil manipulated in the laboratory. This soil is naturally high in Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria relative to the much-better-studied Nitrosospira multiformis-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Increases in temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer interacted to reduce the relative abundance of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, although they remained numerically dominant. The overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased with increasing soil moisture and decreased with increasing temperature. Potential nitrification activity was altered by interactions among temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer, with activity tending to be higher when soil moisture and temperature were increased. The increase in potential nitrification activity with increased temperature was surprising, given that the overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased significantly under these conditions. This observation suggests that (i) Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria may respond to increased temperature with an increase in activity, despite a decrease in abundance, or (ii) that potential nitrification activity in these soils may be due to organisms other than bacteria (e.g., archaeal ammonia oxidizers), at least under conditions of increased temperature.

  8. Archaea signal recognition particle shows the way.

    PubMed

    Zwieb, Christian; Bhuiyan, Shakhawat

    2010-06-28

    Archaea SRP is composed of an SRP RNA molecule and two bound proteins named SRP19 and SRP54. Regulated by the binding and hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphates, the RNA-bound SRP54 protein transiently associates not only with the hydrophobic signal sequence as it emerges from the ribosomal exit tunnel, but also interacts with the membrane-associated SRP receptor (FtsY). Comparative analyses of the archaea genomes and their SRP component sequences, combined with structural and biochemical data, support a prominent role of the SRP RNA in the assembly and function of the archaea SRP. The 5e motif, which in eukaryotes binds a 72 kilodalton protein, is preserved in most archaea SRP RNAs despite the lack of an archaea SRP72 homolog. The primary function of the 5e region may be to serve as a hinge, strategically positioned between the small and large SRP domain, allowing the elongated SRP to bind simultaneously to distant ribosomal sites. SRP19, required in eukaryotes for initiating SRP assembly, appears to play a subordinate role in the archaea SRP or may be defunct. The N-terminal A region and a novel C-terminal R region of the archaea SRP receptor (FtsY) are strikingly diverse or absent even among the members of a taxonomic subgroup.

  9. Impacts of reduced sulfur components on active and resting ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Sears, K; Alleman, J E; Barnard, J L; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2004-09-01

    While there has been significant research on the nature and extent of the impact of inhibitory reduced sulfur with respect to anaerobic (e.g., methanogenic and sulfidogenic) microbial systems, only limited study has yet been conducted on the comparable effects of soluble sulfides which might occur within aerobic wastewater treatment systems. Admittedly, aerobic reactors would not normally be considered conducive to the presence of reduced sulfur constituents, but there do appear to be a number of processing scenarios under which related impacts could develop, particularly for sensitive reactions like nitrification. Indeed, the following scenarios might well involve elevated levels of reduced sulfur within an aerobic reactor environment: (1) mixed liquor recycle back through sulfide-generating anaerobic zones (e.g., in conjunction with biological nutrient removal processes, etc.), (2) high-level side-stream sulfide recycle via sludge digestion, etc., back to aerobic reactors, and (3) high-level influent sulfide inputs to wastewater treatment facilities via specific industrial, septage, etc., streams. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the subsequent metabolic impact of soluble sulfide under aerated and unaerated conditions, focusing in particular on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria due to their critical first-step role with nitrification. The obtained results indicated that, under catabolically active conditions, cultures of ammonia oxidizers were extremely sensitive to the presence of sulfide. At total soluble sulfide concentrations of 0.25 mg l(-1) S, active ammonia oxidation was completely inhibited. However, immediately following the removal of this soluble sulfide presence, ammonia oxidation started to recover; and it continued to improve over the next 24 h. Similar sulfide impact tests conducted with inactive ammonia oxidizers exposed during anaerobic conditions, albeit at higher dosage levels, also revealed that their subsequent aerobic

  10. Effects of temperature and fertilizer on activity and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, Sharon; Liesack, Werner; Conrad, Ralf

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the activity of soil ammonia oxidizers caused by changes in the availability of ammonium and in the microbial community structure. Both short (5 days) and long (6.5, 16 and 20 weeks) incubation of an agricultural soil resulted in a decrease in ammonium concentration that was more pronounced at temperatures between 10 and 25 degrees C than at either 4 degrees C or 30-37 degrees C. Consistently, potential nitrification was higher between 10 and 25 degrees C than at either 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C. However, as long as ammonium was not limiting, release rates of N2O increased monotonously between 4 and 37 degrees C after short-term temperature adaptation, with nitrification accounting for about 35-50% of the N2O production between 4 and 25 degrees C. In order to see whether temperature may also affect the community structure of ammonia oxidizers, we studied moist soil during long incubation at low and high concentrations of commercial fertilizer. The soil was also incubated in buffered (pH 7) slurry amended with urea. Communities of ammonia oxidizers were assayed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amoA gene coding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. We found that a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system using a non-degenerated reverse primer (amoAR1) gave the best results. Community shifts occurred in all soil treatments after 16 weeks of incubation. The community shifts were obviously influenced by the different fertilizer treatments, indicating that ammonium was a selective factor for different ammonia oxidizer populations. Temperature was also a selective factor, in particular as community shifts were also observed in the soil slurries, in which ammonium concentrations and pH were better controlled. Cloning and sequencing of selected DGGE bands indicated that amoA sequences belonging to Nitrosospira cluster 1 were dominant at low temperatures (4-10 degrees C), but were absent after

  11. Effects of temperature and fertilizer on activity and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, Sharon; Liesack, Werner; Conrad, Ralf

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the activity of soil ammonia oxidizers caused by changes in the availability of ammonium and in the microbial community structure. Both short (5 days) and long (6.5, 16 and 20 weeks) incubation of an agricultural soil resulted in a decrease in ammonium concentration that was more pronounced at temperatures between 10 and 25 degrees C than at either 4 degrees C or 30-37 degrees C. Consistently, potential nitrification was higher between 10 and 25 degrees C than at either 4 degrees C or 37 degrees C. However, as long as ammonium was not limiting, release rates of N2O increased monotonously between 4 and 37 degrees C after short-term temperature adaptation, with nitrification accounting for about 35-50% of the N2O production between 4 and 25 degrees C. In order to see whether temperature may also affect the community structure of ammonia oxidizers, we studied moist soil during long incubation at low and high concentrations of commercial fertilizer. The soil was also incubated in buffered (pH 7) slurry amended with urea. Communities of ammonia oxidizers were assayed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amoA gene coding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. We found that a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system using a non-degenerated reverse primer (amoAR1) gave the best results. Community shifts occurred in all soil treatments after 16 weeks of incubation. The community shifts were obviously influenced by the different fertilizer treatments, indicating that ammonium was a selective factor for different ammonia oxidizer populations. Temperature was also a selective factor, in particular as community shifts were also observed in the soil slurries, in which ammonium concentrations and pH were better controlled. Cloning and sequencing of selected DGGE bands indicated that amoA sequences belonging to Nitrosospira cluster 1 were dominant at low temperatures (4-10 degrees C), but were absent after

  12. Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

  13. [Effects of different cropping patterns on soil enzyme activities and soil microbial community diversity in oasis farmland].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Liu, Yu; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-02-01

    Effects of long-term cropping patterns on the activities of peroxidase, invertase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease were investigated in this paper. Four long-term cropping patterns included (1) 10 years continuous cropping of corn, (2) 8 years continuous cropping of wheat followed by 10 years continuous cropping of cotton, (3) 15 years continuous cropping of cotton, and (4) 6 years continuous cropping of cotton followed by 6 years of wheat/sunflower rotation. The responses of soil bacteria, fungi, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) , and the ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) to different copping patterns were analyzed. The results showed that cropping patterns significantly affected the activities of soil peroxidase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase and protease, while had no significant effect on soil invertase activity. The cropping patterns significantly influenced the diversity index of AOA, but had no significant influence on that of soil bacteria, fungi and AOB. The community structures of soil fungi and AOB were more sensitive to cropping patterns than soil bacteria and AOA. In conclusion, long-term continuous cropping of cotton decreased the activities of soil enzymes activities and soil microbial diversity in oasis farmland, while crop rotation could alleviate the negative influence. PMID:26094465

  14. [Impact of land-use type changes on soil nitrification and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition].

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Lin; Mao, Ren-Zhao; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Jing

    2011-11-01

    A comparative study was conducted to determine nitrification potentials and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) community composition in 0-20 cm soil depth in adjacent native forest,natural grassland, and cropland soils on the Tibetan Plateau, by incubation experiment and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA, respectively. Cropland has the highest nitrification potential and nitrate concentration among the three land-use types (LUT), approximately 9 folds and more than 11 folds than that of the forests and grasslands, respectively. NO3(-) -N accounted for 70%-90% of inorganic N in cropland soil, while NH4(+) -N was the main form of inorganic N in forest and grassland soils. Nitrification potentials and nitrate concentrations showed no significant difference between native forest and grassland soils. The native forest showed the lowest nitrification potentials and the lowest AOB diversity and community composition among the three LUT. Conversions from natural grasslands to croplands remarkably decreased the AOB diversity and composition, but croplands remain high similarity in AOB community composition compared with grasslands. The minimal and the lowest diversity of AOB in native forests directly resulted to the lowest nitrification potentials compared to natural grasslands and croplands. From the fact of the highest nitrification potentials and nitrate concentrations in croplands indicated that there were the most substantial AOB with higher activity and priority. The results provide evidence that changes of land-use type can affect both soil nitrogen internal cycling process, the diversity, community and activity of AOB, which further affect soil environment quality and the long-term sustainability of ecosystems.

  15. Impact of sheep urine deposition and plant species on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in upland grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Deirdre C; Clipson, Nicholas

    2008-09-01

    The effects of different concentrations of synthetic sheep urine and plant species on ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) communities in an upland grassland soil were investigated using a microcosm approach. Plant species characteristic of unimproved and improved agricultural pastures (Agrostis capillaris and Lolium perenne, respectively) were planted in soil microcosms, and different levels of synthetic sheep urine were applied, with harvests 10 and 50 days following urine application. Shifts in the community structure of the AOB were investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of amoA amplicons. Species richness and diversity were significantly altered by synthetic sheep urine addition and time depending on plant species type. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that AOB community structure was largely dependent on interactions between sheep urine deposition, plant species, and time after urine application, while significant changes in AOB structure were also revealed by similarity percentage analysis. The results of this study suggested that high levels of sheep urine, combined with floristic changes that are characteristic of agricultural intensification, can contribute to temporal and spatial changes in the structure of key bacterial communities in upland grassland soil. Changes in AOB community structure could potentially affect important soil processes, such as nitrification, with subsequent implications for nutrient cycling in agricultural systems.

