Science.gov

Sample records for ammonium sulfates

  1. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. PMID:27483019

  5. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  6. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  7. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  8. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Drisdell, Walter S; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2009-11-10

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 +/- 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  19. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970`s. In the late 1970`s and early 1980`s, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC`s current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC`s current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  20. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970's. In the late 1970's and early 1980's, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC's current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC's current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been... neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a dough strengthener as defined in §...

  6. Glufosinate and Ammonium Sulfate Inhibits Atrazine Degradation in Adapted Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-application of glufosinate with nitrogen fertilizers may alter atrazine co-metabolism, thereby extending the herbicide’s residual weed control in adapted soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of glufosinate, ammonium sulfate, and the combination of glufosinate and ammo...

  7. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  8. Residual Particle Sizes of Evaporating Droplets: Ammonium Sulfate and Aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, N.; Galloway, M. M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The reactions of carbonyls like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolaldehyde, with ammonium salts have been proposed as significant sources of atmospheric organic aerosol. Aerosol containing these compounds was generated in the laboratory using the Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles were completely dried before they were measured using a SMPS system. The nonvolatile fraction of the resulting aerosol was measured. The drying times were varied between two and twenty minutes, and for ammonium sulfate and glyoxal reactions, minimum residual particle sizes were reached after 3.5 minutes. Reactions of glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal with ammonium sulfate appeared to have lower non-volatile fractions remaining at higher starting concentrations, suggesting that a constant 'excess volume,' likely water, was present in the residual particles that could not be evaporated even after 20 minutes of drying. These excess volumes were not observed in our previous experiments with aldehydes but no ammonium sulfate present. At the highest concentrations tested (100 uM), non-volatile fractions of aldehydes present in residual particles were 16 (±17) %, 41 (±28) %, and 17(±32) % for glyoxal, glycolaldehyde, and methylglyoxal, respectively.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721.10170 Protection of Environment... polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  14. Ammonium sulfate co-precipitation of SSB and interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Aimee H

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial single-strand DNA-binding protein (SSB) interacts with many proteins involved in the diverse process of genome maintenance. The interactions are mediated by the essential and conserved amphipathic C-terminus (SSB-Ct). SSB plays a critical role in localizing and stimulating the activity of a wide variety of DNA-processing proteins. The interaction partners have been identified and studied using a variety of methods, one of which, ammonium sulfate co-precipitation, is described here.

  15. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10443 - Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ammonium salt (generic). 721.10443 Section 721.10443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10443 Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt... identified generically as ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (PMN P-01-470) is subject...

  17. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Li, Y.C.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing marketable products, namely fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate, from gypsum produced as part of lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Millions of tons of FGD-gypsum by-product will be produced in this decade. In this study, a literature review and bench-scale experiments were conducted to obtain process data for the production of marketable products from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economic feasibility of the process. FGD-gypsum produced at the Abbott power plant in Champaign, IL was used as a raw material. The scrubber, a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD, produced a filter cake product contains 98.36% gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O), and less than 0.01% calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 3}). Conversion of FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate were tested at temperatures between 60 to 70{degrees}C for a duration of five to six hours. The results of a literature review and preliminary bench-scale experiments are presented in this paper.

  18. Large electrocaloric effects in single-crystal ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Crossley, S; Li, W; Moya, X; Mathur, N D

    2016-08-13

    Electrocaloric (EC) effects are typically studied near phase transitions in ceramic and polymer materials. Here, we investigate EC effects in an inorganic salt, namely ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, with an order-disorder transition whose onset occurs at 223 K on cooling. For a single crystal thinned to 50 μm, we use a Maxwell relation to find a large isothermal entropy change of 30 J K(-1) kg(-1) in response to a field change of 400 kV cm(-1) The Clausius-Clapeyron equation implies a corresponding adiabatic temperature change of 4.5 K.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402930

  19. Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Protein solubility is affected by ions. At low ion concentrations (<0.5 M), protein solubility increases along with ionic strength. Ions in the solution shield protein molecules from the charge of other protein molecules in what is known as 'salting-in'. At a very high ionic strength, protein solubility decreases as ionic strength increases in the process known as 'salting-out'. Thus, salting out can be used to separate proteins based on their solubility in the presence of a high concentration of salt. In this protocol, ammonium sulfate will be added incrementally to an E. coli cell lysate to isolate a recombinantly over-expressed protein of 20 kDa containing no cysteine residues or tags.

  20. Large electrocaloric effects in single-crystal ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Crossley, S; Li, W; Moya, X; Mathur, N D

    2016-08-13

    Electrocaloric (EC) effects are typically studied near phase transitions in ceramic and polymer materials. Here, we investigate EC effects in an inorganic salt, namely ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, with an order-disorder transition whose onset occurs at 223 K on cooling. For a single crystal thinned to 50 μm, we use a Maxwell relation to find a large isothermal entropy change of 30 J K(-1) kg(-1) in response to a field change of 400 kV cm(-1) The Clausius-Clapeyron equation implies a corresponding adiabatic temperature change of 4.5 K.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  1. Cold Case: Radar investigation of ammonium sulfate cryovolcanism on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, C.; Hayes, A. G.; Hofgartner, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Le Gall, A.

    2012-12-01

    The detection of a large tidal k2 value from Cassini [1] constitutes very strong evi-dence for a subcrustal ocean, most plausibly dominated by water. However, the secondary constituents are not known. One interesting possibility that has received scant attention in analysis of surface data sets is that the ocean contain aqueous ammonium sulfates, which erupted on the surface in the past to create vast, smooth plains [2]. We adopt the hypothesis that the undifferentiated plains—the "bland-lands" in the mid-latitudes of Titan—are these deposits, and test it using radiometry with SAR data. Lopez et al (this conference) investigate the global distribution and possible origin of this type of unit. We extracted SAR and radiometry-during-SAR data sets from the PDS, and pro-duced maps of brightness temperatures. The SAR imagery was used to identify locations where crossovers exist -some of which are in the undifferentiated plains--and hence where brightness temperatures at different incidence angles are available. We derived emissivities from the data using a simple radiometric model [3] to ac-count for the brightness temperature differences as a function of surface roughness, volume scattering and emissivity. We test the hypothesis by assessing whether the derived emissivities and volume scattering in the bland-lands are consistent with the model cryoclastic ash of ice and ammonium sulfate proposed in [2], distinct from that in other terrains. [1] L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science, 337, 457 (2012). [2] A.D. Fortes, P.M. Grinrod, S.K. Trickett, L. Vocadlo. Icarus, 188, 139 (2007). [3] T.L. White and J.R. Cogdell. The Moon, 6, 235 (1973).

  2. Heterogeneous reactivity of chlorine atoms with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles.

    PubMed

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2012-04-01

    In this laboratory study, model particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were exposed to chlorine atoms and uptake experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer. The reactive surfaces were prepared by coating the inner surface of the reactor using two different methods: either by depositing size-selected particles on the halocarbon wax or by spray depositing thin films using a constant output atomizer. The observed uptake coefficients vary for (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ranging from γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 1 × 10(-3) for size-selected particles to γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 6 × 10(-2) for thin films prepared by spray. An uptake coefficient of γ(Cl)(AN)≈ 2.5 × 10(-3) of Cl˙ on size-selected NH(4)NO(3) particles was measured. A heterogeneous recombination of Cl atoms to from Cl(2) molecules was observed for the two surfaces. Furthermore, an ageing process was observed for AS particles, this phenomenon leading to the formation of new chlorine species on the solid substrate. PMID:22374517

  3. Crystallization of Chicken Egg-White Lysozyme from Ammonium Sulfate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Chicken egg-white lysozyme was crystallized from ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0-7.8, with protein concentrations from 100 to 150 mg/ml. Crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion or batch-crystallization methods. The protein crystallized in two morphologies with an apparent morphology dependence on temperature and protein concentration. In general, tetragonal crystals could be grown by lowering the protein concentration or temperature. Increasing the temperature or protein concentration resulted in the growth of orthorhombic crystals. Representative crystals of each morphology were selected for X-ray analysis. The tetragonal crystals belonged to the P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 space group with crystals grown at ph 4.4 having unit-cell dimensions of a = b = 78.7 1, c=38.6 A and diffracting to beyond 2.0 A. The orthorhombic crystals, grown at pH 4.8, were of space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2 and had unit-cell dimensions of a = 30.51, b = 56.51 and c = 73.62 A.

  4. Effects of inhaled ammonium sulfate on benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis. [Hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Godleski, J.J.; Melnicoff, M.J.; Sadri, S.; Garbeil, P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of inhaled ammonium sulfate on benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters was studied. Exposure to ammonium sulfate at an airborne concentration 20 times average United States ambient levels resulted in a significant depression of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenesis in the first 6 mo of the study. However, at 2 yr, the termination of the study, there were no differences in cancer incidence between groups receiving benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene plus ammonium sulfate. In addition, at the concentration studied, inhaled ammonium sulfate did not significantly increase the incidence or severity of pneumonitis or pulmonary fibrosis in the hamster. However, this inhalation did increase the incidence of emphysema but not the severity. The decreased incidence of cancer during the first 6 mo of this study in animals receiving both benzo(a)pyrene and ammonium sulfate suggests that interaction between sulfate and benzo(a)pyrene does occur, but is insufficient to afford long-term protection against the development of cancer. No enhancement of carcinogenesis by benzo(a)pyrene occurs in the presence of inhaled sulfate. 31 references, 5 tables, 2 figures.

  5. Phase and extraction equilibria in water-syntamide-5-ammonium sulfate and water-syntamide-5k-ammonium sulfate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovkina, A. V.; Kudryashova, O. S.; Lesnov, A. E.; Denisova, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Phase equilibria in ternary aqueous layering systems containing a commercial nonionogen surfactant (Surf.) syntamide-5 or syntamide-5k and an inorganic salting-out agent ammonium sulfate were studied. The potential application of the systems for liquid extraction of metal ions was assessed.

  6. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Hoeft, R.; Blevins, F.Z.; Achron, F.

    1994-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility for producing commercial-grade ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum produced as part of limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, the UIUC, AlliedSignal, SE-ME, Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co. (IP), and Central Illinois Public Services (CIPS). Bench-scale experiments will be conducted to obtain process engineering data for manufacture of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economical feasibility of the process. Controlled greenhouse experiments will be conducted at UIUC to evaluate the chemical impact of the produced ammonium sulfate on soil properties. A process flow sheet will be proposed and market demand for the products will be established. An engineering team at IP will provide an independent review of the economics of the process. AlliedSignal will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of ammonium sulfate samples and is interested in an agreement to market the finished product. CIPS will provide technical assistance and samples of FGD-gypsum for the project. In this quarter, a literature study that should give detailed insight into the chemistry, process schemes, and costs of producing ammonium sulfate from gypsum is in progress at the ISGS. Acquisition of a high quality FGD-gypsum sample was completed. Collecting of the other lower grade sample was scheduled to be conducted in December. Characterization of these feed materials is in progress.

  7. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mousa, Sahar; Hanna, Adly

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  8. Phase equilibria in the lysozyme-ammonium sulfate-water system.

    PubMed

    Moretti, J J; Sandler, S I; Lenhoff, A M

    2000-12-01

    Ternary phase diagrams were measured for lysozyme in ammonium sulfate solutions at pH values of 4 and 8. Lysozyme, ammonium sulfate, and water mass fractions were assayed independently by UV spectroscopy, barium chloride titration, and lyophilization respectively, with mass balances satisfied to within 1%. Protein crystals, flocs, and gels were obtained in different regions of the phase diagrams, and in some cases growth of crystals from the gel phase or from the supernatant after floc removal was observed. These observations, as well as a discontinuity in protein solubility between amorphous floc precipitate and crystal phases, indicate that the crystal phase is the true equilibrium state. The ammonium sulfate was generally found to partition unequally between the supernatant and the dense phase, in disagreement with an assumption often made in protein phase equilibrium studies. The results demonstrate the potential richness of protein phase diagrams as well as the uncertainties resulting from slow equilibration.

  9. Optical constants of ammonium sulfate in the infrared. [stratospheric aerosol refractive and absorption indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Sethna, P. P.; Williams, D.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectral reflectance at near normal incidence has been measured for 3.2 M, 2.4 M, and 1.6 M solutions of ammonium sulfate, an aerosol abundant in the stratosphere and also present in the troposphere. Kramers-Kronig analysis was used to determine values of the refractive and absorption indices from the measured spectral reflectance. A synthetic spectrum of crystalline ammonium sulfate was obtained by extrapolation of the absorption index obtained for the solution to the absorber number densities of the NH4 and SO4 ions characteristic of the crystal.

  10. Lignite recovery of cobalt(+3) from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate solution. Report of investigations/1984

    SciTech Connect

    Slavens, G.J.; Traut, D.E.; Penner, L.R.; Henry, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has devised technology to recover cobalt, nickel, and byproduct copper from domestic lateritic material using an oxidative, ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach. Nickel, cobalt, and copper were recovered by solvent extraction and electrowinning. To reduce the cost and complexity of cobalt recovery, an alternate method using lignite to extract Co(+3) was investigated as reported herein.

  11. Brown Carbon Production in Aldehyde + Ammonium Sulfate Mixtures: Effects of Formaldehyde and Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powelson, M.; De Haan, D. O.

    2012-12-01

    The formation of light-absorbing 'brown carbon,' or HULIS (humic- like substances), in atmospheric aerosol has an important impact on climate. However, the precursors responsible for brown carbon formation have not been identified. Several aldehydes present in clouds (methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, and acetaldehyde) have the potential to create brown products when reacted with ammonium sulfate or primary amines such as methylamine or glycine. The formation of light-absorbing products from these reactions was characterized as a function of cloud-relevant pH (from 3- 6) using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Of the different aldehydes teste, the largest production rates of light-absorbing compounds were observed in reactions of glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal. Primary amines produced more light- absorbing products than ammonium sulfate at lower concentrations. The addition of formaldehyde to any reaction with other aldehydes decreased the formation of light-absorbing products, while the addition of a small amount (1:5 mole ratio) of glycine to aldehyde + ammonium sulfate reactions can increase the production of light-absorbing products. These results suggest that the presence of primary amines significantly influence atmospheric brown carbon production by aldehydes even when much greater quantities of ammonium sulfate are present.

  12. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT...

  13. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT...

  14. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT...

  15. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT...

  16. 40 CFR 418.60 - Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the ammonium sulfate production subcategory. 418.60 Section 418.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT...

  17. Solid/Liquid phase diagram of the ammonium sulfate/maleic acid/water system.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Keith D; Schroeder, Jason R; Pearson, Christian S

    2011-12-01

    We have studied the low temperature phase diagram and water activities of the ammonium sulfate/maleic acid/water system using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. Using the results from our experiments, we have mapped the solid/liquid ternary phase diagram, determined the water activities based on the freezing point depression, and determined the ice/maleic acid phase boundary as well as the ternary eutectic composition and temperature. We also compare our results to the predictions of the extended AIM aerosol thermodynamics model and find good agreement for the ice melting points in the ice primary phase field of this system; however significant differences were found with respect to phase boundaries, maleic acid dissolution, and ammonium sulfate dissolution. PMID:22017680

  18. Solid/liquid phase diagram of the ammonium sulfate/succinic acid/water system.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2015-05-14

    We have studied the low-temperature phase diagram and water activities of the ammonium sulfate/succinic acid/water system using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. Using the results from our experiments, we have mapped the solid/liquid ternary phase diagram, determined the water activities based on the freezing point depression, and determined the ice/succinic acid phase boundary as well as the ternary eutectic composition and temperature. We also compared our results to the predictions of the extended AIM aerosol thermodynamics model (E-AIM) and found good agreement for the ice melting points in the ice primary phase field of this system; however, differences were found with respect to succinic acid solubility temperatures. We also compared the results of this study with those of previous studies that we have published on ammonium sulfate/dicarboxylic acid/water systems. PMID:25431860

  19. Analysis of ammonium sulfate circulation tank failure -- Possible causes and their remediation

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hearn, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Acme steel manufactures a liquid solution of ammonium sulphate by scrubbing the coke oven gas with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the bath reaches a predetermined specific gravity, it is isolated from the system, neutralized with aqua ammonia, pumped to the shipping tanks, re-charged with water and acid, then placed back in service. To improve the ammonia removal efficiency, three circulation tanks are used in this system. In June 1996, the volume of two of the sulfate solution tanks in the ammonia removal plant were increased by two different pressure events. The first tank was damaged by pressure that was not relieved due to a plugged vent line. The second tank was damaged by a pressure event generated during the process of making ammonium sulfate. This paper will discuss the cause of the second tank`s failure, and the design solution to restart the operation of the plant.

  20. Coefficients of caffeine distribution in aliphatic alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-11-01

    The extraction of caffeine with aliphatic alcohols C3-C9 from aqueous solutions in the presence of a salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate) is studied. Quantitative characteristics of extraction are calculated: the distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of recovery ( R, %). Relations are found between log D of caffeine and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the alcohol molecule, along with certain physicochemical properties of the extragents.

  1. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, Ml; Lytle, J.M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Li, Y.C.; Hoeft, R.; Dewey, S.; Achorn, F.

    1995-12-31

    Goal is to assess technical and economic feasibility for producing fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced in limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This is the 1st year of a 2-year program among Illinois State Geological Survey, University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), Allied-Signal, Marketing Chem. Process Inc., Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co., and Central Illinois Public Services. In previous quarter, chemistry and process conditions were reviewed and a reactor system set up and used to conduct laboratory tests. FGD-gypsum from Abbott power plant was used. The scrubber, a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD, produced a filter cake (98.36% gypsum and < 0.01% CaSO{sub 3}). Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70{degree}C for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production. During this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted; a yield up to 83% and up to 99% purity were achieved. A literature survey was completed and a preliminary process flow sheet was developed. Economics of the process is being estimated.

  2. [Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].

    PubMed

    Yan, Mi; Qi, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz.

  3. Kinetics and equilibria of lysozyme precipitation and crystallization in concentrated ammonium sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Chia; Lobo, Raul F; Sandler, Stanley I; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2006-05-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of lysozyme precipitation in ammonium sulfate solutions at pH 4 and 8 and room temperature were studied. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of lysozyme precipitates. It was found that, if sufficient time was allowed, microcrystals developed following an induction period after initial lysozyme precipitation, even up to ionic strengths of 8 m and at acidic pH, where lysozyme is refractory to crystallization in ammonium sulfate. The full set of precipitation and crystallization data allowed construction of a phase diagram of lysozyme, showing the ammonium sulfate dependence. It suggests that precipitation may reflect a frustrated metastable liquid-liquid phase separation, which would allow this process to be understood within the framework of the generic phase diagram for proteins. The results also demonstrate that XRD, more frequently used for characterizing inorganic and organic polycrystalline materials, is useful both in characterizing the presence of crystals in the dense phase and in verifying the crystal form of proteins.

  4. Optimization of tetanus toxoid ammonium sulfate precipitation process using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Brgles, Marija; Prebeg, Pero; Kurtović, Tihana; Ranić, Jelena; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Halassy, Beata

    2016-10-01

    Tetanus toxoid (TTd) is a highly immunogenic, detoxified form of tetanus toxin, a causative agent of tetanus disease, produced by Clostridium tetani. Since tetanus disease cannot be eradicated but is easily prevented by vaccination, the need for the tetanus vaccine is permanent. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of optimizing TTd purification, i.e., ammonium sulfate precipitation process. The influence of the percentage of ammonium sulfate, starting amount of TTd, buffer type, pH, temperature, and starting purity of TTd on the purification process were investigated using optimal design for response surface models. Responses measured for evaluation of the ammonium sulfate precipitation process were TTd amount (Lf/mL) and total protein content. These two parameters were used to calculate purity (Lf/mgPN) and the yield of the process. Results indicate that citrate buffer, lower temperature, and lower starting amount of TTd result in higher purities of precipitates. Gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates revealed that there are no inter-protein cross-links and that all contaminating proteins have pIs similar to TTd, so this is most probably the reason for the limited success of purification by precipitation.

  5. Analysis of reversibility and reaction products of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, M. M.; Chhabra, P. S.; Chan, A. W.; Surratt, J. D.; Kwan, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2009-04-01

    Glyoxal, the smallest alpha-dicarbonyl, is an oxidation product of both biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (Fu et al. JGR 113, D15303, 2008). Despite its low molecular weight, its role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has gained interest and a recent study suggested that it accounts for more than 15% of SOA in Mexico City (Volkamer et al. GRL 34, L19807, 2007). Despite numerous previous studies, questions remain regarding the processes controlling glyoxal uptake onto aerosol, including the role of acid catalysis, degree of reversibility, and identity of aerosol phase reaction products. We present results of chamber aerosol studies (Galloway et al. ACPD 8, 20799, 2008) and laboratory studies of bulk samples aimed at improving the understanding of these processes, in particular formation of oligomers and organosulfates of glyoxal, as well as the formation of imidazoles (carbon-nitrogen containing heterocyclic aromatic compounds) under dark and irradiated conditions. The relevance of these classes of reaction products extends beyond glyoxal, as evidence of oligomers and organosulfates other than those of glyoxal have been found in ambient aerosol (Surratt et al. JPCA 112, 8345, 2008; Denkenberger et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 5439, 2007). Experiments in which a chamber air mass was diluted after equilibration of glyoxal uptake onto ammonium sulfate seed aerosol (relative humidity 60% and glyoxal mixing ratios of 25-200 ppbv) shows that under these conditions uptake is reversible. The most important condensed phase products are hydrated oligomers of glyoxal, which are also formed reversibly under these conditions. Our studies show that organosulfates were not formed under dark conditions for neutral or acidified aerosol; similarly, Minerath et al. have recently shown that formation of a different class of organosulfates (alkyl sulfates) also proceeds very slowly even under acidic conditions (Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 4410, 2008). The

  6. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  7. Measurement of partial vapor pressure of ammonia over acid ammonium sulfate solutions by an integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutrakis, P.; Aurian-BlǎJeni, B.

    1993-02-01

    We present a simple, integral, passive method for measuring partial vapor pressure. Integral methods are useful tools when dealing with very low concentrations because collection over extended periods increases the analytical sensitivity. Passive methods have the advantage of not introducing constraints external to the system. The principle of the method used here is to selectively react the substance in the atmosphere over a solution with an immobilized coating on an appropriate support. The reaction product is not volatile, but is soluble and can be extracted in an appropriate solvent and analyzed. The method has been applied to measuring the vapor pressure of ammonia over aqueous solutions. The vapor pressure over ammonium sulfate solutions depends on the acidity of the solutions as well as on the salt concentration. The dependence can be explained with a simple model. Furthermore, using the same model, we calculated the ammonia vapor pressure above different ammonium sulfate/sulfuric acid aqueous solutions as a function of sulfate molarity and percentage of sulfuric acid. The results from the calculations suggest that for ambient ammonia concentrations less than 10 ppb, acid sulfate aerosols are not completely neutralized.

  8. Inclusion bodies: formation and degeneration of the oocytes in the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) in response to ammonium sulfate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, R.N.; Sathyanesan, A.G.

    1986-06-01

    In the adult Channa punctatus exposed to 500 ppm of the commonly used fertilizer ammonium sulfate for 6 months from January to June, ovarian growth was retarded significantly. The inhibition of the ovarian growth is reflected on the gonadosomatic index which was significantly reduced as compared with control. Apart from this, in treated fish, several stage-I oocytes exhibited proteinaceous extra- and intranuclear inclusion bodies which are apparently due to cumulative toxic effect of ammonium sulfate. These oocytes ultimately degenerate.

  9. Water uptake of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and dicarboxylic acid particles probed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, Lorena; Méndez, Estíbaliz; Sánchez, María N.; Castaño, Fernando; Basterretxea, Francisco J.