  16. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  18. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  19. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-07-27

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  20. Archaea in biogeochemical cycles.

    PubMed

    Offre, Pierre; Spang, Anja; Schleper, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the microbial biomass on Earth. Like Bacteria they have evolved a variety of energy metabolisms using organic and/or inorganic electron donors and acceptors, and many of them are able to fix carbon from inorganic sources. Archaea thus play crucial roles in the Earth's global geochemical cycles and influence greenhouse gas emissions. Methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation are important steps in the carbon cycle; both are performed exclusively by anaerobic archaea. Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite is performed by Thaumarchaeota. They represent the only archaeal group that resides in large numbers in the global aerobic terrestrial and marine environments on Earth. Sulfur-dependent archaea are confined mostly to hot environments, but metal leaching by acidophiles and reduction of sulfate by anaerobic, nonthermophilic methane oxidizers have a potential impact on the environment. The metabolisms of a large number of archaea, in particular those dominating the subsurface, remain to be explored.

  1. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  2. Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Blow, M. J.; Deutschbauer, A. M.; Hoover, C. A.; Lamson, J.; Lamson, J.; Price, M. N.; Waters, J.; Wetmore, K. M.; Bristow, J.; Arkin, A. P.

    2013-03-20

    Bacteria and Archaea exhibit a huge diversity of metabolic capabilities with fundamental importance in the environment, and potential applications in biotechnology. However, the genetic bases of these capabilities remain unclear due largely to an absence of technologies that link DNA sequence to molecular function. To address this challenge, we are developing a pipeline for high throughput annotation of gene function using mutagenesis, growth assays and DNA sequencing. By applying this pipeline to annotate gene function in 50 diverse microbes we hope to discover thousands of new gene functions and produce a proof of principle `Functional Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea?.

  3. Shifts in the abundance and community structure of soil ammonia oxidizers in a wet sclerophyll forest under long-term prescribed burning.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi-En; Chen, Chengrong; Xu, Zhihong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Fire shapes global biome distribution and promotes the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen (N). However, behaviors of AOB and AOA under long-term prescribed burning remain unclear. This study was to examine how fire affected the abundances and communities of soil AOB and AOA. A long-term repeated forest fire experiment with three burning treatments (never burnt, B0; biennially burnt, B2; and quadrennially burnt, B4) was used in this study. The abundances and community structure of soil AOB and AOA were determined using quantitative PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone library. More frequent fires (B2) increased the abundance of bacterium amoA gene, but tended to decrease archaeal amoA genes. Fire also modified the composition of AOA and AOB communities. Canonical correspondence analysis showed soil pH and dissolved organic C (DOC) strongly affected AOB genotypes, while nitrate-N and DOC shaped the AOA distribution. The increased abundance of bacterium amoA gene by fires may imply an important role of AOB in nitrification in fire-affected soils. The fire-induced shift in the community composition of AOB and AOA demonstrates that fire can disturb nutrient cycles.

  4. Fluctuations in Ammonia Oxidizing Communities Across Agricultural Soils are Driven by Soil Structure and pH

    PubMed Central

    Pereira e Silva, Michele C.; Poly, Franck; Guillaumaud, Nadine; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2012-01-01

    The milieu in soil in which microorganisms dwell is never constant. Conditions such as temperature, water availability, pH and nutrients frequently change, impacting the overall functioning of the soil system. To understand the effects of such factors on soil functioning, proxies (indicators) of soil function are needed that, in a sensitive manner, reveal normal amplitude of variation. Thus, the so-called normal operating range (NOR) of soil can be defined. In this study we determined different components of nitrification by analyzing, in eight agricultural soils, how the community structures and sizes of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively), and their activity, fluctuate over spatial and temporal scales. The results indicated that soil pH and soil type are the main factors that influence the size and structure of the AOA and AOB, as well as their function. The nitrification rates varied between 0.11 ± 0.03 μgN h−1 gdw−1 and 1.68 ± 0.11 μgN h−1 gdw−1, being higher in soils with higher clay content (1.09 ± 0.12 μgN h−1 gdw−1) and lower in soils with lower clay percentages (0.27 ± 0.04 μgN h−1 gdw−1). Nitrifying activity was driven by soil pH, mostly related to its effect on AOA but not on AOB abundance. Regarding the influence of soil parameters, clay content was the main soil factor shaping the structure of both the AOA and AOB communities. Overall, the potential nitrifying activities were higher and more variable over time in the clayey than in the sandy soils. Whereas the structure of AOB fluctuated more (62.7 ± 2.10%) the structure of AOA communities showed lower amplitude of variation (53.65 ± 3.37%). Similar trends were observed for the sizes of these communities. The present work represents a first step toward defining a NOR for soil nitrification. The sensitivity of the process and organisms to impacts from the milieu support their use as proxies in the

  5. The Co-Distribution of Nitrifying Archaea and Diazotrophic Bacteria in Geothermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Jewell, T. N. M.; de la Torre, J. R.; Boyd, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial processes that regulate availability of nutrients play key roles in shaping community composition. All life requires fixed nitrogen (N), and its bioavailability is what often limits ecosystem productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation, or the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), is a keystone process in N limited ecosystems, providing nitrogen for members of the community. N2 fixing organisms likely represent a 'bottom up control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. N2 fixation is catalyzed by a limited number of metabolically diverse bacteria and some methanogenic archaea and occurs in a variety of physically and geochemically diverse environments. Nitrification, or the sequential oxidation of NH4+ to nitrite (NO2-) and ultimately nitrate (NO3-), is catalyzed by several lineages of Proteobacteria at temperatures of < 62°C and by members of the Thaumarcheota at temperatures up to 90°C. Nitrification can thus be considered a 'top down control' on the structure of communities that develop in N limited environments. Our research in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) reveals a strong correspondence between the distribution of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrogen fixing aquificae (NFA) in nitrogen-limited geothermal hot springs over large environmental gradients. Based on the physiology of AOA and NFA, we propose that the strong co-distributional pattern results from interspecies interactions, namely competition for bioavailable ammonia. Our recent work has shown that in springs where the niche dimension of AOA and NFA overlap (e.g., Perpetual Spouter; pH 7.1, 86.4°C), the dissimilar affinities for NH4 result in AOA metabolism maintaining a low NH4(T) pool and selecting for inclusion of NFA during the assembly of these communities. Here, we examine in situ physiological interactions of AOA and NFA, tracking changes in transcript levels of key genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and carbon fixation of

  6. The impact of temperature on microbial diversity and AOA activity in the Tengchong Geothermal Field, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haizhou; Yang, Qunhui; Li, Jian; Gao, Hang; Li, Ping; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2015-01-01

    Using a culture-independent method that combines CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rDNA, we investigated the abundance, community structure and diversity of microbes along a steep thermal gradient (50–90 °C) in the Tengchong Geothermal Field. We found that Bacteria and Archaea abundance changed markedly with temperature changes and that the number of cells was lowest at high temperatures (90.8 °C). Under low-temperature conditions (52.3–74.6 °C), the microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria, which accounted for 60–80% of the total number of cells. At 74.6 °C, Archaea were dominant, and at 90.8 °C, they accounted for more than 90% of the total number of cells. Additionally, the microbial communities at high temperatures (74.6–90.8 °C) were substantially simpler than those at the low-temperature sites. Only a few genera (e.g., bacterial Caldisericum, Thermotoga and Thermoanaerobacter, archaeal Vulcanisaeta and Hyperthermus) often dominated in high-temperature environments. Additionally, a positive correlation between Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) activity and temperature was detected. AOA activity increased from 17 to 52 pmol of NO2− per cell d−1 with a temperature change from 50 to 70 °C. PMID:26608685

  7. The impact of temperature on microbial diversity and AOA activity in the Tengchong Geothermal Field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haizhou; Yang, Qunhui; Li, Jian; Gao, Hang; Li, Ping; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2015-11-01

    Using a culture-independent method that combines CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rDNA, we investigated the abundance, community structure and diversity of microbes along a steep thermal gradient (50-90 °C) in the Tengchong Geothermal Field. We found that Bacteria and Archaea abundance changed markedly with temperature changes and that the number of cells was lowest at high temperatures (90.8 °C). Under low-temperature conditions (52.3-74.6 °C), the microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria, which accounted for 60-80% of the total number of cells. At 74.6 °C, Archaea were dominant, and at 90.8 °C, they accounted for more than 90% of the total number of cells. Additionally, the microbial communities at high temperatures (74.6-90.8 °C) were substantially simpler than those at the low-temperature sites. Only a few genera (e.g., bacterial Caldisericum, Thermotoga and Thermoanaerobacter, archaeal Vulcanisaeta and Hyperthermus) often dominated in high-temperature environments. Additionally, a positive correlation between Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) activity and temperature was detected. AOA activity increased from 17 to 52 pmol of NO2- per cell d-1 with a temperature change from 50 to 70 °C.