    2013-05-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are usually mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds in variable proportions, and the relative amount of organic fraction can influence the hygroscopic properties of the particles. Infrared spectra of submicrometer internally mixed dry particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) with various dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, maleic, glutaric and pimelic) have been measured in an aerosol flow tube at several solute mass ratios. The spectra show a notable broadening in the bandwidth of sulfate ion ν3 vibrational band near 1115 cm-1 with respect to pure AS. We attribute these perturbations, that are biggest at AS/organic acid mass ratio near unity, to intermolecular interactions between inorganic ions and organic acid molecules in the internally mixed solids. The water uptake behavior of internally mixed particles has been measured by recording the infrared integrated absorbance of liquid water as a function of relative humidity (RH). The amount of water present in the particles prior to deliquescence correlates partially with the water solubilities of the dicarboxylic acids, and also with the relative magnitudes of intermolecular interactions in the internally mixed dry solids. Phase change of ammonium sulfate in the internally mixed particles with RH has been spectrally monitored, and it is shown that water uptaken before full deliquescence produces structural changes in the particles that are revealed by their vibrational spectra.

  10. Measurement of the water cycle in mixed ammonium acid sulfate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, J. F.; Richardson, C. B.

    A single ammonium-hydrogen-sulfate particle is levitated in an evacuated quadrupole trap at room temperature and the temperature of an attached tube containing bulk water is slowly cycled introducing then removing water vapor. With increasing pressure the particle dissolves in stages, then grows as a solution droplet by water absorption. With decreasing pressure the droplet supersaturates, crystallizes, then dehydrates completely to return to its initial state. Particle mass, and thus composition, is measured continuously with an electrostatic balance. Twenty-six cycles were studied as solute composition ranged from ammonium bisulfate through letovicite to ammonium sulfate in roughly equal steps. Composition was changed in situ by reaction with ammonia at low partial pressure. With solute composition characterized by x = [NH 4]/[SO 4], deliquescence was found to occur at water activity aw = 0.394-0.029 ( x- 1) for 1 ⩽ x < 1.5 and aw = 0.710-0.023( x-1.5) for 1.5 ⩽ x < 2. Particle growth occurs at deliquescence and subsequently is in excellent agreement with that predicted in a model proposed by Tang for dissolution of a two-component mixed solute. Water activities of the solution droplets are measured up to aw = 0.9. The results are compared with those predicted by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson method of interpolation from binary data and with those obtained using the mixing rule of Meissner and Kusik. Particle crystallization from supersaturated solution is analyzed thermodynamically using measured water activities, the Gibbs-Duhem equation, and classical nucleation theory. The specific free energy barrier to crystallization, ΔG/ n, is found to increase from near zero to 0.04 eV as composition ranges from x = 1 to 2, where n is the number of formula units in the critical nucleus. New phase diagrams are presented and used to discuss the dynamics of mixed sulfate particles in the atmosphere.

  11. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  12. A differential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Mills, Ian G; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-12-21

    Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.

  13. Solubilities and Glass Formation in Aqueous Solutions of the Sodium Salts of Malonic Acid With and Without Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Jared A; Buttke, Lukas G; Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Guzei, Ilia A; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-06-01

    The solubility of sodium hydrogen malonate and sodium malonate in water both with and without ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from sodium hydrogen malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium hydrogen malonate monohydrate by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystals formed in sodium malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium malonate monohydrate, a compound whose structure had not been previously known. When ammonium sulfate is added to these respective aqueous systems, the precipitation solids contain sodium sulfate decahydrate under low to moderate ammonium concentrations and lecontite (NaNH4SO4·2H2O) under high ammonium concentrations, which can be found under dry atmospheric conditions. Thus, it appears the presence of malonate and hydrogen malonate ions does not significantly affect the precipitation of inorganic salts in these systems. The glass transition temperatures of all solutions were also determined, and it was observed that the addition of ammonium sulfate slightly lowers the glass transition temperature in these solutions.

  14. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  15. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Bo; Tong, Shengrui; Liu, Qifan; Li, Kun; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-03-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, knowledge on the water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single components such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, phthalic acid, and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid, and phthalic acid have a strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppressing its crystallization completely during the drying process. The phase behaviors of oxalic acid/levoglucosan mixed particles are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) with the Universal Quasi-Chemical Functional Group Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) method and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH) assuming oxalic acid in a crystalline solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH compared to the model predictions based on reasonable oxalic acid phase assumption. Organic mixture has more complex effects on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan account for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing the phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly promote water uptake

  16. Hygroscopic behavior of multicomponent organic aerosols and their internal mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, B.; Tong, S. R.; Liu, Q. F.; Li, K.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2015-08-01

    Water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) are important components of organics in the atmospheric fine particulate matter. Although WSOCs play an important role in the hygroscopicity of aerosols, water uptake behavior of internally mixed WSOC aerosols remains limited characterization. Here, the hygroscopic properties of single component such as levoglucosan, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid and phthalic acid and multicomponent WSOC aerosols mainly involving oxalic acid are investigated with the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The coexisting hygroscopic species including levoglucosan, malonic acid and phthalic acid have strong influence on the hygroscopic growth and phase behavior of oxalic acid, even suppress its crystallization completely. The interactions between oxalic acid and levoglucosan are confirmed by infrared spectra. The discrepancies between measured growth factors and predictions from Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) with UNIFAC method and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) approach increase at medium and high relative humidity (RH) assuming oxalic acid in a solid state. For the internal mixture of oxalic acid with levoglucosan or succinic acid, there is enhanced water uptake at high RH due to positive chemical interactions between solutes. Organic mixture has more complex effect on the hygroscopicity of ammonium sulfate than single species. Although hygroscopic species such as levoglucosan accounts for a small fraction in the multicomponent aerosols, they may still strongly influence the hygroscopic behavior of ammonium sulfate by changing phase state of oxalic acid which plays the role of "intermediate" species. Considering the abundance of oxalic acid in the atmospheric aerosols, its mixtures with hygroscopic species may significantly promote water uptake under high RH conditions and thus affect the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, optical properties and chemical reactivity of atmospheric particles.

  17. Pacific marine aerosol 2. Equatorial gradients in chlorophyll, ammonium, and excess sulfate during SAGA 3

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, A.D.; Porter, J.N.

    1993-09-20

    In February and March 1990, measurements of aerosol physicochemistry were made during five transects across the equator between 15{degrees}N and 10{degrees}S. Marked equatorial gradients in both the aerosol NH{sub 4}{sup +}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} ratio and the strong surface water chlorophyll were associated with boundaries separating oligotrophic waters and regions of equatorial upwelling. Highest aerosol ammonium concentrations appeared to be unrelated to continental signatures but corresponded to regions of highest chlorophyll concentrations. Favorable aerosol chemistry, wind directions, and cruise tracks in conjunction with rapid aerosol sampling made it possible to estimate the flux of ammonia from in surface in these transition regions at about 10 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1} with possibly greater values in regions where higher chlorophyll concentrations exceeded about 0.25 mg m{sup {minus}3}. Low NH{sub 4}{sup +}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} values in aerosol over oligotrophic regions with chlorophyll concentrations below 0.1 mg m{sup {minus}3} suggest the flux in these regions was about an order of magnitude lower. Aerosol sulfate concentrations were also generally elevated over the upwelling region but showed a less pronounced relationship to chlorophyll abundance, suggesting independent source mechanisms for ammonium and sulfate. Rapid variability in mass and number concentrations were evident in convective regions. Both depletion of larger aerosol (mass) through precipitation scavenging and an increase in the number of smaller aerosol in region of subsidence indicate the complex relationship among CN, CCN, and aerosol mass in the remote marine boundary layer. 37 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. M.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Clarisse, L.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Van Damme, M.

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. This work is motivated, in part, by the inability of previous modeling studies to reproduce observed high nitrate aerosol concentrations in California. Nitrate aerosol concentrations over most of the US are over-predicted relative to Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) data. In California, on the other hand, nitrate and ammonium are under-predicted as compared to California Air Resources Board (CARB) measurements. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which have suggested that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted with current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. Accordingly, the value of γ is reduced here by a factor of 10. Despite this, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest remain higher than those measured and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains to be explained. Data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the MetOp-A satellite indicate the presence of a strong ammonia maximum in central and southern California that is not present in the simulations, which are based on the EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) NH3 emission inventory. In order to predict ammonia columns similar to the satellite measurements in the San Joaquin Valley, CA and Riverside, CA, the current ammonia emission inventory in California would need to be increased substantially. Based on the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate formation to the availability of ammonia, the present results suggest that under-prediction of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in California.

  19. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  20. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  1. Modeling the spectral optical properties of ammonium sulfate and biomass burning aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, K.E.; Chuang, C.C.; Grossman, A.S.; Penner, J.E.

    1997-09-01

    The importance of including the global and regional radiative effects of aerosols in climate models has increasingly been realized. Accurate modeling of solar radiative forcing due to aerosols from anthropogenic sulfate and biomass burning emissions requires adequate spectral resolution and treatment of spatial and temporal variability. The variation of aerosol spectral optical properties with local relative humidity and dry aerosol composition must be considered. Because the cost of directly including Mie calculations within a climate model is prohibitive, parameterizations from offline calculations must be used. Starting from a log-normal size distribution of dry ammonium sulfate, we developed optical properties for tropospheric sulfate aerosol at 15 relative humidities up to 99 percent. The resulting aerosol size distributions were then used to calculate bulk optical properties at wavelengths between 0.175 {micro}m and 4 {micro}m. Finally, functional fits of optical properties were made for each of 12 wavelength bands as a function of relative humidity. Significant variations in optical properties occurred across the total solar spectrum. Relative increases in specific extinction and asymmetry factor with increasing relative humidity became larger at longer wavelengths. Significant variation in single-scattering albedo was found only in the longest near-IR band. This is also the band with the lowest albedo. A similar treatment was done for aerosols from biomass burning. In this case, size distributions were taken as having two carbonaceous size modes and a larger dust mode. The two carbonaceous modes were considered to be humidity dependent. Equilibrium size distributions and compositions were calculated for 15 relative humidities and five black carbon fractions. Mie calculations and Chandrasekhar averages of optical properties were done for each of the resulting 75 cases. Finally, fits were made for each of 12 spectral bands as functions of relative humidity

  2. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  3. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  4. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. M.; Philip, S.; Martin, R. V.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in southern California and in other ammonia sensitive areas

  5. Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to light absorption and climate forcing by aerosols. Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyls and ammonia or amines have been identified as one of the potential pathways of BrC formation. However, detailed chemical characterization of BrC chromophores has been challenging and their formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Understanding BrC formation is impeded by the lack of suitable methods which can unravel the variability and complexity of BrC mixtures. This study applies high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to investigate optical properties and chemical composition of individual BrC components produced through reactions of methylglyoxal (MG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), both of which are abundant in the atmospheric environment. A direct relationship between optical properties and chemical composition of 30 major BrC chromophores was established. Nearly all of these chromophores are nitrogen-containing compounds that account for >70% of the overall light absorption by the MG+AS system in the 300-500 nm range. These results suggest that reduced-nitrogen organic compounds formed in reactions between atmospheric carbonyls and ammonia/amines are important BrC chromophores. It is also demonstrated that improved separation of BrC chromophores by HPLC will significantly advance understanding of BrC chemistry.

  6. Solid/liquid phase diagram of the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid/water system.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Keith D; Pearson, Christian S; Henningfield, Drew S

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the low temperature phase diagram and water activities of the ammonium sulfate/glutaric acid/water system using differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy of thin films, and a new technique: differential scanning calorimetry-video microscopy. Using these techniques, we have determined that there is a temperature-dependent kinetic effect to the dissolution of glutaric acid in aqueous solution. We have mapped the solid/liquid ternary phase diagram, determined the water activities based on the freezing point depression, and determined the ice/glutaric acid phase boundary as well as the ternary eutectic composition and temperature. We have also modified our glutaric acid/water binary phase diagram previously published based on these new results. We compare our results for the ternary system to the predictions of the Extended AIM Aerosol Thermodynamics Model (E-AIM), and find good agreement for the ice melting points in the ice primary phase field of this system; however, significant differences were found with respect to phase boundaries, concentration and temperature of the ternary eutectic, and glutaric acid dissolution. PMID:23544733

  7. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Shanty, F.; Kerr, H.D.; Farrell, B.P.; Miller, W.R.; Milman, J.H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ respirable ammonium sulfate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or SO/sub 2/), the combined exposure ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and SO/sub 2/), or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  8. Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to light absorption and climate forcing by aerosols. Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyls and ammonia or amines have been identified as one of the potential pathways of BrC formation. However, detailed chemical characterization of BrC chromophores has been challenging and their formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Understanding BrC formation is impeded by the lack of suitable methods which can unravel the variability and complexity of BrC mixtures. This study applies high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to investigate optical properties and chemical composition of individual BrC components produced through reactions of methylglyoxal (MG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), both of which are abundant in the atmospheric environment. A direct relationship between optical properties and chemical composition of 30 major BrC chromophores is established. Nearly all of these chromophores are nitrogen-containing compounds that account for >70% of the overall light absorption by the MG+AS system in the 300-500 nm range. These results suggest that reduced-nitrogen organic compounds formed in reactions between atmospheric carbonyls and ammonia/amines are important BrC chromophores. It is also demonstrated that improved separation of BrC chromophores by HPLC will significantly advance understanding of BrC chemistry. PMID:26505092

  9. Effects of ammonium sulfate aerosols on vegetation—II. Mode of entry and responses of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmur, Nicholas F.; Evans, Lance S.; Cunningham, Elizabeth A.

    These experiments were designed to provide information on the rates of aerosol deposition, mode of entry, and effects of deposition of submicrometer ammonium sulfate aerosols on foliage of Phaseolus vulgaris L. A deposition velocity of 3.2 × 10 3cms-1 was constant during 3-week exposures of plants to aerosol concentrations of 26mg m -3 (i.e. about two orders of magnitude above ambient episode concentrations). Mean deposition rate on foliage was 4.1 × 10 -11 μg cm -2s -1. Visible injury symptoms included leaf chlorosis, necrosis and loss of turgor. Chlorosis was most frequent near leaf margins causing epinasty and near major veins. Internal injury occurred initially in spongy mesophyll cells. Eventually abaxial epidermal and palisade parenchyma cells were injured. These results suggest that submicrometer aerosols enter abaxial stomata and affect more internal cells before affecting leaf surface cells. Exposure to aerosols decreased both abaxial and adaxial leaf resistances markedly. Although visible injury to foliage occurred, no changes in dry mass of roots and shoots or leaf area occurred. These results suggest that for the plant developmental stage studied, while leaf resistances decreased and cellular injury occurred in foliage, these factors were not significantly related to plant growth and development.

  10. Brown carbon formation by aqueous-phase carbonyl compound reactions with amines and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Powelson, Michelle H; Espelien, Brenna M; Hawkins, Lelia N; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O

    2014-01-21

    Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyl compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS), and/or amines were evaluated for their ability to form light-absorbing species in aqueous aerosol. Aerosol chemistry was simulated with bulk phase reactions at pH 4, 275 K, initial concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25 M, and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring. Glycolaldehyde-glycine mixtures produced the most intense absorbance. In carbonyl compound reactions with AS, methylamine, or AS/glycine mixtures, product absorbance followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde > hydroxyacetone. Absorbance extended into the visible, with a wavelength dependence fit by absorption Ångstrom coefficients (Å(abs)) of 2 to 11, overlapping the Å(abs) range of atmospheric, water-soluble brown carbon. Many reaction products absorbing between 300 and 400 nm were strongly fluorescent. On a per mole basis, amines are much more effective than AS at producing brown carbon. In addition, methylglyoxal and glyoxal produced more light-absorbing products in reactions with a 5:1 AS-glycine mixture than with AS or glycine alone, illustrating the importance of both organic and inorganic nitrogen in brown carbon formation. Through comparison to biomass burning aerosol, we place an upper limit on the contribution of these aqueous carbonyl-AS-amine reactions of ≤ 10% of global light absorption by brown carbon. PMID:24351110

  11. Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is an important contributor to light absorption and climate forcing by aerosols. Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyls and ammonia or amines have been identified as one of the potential pathways of BrC formation. However, detailed chemical characterization of BrC chromophores has been challenging and their formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Understanding BrC formation is impeded by the lack of suitable methods which can unravel the variability and complexity of BrC mixtures. This study applies high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to investigate optical properties and chemical composition of individual BrC components produced through reactions of methylglyoxal (MG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), both of which are abundant in the atmospheric environment. A direct relationship between optical properties and chemical composition of 30 major BrC chromophores is established. Nearly all of these chromophores are nitrogen-containing compounds that account for >70% of the overall light absorption by the MG+AS system in the 300-500 nm range. These results suggest that reduced-nitrogen organic compounds formed in reactions between atmospheric carbonyls and ammonia/amines are important BrC chromophores. It is also demonstrated that improved separation of BrC chromophores by HPLC will significantly advance understanding of BrC chemistry.

  12. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions. PMID:26295867

  13. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Bruinius, J.A.; Hoeft, R.; Dewey, S.; Achorn, F.

    1995-12-31

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility for producing feasibility-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced as part of limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, the UIUC, AlliedSignal, SE-ME, Henry Fertilizer, Illinois Power Co. (IP), and Central Illinois Public Services (CIPS). Bench-scale experiments will be conducted to obtain process engineering data for the manufacture of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economic feasibility of the process. Controlled greenhouse experiments will be conducted at UIUC to evaluate the chemical impact of coal-derived impurities in ammonium sulfate produced from FGD-gypsum on soil properties. A process flow sheet will be proposed and market demand for the products will be established. An engineering team at IP will provide an independent review of the economics of the process. AlliedSignal will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of ammonium sulfate samples and is interested in an agreement to market the finished product. CIPS will provide technical assistance and samples of FGD -gypsum for the project. In this quarter, with an exception of the neutron activation analysis, analyses of FGD-gypsum samples that were generated by two power stations were completed. The high quality FGD-gypsum sample produced from the Abbott power plant in Champaign, IL was 98.36% gypsum, CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, and less than 0.01% calcium`` sulfite, CaSO{sub 3}. The low quality sample from CIPS`s Newton Power Plant at Jasper, Illinois, was only 7.36% of gypsum. It was 87.54% calcium sulfite. A literature search provided the information to set up a batch, bench-scale reactor system. Reactions were conducted at 70{degrees}C for a range of times which resulted in 82% conversion of calcium sulfate to ammonium sulfate.

  14. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  15. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Visible Absorption Components in Aqueous Methylglyoxal-Ammonium Sulfate Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGivern, W. S.; Allison, T. C.; Radney, J. G.; Zangmeister, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The aqueous reaction of methylglyoxal (MG) with ammonium sulfate has been suggested as a source of atmospheric ``brown carbon.'' We have utilized high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry to study the products of this reaction at high concentrations. The overall product spectrum shows a large number of distinct components; however, the visible absorption from this mixture is derived a very small number of components. The largest contributor is an imine-substituted (C=N-H) product of aldol condensation/facile dehydration reaction between the parent MG and a hydrated product of the MG + ammonia reaction. The asymmetric nature of this compound relative to the aldol condensation of two MG results in a sufficiently large redshift of the UV absorption spectrum that absorption of visible radiation can occur in the long-wavelength tail. The simplicity of the imine products is a result of a strong bias toward ketimine products due to the extensive hydration of the aldehydic moiety in the parent in aqueous solution. In addition, a strong pH dependence of the absorption cross section was observed with significantly greater absorption under more basic conditions. We have performed time-dependent density functional theory calculations to evaluate the absorption spectra of all of the possible condensation products and their respective ions, and the results are consistent with the experimental observations. We have also observed smaller concentrations of other condensation products of the imine-substituted parent species that do not contribute significantly to the visible absorption but have not been previously discussed.

  17. Effects of chronic ammonium sulfate treatment on the forest at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine.

    PubMed

    Elvir, Jose Alexander; Wiersma, G Bruce; Bethers, Suzanne; Kenlan, Peter

    2010-12-01

    At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), the forest tree composition was characterized and the effects of the chronic ammonium sulfate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) treatment on basal area growth, foliar chemistry, and gas exchange were investigated on forest species. The BBWM is a paired watershed forest ecosystem study with one watershed, West Bear (WB), treated since 1989 with 26.6 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 30 kg S ha(-1) year(-1)applied bimonthly as (NH(4))(2)SO(4), while the other watershed, East Bear (EB), serves as a reference. Tree species richness, density, and mortality were found to be similar between watersheds. Basal area increment was estimated from red spruce and sugar maple, showing that, for the first 7 years of treatment, it was significantly higher for sugar maple growing in WB compared to EB, but no differences were observed for red spruce between watersheds. However, the initial higher sugar maple basal area growth in WB subsequently decreased after 8 years of treatment. Foliar chemical analysis performed in trees, saplings, and ground flora showed higher N concentrations in the treated WB compared to the reference EB. But, foliar cation concentrations, especially Ca and Mg, were significantly lower for most of the species growing in WB compared with those growing in EB. For sugar maple, foliar N was higher on WB, but there were no differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between treated and reference watersheds. In addition, only sugar maple trees in the treated WB showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates compared to reference EB trees.

  18. Deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of mixed particles of ammonium sulfate and isoprene-derived secondary organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Bertram, A. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-10-01

    The hygroscopic phase transitions of ammonium sulfate mixed with isoprene-derived secondary organic material were investigated in aerosol experiments. The organic material was produced by isoprene photo-oxidation at 40% and 60% relative humidity. The low volatility fraction of the photo-oxidation products condensed onto ammonium sulfate particles. The particle-phase organic material had oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.67 to 0.74 (±0.2) for mass concentrations of 20 to 30 μg m-3. The deliquescence, efflorescence, and phase miscibility of the mixed particles were investigated using a dual arm tandem differential mobility analyzer. The isoprene photo-oxidation products induced deviations in behavior relative to pure ammonium sulfate. Compared to an efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 30 to 35% for pure ammonium sulfate, efflorescence was eliminated for aqueous particles having organic volume fractions ϵ of 0.6 and greater. Compared to a deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 80% for pure ammonium sulfate, the DRH steadily decreased with increasing ϵ, approaching a DRH of 40% for ϵ of 0.9. Parameterizations of the DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves were as follows: DRH(ϵ)= ∑i ci,d ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤0.86 and ERH(ϵ)= ∑ i ci,e ϵi valid for 0 ≤ ϵ ≤ 0.55 for the coefficients c0,d= 80.67, c0,e = 28.35, c1,d = -11.45, c1,e = -13.66, c2,d = 0, c2,e = 0, c3,d = 57.99, c3,e = -83.80, c4,d = -106.80, and c4,e = 0. The molecular description that is thermodynamically implied by these strongly sloped DRH(ϵ) and ERH(ϵ) curves is that the organic isoprene photo-oxidation products, the inorganic ammonium sulfate, and water form a miscible liquid phase even at low relative humidity. This phase miscibility is in contrast to the liquid-liquid separation that occurs for some other types of secondary organic material. These differences

  19. Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Rokjin J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Field, Brendan D.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Chin, Mian

    2004-08-01

    We use a global three-dimensional coupled oxidant-aerosol model (GEOS-CHEM) to estimate natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol concentrations in the United States. This work is motivated in part by the Regional Haze Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which requires immediate action to improve visibility in U.S. wilderness areas along a linear trajectory toward an endpoint of "natural visibility conditions" by 2064. We present full-year simulations for 1998 and 2001 and evaluate them with nationwide networks of observations in the United States and Europe (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP)) and with Asian outflow observations from the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission. Shutting off U.S. anthropogenic emissions in the model defines "background" aerosol concentrations representing contributions from both natural and transboundary pollution sources. We find that transboundary transport of pollution from Canada, Mexico, and Asia dominates over natural influences for both sulfate and nitrate. Trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution accounts for 30% of background sulfate in both the western and eastern United States. Our best estimates of natural concentrations for ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate in the United States are either consistent with or lower than the default values recommended by EPA for natural visibility calculations. However, the large transboundary pollution influence in our calculation suggests that a natural visibility objective cannot be approached without international emission controls.