  8. Inhibition of Ammonia Oxidation in Nitrosomonas europaea by Sulfur Compounds: Thioethers Are Oxidized to Sulfoxides by Ammonia Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Juliette, Lisa Y.; Hyman, Michael R.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Organic sulfur compounds are well-known nitrification inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide, and ethanethiol on ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea were examined. Both dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide were weak inhibitors of ammonia oxidation and exhibited inhibitory characteristics typical of substrates for ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). Depletion of dimethylsulfide required O2 and was prevented with either acetylene or allylthiourea, two inhibitors of AMO. The inhibition of ammonia oxidation by dimethylsulfide was examined in detail. Cell suspensions incubated in the presence of ammonia oxidized dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. Depletion of six other thioethers was also prevented by treating cell suspensions with either allylthiourea or acetylene. The oxidative products of three thioethers were identified as the corresponding sulfoxides. The amount of sulfoxide formed accounted for a majority of the amount of sulfide depleted. By using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, allylmethylsulfide was shown to be oxidized to allylmethylsulfoxide by N. europaea with the incorporation of a single atom of 18O derived from 18O2 into the sulfide. This result supported our conclusion that a monooxygenase was involved in the oxidation of allylmethylsulfide. The thioethers are concluded to be a new class of substrates for AMO. This is the first report of the oxidation of the sulfur atom by AMO in whole cells of N. europaea. The ability of N. europaea to oxidize dimethylsulfide is not unique among the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Nitrosococcus oceanus, a marine nitrifier, was also demonstrated to oxidize dimethylsulfide to dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:16349086

  9. Ammonia oxidation is not required for growth of Group 1.1c soil Thaumarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Eva B.; Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E.; Prosser, James I.; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant organisms on Earth and are ubiquitous. Within this phylum, all cultivated representatives of Group 1.1a and Group 1.1b Thaumarchaeota are ammonia oxidizers, and play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. While Group 1.1c is phylogenetically closely related to the ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and is abundant in acidic forest soils, nothing is known about its physiology or ecosystem function. The goal of this study was to perform in situ physiological characterization of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota by determining conditions that favour their growth in soil. Several acidic grassland, birch and pine tree forest soils were sampled and those with the highest Group 1.1c 16S rRNA gene abundance were incubated in microcosms to determine optimal growth temperature, ammonia oxidation and growth on several organic compounds. Growth of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota, assessed by qPCR of Group 1.1c 16S rRNA genes, occurred in soil, optimally at 30°C, but was not associated with ammonia oxidation and the functional gene amoA could not be detected. Growth was also stimulated by addition of organic nitrogen compounds (glutamate and casamino acids) but not when supplemented with organic carbon alone. This is the first evidence for non-ammonia oxidation associated growth of Thaumarchaeota in soil. PMID:25764563

  10. An integrated study reveals diverse methanogens, Thaumarchaeota, and yet-uncultivated archaeal lineages in Armenian hot springs.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Brian P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Cole, Jessica K; Panosyan, Hovik H

    2013-07-01

    Culture-independent and enrichment techniques, with an emphasis on members of the Archaea, were used to determine the composition and structure of microbial communities inhabiting microbial mats in the source pools of two geothermal springs near the towns of Arzakan and Jermuk in Armenia. Amplification of small-subunit rRNA genes using "universal" primers followed by pyrosequencing (pyrotags) revealed highly diverse microbial communities in both springs, with >99 % of pyrosequences corresponding to members of the domain Bacteria. The spring in Arzakan was colonized by a photosynthetic mat dominated by Cyanobacteria, in addition to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Spirochaeta and a diversity of other Bacteria. The spring in Jermuk was colonized by phylotypes related to sulfur, iron, and hydrogen chemolithotrophs in the Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, along with a diversity of other Bacteria. Analysis of near full-length small subunit rRNA genes amplified using Archaea-specific primers showed that both springs are inhabited by a diversity of methanogens, including Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales and relatives of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (AOA) "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis", and the yet-uncultivated Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group and Deep Hydrothermal Vent Crenarchaeota group 1. Methanogenic enrichments confirmed the predicted physiological diversity, revealing methylotrophic, acetoclastic, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 45 and 55 °C, but not 65 °C. This is one of only a few studies combining cultivation-independent and -dependent approaches to study archaea in moderate-temperature (37-73 °C) terrestrial geothermal environments and suggests important roles for methanogenic archaea and AOA in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in these environments. PMID:23632917

  11. An integrated study reveals diverse methanogens, Thaumarchaeota, and yet-uncultivated archaeal lineages in Armenian hot springs.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Brian P; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Cole, Jessica K; Panosyan, Hovik H

    2013-07-01

    Culture-independent and enrichment techniques, with an emphasis on members of the Archaea, were used to determine the composition and structure of microbial communities inhabiting microbial mats in the source pools of two geothermal springs near the towns of Arzakan and Jermuk in Armenia. Amplification of small-subunit rRNA genes using "universal" primers followed by pyrosequencing (pyrotags) revealed highly diverse microbial communities in both springs, with >99 % of pyrosequences corresponding to members of the domain Bacteria. The spring in Arzakan was colonized by a photosynthetic mat dominated by Cyanobacteria, in addition to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Spirochaeta and a diversity of other Bacteria. The spring in Jermuk was colonized by phylotypes related to sulfur, iron, and hydrogen chemolithotrophs in the Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, along with a diversity of other Bacteria. Analysis of near full-length small subunit rRNA genes amplified using Archaea-specific primers showed that both springs are inhabited by a diversity of methanogens, including Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales and relatives of Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (AOA) "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis", and the yet-uncultivated Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group and Deep Hydrothermal Vent Crenarchaeota group 1. Methanogenic enrichments confirmed the predicted physiological diversity, revealing methylotrophic, acetoclastic, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 45 and 55 °C, but not 65 °C. This is one of only a few studies combining cultivation-independent and -dependent approaches to study archaea in moderate-temperature (37-73 °C) terrestrial geothermal environments and suggests important roles for methanogenic archaea and AOA in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in these environments.

  12. The influence of salinity on the abundance, transcriptional activity, and diversity of AOA and AOB in an estuarine sediment: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Wen, Donghui

    2015-11-01

    Estuarine sediment-seawater microcosms were established to evaluate the influence of salinity on the population, transcriptional activity, and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). AOA was found to show the most abundant and the highest transcriptional activity under moderate salinity; on the other hand, AOB abundance was not sensitive to salinity variation but showed the highest transcriptional activity in the low-salinity microcosms. AOA exhibited more advantages than AOB on growth and ammonia-oxidizing activity under moderate- and high-salinity environments. The highest richness and diversity of active AOA were found under salinity of 15 psu. All the active AOA detected under the salinities studied were clustered into Nitrosopumilus maritimus linage, with the composition shifted from N. maritimus C12 cluster, N. maritimus like 1.1 cluster, N. maritimus SCM1 cluster, and N. maritimus like 1.2 cluster to N. maritimus C12 and N. maritimus A10 clusters when salinity was increased from 5 to 30 psu.

  13. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Julie Maupin- Furlow

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  14. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Keneth Stedman

    2011-08-05

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  15. Toxicity of profenofos to the springtail, Folsomia candida, and ammonia-oxidizers in two agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Extensive use of organophosphorus insecticide profenofos (PFF) for agricultural and house-hold purposes has led to serious environmental pollution, with potential risk to organisms in the ecosystem. This study examined the toxicity of PFF to the soil springtail Folsomia candida and ammonia-oxidizers through a series of toxicity tests conducted on two agricultural soils. It was found that the survival, reproduction, hsp70 gene expression of F. candida and the soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) were sensitive to the PFF, whereas no apparent change was observed in the abundance of ammonia-oxidizers. The reproduction of F. candida was the most sensitive endpoint (mean 0.10 mg/kg of EC(50) value) for PFF, although the test was more time-consuming. The results of the acute toxicity tests suggested that the survival of F. candida could be considered as the most suitable bioindicator for fast screening of PFF toxicity because of its fast and easy test procedure. In addition, the hsp70 gene expression in F. candida and the PNR could be used as important parameters for assessment of PFF toxicity. The threshold concentration based on the obtained endpoints differed in the two soils, and consequently the soil property should be considered in toxicity assessments of contaminated soils. PMID:22362510

  16. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, p<0.001). Bulk DNA was extracted from a tea orchard soil (pH 4.8; PNR, 0.078 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1) and subjected to PCR-aided clone library analyses targeting archaeal and bacterial amoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  17. [Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community composition at the root zones of aquatic plants after ecological restoration].

    PubMed

    Xing, Peng; Kong, Fan-xiang; Chen, Kai-ning; Chen, Mei-jun; Wu, Xiao-dong

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of aquatic plants on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) at their root zones, four species of aquatic plants were selected, Phragmites communis, Typha angustifolia L., Potamogeton crispus L., and Limnanthemun nymphoides, which were widely used in ecological restorations. AOB in the samples were enumerated by most-probable-number (MPN) method. Nested polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) procedures were performed with ammonia oxidizer-selective primers. Main DGGE bands were excised from the gel and sequenced for phylogenetic affiliation. Results indicate that AOB densities are always higher at the root zones of emergent plants (Phragmites communis 2.8 x 10(5) cells/g and Typha angustifolia L.4.3 x 10(5) cells/g) than those of submerged and floating-leaved plant (Potamogeton crispus L. 9.3 x 10(4) cells/g and Limnanthemun nymphoides 7.7 x 10(4) cells/g). At the root zones, the oxidation-reduction potential is above zero and NH4+ concentration is lower than it in the bare surface sediment. Fourteen major bands were recovered from the DGGE gel, re-amplified and sequenced. Although the identified bands have their respective similar sequences in GenBank, most of them are related to Nitrosomonas-like. This type of bacteria would play an important role of nitrogen cycle in lake sediment after ecological restoration.

  18. Impact of streambed morphology on the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yanuka-Golub, Keren; Arnon, Shai; Nejidat, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia oxidizers catalyze the first step of nitrification. Combined microbial nitrification-denitrification activities are essential for the removal of excess nitrogen from water bodies. In sandy streambeds, bed form structures are created by water flow and lead to the creation of heterogeneous microenvironments. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of bed form morphology on the abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) within a benthic biofilm. An 8-month-old benthic biofilm was established in a recirculating laboratory flume under controlled flow conditions and frequent amendment with ammonium. The sand bed was arranged into bed form structures. The highest concentrations of chlorophyll a (indicative of algae) were measured on the upstream side of the bed forms. The biofilm was dominated by Nitrosospira species, and amoA gene abundance was higher on the downstream sides of the bed forms with no significant difference in oxygen consumption between the upstream and downstream sections of the bed form. In contrast, potential ammonium oxidation rates were higher on the upstream sides of the bed forms. The results suggest that bed form morphology can affect the spatial distribution and activity of AOB, possibly through the creation of distinct microhabitats. These results contribute to our understanding of nitrogen transformations and removal from streams. PMID:25056670

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment alter the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Lage, Melissa D; Reed, Heather E; Weihe, Claudia; Crain, Caitlin M; Martiny, Jennifer B H

    2010-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation is a central process in the nitrogen cycle. Particularly in marine and estuarine environments, few experiments have been conducted to tease apart the factors influencing their abundance and composition. To investigate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), we conducted a nutrient enrichment experiment in a Maine salt marsh and sampled sediment communities in three seasons over 2 years. We assessed community composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of cloned fragments of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene. Almost all of the amoA sequences fell within the marine and estuarine-specific Nitrosospira-like clade. Applied separately, nitrogen and phosphorus significantly altered AOB composition; however, together the nutrients had an interactive effect, and composition did not change. In contrast, nutrient enrichment did not alter AOB abundance. Furthermore, the response of AOB composition to nutrient enrichment varied over time. We conclude that closely related taxa within the marine/estuarine-specific Nitrosospira-like clade vary in their preference for nutrient concentrations, and this preference may depend on other temporally variable abiotic factors. Finally, AOB composition was highly variable within and across years even in untreated plots. Further studies are needed to test how these different aspects of compositional variability in AOB communities influence nitrogen cycling.

  20. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  1. [Effect of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on chloraminated disinfection attenuation in drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Hui; Cai, Yun-Long; Zhou, Bin-Hui; Zhi, Xing-Hua

    2009-06-15

    The growth of microbe and formation of biofilm in water distribution system were important factors affecting the security of water quality. The number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biofilm of a chloraminated drinking water distribution system in Shanghai was detected by MPN-Griess method, and the relations among AOB, nitrification and chloraminated disinfection were analyzed. Meanwhile, the effects of AOB on chloraminated disinfection fastness and attenuation by simulation experiment were studied. The result indicated that the number of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in pipe biofilm was between 1.0 x 10(2)-4.3 x 10(5) MPN/g dry biofilm. Correlation coefficients of AOB with ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were -0.563, 0.603 and -0.563. Correlation coefficients of AOB with total chlorine and mono-chloramine were -0.659 and -0.571. Fastness of AOB to chloramine was higher than heterotrophic bacteria and AOB can deplete more chloramine than HPC.

  2. Genetic techniques for the archaea.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Joel A; Picking, Jonathan W; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic techniques for the Archaea have undergone a rapid expansion in complexity, resulting in increased exploration of the role of Archaea in the environment and detailed analyses of the molecular physiology and information-processing systems in the third domain of life. Complementary gains in describing the ever-increasing diversity of archaeal organisms have allowed these techniques to be leveraged in new and imaginative ways to elucidate shared and unique aspects of archaeal diversity and metabolism. In this review, we introduce the four archaeal clades for which advanced genetic techniques are available--the methanogens, halophiles, Sulfolobales, and Thermococcales--with the aim of providing an overall profile of the advantages and disadvantages of working within each clade, as essentially all of the genetically accessible archaeal organisms require unique culturing techniques that present real challenges. We discuss the full repertoire of techniques possible within these clades while highlighting the recent advances that have been made by taking advantage of the most prominent techniques and approaches.

  3. 2007 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Imke Schroeder Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-09-18

    The Archaea are a fascinating and diverse group of prokaryotic organisms with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of this GRC conference, 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology', expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting the evolution and composition of microbial communities and novel archaeal species, their impact on the environment, archaeal metabolism, and research that stems from sequence analysis of archaeal genomes. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple reputable areas with new scientific topics in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  4. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  5. Short-term effect of elevated temperature on the abundance and diversity of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes in Antarctic Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiwon; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Minsuk; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Woojun

    2013-09-28

    Global warming will have far-reaching effects on our ecosystem. However, its effects on Antarctic soils have been poorly explored. To assess the effects of warming on microbial abundance and community composition, we sampled Antarctic soils from the King George Island in the Antarctic Peninsula and incubated these soils at elevated temperatures of 5°C and 8°C for 14 days. The reduction in total organic carbon and increase in soil respiration were attributed to the increased proliferation of Bacteria, Fungi, and Archaea. Interestingly, bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes were predominant over archaeal amoA, unlike in many other environments reported previously. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal amoA communities via clone libraries revealed that the diversity of amoA genes in Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotic communities were temperature-insensitive. Interestingly, our data also showed that the amoA of Antarctic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities differed from previously described amoA sequences of cultured isolates and clone library sequences, suggesting the presence of novel Antarctic-specific AOB communities. Denitrification-related genes were significantly reduced under warming conditions, whereas the abundance of amoA and nifH increased. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the major phyla in Antarctic soils and the effect of short-term warming on the bacterial community was not apparent.

  6. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals by ammonia oxidizing bacteria in wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifeng; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical residues could potentially pose detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, with wastewater treatment being one of the major pathways for pharmaceuticals to enter into the environment. Enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) has been widely observed in wastewater treatment processes. This article reviews the current knowledge on the biotransformation of pharmaceuticals by AOB. The relationship between the pharmaceuticals removal and nitrification process was revealed. The important role of AOB-induced cometabolism on the biotransformation of pharmaceuticals as well as their transformation products and pathways was elucidated. Kinetics and mathematical models describing the biotransformation of pharmaceuticals by AOB were also reviewed. The results highlighted the high degradation capabilities of AOB toward some refractory pharmaceuticals, with their degradations being clearly related to the nitrification rate and their transformation products being identified, which may exhibit similar or higher ecotoxicological impacts compared to the parent compound. PMID:27243932

  7. Determination of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria in Wastewater and Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Somilez Asya

    2014-01-01

    The process of water purification has many different physical, chemical, and biological processes. One part of the biological process is the task of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Both play critical roles in the treatment of wastewater by oxidizing toxic compounds. The broad term is nitrification, a naturally occurring process that is carried out by AOB and NOB by using oxidation to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. To monitor this biological activity, bacterial staining was performed on wastewater contained in inoculum tanks and biofilm samples from bioreactors. Using microscopy and qPCR, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if the population of AOB and NOB in wastewater and membrane bioreactors changed depending on temperature and hibernation conditions to determine the optimal parameters for AOB/NOB culture to effectively clean wastewater.

  8. Complete genome of Nitrosospira briensis C-128, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marlen C; Norton, Jeanette M; Valois, Frederica; Bollmann, Annette; Bottomley, Peter J; Klotz, Martin G; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Suwa, Yuichi; Stein, Lisa Y; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Goodwin, Lynne A; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Kyrpides, Nikos; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosospira briensis C-128 is an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acid agricultural soil. N. briensis C-128 was sequenced with PacBio RS technologies at the DOE-Joint Genome Institute through their Community Science Program (2010). The high-quality finished genome contains one chromosome of 3.21 Mb and no plasmids. We identified 3073 gene models, 3018 of which are protein coding. The two-way average nucleotide identity between the chromosomes of Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196 and Nitrosospira briensis C-128 was found to be 77.2 %. Multiple copies of modules encoding chemolithotrophic metabolism were identified in their genomic context. The gene inventory supports chemolithotrophic metabolism with implications for function in soil environments. PMID:27471578

  9. Nitrosomonas stercoris sp. nov., a Chemoautotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Tolerant of High Ammonium Isolated from Composted Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Reiji

    2015-01-01

    Among ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha-like microbes are distributed in strongly eutrophic environments such as wastewater treatment plants and animal manure. In the present study, we isolated an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium tolerant of high ammonium levels, designated strain KYUHI-ST, from composted cattle manure. Unlike the other known Nitrosomonas species, this isolate grew at 1,000 mM ammonium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and amoA genes indicated that the isolate belonged to the genus Nitrosomonas and formed a unique cluster with the uncultured ammonia oxidizers found in wastewater systems and animal manure composts, suggesting that these ammonia oxidizers contributed to removing higher concentrations of ammonia in strongly eutrophic environments. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic data presented here, we propose and call for the validation of the provisional taxonomic assignment Nitrosomonas stercoris, with strain KYUHI-S as the type strain (type strain KYUHI-ST = NBRC 110753T = ATCC BAA-2718T). PMID:26156554

  10. Different effects of transgenic maize and nontransgenic maize on nitrogen-transforming archaea and bacteria in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Marriel, Ivanildo Evódio; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Seldin, Lucy; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-10-01

    The composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is a result of interactions between plant roots, soil, and environmental conditions. The impact of genetic variation in plant species on the composition of the root-associated microbiota remains poorly understood. This study assessed the abundances and structures of nitrogen-transforming (ammonia-oxidizing) archaea and bacteria as well as nitrogen-fixing bacteria driven by genetic modification of their maize host plants. The data show that significant changes in the abundances (revealed by quantitative PCR) of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities occurred as a result of the maize host being genetically modified. In contrast, the structures of the total communities (determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were mainly driven by factors such as soil type and season and not by plant genotype. Thus, the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities but not structures of those communities were revealed to be responsive to changes in maize genotype, allowing the suggestion that community abundances should be explored as candidate bioindicators for monitoring the possible impacts of cultivation of genetically modified plants. PMID:25107970

  11. Different behaviour of methanogenic archaea and Thaumarchaeota in rice field microcosms.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiubin; Lu, Yahai; Conrad, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Archaea in rice fields play an important role in carbon and nitrogen cycling. They comprise methane-producing Euryarchaeota as well as ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, but their community structures and population dynamics have not yet been studied in the same system. Different soil compartments (surface, bulk, rhizospheric soil) and ages of roots (young and old roots) at two N fertilization levels and at three time points (the panicle initiation, heading and maturity periods) of the season were assayed by determining the abundance (using qPCR) and composition (using T-RFLP and cloning/sequencing) of archaeal genes (mcrA, amoA, 16S rRNA gene). The community of total Archaea in soil and root samples mainly consisted of the methanogens and the Thaumarchaeota and their abundance increased over the season. Methanogens proliferated everywhere, but Thaumarchaeota proliferated only on the roots and in response to nitrogen fertilization. The community structures of Archaea, methanogens and Thaumarchaeota were different in soil and root samples indicating niche differentiation. While Methanobacteriales were generally present, Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales were the dominant methanogens in soil and root samples, respectively. The results emphasize the specific colonization of roots by two ecophysiologically different groups of archaea which may belong to the core root biome.

  12. Community shift of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing beta-proteobacteria (beta-AOB) was analyzed along an anthropogenic pollution gradient from the coastal Pearl River Delta to the South China Sea using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Along the gradient from coastal to the open ocean, the phylogenetic diversity of the dominant genus changed from Nitrosomonas to Nitrosospira, indicating the niche specificity by these two genera as both salinity and anthropogenic influence were major factors involved. The diversity of bacterial amoA gene was also variable along the gradient, with the highest in the deep-sea sediments, followed by the marshes sediments and the lowest in the coastal areas. Within the Nitrosomonas-related clade, four distinct lineages were identified including a putative new one (A5-16) from the different sites over the large geographical area. In the Nitrosospira-related clade, the habitat-specific lineages to the deep-sea and coastal sediments were identified. This study also provides strong support that Nitrosomonas genus, especially Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage (6a) could be a potential bio-indicator species for pollution or freshwater/wastewater input into coastal environments. A suite of statistical analyses used showed that water depth and temperature were major factors shaping the community structure of beta-AOB in this study area.