  20. NMR chemical shift pattern changed by ammonium sulfate precipitation in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    PubMed

    Song, Chen; Lang, Christina; Kopycki, Jakub; Hughes, Jon; Matysik, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are dimeric biliprotein photoreceptors exhibiting characteristic red/far-red photocycles. Full-length cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis 6803 is soluble initially but tends to aggregate in a concentration-dependent manner, hampering attempts to solve the structure using NMR and crystallization methods. Otherwise, the Cph1 sensory module (Cph1Δ2), photochemically indistinguishable from the native protein and used extensively in structural and other studies, can be purified to homogeneity in >10 mg amounts at mM concentrations quite easily. Bulk precipitation of full-length Cph1 by ammonium sulfate (AmS) was expected to allow us to produce samples for solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR from dilute solutions before significant aggregation began. It was not clear, however, what effects the process of partial dehydration might have on the molecular structure. Here we test this by running solid-state MAS NMR experiments on AmS-precipitated Cph1Δ2 in its red-absorbing Pr state carrying uniformly (13)C/(15)N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments allowed a complete assignment of (13)C responses of the chromophore. Upon precipitation, (13)C chemical shifts for most of PCB carbons move upfield, in which we found major changes for C4 and C6 atoms associated with the A-ring positioning. Further, the broad spectral lines seen in the AmS (13)C spectrum reflect primarily the extensive inhomogeneous broadening presumably due to an increase in the distribution of conformational states in the protein, in which less free water is available to partake in the hydration shells. Our data suggest that the effect of dehydration process indeed leads to changes of electronic structure of the bilin chromophore and a decrease in its mobility within the binding pocket, but not restricted to the protein surface. The extent of the changes induced differs from the freezing process of the solution samples routinely

  1. NMR chemical shift pattern changed by ammonium sulfate precipitation in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Lang, Christina; Kopycki, Jakub; Hughes, Jon; Matysik, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are dimeric biliprotein photoreceptors exhibiting characteristic red/far-red photocycles. Full-length cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis 6803 is soluble initially but tends to aggregate in a concentration-dependent manner, hampering attempts to solve the structure using NMR and crystallization methods. Otherwise, the Cph1 sensory module (Cph1Δ2), photochemically indistinguishable from the native protein and used extensively in structural and other studies, can be purified to homogeneity in >10 mg amounts at mM concentrations quite easily. Bulk precipitation of full-length Cph1 by ammonium sulfate (AmS) was expected to allow us to produce samples for solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR from dilute solutions before significant aggregation began. It was not clear, however, what effects the process of partial dehydration might have on the molecular structure. Here we test this by running solid-state MAS NMR experiments on AmS-precipitated Cph1Δ2 in its red-absorbing Pr state carrying uniformly 13C/15N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore. 2D 13C–13C correlation experiments allowed a complete assignment of 13C responses of the chromophore. Upon precipitation, 13C chemical shifts for most of PCB carbons move upfield, in which we found major changes for C4 and C6 atoms associated with the A-ring positioning. Further, the broad spectral lines seen in the AmS 13C spectrum reflect primarily the extensive inhomogeneous broadening presumably due to an increase in the distribution of conformational states in the protein, in which less free water is available to partake in the hydration shells. Our data suggest that the effect of dehydration process indeed leads to changes of electronic structure of the bilin chromophore and a decrease in its mobility within the binding pocket, but not restricted to the protein surface. The extent of the changes induced differs from the freezing process of the solution samples routinely used in

  2. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank

    2014-11-18

    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  3. Simulations of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols during the extreme haze events over northern China in October 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Zhiquan; Fast, Jerome; Ban, Junmei

    2016-08-01

    Extreme haze events have occurred frequently over China in recent years. Although many studies have investigated the formation mechanisms associated with PM2.5 for heavily polluted regions in China based on observational data, adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging for regional air quality models. In this study, we evaluate the performance of one configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and use the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during four extreme haze episodes in October 2014 over the North China Plain. The highest observed PM2.5 concentration of 469 µg m-3 occurred in Beijing. Comparisons with observations show that the model reproduced the temporal variability in PM2.5 with the highest PM2.5 values on polluted days (defined as days in which observed PM2.5 is greater than 75 µg m-3), but predictions of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were too low on days with the highest observed concentrations. Observational data indicate that the sulfur/nitric oxidation rates are strongly correlated with relative humidity during periods of peak PM2.5; however, the model failed to reproduce the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to missing heterogeneous/aqueous reactions. As the parameterizations of those heterogeneous reactions are not well established yet, estimates of SO2-to-H2SO4 and NO2/NO3-to-HNO3 reaction rates that depend on relative humidity were applied, which improved the simulation of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium enhancement on polluted days in terms of both concentrations and partitioning among those species. Sensitivity simulations showed that the extremely high heterogeneous reaction rates and also higher emission rates than those reported in the emission inventory were likely important factors contributing to those peak PM2.5 concentrations.

  4. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  5. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water.

  6. Inferring ammonium and sulfate aerosol concentrations using laser particle counters and condensation nuclei counters at summit, Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, H.; Davidson, C.; Bergin, M.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric measurements have been conducted in central Greenland over the last 10 years in connection with ice core research. While the primary objective of this research is to facilitate the quantitative interpretation of ice cores, interesting findings are being made in the field of Arctic air chemistry. In recent years, aerosol filters were run simultaneously with laser particle counters (LPC`s) and condensation nuclei counters (CNC`s). The LPC`s used in the this study count particles with diameters greater than 0.5 {mu}m, while the CNC`s count particles larger than approximately 0.01 {mu}m. Results from summertime aerosol sampling at Summit, Greenland are presented from the 1994 field season. Excellent agreement is observed between LPC data and particulate ammonium and sulfate. The correlation between ammonium and LPC data is r=0.88. Of all of the ionic species measured on the filters, the CNC results are in best agreement with MSA. The correlation for CNC and MSA is r=0.58. The relationship between the real-time particle sensor data and the aerosol chemistry has significant implications. The link between MSA and CNC supports the theory that marine biological activity enhances the production of cloud condensation nuclei. Also, this technique shows promise for remote sensing applications since once calibrated, the real time particle count data could be used to infer high temporal resolution aerosol chemistry.

  7. Trends in atmospheric ammonium concentrations in relation to atmospheric sulfate and local agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Likens, Gene E

    2005-06-01

    Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations in air and precipitation at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES) in southeastern New York, USA declined over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999, but increased from 1999 to 2001. These trends in particulate NH(4)(+) correlated well with trends in particulate SO(4)(2-) over the 1988-2001 period. The NH(4)(+) trends were not as well correlated with local cattle and milk production, which declined continuously throughout the period. This suggests that regional transport of SO(4)(2-) may have a greater impact on concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition than local agricultural emissions of NH(3). Ammonium concentrations in precipitation correlated significantly with precipitation SO(4)(2-) concentrations for the 1984-2001 period although NH(4)(+) in precipitation increased after 1999 and SO(4)(2-) in precipitation continued to decline after 1999. The correlation between NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was stronger for particulates than for precipitation. Particulate NH(4)(+) concentrations were also correlated with particulate SO(4)(2-) concentrations at 31 of 35 eastern U.S. CASTNet sites that had at least 10 years of data. Air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) were more strongly correlated at the sites that were located within an agricultural landscape than in forested sites. At most of the sites there was either no trend or a decrease in NH(4)(+) dry deposition during the 1988-2001 period. The sites that showed an increasing trend in NH(4)(+) dry deposition were generally located in the southeastern U.S. The results of this study suggest that, in the northeastern U.S., air concentrations of NH(4)(+) and subsequent deposition may be more closely linked to SO(4)(2-) and thus SO(2) emissions than with NH(3) emissions. These results also suggest that reductions in S emissions have reduced NH(4)(+) transport to and NH(4)(+)-N deposition in the Northeast.

  8. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    In the 2nd quarterly report, we discussed the lime/limestone process which precipitates N-S containing compounds by adding lime/limestone in a narrow pH range, and which can be an alternative to the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process. In this report, we focused on investigations of the lime/limestone process. First, we established an overall flow diagram for the lime/limestone process. Based on the diagram, we performed preliminary experimental investigations to outline practical process conditions. Out major investigations concerned about effects of pH on precipitation of the N-S compounds and precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds in a continuous crystallization system. We also performed an experimental investigation to study crystallization characteristic of the ammonium sulfate in the hydrolysis liquor. In studying effects of pH, we performed batch precipitation of the N-S compounds in a broad range of pH and investigated the effects of pH on the amount of required lime, the amount of the precipitate, and the fraction of N-S compounds precipitated. The result revealed the optimum range for precipitation of N-S compounds to be pH = 7.6--8.6. In studying continuous crystallization characteristics of the N-S compounds, a bench scale 4-liter continuous crystallization system was built to compare a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer and Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer. In a preliminary test, the DDO was shown to be superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 97 {mu}m to 142 {mu}m and thus enhancing the filterability. In order to obtain information for a practical design of the lime/limestone process, we also set up a material balance for a 300 MWe power plant facility. A preliminary calculation showed that a process on the scale could produce approximately 56 tons ammonium sulfate fertilizer per day.

  9. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have the ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), initiating the formation of clouds and hereby influencing the climate system. The ability of aerosols to act as CCN is believed to depend on particle size and chemical composition. Organosulfates (OS), e.g sulfate esters, have been observed as constituents of secondary organic aerosols in numerous atmospheric environments, even as far as the Arctic, where OS have been found to comprise 7-15% of total organic matter and 9-11% of submicron organic matter in two independent studies. However, the properties of particulate OS have not yet been investigated. Here limonene derived OS were synthesized and the hygroscopic properties of these OS and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate (AS) were examined through a series of laboratory experiments. Laboratory generated particles of limonene-derived OS and AS were analysed using a unique set-up splitting the particle flow between a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter, enabling simultaneous measurements of hygroscopic growth and CCN activation. Limonene-derived OS were chosen as study components, since monoterpenes (including limonene) have been identified as important precursors of OS in field samples as well as in smog chamber experiments. AS was used as a representative of the inorganic fraction in atmospheric aerosols. The preliminary results show that limonene-derived OS exhibit weak hygroscopic growth as well as CCN activation potential, however, not as strong as AS. For the organic-inorganic mixtures, it was observed that AS dominated the hygroscopic properties over the limonene-derived OS and became dictating for the measured values of hygroscopic growth and CCN activation, when the mass fraction of AS reached 20% or above. The results will be discussed further and supplementary measurements of OS surface tension and water activity will be presented.

  10. Effects of ammonium sulfate aerosol exposure on lung structure of normal and elastase-impaired rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Cannon, W.C.; Lauhala, K.E.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Smith, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    Rats and guinea pigs, pretreated with intratracheally administered elastase or saline, were exposed to 1.03 mg/m/sup 3/ (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; MMAD, 0.42 ..mu..m. Identically treated controls were sham exposed. Measurements and evaluation of structural changes were conducted using morphometric techniques on SEM photographs and by applying subjective ratings. Pathology studies were conducted by light and electron microscopy. All examination methods confirmed elastase-induced emphysema, which was aggravated by (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exposure in the rat. Ammonium sulfate exposure of saline-treated animals produced measurable degrees of enlargement of alveoli, and alveolar ducts and sacs. Electron microscopy revealed increased interstitial collagen in affected lung areas of elastase-treated, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-exposed animals. Alveolar-pore size was significantly increased in elastase-treated animals (control and exposed) but not in saline-treated, exposed animals. The data suggest a possible difference between elastase and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the mechanisms responsible for the increased diameter of alveolar structures. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of nonciliated epithelial cells of the small airways and of the Type II alveolar cells were observed in otherwise untreated guinea pigs exposed to (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ but not in elastase-treated guinea pigs, nor in any of the rats. 12 references.

  11. Isolation and purification of recombinant human plasminogen Kringle 5 by liquid chromatography and ammonium sulfate salting-out.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liujiao; Ji, Xu; Hu, Wei

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a novel method was established to isolate and purify Human plasminogen Kringle 5 (HPK5) as a histidine-tagged fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). This method consisted of sample extraction using a Ni-chelated Sepharose Fast-Flow affinity column, ammonium sulfate salting-out and Sephadex G-75 size-exclusion column in turn. The purity analysis by SDS-PAGE, high-performance size-exclusion and reversed-phase chromatographies showed that the obtained recombinant fusion HPK5 was homogeneous and its purity was higher than 96%; the activity analysis by chorioallantoic membrane model of chicken embryos revealed that the purified recombinant HPK5 exhibited an obvious anti-angiogenic activity under the effective range of 5.0-25.0 µg/mL. Through this procedure, about 19 mg purified recombinant fusion HPK5 can be obtained from 1 L of original fermentation solution. Approximate 32% of the total recombinant fusion HPK5 can be captured and the total yield was approximately 11%.