  13. Biogeochemical controls and isotopic signatures of nitrous oxide production by a marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, C. H.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2010-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a trace gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion. The N2O yield from nitrification (moles N2O-N produced per mole ammonium-N consumed) has been used to estimate marine N2O production rates from measured nitrification rates and global estimates of oceanic export production. However, the N2O yield from nitrification is not constant. Previous culture-based measurements indicate that N2O yield increases as oxygen (O2) concentration decreases and as nitrite (NO2-) concentration increases. Here, we have measured yields of N2O from cultures of the marine β-proteobacterium Nitrosomonas marina C-113a as they grew on low-ammonium (50 μM) media. These yields, which were typically between 4 × 10-4 and 7 × 10-4 for cultures with cell densities between 2 × 102 and 2.1 × 104 cells ml-1, were lower than previous reports for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The observed impact of O2 concentration on yield was also smaller than previously reported under all conditions except at high starting cell densities (1.5 × 106 cells ml-1), where 160-fold higher yields were observed at 0.5% O2 (5.1 μM dissolved O2) compared with 20% O2 (203 μM dissolved O2). At lower cell densities (2 × 102 and 2.1 × 104 cells ml-1), cultures grown under 0.5% O2 had yields that were only 1.25- to 1.73-fold higher than cultures grown under 20% O2. Thus, previously reported many-fold increases in N2O yield with dropping O2 could be reproduced only at cell densities that far exceeded those of ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. The presence of excess NO2- (up to 1 mM) in the growth medium also increased N2O yields by an average of 70% to 87% depending on O2 concentration. We made stable isotopic measurements on N2O from these cultures to identify the biochemical mechanisms behind variations in N2O yield. Based on measurements of δ15Nbulk, site preference (SP = δ15Nα-δ15Nβ), and δ18O of N2O (δ18O-N2O), we estimate that nitrifier

  14. Protein Ser/Thr/Tyr Phosphorylation in the Archaea*

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The third domain of life, the Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria), is populated by a physiologically diverse set of microorganisms, many of which reside at the ecological extremes of our global environment. Although ostensibly prokaryotic in morphology, the Archaea share much closer evolutionary ties with the Eukarya than with the superficially more similar Bacteria. Initial genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of “eukaryotic” protein kinases and phosphatases and an intriguing set of serine-, threonine-, and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the Archaea that may offer new insights into this important regulatory mechanism. PMID:24554702

  15. Protein Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation in the Archaea.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    The third domain of life, the Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria), is populated by a physiologically diverse set of microorganisms, many of which reside at the ecological extremes of our global environment. Although ostensibly prokaryotic in morphology, the Archaea share much closer evolutionary ties with the Eukarya than with the superficially more similar Bacteria. Initial genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses have revealed the presence of "eukaryotic" protein kinases and phosphatases and an intriguing set of serine-, threonine-, and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the Archaea that may offer new insights into this important regulatory mechanism.

  16. Acclimatization of communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria to seasonal changes in optimal conditions in a coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between optimal conditions of ammonia oxidation rates (AORs) and communities of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) adapting to seasonal changes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The optimal temperature and pH of specific AORs reflected seasonal variation patterns, showing the lowest values during the cold season, while the highest values in the warm season. Throughout the study period, Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha and Nitrosomonas nitrosa remained the dominant AOB, indicating resistance to the influences of a changing environment. These results show that the optimal conditions for AOR can be adjusted to accommodate changing environmental conditions, relying on the acclimatization of a stable AOB community to given conditions, without any visible shift in the AOB community.

  17. Influence of Effluent Irrigation on Community Composition and Function of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Oved, Tamar; Shaviv, Avi; Goldrath, Tal; Mandelbaum, Raphi T.; Minz, Dror

    2001-01-01

    The effect of effluent irrigation on community composition and function of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in soil was evaluated, using techniques of molecular biology and analytical soil chemistry. Analyses were conducted on soil sampled from lysimeters and from a grapefruit orchard which had been irrigated with wastewater effluent or fertilizer-amended water (FAW). Specifically, comparisons of AOB community composition were conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified fragments of the gene encoding the α-subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) recovered from soil samples and subsequent sequencing of relevant bands. A significant and consistent shift in the population composition of AOB was detected in soil irrigated with effluent. This shift was absent in soils irrigated with FAW, despite the fact that the ammonium concentration in the FAW was similar. At the end of the irrigation period, Nitrosospira-like populations were dominant in soils irrigated with FAW, while Nitrosomonas-like populations were dominant in effluent-irrigated soils. Furthermore, DGGE analysis of the amoA gene proved to be a powerful tool in evaluating the soil AOB community population and population shifts therein. PMID:11472914

  18. Role of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in micropollutant removal from wastewater with aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Margot, Jonas; Lochmatter, Samuel; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Nitrifying wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are more efficient than non-nitrifying WWTPs to remove several micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides. This may be related to the activity of nitrifying organisms, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs), which could possibly co-metabolically oxidize micropollutants with their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). The role of AOBs in micropollutant removal was investigated with aerobic granular sludge (AGS), a promising technology for municipal WWTPs. Two identical laboratory-scale AGS sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBRs) were operated with or without nitrification (inhibition of AMOs) to assess their potential for micropollutant removal. Of the 36 micropollutants studied at 1 μg l(-1) in synthetic wastewater, nine were over 80% removed, but 17 were eliminated by less than 20%. Five substances (bisphenol A, naproxen, irgarol, terbutryn and iohexol) were removed better in the reactor with nitrification, probably due to co-oxidation catalysed by AMOs. However, for the removal of all other micropollutants, AOBs did not seem to play a significant role. Many compounds were better removed in aerobic condition, suggesting that aerobic heterotrophic organisms were involved in the degradation. As the AGS-SBRs did not favour the growth of such organisms, their potential for micropollutant removal appeared to be lower than that of conventional nitrifying WWTPs. PMID:26877039

  19. Gold and silver nanoparticle effects on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria cultures under ammoxidation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Chen, Zheng; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Li, Yancai; Laing, Gijs Du; Liu, Aifen; Yan, Changzhou

    2015-02-01

    Owing to their wide application in industry and manufacturing, understanding the environmental safety of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles entering aquatic environment is a global issue of concern. For this study, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) enrichment cultures reproduced from surface sediments taken from the Jiulong River estuary wetlands (Fujian Province, China) were spiked with nano-Ag and nano-Au to determine their impact on ammoxidation and the mechanisms involved in the process. Results showed that nano-Ag significantly inhibited bacterial ammoxidation in aquatic environment, with the average ammoxidation rate decreasing with increasing nano-Ag concentration. The average ammoxidation rate was significantly correlated to the Shannon index, the Simpson index, and AOB abundance. This suggested that ammoxidation inhibition resulted primarily from AOB biodiversity and abundance reduction, caused by the antibacterial property of nano-Ag. However, AOB biodiversity and abundance as well as bacterial ammoxidation were not inhibited by nano-Au (with a maximum experimental concentration of 2 mg L(-1)). Moreover, an insignificant correlation was found between AOB biodiversity and abundance and the average ammoxidation rate under the nano-Au treatment. Given that ammoxidation is regarded as a rate-limiting procedure in nitrogen (N) circulation, nano-Ag would affect N cycling but nano-Au would not after entering aquatic environments. Identified nano-Ag and nano-Au impacts on ammonium nitrogen transformation could be generalized in aquatic environment according to their extensive representation in the phylogenetic tree. PMID:24559932

  20. Ultrasonic Treatment Enhanced Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial (AOB) Activity for Nitritation Process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Liu, Yan-Chen; Xin, Jia; Zuo, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-19

    Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite rather than nitrate is critical for nitritation process for wastewater treatment. We proposed a promising approach by using controlled ultrasonic treatment to enhance the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and suppress that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Batch activity assays indicated that when ultrasound was applied, AOB activity reached a peak level and then declined but NOB activity deteriorated continuously as the power intensity of ultrasound increased. Kinetic analysis of relative microbial activity versus ultrasonic energy density was performed to investigate the effect of operational factors (power, sludge concentration, and aeration) on AOB and NOB activities and the test parameters were selected for reactor tests. Laboratory sequential batch reactor (SBR) was further used to test the ultrasonic stimulus with 8 h per day operational cycle and synthetic waste urine as influent. With specific ultrasonic energy density of 0.09 kJ/mg VSS and continuously fed influent containing above 200 mg NH3-N/L, high AOB reproductive activity was achieved and nearly complete conversion of ammonia-N to nitrite was maintained. Microbial structure analysis confirmed that the treatment changed community of AOB, NOB, and heterotrophs. Known AOB Nitrosomonas genus remained at similar level in the biomass while typical NOB Nitrospira genus disappeared in the SBR under ultrasonic treatment and after the treatment was off for 30 days.

  1. Ultrasonic Treatment Enhanced Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterial (AOB) Activity for Nitritation Process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Liu, Yan-Chen; Xin, Jia; Zuo, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-01-19

    Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite rather than nitrate is critical for nitritation process for wastewater treatment. We proposed a promising approach by using controlled ultrasonic treatment to enhance the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and suppress that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Batch activity assays indicated that when ultrasound was applied, AOB activity reached a peak level and then declined but NOB activity deteriorated continuously as the power intensity of ultrasound increased. Kinetic analysis of relative microbial activity versus ultrasonic energy density was performed to investigate the effect of operational factors (power, sludge concentration, and aeration) on AOB and NOB activities and the test parameters were selected for reactor tests. Laboratory sequential batch reactor (SBR) was further used to test the ultrasonic stimulus with 8 h per day operational cycle and synthetic waste urine as influent. With specific ultrasonic energy density of 0.09 kJ/mg VSS and continuously fed influent containing above 200 mg NH3-N/L, high AOB reproductive activity was achieved and nearly complete conversion of ammonia-N to nitrite was maintained. Microbial structure analysis confirmed that the treatment changed community of AOB, NOB, and heterotrophs. Known AOB Nitrosomonas genus remained at similar level in the biomass while typical NOB Nitrospira genus disappeared in the SBR under ultrasonic treatment and after the treatment was off for 30 days. PMID:26678011

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium and Obligate Chemolithoautotroph Nitrosomonas europaea†