  12. Study of the dose response of the system ferrous ammonium sulfate-sucrose-xylenol orange in acid aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J. M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2014-11-01

    An aqueous solution of ammonium ferrous sulfate-sucrose-xylenol orange in sulfuric acid (FSX) is proposed as a dosimetric system for the processes of gamma irradiation in a range between 0.3 and 6 Gy. This system is based on the indirect oxidation of ferrous ion by an organic compound (sucrose) to ferric ion and on the formation of a color complex of Fe3+ in an acidic medium with xylenol orange (a dye). After gamma radiation, an observable change occurs in the color of the system. Irradiation was executed at three different temperatures (13 °C, 22 °C, and 40 °C). A spectrometric readout method at 585 nm was employed to evaluate the system's dose response. In all of the cases analyzed, the responses had a linear behavior, and a slight effect of irradiation temperature was observed. Post-irradiation response was also evaluated and showed the stability of the solutions 24 h after the irradiation. The results obtained suggest that FSX might be used as a dosimeter for low doses of gamma irradiation because it provides a stable signal, good reproducibility, and an accessible technique for analysis.

  13. The use of a polymer inclusion membrane as a sorbent for online preconcentration in the flow injection determination of thiocyanate impurity in ammonium sulfate fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Takumi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-11-01

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is used for the first time as a sorbent in the construction of a preconcentration column to enhance the sensitivity in flow injection analysis (FIA). The PIM-coated column is readily prepared by coating the PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride), Aliquat 336, and 1-tetradecanol onto glass beads packed in a glass tube. The determination of trace amounts of thiocyanate in ammonium sulfate fertilizer demonstrates the potential of the proposed PIM-coated column in FIA. Thiocyanate standards or samples of relatively large volume (e.g. up to 2000 µL) are injected into a nitrate carrier stream. The sample zone passes through the proposed preconcentration column where thiocyanate is concentrated in a smaller volume of a carrier solution thus resulting in up to 7.4 fold increase in sensitivity. Thiocyanate is detected spectrophotometrically after its reaction with Fe(III) downstream of the preconcentration column. The limits of detection of thiocyanate in the absence and presence of 20 g L(-1) ammonium sulfate (S/N=2) are 0.014 and 0.024 mg L(-1), respectively. Thiocyanate was successfully determined in several samples of ammonium sulfate fertilizer. PMID:25127633

  14. The use of a polymer inclusion membrane as a sorbent for online preconcentration in the flow injection determination of thiocyanate impurity in ammonium sulfate fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Takumi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-11-01

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is used for the first time as a sorbent in the construction of a preconcentration column to enhance the sensitivity in flow injection analysis (FIA). The PIM-coated column is readily prepared by coating the PIM containing poly(vinyl chloride), Aliquat 336, and 1-tetradecanol onto glass beads packed in a glass tube. The determination of trace amounts of thiocyanate in ammonium sulfate fertilizer demonstrates the potential of the proposed PIM-coated column in FIA. Thiocyanate standards or samples of relatively large volume (e.g. up to 2000 µL) are injected into a nitrate carrier stream. The sample zone passes through the proposed preconcentration column where thiocyanate is concentrated in a smaller volume of a carrier solution thus resulting in up to 7.4 fold increase in sensitivity. Thiocyanate is detected spectrophotometrically after its reaction with Fe(III) downstream of the preconcentration column. The limits of detection of thiocyanate in the absence and presence of 20 g L(-1) ammonium sulfate (S/N=2) are 0.014 and 0.024 mg L(-1), respectively. Thiocyanate was successfully determined in several samples of ammonium sulfate fertilizer.

  15. Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

  16. Formation mechanisms of channels on Titan through dissolution by ammonium sulfate and erosion by liquid ammonia and ethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Ashley E.; Lerman, Abraham

    2016-11-01

    Data obtained from the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments have revealed an array of fluvial channels on Titan's surface, often several hundreds of kilometers in length. The paucity of impact craters on Titan's surface suggests a formation by fluvial erosion into the water-ice bedrock. Additionally, at the landing site, the Huygens Probe Descent Imager and Spectral Radiometer (DISR) imaged Earth-like rounded cobbles 0.3-15 cm in diameter composed of water ice, reminiscent of rounded stream clasts on Earth. In this paper we examine different fluvial features on Titan, identified by the Cassini spacecraft, and evaluate the possibilities of channel formation by dissolution of ice by a concentrated solution of ammonium sulfate, and by mechanical erosion by flow of liquid ammonia and liquid ethane. We find that chemical erosion of Titan's channels could be completed in 280 to 1100 years (all units of time in this paper are Terrestrial, not Titanian), much shorter than the period of about 84,000 years that a concentrated (NH4)2SO4-H2O solution could exist as a liquid on the Titan surface. Mechanical erosion of Titan's channels is generally a much slower process, on the order of 102 to 105 years to completion, and is also slower than mechanical erosion of a model river on Earth, averaging 103 to 104 years. The erosional sequence of the channels on Titan may have started after the formation of water-ice on the surface by the process of chemical dissolution by (NH4)2SO4-H2O, overlapping, or followed by, a period of mechanical erosion by liquid NH3. A final stage on the cooling surface of Titan might have been characterized by liquid C2H6 as an agent of mechanical erosion.

  17. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  18. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Walker, Greg K.; Yang, R.; Wang, Jun

    2010-02-22

    A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA’s microphysics of clouds with aerosol- cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC) is that they simulate less (larger) than the observed ice cloud particle number (size). A single column model (SCM) of McRAS-AC and Global Circulation Model (GCM) physics together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM) for ice-cloud nucleation (IN) of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) aerosols, not included in the present formulations of McRAS-AC. Specifically, the influence of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds were analyzed. First an (NH4)2SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM-SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions) distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH4)2SO4 in the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice clouds. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased more than is observed. This can be caused by lack of cloud advection and evaporation. We argue that this deficiency can be mitigated by adjusting the other tunable parameters of McRAS-AC such as precipitation efficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering introduced through well- established empirical equations is found to further improve the results. Preliminary tests show that these changes make a substantial improvement in simulating the cloud optical properties in the GCM, particularly by simulating a far more realistic cloud distribution over the ITCZ.

  19. Global Simulation of Ammonium-sulfate-nitrate Inorganic Aerosols: Implications for Natural Visibility in the United States and Intercontinental Transport of Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Field, B. D.; Evans, M. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Chin, M.

    2003-12-01

    We use a global 3-D coupled oxidant-aerosol model (GEOS-CHEM) to quantify natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosol concentrations in the United States. This work is motivated by the EPA Regional Haze Rule, which requires immediate action to improve visibility in U.S. wilderness areas towards an endpoint of natural visibility conditions by 2064. We present full-year simulations for 1998 and 2001 and evaluate them with nationwide networks of observations in the U.S. and Europe (IMPROVE, CASTNET, NADP, EMEP). Sulfate results are unbiased across all seasons, representing a major improvement over previous models. Ammonia emissions are too high in fall and possible reasons are discussed. Shutting off U.S. anthropogenic emissions in the model defines residual aerosol concentrations in the U.S. representing contributions from natural and transboundary pollution sources. We find that this residual is dominated by transboundary transport of pollution from Canada, Mexico, and Asia. Transpacific transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosol accounts for 30% of residual ammonium sulfate in both the western and eastern U.S. We find that achievement of natural visibility anywhere in the U.S. is seriously compromised by transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols. This is in contrast to carbonaceous aerosols, for which we previously found that natural sources dominate over transboundary transport of pollution. Our best estimates of residual aerosol concentrations in the U.S. are 2-4 times higher than the default values recommended by the EPA for natural visibility calculations, with major implications for emission controls to be implemented over the next decade.

  20. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang. PMID:27506011

  1. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang.

  2. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Riziq, A. A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different relative humidity (RH) conditions, varying from dry conditions (~20 % RH) and up to 90 % RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90 %). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90 % to ~40 %. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50 %, 75 % and 90 % show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including imidazoles) increases with increasing RH value. A core/shell model used for the investigation of the optical properties of the reaction products of AS 300nm with gas phase glyoxal, shows that the refractive index (RI) of the reaction products are in the range between 1.57-1.71 for the real part and between 0-0.02 for the imaginary part of the RI at 355 nm. The observed increase in the

  3. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-06-01

    Even though organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments spanning from the subtropics to the high Arctic, their hygroscopic properties have not been investigated prior to this study. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesized and used for simultaneous measurements with a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) and a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry size for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating size dependency and/or surface effects. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical activation diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w/w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water-value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ obtained from the

  4. Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. M. K.; Hong, J.; Raatikainen, T.; Kristensen, K.; Ylisirniö, A.; Virtanen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Glasius, M.; Prisle, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organosulfates have been observed as constituents of atmospheric aerosols in a wide range of environments; however their hygroscopic properties remain uncharacterised. Here, limonene-derived organosulfates with a molecular weight of 250 Da (L-OS 250) were synthesised and used for simultaneous measurements with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) to determine the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, for pure L-OS 250 and mixtures of L-OS 250 with ammonium sulfate (AS) over a wide range of humidity conditions. The κ values derived from measurements with H-TDMA decreased with increasing particle dry diameter for all chemical compositions investigated, indicating that κH-TDMA depends on particle diameter and/or surface effects; however, it is not clear if this trend is statistically significant. For pure L-OS 250, κ was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, indicating dilution/solubility effects to be significant. Discrepancies in κ between the sub- and supersaturated measurements were observed for L-OS 250, whereas κ of AS and mixed L-OS 250/AS were similar. This discrepancy was primarily ascribed to limited dissolution of L-OS 250 at subsaturated conditions. In general, hygroscopic growth factor, critical particle diameter and κ for the mixed L-OS 250/AS particles converged towards the values of pure AS for mixtures with ≥ 20 % w / w AS. Surface tension measurements of bulk aqueous L-OS 250/AS solutions showed that L-OS 250 was indeed surface active, as expected from its molecular structure, decreasing the surface tension of solutions with 24 % from the pure water value at a L-OS 250 concentration of 0.0025 mol L-1. Based on these surface tension measurements, we present the first concentration-dependent parametrisation of surface tension for aqueous L-OS 250, which was implemented to different process-level models of L-OS 250 hygroscopicity and CCN activation. The values of κ

  5. Fine-tuning key parameters of an integrated reactor system for the simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium and elemental sulfur reclamation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Chen, Chuan; Liang, Bin; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Youkang; Xu, Xijun; Tan, Wenbo; Zhou, Xu; Gao, Shuang; Sun, Dezhi; Lee, Duujong; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Aijie

    2014-03-30

    In this paper, we proposed an integrated reactor system for simultaneous removal of COD, sulfate and ammonium (integrated C-S-N removal system) and investigated the key parameters of the system for a high level of elemental sulfur (S(0)) production. The system consisted of 4 main units: sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal (SR-CR), autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (A&H-DSR), sulfur reclamation (SR), and aerated filter for aerobic nitrification (AN). In the system, the effects of key operational parameters on production of elemental sulfur were investigated, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each unit, sulfide/nitrate (S(2-)-S/NO3(-)-N) ratios, reflux ratios between the A&H-DSR and AN units, and loading rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulfate and ammonium. Physico-chemical characteristics of biosulfur were studied for acquiring efficient S(0) recovery. The experiments successfully explored the optimum parameters for each unit and demonstrated 98% COD, 98% sulfate and 78% nitrogen removal efficiency. The optimum HRTs for SR-CR, A&H-DSR and AN were 12h, 3h and 3h, respectively. The reflux ratio of 3 could provide adequate S(2-)-S/NO3(-)-N ratio (approximately 1:1) to the A&H-DSR unit for obtaining maximum sulfur production. In this system, the maximum production of S(0) reached 90%, but only 60% S(0) was reclaimed from effluent. The S(0) that adhered to the outer layer of granules was deposited in the bottom of the A&H-DSR unit. Finally, the microbial community structure of the corresponding unit at different operational stage were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene based high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing and the potential function of dominant species were discussed.

  6. The optical, physical and chemical properties of the products of glyoxal uptake on ammonium sulfate seed aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Lavi, A.; Flores, J. M.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The heterogeneous reaction between gas phase glyoxal and ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols, a proxy for inorganic atmospheric aerosol, was studied in terms of the dependence of the optical, physical and chemical properties of the product aerosols on initial particle size and ambient relative humidity (RH). Our experiments imitate an atmospheric scenario of a dry particle hydration at ambient RH conditions in the presence of glyoxal gas followed by efflorescence due to decrease of the ambient RH. The reactions were studied under different RH conditions, starting from dry conditions (~20% RH) and up to 90% RH, covering conditions prevalent in many atmospheric environments, and followed by consequent drying of the reacted particles before their analysis by the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), cavity ring down (CRD) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) systems. At λ = 355 nm, the reacted aerosols demonstrate a substantial growth in optical extinction cross section, as well as in mobility diameter under a broad range of RH values (35-90%). The ratio of the product aerosol to seed aerosol geometric cross section reached up to ~3.5, and the optical extinction cross-section up to ~250. The reactions show a trend of increasing physical and optical growth with decreasing seed aerosol size, from 100 nm to 300 nm, as well as with decreasing RH values from 90% to ~40%. Optically inactive aerosols, at the limit of the Mie range (100 nm diameter) become optically active as they grow due to the reaction. AMS analyses of the reaction of 300 nm AS at RH values of 50%, 75% and 90% show that the main products of the reaction are glyoxal oligomers, formed by acetal formation in the presence of AS. In addition, imidazole formation, which is a minor channel, is observed for all reactions, yielding a product which absorbs at λ = 290 nm, with possible implications on the radiative properties of the product aerosols. The ratio of absorbing substances (C-N compounds, including

  7. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources.

  8. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian

    2017-02-15

    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources. PMID:27664612

  9. Synergistic formation of sulfate and ammonium resulting from reaction between SO2 and NH3 on typical mineral dust.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiwei; He, Hong; Ma, Qingxin; Ma, Jinzhu; Liu, Yongchun; Liu, Pengfei; Mu, Yujing

    2016-01-14

    The heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NH3 on typical mineral oxides were investigated using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). A new sulfate formation pathway was proposed where NH3 accelerated the formation of sulfate species. The results revealed that surface hydroxyls and oxygen played principal roles in the conversion of SO2 to sulfate. It was proposed that NH3 adsorbed onto Lewis acid sites, and hydroxyls and water molecules adsorbed on the surfaces of mineral dust. The enhancement of surface Lewis basicity by NH3 induced more SO2 molecules to adsorb on the surface, which were further oxidized to sulfate by interacting with surface hydroxyls and oxygen atoms. The formation of sulfate, in turn, contributed to the adsorption of NH3, mainly as NH4(+) due to enhanced Brønsted acid sites. The IC results showed that the synergistic effect between SO2 and NH3 was more significant on acidic oxides like γ-Al2O3 and α-Fe2O3 compared to basic oxides like MgO.

  10. Cross-validation of the osmotic pressure based on Pitzer model with air humidity osmometry at high concentration of ammonium sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lan; Zhan, Ting-Ting; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Qu, Xiao-You; Wang, Xin-Yue; Li, Cheng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of ammonium sulfate solutions has been measured by the well-established freezing point osmometry in dilute solutions and we recently reported air humidity osmometry in a much wider range of concentration. Air humidity osmometry cross-validated the theoretical calculations of osmotic pressure based on the Pitzer model at high concentrations by two one-sided test (TOST) of equivalence with multiple testing corrections, where no other experimental method could serve as a reference for comparison. Although more strict equivalence criteria were established between the measurements of freezing point osmometry and the calculations based on the Pitzer model at low concentration, air humidity osmometry is the only currently available osmometry applicable to high concentration, serves as an economic addition to standard osmometry.

  11. Identification and characterization of aging products in the glyoxal/ammonium sulfate system - implications for light-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Jakob, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-02-01

    In this study we report the identification of bicyclic imidazoles in aqueous aerosol mimics using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. 2,2´-Biimidazole was identified to be a major contributor to the 280 nm absorbance band observed in mixtures of glyoxal and ammonium sulfate, despite the fact that its production rate is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported production rates of imidazole or imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde. The molar absorptivity of 2,2´-biimidazole was determined to be (36 690±998) M-1 cm-1. This demonstrates the necessity of molecular product identification at trace levels to enable a better understanding of relevant absorbing species. Additionally the formation of lower polarity products including formamides of imidazoles is proposed. The role of imidazoles and other light-absorbing species in the formation of SOA and optical properties of SOA is discussed and potentially interesting fields for future investigations are outlined.

  12. Identification and characterization of aging products in the glyoxal/ammonium sulfate system - implications for light-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, C. J.; Jakob, R.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-07-01

    In this study we report the identification of bicyclic imidazoles in aqueous aerosol mimics using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. 2,2'-Biimidazole was identified to be a major contributor to the 280 nm absorbance band observed in mixtures of glyoxal and ammonium sulfate, despite the fact that its production rate is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported production rates of imidazole or imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde. The molar absorptivity of 2,2'-biimidazole was determined to be (36 690 ± 998) M-1 cm-1. This demonstrates the necessity of molecular product identification at trace levels to enable a better understanding of relevant absorbing species. Additionally, the formation of lower polarity products including formamides of imidazoles is proposed. The role of imidazoles and other light-absorbing species in the formation of SOA and optical properties of SOA is discussed and potentially interesting fields for future investigations are outlined.

  13. The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Jansson, Stina

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.

  14. Effects of ammonium chloride and sulfate on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of dry Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Beede, D K

    1992-03-01

    Eight nonlactating, nonpregnant Jersey cows were used in a crossover experiment with two 28-d periods. The control diet consisted of corn silage plus a concentrate mix (68:32, DM basis). The treatment diet was the same, except that NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4 (98 g of each/d per cow) were added to the concentrate. Cows fed the treatment diet had lower blood pH, higher ionized Ca in blood, and more urinary excretion of Ca, titratable acid, and ammonium than cows fed the control diet. For cows fed the treatment diet, ionized Ca in blood was greater after equal amounts of Na2-EDTA were infused to both treatment groups, and treatment cows recovered faster after infusion of Na2-EDTA was stopped than did control cows. The treatment diet induced mild metabolic acidosis and increased the cows' ability to maintain normal blood Ca concentrations; it potentially could reduce incidence of milk fever.

  15. Temperature- and pH-dependent aqueous-phase kinetics of the reactions of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with atmospheric amines and ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, Nahzaneen; Takano, Hiromi; Blasic, Vanessa A.; Sullivan, Kristin A.; De Haan, David O.

    2013-10-01

    Reactions of glyoxal (Glx) and methylglyoxal (MG) with primary amines and ammonium salts may produce brown carbon and N-containing oligomers in aqueous aerosol. 1H NMR monitoring of reactant losses and product appearance in bulk aqueous reactions were used to derive rate constants and quantify competing reaction pathways as a function of pH and temperature. Glx + ammonium sulfate (AS) and amine reactions generate products containing C-N bonds, with rates depending directly on pH: rate = (70 ± 60) M-1 s-1fAld [Glx]totfAm [Am]tot, where fAld is the fraction of aldehyde with a dehydrated aldehyde functional group, and fAm is the fraction of amine or ammonia that is deprotonated at a given pH. MG + amine reactions generate mostly aldol condensation products and exhibit less pH dependence: rate = 10[(0.36 ± 0.06) × pH - (3.6 ± 0.3)] M-1 s-1fAld [MG]tot [Am]tot. Aldehyde + AS reactions are less temperature-dependent (Ea = 18 ± 8 kJ mol-1) than corresponding amine reactions (Ea = 50 ± 11 kJ mol-1). Using aerosol concentrations of [OH] = 10-12 M, [amine]tot = [AS] = 0.1 M, fGlx = 0.046 and fMG = 0.09, we estimate that OH radical reactions are normally the major aerosol-phase sink for both dicarbonyl compounds. However, reactions with AS and amines together can account for up to 12 and 45% of daytime aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal reactivity, respectively, in marine aerosol at pH 5.5. Reactions with AS and amines become less important in acidic or non-marine aerosol, but may still be significant atmospheric sources of brown carbon, imidazoles, and nitrogen-containing oligomers.

  16. Crystal structure of bis­(di­methyl­ammonium) hexa­aqua­cobalt(II) bis­(sulfate) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Held, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The title salt, (C2H8N)2[Co(H2O)6)](SO4)2·2H2O, is isotypic with (C2H8N)2[Ni(H2O)6)](SO4)2·2H2O. The Co—O bond lengths in the [Co(H2O)6]2+ complex cation show very similar distances as in the related Tutton salt (NH4)2[Co(H2O)6)](SO4)2 [average 2.093 (17) Å], but are significantly longer than in the isotypic NiII compound (Δd ≃ 0.04 Å). The cobalt cation reaches an overall bond-valence sum of 1.97 valence units. The S—O distances are nearly equal, ranging from 1.454 (4) to 1.470 (3) Å [mean 1.465 (12) Å]; however, the O—S—O angles vary clearly from 108.1 (2) to 110.2 (2)° [average bond angle 109.5 (9)°]. The non-coordinating water mol­ecules and di­methyl­ammonium cations connect the sulfate tetrahedra and the [Co(H2O)6]2+ octa­hedron via O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds of weak up to medium strength into a three-dimensional framework whereby the complex metal cations and sulfate anions are arranged in sheets parallel to (001). PMID:26029410

  17. Development and Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer Using Carbon Slurry Dispersed by Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate for Proton Exchange Member Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villacorta, Rashida

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are a critical and essential part of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). They carry out various important functions such as transportation of reactants to and from the reaction sites. The material properties and structural characteristics of the substrate and the microporous layer strongly influence fuel cell performance. The microporous layer of the GDLs was fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) using the wire rod coating method. GDLs were fabricated with different materials to compose the microporous layer and evaluated the effects on PEMFC power output performance. The consistency of the carbon slurry was achieved by adding 25 wt. % of PTFE, a binding agent with a 75:25 ratio of carbon (Pureblack and vapor grown carbon fiber). The GDLs were investigated in PEMFC under various relative humidity (RH) conditions using H2/O2 and H2/Air. GDLs were also fabricated with the carbon slurry dispersed in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based for fuel cell performance comparison. MWCNTs and SDS exhibits the highest performance at 60% and 70% RH with a peak power density of 1100 mW.cm-2 and 850 mW.cm-2 using air and oxygen as an oxidant. This means that the gas diffusion characteristics of these two samples were optimum at 60 and 70 % RH with high limiting current density range. It was also found that the composition of the carbon slurry, specifically ALS concentration has the highest peak power density of 1300 and 500mW.cm-2 for both H2/O 2 and H2/Air at 100% RH. However, SDS and MWCNTs demonstrates the lowest power density using air and oxygen as an oxidants at 100% RH.

  18. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  19. Development of an Ammonium Sulfate DNA Extraction Method for Obtaining Amplifiable DNA in a Small Number of Cells and Its Application to Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seo Young; Kim, Wook Youn; Hwang, Tae Sook; Han, Hye Seung; Lim, So Dug; Kim, Wan Seop

    2013-01-01

    DNA extraction from microdissected cells has become essential for handling clinical specimens with advances in molecular pathology. Conventional methods have limitations for extracting amplifiable DNA from specimens containing a small number of cells. We developed an ammonium sulfate DNA extraction method (A) and compared it with two other methods (B and C). DNA quality and quantity, β-globin amplification, and detectability of two cancer associated gene mutations were evaluated. Method A showed the best DNA yield, particularly when the cell number was very low. Amplification of the β-globin gene using DNA from the SNU 790 cell line and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells extracted with Method A demonstrated the strongest band. BRAFV600E mutation analysis using ethanol-fixed PTC cells from a patient demonstrated both a “T” peak increase and an adjacent “A” peak decrease when 25 and 50 cells were extracted, whereas mutant peaks were too low to be analyzed using the other two methods. EGFR mutation analysis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues demonstrated a mutant peak with Method A, whereas the mutant peak was undetectable with Methods B or C. Method A yielded the best DNA quantity and quality with outstanding efficiency, particularly when paucicellular specimens were used. PMID:23691506

  20. EFFECTS OF AMMONIUM SULFATE ON GROWTH OF LARVAL NORTHWESTERN SALAMANDERS, RED-LEGGED AND PACIFIC TREEFROG TADPOLES, AND JUVENILE FATHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonium-nitrogen fertilizers are used in large quantities in agricultural areas of the United States, including the grass-seed fields of the Willamette Valley of western Oregon, and are a potential threat to larval amphibians living in the treat areas (Edwards and Daniel 1994, M...