    PubMed Central

    Chain, Patrick; Lamerdin, Jane; Larimer, Frank; Regala, Warren; Lao, Victoria; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Hooper, Alan; Klotz, Martin; Norton, Jeanette; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis; Arciero, Dave; Hommes, Norman; Whittaker, Mark; Arp, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph that can derive all its energy and reductant for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas europaea participates in the biogeochemical N cycle in the process of nitrification. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 2,812,094 bp. The GC skew analysis indicates that the genome is divided into two unequal replichores. Genes are distributed evenly around the genome, with ∼47% transcribed from one strand and ∼53% transcribed from the complementary strand. A total of 2,460 protein-encoding genes emerged from the modeling effort, averaging 1,011 bp in length, with intergenic regions averaging 117 bp. Genes necessary for the catabolism of ammonia, energy and reductant generation, biosynthesis, and CO2 and NH3 assimilation were identified. In contrast, genes for catabolism of organic compounds are limited. Genes encoding transporters for inorganic ions were plentiful, whereas genes encoding transporters for organic molecules were scant. Complex repetitive elements constitute ca. 5% of the genome. Among these are 85 predicted insertion sequence elements in eight different families. The strategy of N. europaea to accumulate Fe from the environment involves several classes of Fe receptors with more than 20 genes devoted to these receptors. However, genes for the synthesis of only one siderophore, citrate, were identified in the genome. This genome has provided new insights into the growth and metabolism of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:12700255

  3. Transformation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria through nitration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Po-Yi; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2012-04-17

    Transformation of bisphenol A (BPA) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718 was investigated. On the basis of the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, we found N. europaea could transform BPA into nitro- and dinitro-BPA, suggesting that abiotic nitration between the biogenic nitrite and BPA played a major role in the transformation of BPA in the batch AOB system. Nitrite concentrations, temperature, and pH values were the major factors to influence the reaction rate. Furthermore, the yeast estrogenic screening assay showed that the formed nitro- and dinitro-BPA had much less estrogenic activity as compared with its parent compound BPA. Similar reactions of abiotic nitration were considered for 4-n-nonylphenol (nNP) and 4-n-octylphenol (nOP) since nitro-nNP and nitro-nOP were detected by UPLC-Q-TOF MS. In addition, results from the local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) showed the occurrence of nitro-BPA and dinitro-BPA during the biological treatment process and in the effluent, indicating that nitration of BPA is also a pathway for removal of BPA. Results of this study provided implication that AOB in the WWTPs might contribute to removal of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) through abiotic nitritation.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Nitrosospira multiformis, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium from the soil environment

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, Jeanette M.; Klotz, Martin G; Stein, Lisa Y; Arp, D J; Bottomley, Peter J; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Larimer, Frank W; Shin, M; Starkenburg, Shawn R

    2008-01-01

    The complete genome of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosospira multiformis (ATCC 25196T), consists of a circular chromosome and three small plasmids totaling 3,234,309 bp and encoding 2827 putative proteins. Of these, 2026 proteins have predicted functions and 801 are without conserved functional domains, yet 747 of these have similarity to other predicted proteins in databases. Gene homologs from Nitrosomonas europaea and N. eutropha were the best match for 42% of the predicted genes in N. multiformis. The genome contains three nearly identical copies of amo and hao gene clusters as large repeats. Distinguishing features compared to N. europaea include: the presence of gene clusters encoding urease and hydrogenase, a RuBisCO-encoding operon of distinctive structure and phylogeny, and a relatively small complement of genes related to Fe acquisition. Systems for synthesis of a pyoverdine-like siderophore and for acyl-homoserine lactone were unique to N. multiformis among the sequenced AOB genomes. Gene clusters encoding proteins associated with outer membrane and cell envelope functions including transporters, porins, exopolysaccharide synthesis, capsule formation and protein sorting/export were abundant. Numerous sensory transduction and response regulator gene systems directed towards sensing of the extracellular environment are described. Gene clusters for glycogen, polyphosphate and cyanophycin storage and utilization were identified providing mechanisms for meeting energy requirements under substrate-limited conditions. The genome of N. multiformis encodes the core pathways for chemolithoautotrophy along with adaptations for surface growth and survival in soil environments.

  5. Ammonia biofiltration and community analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in biofilters.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yin; Wenfeng, Xu

    2009-09-01

    Biological removal of ammonia was investigated using compost and sludge as packing materials in laboratory-scale biofilters. The aim of this study is to characterize the composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in two biofilters designed to remove ammonia. Experimental tests and measurements included analysis of removal efficiency and metabolic products. The inlet concentration of ammonia applied was 20-100 mg m(-3). Removal efficiencies of BFC and BFS were in the range of 97-99% and 95-99%, respectively. Periodic analysis of the biofilter packing materials showed ammonia was removed from air stream by nitrification and by the improved absorption of NH(3) in the resultant acidity. Nitrate was the dominant product of NH(3) transformation. Changes in the composition of AOB were examined by using nested PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of DGGE bands. DGGE analysis of biofilter samples revealed that shifts in the community structure of AOB were observed in the experiment; however, the idle phase did not cause the structural shift of AOB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the population of AOB showed Nitrosospira sp. remains the predominant population in BFC, while Nitrosomonas sp. is the predominant population in BFS.

  6. Influence of soil moisture on linear alkylbenzene sulfonate-induced toxicity in ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Klaus B; Brandt, Kristian K; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Mortensen, Gerda K; Sørensen, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Moisture affects bioavailability and fate of pollutants in soil, but very little is known about moisture-induced effects on pollutant toxicity. We here report on a modifying effect of moisture on degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) and on their toxicity towards ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in agricultural soil. In soil spiked with two LAS levels (250 or 1,000 mg/kg) and incubated at four different moisture levels (9-100% of water-holding capacity), degradation was strongly affected by both soil moisture and initial LAS concentration, resulting in degradation half-lives ranging from 13 to more than 160 d. Toxicity towards AOB assessed by a novel Nitrosomonas europaea luxAB-reporter assay was correlated to total LAS concentration, indicating that LAS remained bioavailable over time without accumulation of toxic intermediates. Toxicity towards indigenous AOB increased with increasing soil moisture. The results indicate that dry soil conditions inhibit LAS degradation and provide protection against toxicity within the indigenous AOB, thus allowing for a rapid recovery of this population when LAS degradation is resumed and completed after rewetting. We propose that the protection of microbial populations against toxicity in dry soil may be a general phenomenon caused primarily by limited diffusion and thus a low bioavailability of the toxicant.

  7. The distribution and relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Priscu, J.C.; Ward, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Marked differences in the concentrations of major ions and cations, macronutrient chemistry and general trophic status exist among the lakes of the McMurdo dry valleys in Antarctica. These differences have been attributed to both variations in stream inputs and in situ lake processes (Priscu, 1995; Lizotte et al., 1996, Spigel and Priscu, 1996). This study examines the role of nitrifying bacteria in nitrogen transformations in these lakes. Applying two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the active site of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA), the distribution of ammonia-oxidizers was examined in six Antarctic lakes: Lake Bonney, Lake Hoare, Lake Fryxell and Lake Joyce in the Taylor Valley, Lake Miers in the the Miers Valley and Lake Vanda in the Wright Valley. Using a two stage amplification procedure, ammonia-oxidizers from both the beta and gamma- subclasses of the Proteobacteria were detected and their relative abundances were determined in samples collected from all sites. Ammonia-oxidizers were detected in all lakes sampled. Members of the gamma subclass were only present in the saline lakes. In general, nitrifiers were most abundant at depths above the pycnocline and were usually associated with lower concentrations of NH4 and elevated concentrations of NO3 or NO2. The distribution of nitrifiers suggests that the primary N2O peak observed in most of the lakes was produced via nitrification. Preliminary data on the rate of nitrification (Priscu et al., 1996) support the occurrence of nitrification and the presence of nitrifiers at the depth intervals where nitrifiers were detected. In all lakes, except Lake Miers, the data indicate that nitrifying bacteria have an important role in the vertical distribution of nitrogen compounds in these systems.

  8. Quantitative analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a combined system of MBR and worm reactors treating synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Tian, Yu; Wang, Dezhen; Lu, Yaobin; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The Static Sequencing Batch Worm Reactor (SSBWR) followed by the MBR (S-MBR) is one of the advanced excess sludge treatments. In this paper, the control MBR (C-MBR) and the SSBWR-MBR were operated in parallel to study the changes of NH3-N removal and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The results showed that the capacity of NH3-N removal of the S-MBR was improved by the worm reactors along with the operation. The S-MBR was favorable because it selected for the higher activity of the ammonia oxidization and better cells appearance of the sludge. The five species (Nitrosomonas, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridium, Dechloromonas and Bacteria) were found to be significantly correlate with the ammonia oxidization functions and performance of NH3-N removal in the C-MBR and S-MBR. The Nitrosomonas, Betaproteobacteria and Dechloromonas remained and eventually enriched in the S-MBR played a primary role in the NH3-N removal of the S-MBR.

  9. A survey of 16S rRNA and amoA genes related to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta-subdivision of the class proteobacteria in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, I A; Stephen, J R; Chang, Y J; Brüggemann, J; Long, P E; McKinley, J P; Kowalchuk, G A; White, D C; Macnaughton, S J

    2000-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the size and structure of autotrophic ammonia oxidizer (AAO) communities in the groundwater of a contamination plume originating from a mill-tailings disposal site. The site has high levels of dissolved N from anthropogenic sources, and exhibited wide variations in the concentrations of NO3- and NH3 + NH4+. Community structures were examined by PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rDNA with band excision and sequence analysis, and by analysis of amoA fragment clone libraries. AAO population sizes were estimated by competitive PCR targeting the gene amoA, and correlated significantly with nitrate concentration. Most samples revealed novel diversity in AAO 16S rDNA and amoA gene sequences. Both 16S rDNA and amoA analyses suggested that all samples were dominated by Nitrosomonas sp., Nitrosospira sp. being detected in only 3 of 15 samples. This study indicated numerical dominance of Nitrosomonas over Nitrosospira in groundwater, and suggests that groundwater ammonia oxidizers are more similar to those dominating freshwater sediments than bulk soil.

  10. Polyamines in Eukaryotes, Bacteria, and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Michael, Anthony J

    2016-07-15

    Polyamines are primordial polycations found in most cells and perform different functions in different organisms. Although polyamines are mainly known for their essential roles in cell growth and proliferation, their functions range from a critical role in cellular translation in eukaryotes and archaea, to bacterial biofilm formation and specialized roles in natural product biosynthesis. At first glance, the diversity of polyamine structures in different organisms appears chaotic; however, biosynthetic flexibility and evolutionary and ecological processes largely explain this heterogeneity. In this review, I discuss the biosynthetic, evolutionary, and physiological processes that constrain or expand polyamine structural and functional diversity.

  11. The Archaea of a Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C.; Spear, J. R.; Pace, N. R.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of this work is to describe and understand the organismal composition within the domain Archaea for the microbial ecosystem of a hypersaline microbial mat. Sea salt is crystallized by solar evaporation at North America's largest saltworks, the Exportadora de Sal, in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur. Sea water flows through a series of evaporative basins with an increase in salinity until saturation is reached and halite crystallization begins. Several of these ponds are underlined with thick microbial mats. To date, it has not been known what kinds of organisms comprise these complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we report a survey of the stratified microbial communities for the distribution of representatives of Archaea in layers of the mats. This survey uses molecular approaches, based on cloning and sequencing of SSU rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and extent of archaeal diversity that constitute these ecosystems. We compiled an altogether new phylogenetic backbone for the domain Archaea and placed representative sequences from this hypersaline analysis onto that framework. Analyses to date indicate the ubiquitous dominance of uncultured organisms of phylogenetic kinds not generally thought to be associated with hypersaline environments. Collectively, the results indicate that the diversity of life is extensive even in this seemingly inhospitable "extreme" environment.

  12. Biogeochemical controls and isotopic signatures of nitrous oxide production by a marine ammonia-oxidizing bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, C. H.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2010-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a trace gas that contributes to greenhouse warming of the atmosphere and stratospheric ozone depletion. The N2O yield from nitrification (moles N2O-N produced/mole ammonium-N consumed) has been used to estimate marine N2O production rates from measured nitrification rates and global estimates of oceanic export production. However, the N2O yield from nitrification is not constant. Previous culture-based measurements indicate that N2O yield increases as oxygen (O2) concentration decreases and as nitrite (NO2-) concentration increases. These results were obtained in substrate-rich conditions and may not reflect N2O production in the ocean. Here, we have measured yields of N2O from cultures of the marine β-proteobacterium Nitrosomonas marina C-113a as they grew on low-ammonium (50 μM) media. These yields were lower than previous reports, between 4×10-4 and 7×10-4 (moles N/mole N). The observed impact of O2 concentration on yield was also smaller than previously reported under all conditions except at high starting cell densities (1.5×10ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. The presence of excess NO2- (up to 1 mM) in the growth medium also increased N2O yields by an average of 70% to 87% depending on O2 concentration. We made stable isotopic measurements on N2O from these cultures to identify the biochemical mechanisms behind variations in N2O yield. Based on measurements of δ15N, site preference (SP=δ15Nα - δ15Nβ), and δ18O, we estimate that nitrifier-denitrification produced between 11% and 26% of N2O from cultures

  13. High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2013-04-01

    The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH(4)) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH(4) to CH(3)OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH(3)OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH(4) to CH(3)OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH(3)OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH(4) oxidation to CH(3)OH by AOB was inhibited by NH(3) (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH(3)OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH(4) to CH(3)OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH(4) to CH(3)OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH(3) (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH(2)OH and CH(4). Partial oxidation of CH(4)-containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH(3) OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N(2), using an internally produced organic electron donor.

  14. Nonsense suppression in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea. PMID:25918386

  15. Nonsense suppression in archaea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L

    2015-05-12

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea.

  16. Overview of Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.

    2011-10-01

    Archaea were separated from Eubacteria after discovery of their specifics in cell outer membrane that usually not affected by common antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis introduced by Karl Wöese supported this separation. Presently, only two phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota include the valid representatives. Another three phyla that were proposed based on the sequence analysis of environmental samples, do not contain validly published species, and for this reason they are not included in this review. The phylum Euryarchaeota currently includes eight classes and ten orders, while the Crenarchaeota phylum contains the only class with five orders. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota have two or three family B and no family D DNA polymerases, but members of the Euryarchaeota contain the only family B polymerases and the only family D polymerases, and it is still not clear, which is the main functional enzyme in the replication process. In this article, we are present an update and comparative analysis for this domain, discussing unique features of this group and Evolution, estimating their physiology within the matrix of physic-chemical factors, and outlining future perspectives in their study. Rules of the diagonal for the diagrams with all Archaea are presented and discussed.

  17. Nonsense suppression in archaea.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpita; Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; RajBhandary, Uttam L

    2015-05-12

    Bacterial strains carrying nonsense suppressor tRNA genes played a crucial role in early work on bacterial and bacterial viral genetics. In eukaryotes as well, suppressor tRNAs have played important roles in the genetic analysis of yeast and worms. Surprisingly, little is known about genetic suppression in archaea, and there has been no characterization of suppressor tRNAs or identification of nonsense mutations in any of the archaeal genes. Here, we show, using the β-gal gene as a reporter, that amber, ochre, and opal suppressors derived from the serine and tyrosine tRNAs of the archaeon Haloferax volcanii are active in suppression of their corresponding stop codons. Using a promoter for tRNA expression regulated by tryptophan, we also show inducible and regulatable suppression of all three stop codons in H. volcanii. Additionally, transformation of a ΔpyrE2 H. volcanii strain with plasmids carrying the genes for a pyrE2 amber mutant and the serine amber suppressor tRNA yielded transformants that grow on agar plates lacking uracil. Thus, an auxotrophic amber mutation in the pyrE2 gene can be complemented by expression of the amber suppressor tRNA. These results pave the way for generating archaeal strains carrying inducible suppressor tRNA genes on the chromosome and their use in archaeal and archaeviral genetics. We also provide possible explanations for why suppressor tRNAs have not been identified in archaea. PMID:25918386

  18. Dynamics of Nitrification and Denitrification in Root-Oxygenated Sediments and Adaptation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria to Low-Oxygen or Anoxic Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Bodelier, P.; Libochant, J. A.; Blom, C.; Laanbroek, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen-releasing plants may provide aerobic niches in anoxic sediments and soils for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. The oxygen-releasing, aerenchymatous emergent macrophyte Glyceria maxima had a strong positive effect on numbers and activities of the nitrifying bacteria in its root zone in spring and early summer. The stimulation of the aerobic nitrifying bacteria in the freshwater sediment, ascribed to oxygen release by the roots of G. maxima, disappeared in late summer. Numbers and activities of the nitrifying bacteria were positively correlated, and a positive relationship with denitrification activities also was found. To assess possible adaptations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria to low-oxygen or anoxic habitats, a comparison was made between the freshwater lake sediment and three soils differing in oxicity profiles. Oxygen kinetics and tolerance to anoxia of the ammonia-oxidizing communities from these habitats were determined. The apparent K(infm) values for oxygen of the ammonia-oxidizing community in the lake sediment were in the range of 5 to 15 (mu)M, which was substantially lower than the range of K(infm) values for oxygen of the ammonia-oxidizing community from a permanently oxic dune location. Upon anoxic incubation, the ammonia-oxidizing communities of dune, chalk grassland, and calcareous grassland soils lost 99, 95, and 92% of their initial nitrifying capacity, respectively. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing community in the lake sediment started to nitrify within 1 h upon exposure to oxygen at the level of the initial capacity. It is argued that the conservation of the nitrifying capacity during anoxic periods and the ability to react instantaneously to the presence of oxygen are important traits of nitrifiers in fluctuating oxic-anoxic environments such as the root zone of aerenchymatous plant species. PMID:16535441

  19. Archaea in Arctic Thermokarst Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheus Carnevali, P. B.; Rohrssen, M.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Kuhn, E.; Williams, M.; Adams, H. E.; Berisford, D. F.; Hand, K. P.; Priscu, J. C.; Walter Anthony, K.; Love, G. D.; Hedlund, B. P.; Murray, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes in the Northern Slope of Alaska are known to emit ebullient methane (CH4), some of which is of biogenic origin. Thawing of permafrost in the margins and bottom of these lakes, as a result of climate change, releases sources of carbon that could be used by methanogenic Archaea. However, the composition of Archaea inhabiting these lakes is not known. We have chosen a subset of Thermokarst lakes near Barrow Alaska to determine if there are methanogenic and methane oxidizing Archaea in these lake sediments. To describe the diversity of the archaeal community in the sediments we profiled the variable 3 (v3) region of the 16S rRNA gene of Archaea. The v3 profiles indicated surprisingly high levels of diversity, with 20 to 36 bands in the 10 sample horizons over the upper 100 cm of sediments surveyed in four lakes, at two times of the year. One of v3 rRNA gene bands was common to all lakes, and most phylotypes were grouped by depth (1-40 cm or 41-105 cm) within a lake. Likewise, cluster analysis indicated partitioning of archaeal communities between lakes. To specifically detect methanogens and anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) in the sediments, DNA was surveyed by PCR to detect the methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene, which is specific to the pathways of methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO). An array of methanogen enrichment cultures was also set up. The expected 464-491 bp amplification product predicted for the mcrA gene was detected in all sediment samples. Assays of enrichment cultures incubated at 2 and 10 °C with substrates used in the main pathways for methanogenesis have produced positive growth and CH4 production results. Most cultures produced CH4 from carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction with hydrogen (H2), although methanol and acetate were also utilized as methanogenic substrates by a few cultures. From the experiments conducted to date we conclude that there is a great diversity of Archaea inhabiting these Thermokarst lakes

  20. Osmoadaptation in archaea

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.D.; Ciulla, R.A.; Roberts, M.F.

    1999-05-01

    The ability to adapt to fluctuations in external osmotic pressure (osmoadaptation) and the development of specific mechanisms to achieve this (osmoregulation) are fundamental to the survival of cells. Most cells maintain an osmotic pressure in the cytoplasm that is higher than that of the surrounding environment, resulting in an outward-directed pressure, turgor, whose maintenance is essential for cell division and growth. Changes in environmental osmolarity can trigger the flux of water across the cytoplasmic membrane. Thus, to avoid lysis under low-osmolarity or dehydration under high-osmolarity growth conditions, cells must possess active mechanisms that permit timely and efficient adaptation to changes in environmental osmolarity. Archaea, which are often found in high-salt as well as high-temperature environments, use the same general strategies for osmoadaptation as eubacterial and eukaryotic organisms. However, they are notable for the unusual organic osmolytes accumulated. Specific examples of these osmolytes and factors that affect their accumulation are provided in this research.

  1. Transcription in archaea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Ouzounis, C. A.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Using the sequences of all the known transcription-associated proteins from Bacteria and Eucarya (a total of 4,147), we have identified their homologous counterparts in the four complete archaeal genomes. Through extensive sequence comparisons, we establish the presence of 280 predicted transcription factors or transcription-associated proteins in the four archaeal genomes, of which 168 have homologs only in Bacteria, 51 have homologs only in Eucarya, and the remaining 61 have homologs in both phylogenetic domains. Although bacterial and eukaryotic transcription have very few factors in common, each exclusively shares a significantly greater number with the Archaea, especially the Bacteria. This last fact contrasts with the obvious close relationship between the archaeal and eukaryotic transcription mechanisms per se, and in particular, basic transcription initiation. We interpret these results to mean that the archaeal transcription system has retained more ancestral characteristics than have the transcription mechanisms in either of the other two domains.

  2. The Significance of Myriophyllum elatinoides for Swine Wastewater Treatment: Abundance and Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Feng; Li, Yong; He, Yang; Zhang, Shunan; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    Myriophyllum elatinoides was reported to effectively treat wastewater by removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, little is known about the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms associated with M. elatinoides purification systems. The objective of this research was to characterize the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in swine wastewater and determine the main nitrogen removal pathways. In this study, five different waters were treated by M. elatinoides in microcosms for one month. The five waters included tap water (Control), swine wastewater (SW), 50% diluted swine wastewater (50% SW), and two synthetic wastewaters: 200 mg NH4+-N L−1 (200 NH4+-N) and 400 mg NH4+-N L−1 (400 NH4+-N). The most dramatic changes were in NH4+-N and total N (TN) concentrations, with average removal rates of 84% and 90%, respectively, in the treatments containing swine wastewater. On days 7, 14, and 28, the dissolved oxygen (DO) increased by 81.8%, 210.4% and 136.5%, respectively, compared with on day 0, in the swine wastewater. The results also showed that the bacterial amoA (AOB) copy numbers in the sediments of the treatments were significantly higher than those of archaeal amoA (AOA) copy numbers (p = 0.015). In addition, the high DO concentrations in swine wastewater responded well to the high abundance of AOB. The AOA and AOB community distributions were positively related with NO3-N and were negatively related with DO in swine wastewater treatments. In summary, our experimental results suggested that the M. elatinoides purification system could improve the activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and consequently might contribute to the significant N removal from the swine wastewater. PMID:26444015

  3. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-06-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity 6-fold during a 19-day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly suppressed in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be partially inhibited by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to an equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related type Ia MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. An increase in 13C assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition partially inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, as well as growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These

  4. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-03-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and pmoA genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity by 6-fold during a 19 day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly inhibited in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like type Ia MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be suppressed by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. Strikingly, type Ib MOB did not respond to methane nor to urea. Increase in 13C-assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, in addition of nitrite

  5. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity.

  6. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity. PMID:16233712

  7. Characteristics of the microbial community associated with ammonia oxidation in a full-scale rockwool biofilter treating malodors from livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomoko; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Hanajima, Dai; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the activity and community structure of microbes associated with the oxidation of ammonia in a full-scale rockwool biofilter was examined by kinetic, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and sequence analyses. The packing materials were sampled from two different depths at 3 sites. Estimated K(m) values were similar among depths at same sampling sites, while V(max) differed in the mid-point sample. The lower depth of this site had the highest V(max). A correspondence analysis showed the DGGE profile of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial amoA of the lower depth of the mid-point sample to be distinguishable from the others. Banding patterns at other sites were similar among depths. Banding patterns of ammonia-oxidizing archaeal amoA of the mid-point sample were also similar among depths. The results suggested an association between the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community's composition and ammonium oxidation kinetics in samples. Sequence analysis indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community mainly belonged to the Nitrosomonas europaea lineage and Nitrosospira cluster 3. The ammonia-oxidizing archaeal amoA-like sequences were related to those belonging to soil and sediment groups, including one with 84% nucleotide similarity with Nitrosopumilus maritimus.

  8. Comparison of 16S rRNA and protein-coding genes as molecular markers for assessing microbial diversity (Bacteria and Archaea) in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Roux, Simon; Enault, François; Bronner, Gisèle; Debroas, Didier

    2011-12-01

    PCR amplification of the rRNA gene is the most popular method for assessing microbial diversity. However, this molecular marker is often present in multiple copies in cells presenting, in addition, an intragenomic heterogeneity. In this context, housekeeping genes may be used as taxonomic markers for ecological studies. However, the efficiency of these protein-coding genes compared to 16S rRNA genes has not been tested on environmental data. For this purpose, five protein marker genes for which primer sets are available, were selected (rplB, pyrG, fusA, leuS and rpoB) and compared with 16S rRNA gene results from PCR amplification or metagenomic data from aquatic ecosystems. Analysis of the major groups found in these ecosystems, such as Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, showed good agreement between the protein markers and the results given by 16S rRNA genes from metagenomic reads. However, with the markers it was possible to detect minor groups among the microbial assemblages, providing more details compared to 16S rRNA results from PCR amplification. In addition, the use of a set of protein markers made it possible to deduce a mean copy number of rRNA operons. This average estimate is essentially lower than the one estimated in sequenced genomes. PMID:22066608

  9. Diversity and three-dimensional structures of the alpha Mcr of the methanogenic Archaea from the anoxic region of Tucuruí Lake, in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Priscila Bessa; Junior, Rubens Ghilardi; Alves, Claudio Nahum; Silva, Jeronimo Lameira; McCulloch, John Anthony; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; da Costa da Silva, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Methanogenic archaeans are organisms of considerable ecological and biotechnological interest that produce methane through a restricted metabolic pathway, which culminates in the reaction catalyzed by the Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (Mcr) enzyme, and results in the release of methane. Using a metagenomic approach, the gene of the α subunit of mcr (mcrα) was isolated from sediment sample from an anoxic zone, rich in decomposing organic material, obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam reservoir in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The partial nucleotide sequences obtained were 83 to 95% similar to those available in databases, indicating a low diversity of archaeans in the reservoir. Two orders were identified - the Methanomicrobiales, and a unique Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) forming a clade with the Methanosarcinales according to low bootstrap values. Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures, for this the partial nucleotide sequence of the mcrα were isolated and translated on their partial amino acid sequences. The 3D structures of the archaean Mcrα observed in the present study varied little, and presented approximately 70% identity in comparison with the Mcrα of Methanopyrus klanderi. The results demonstrated that the community of methanogenic archaeans of the anoxic C1 region of the Tucurui reservoir is relatively homogeneous. PMID:22481885

  10. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S.; Castro, Hector F.; Fortney, Julian L.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Paradis, Charles J.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  11. Microbial community composition and diversity in Caspian Sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nagissa; Robeson, Michael S; Castro, Hector F; Fortney, Julian L; Techtmann, Stephen M; Joyner, Dominique C; Paradis, Charles J; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The Caspian Sea is heavily polluted due to industrial and agricultural effluents as well as extraction of oil and gas reserves. Microbial communities can influence the fate of contaminants and nutrients. However, insight into the microbial ecology of the Caspian Sea significantly lags behind other marine systems. Here we describe microbial biomass, diversity and composition in sediments collected from three sampling stations in the Caspian Sea. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed the presence of a number of known bacterial and archaeal heterotrophs suggesting that organic carbon is a primary factor shaping microbial communities. Surface sediments collected from bottom waters with low oxygen levels were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria while surface sediments collected from bottom waters under hypoxic conditions were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, specifically sulfate-reducing bacteria. Thaumarchaeota was dominant across all surface sediments indicating that nitrogen cycling in this system is strongly influenced by ammonia-oxidizing archaea. This study provides a baseline assessment that may serve as a point of reference as this system changes or as the efficacy of new remediation efforts are implemented. PMID:25764536

  12. Worldwide distribution of Nitrosococcus oceani, a marine ammonia-oxidizing gamma-proteobacterium, detected by PCR and sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bess B; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2002-08-01

    Diversity of cultured ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria was investigated by using strains isolated from various parts of the world ocean. All the strains were very similar to each other on the basis of the sequences of both the 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase genes and could be characterized as a single species. Sequences were also cloned directly from environmental DNA from coastal Pacific and Atlantic sites, and these sequences represented the first Nitrosococcus oceani-like sequences obtained directly from the ocean. Most of the environmental sequences clustered tightly with those of the cultivated strains, but some sequences could represent new species of NITROSOCOCCUS: These findings imply that organisms similar to the cultivated N. oceani strains have a worldwide distribution. PMID:12147525

  13. Ammonia-oxidation as an engine to generate nitrous oxide in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Gao, Bing; Hu, Xiao-Kang; Lu, Xing; Well, Reinhard; Christie, Peter; Bakken, Lars R.; Ju, Xiao-Tang

    2014-01-01

    We combine field observations, microcosm, stoichiometry, and molecular and stable isotope techniques to quantify N2O generation processes in an intensively managed low carbon calcareous fluvo-aquic soil. All the evidence points to ammonia oxidation and linked nitrifier denitrification (ND) being the major processes generating N2O. When NH4+-based fertilizers are applied the soil will produce high N2O peaks which are inhibited almost completely by adding nitrification inhibitors. During ammonia oxidation with high NH4+ concentrations (>80 mg N kg−1) the soil matrix will actively consume oxygen and accumulate high concentrations of NO2−, leading to suboxic conditions inducing ND. Calculated N2O isotopomer data show that nitrification and ND accounted for 35–53% and 44–58% of total N2O emissions, respectively. We propose that slowing down nitrification and avoiding high ammonium concentrations in the soil matrix are important measures to reduce N2O emissions per unit of NH4+-based N input from this type of intensively managed soil globally. PMID:24492201

  14. Identification of ciliate grazers of autotrophic bacteria in ammonia-oxidizing activated sludge by RNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ana Maria; Matz, Carsten; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Manefield, Mike

    2010-04-01

    It is well understood that protozoa play a major role in controlling bacterial biomass and regulating nutrient cycling in the environment. Little is known, however, about the movement of carbon from specific reduced substrates, through functional groups of bacteria, to particular clades of protozoa. In this study we first identified the active protozoan phylotypes present in activated sludge, via the construction of an rRNA-derived eukaryote clone library. Most of the sequences identified belonged to ciliates of the subclass Peritrichia and amoebae, confirming the dominance of surface-associated protozoa in the activated sludge environment. We then demonstrated that (13)C-labeled protozoan RNA can be retrieved from activated sludge amended with (13)C-labeled protozoa or (13)C-labeled Escherichia coli cells by using an RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) approach. Finally, we used RNA-SIP to track carbon from bicarbonate and acetate into protozoa under ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying conditions, respectively. RNA-SIP analysis revealed that the peritrich ciliate Epistylis galea dominated the acquisition of carbon from bacteria with access to CO(2) under ammonia-oxidizing conditions, while there was no evidence of specific grazing on acetate consumers under denitrifying conditions.

  15. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae) support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers. PMID:25941518

  16. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae) support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers. PMID:25941518

  17. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chla