  1. Self-Assembly of Oleyl Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl Ammonium Bromide with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Their Interactions with Zein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Ji, Xiuling; Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2016-08-16

    Surface tension and aggregation behavior in an aqueous solution of the mixture of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylammonium bromide (OHAB) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been studied by surface tension, conductivity, turbidity, zeta potential, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), and dynamic light scattering. The mixture shows pretty low critical micellar concentration and surface tension, and successively forms globular micelles, unilamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, rod-like micelles, and globular micelles again by increasing the molar fraction of OHAB from 0 to 1.00. The cooperation of hydrophobic interaction between the alkyl chains, electrostatic attraction between the headgroups as well as hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyethyl groups leads to the abundant aggregation behaviors. Furthermore, the solubilization of zein by the OHAB/SDS aggregates and their interactions were studied by ITC, total organic carbon analysis (TOC), and Cryo-TEM. Compared with pure OHAB or pure SDS solution, the amount of zein solubilized by the OHAB/SDS mixture is significantly reduced. It means that the mixtures have much stronger abilities in solubilizing zein. This result has also been proved by the observed enthalpy changes for the interaction of OHAB/SDS mixture with zein. Mixing oppositely charged OHAB and SDS reduces the net charge of mixed aggregates, and thus, the electrostatic attraction between the aggregates and zein is weakened. Meanwhile, the large size of the aggregates may increase the steric repulsion to the zein backbone. This work reveals that surfactant mixtures with larger aggregates and smaller CMCs solubilize less zein, suggesting how to construct a highly efficient and nonirritant surfactant system for practical use. PMID:27452480

  2. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  3. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  4. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  6. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  7. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  8. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part I. Base case model results.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha; Wu, Li; Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. The model performance is evaluated in this paper and the source contribution analyses are presented in a companion paper. The results show that WRF is capable of reproducing the observed precipitation rates with a Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) of 8.1%. Predicted wet deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) at the Long Lake (LL) site (3100 m a.s.l.) during the three-month episode are 2.75 and 0.34 kg S(N) ha(-1), which agree well with the observed wet deposition fluxes of 2.42 and 0.39 kg S(N) ha(-1), respectively. Temporal variations in the weekly deposition fluxes at LL are also well predicted. Wet deposition flux of NH4(+) at LL is over-predicted by approximately a factor of 3 (1.60 kg N ha(-1)vs. 0.56 kg N ha(-1)), likely due to missing alkaline earth cations such as Ca(2+) in the current CMAQ simulations. Predicted wet deposition fluxes are also in general agreement with observations at four Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in western China. Predicted dry deposition fluxes of SO4(2-) (including gas deposition of SO2) and NO3(-) (including gas deposition of HNO3) are 0.12 and 0.12 kg S(N) h a(-1) at LL and 0.07 and 0.08 kg S(N) ha(-1) at Jiuzhaigou Bureau (JB) in JNNR, respectively, which are much lower than the corresponding wet deposition fluxes. Dry deposition flux of NH4(+) (including gas deposition of NH3) is 0.21 kg N ha(-1) at LL, and is also much lower than the predicted wet deposition flux. For both dry and wet deposition fluxes, predictions

  9. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin ...

  10. Stability and economics of solar ponds using ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of ammonium salts in salt gradient solar ponds eliminates the environmental problems associated with NaCl by incorporating the salt discharge from the solar pond into the fertilizer cycle of an agricultural system. An examination of thermophysical properties of several ammonium salts suggests that both ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate can provide hydrodynamic stability equivalent to NaCl. The cost of the fertilizer salt is based on the real interest for holding the fertilizer in inventory. Costs are independent of the rate at which the salt is cycled through the pond, which makes desirable a maintenance scheme that minimizes the thickness of the upper convecting zone.

  11. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  12. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  13. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  14. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  18. Evaluating Ammonium, Nitrate and Sulfate Aerosols in 3-Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezuman, Keren; Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The effect aerosols have on climate and air quality is a func-on of their chemical composi-on, concentra-on and spa-al distribu-on. These parameters are controlled by emissions, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, where thermodynamics plays a key role, transport, which includes stratospheric-­- tropospheric exchange, and deposi-onal sinks. In this work we demonstrate the effect of some of these processes on the SO4-NH4­-NO3 system using the GISS ModelE2 Global Circula-on Model (GCM).

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  20. Cholecalciferol sulfate identification in human milk by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Boulch, N L; Cancela, L; Miravet, L

    1982-04-01

    Synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate was prepared by reacting cholecalciferol with sulfamic acid in pyridine. Vitamin D3 sulfate ammonium salt was purified by crystallisation and transformed in sulfate sodium salt. Homogeneity was controlled by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purified synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate sodium salt was used as a reference. Milk whey was obtained after protein precipitation by adding ethanol. Vitamin D3 sulfoconjugate was identified in supernatant (lyophylized) after purification by Sephadex LH 20 and HPLC. Milk whey purified fraction obtained exhibited the same ultra-violet absorption (UV) as synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate; after solvolysis, cholecalciferol was liberated from natural and synthetic sulfoconjugate. The results confirmed that vitamin D3 sulfate was present in human milk. PMID:6294930

  1. Relations of ammonium minerals at several hydrothermal systems in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M.D.; Kendall, C.; Evans, J.R.; Fries, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively late in the crystallization sequence and shows evidence for replacement of NH4+ by K+ or other monovalent cations. Some buddingtonite is observed in close association with mercury, but not with gold. Ammonioalunite is found in a variety of isolated crystal forms at both deposits. Nitrogen isotopic values for ammonium-bearing minerals show a 14??? range in composition, precluding assignment of a specific provenance to the nitrogen. The correlations of nitrogen isotopic values with depth and ammonium content suggest some loss of nitrogen in the oxidizing supergene environment, possibly as a metastable mineral. The high ammonium content in these hydrothermal systems, the close association to mercury, and the small crystal size of the ammonium-bearing minerals all suggest that ammonium may be transported in a late-stage vapor phase or as an organic volatile. Such a process could lead to the formation of a non-carbonaceous organic aureole above a buried geothermal source. The discovery of a 10-km outcrop of ammonium minerals confirms that significant substitution of ammonium in minerals is possible over an extensive area and that remote sensing is a feasible means to detect such aureoles. ?? 1993.

  2. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  3. What are the driving forces behind the predicted elevated Ammonium-Nitrate Aerosol Concentrations in 2030?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S. E.; Koch, D.; Metzger, S.; Unger, N.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of Ammonium - Nitrate Aerosols depends on a number of precursor species, most importantly gaseous ammonia and nitric acid, and on the thermodynamic state of the atmospheric system as it competes for ammonia with Ammonium-Sulfate formation. However, because Ammonium-Nitrate formation is very sensitive to future emission and climate change this paper investigates which of these future changes are responsible for the predicted elevated nitrate concentrations in about 25 years from now. We use the GISS climate model, fully coupled to aerosol and gas phase chemistry modules and the SRES A1B emissions for 2030. Our results show that Ammonium-Nitrate Aerosols would increase globally by 40% compared to 1990 conditions. Nitrate Aerosols increase everywhere but most strongly over China. Looking into the separate processes, physical climate change (e.g. increased Temperature and Humidity) have only a small impact, changes in NOx and SO2 emissions still have week impacts, whereas increased NH3 emissions are the driving force behind future nitrate concentrations. However, the model results are extremely sensitive to heterogeneous processes on mineral dust surfaces. For example Ammonium-Nitrate formation depends strongly on the mixing state of sulfate aerosols, wether the sulfate is externally mixed or attached to mineral dust.

  4. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI¯), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3¯), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4

  5. ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATIONS OF AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AT AN AGRICULTURAL SITE IN THE SOUTHEAST UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we present approximately 1 year (October 1998 - September 1999) of 12-hour mean ammonia [NH3], ammonium [NH4(+)], hydrochloric acid [HCl], nitrate [NO3(-)], nitric acid [HNO3], nitrous acid [HNO2], sulfate [SO4(- -)], and sulfur dioxide [SO2] concentrations measure...

  6. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  7. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Tang, Chong-jian; Jin, Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control. Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will accelerate application of the process in future. This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process. PMID:18500782

  8. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  9. Laboratory studies of thin films representative of atmospheric sulfate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Tara Jean

    Sulfate aerosols are present globally in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These aerosols are of great interest because they have a profound influence on Earth's radiation balance, heterogeneous chemistry, and cloud formation mechanisms throughout the atmosphere. The magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined by the size, phase, and chemical composition of the aerosols themselves. This thesis explores some of the questions that remain concerning the phase of these aerosols under atmospheric conditions and the effects of their chemical composition on heterogeneous chemistry and cloud formation mechanisms. In the upper troposphere, cirrus clouds are thought to form via the homogeneous nucleation of ice out of dilute sulfate aerosols such as ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). To investigate this, the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate films has been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Experiments performed as a function of increasing relative humidity demonstrate that a phase transition from crystalline (NH 4)2SO4 to a metastable aqueous solution can occur at temperatures below the eutectic at 254 K. However, on occasion, direct deposition of ice from the vapor phase was observed, possibly indicating selective heterogeneous nucleation. In addition to serving as nuclei for cirrus clouds, sulfate aerosols can participate in heterogeneous reactions. The interaction of HNO3 with ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a possible loss mechanism for gas-phase HNO3 using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled with transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that HNO3 reacts with solid ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium nitrate and letovicite at 203 K. Furthermore, this reaction is enhanced as a function of relative humidity from 0 to 41%. In the lower stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for springtime ozone depletion. The vapor deposition of ice on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has

  10. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  11. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  12. Effects of Solarization and Ammonium Amendments on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; McGovern, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. Solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Criconemella spp., and Dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. Levels of Meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densities increased by the end of the crop in several cases. In one site, numbers of Paratrichodorus minor resurged following solarization to levels that were greater than those present in unsolarized control plots. The effect of solarization was not enhanced by combination with ammonium amendments, but, in one site, application of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate resulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus than in the unamended control. Additional research and improved efficacy of candidate amendments are required before they can be successfully integrated with solarization for nematode management. Efficacy of solarization against plant-parasitic nematodes was achieved despite a relatively short (3 weeks) solarization period. PMID:19271007

  13. Benzylic Ammonium Ylide Mediated Epoxidations

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Lukas; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding synthesis of stilbene oxides using ammonium ylides has been developed. It turned out that the amine leaving group plays a crucial role as trimethylamine gives higher yields than DABCO or quinuclidine. The amine group also influences the diastereoselectivity, and detailed DFT calculations to understand the key parameters of these reactions have been carried out. PMID:27766017

  14. Thermochemical, cloud condensation nucleation ability and optical properties of alkyl aminium sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavi, A.; Bluvshtein, N.; Segre, E.; Segev, L.; Flores, J.; Rudich, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The increased interest in the chemistry of alkylamines and their possible roles in the atmosphere increased recently due to field observations of the correlation between new particle formation and post nucleation growth events and the presence of alkylamines in their cationic form. Due to their high saturation vapor pressure it is unlikely that short chain alkylamines will contribute to particle formation or growth by condensation. Therefore, it was previously suggested that their contribution to particulate phase is the result of acid-base reactions between the basic alkylamines and atmospherically relevant acids such as sulfuric and nitric acid. In this study we present laboratory data on the thermochemical, CCN activity and optical properties of selected atmospherically relevant alkyl aminium sulfate salts: Monomethyl aminium sulfate (MMAS), dimethyaminium sulfate (DMAS), trimethylaminium sulfate, monoethylaminium sulfate (MEAS), diethylaminium sulfate (DEAS) and triethylaminium sulfate (TEAS)). We found that the vapor pressure of these aminium salts is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonium sulfate and as such they can contribute to new aerosols and secondary aerosols formation. We infer that these species have very high CCN activity, with hygroscopicity parameter that is lower but close to that ammonium sulfate. Finally, we present the optical properties of these alkyl aminium sulfate salts between 360 and 420 nm. These compounds are less scattering than ammonium sulfate and show minimal wavelength dependence in this range. These compounds also do not absorb light. These derived parameters can contribute to the better understanding and characterization of the role that these compounds play in atmospheric chemical reactions, gas-solid partitioning and their possible contribution to the microphysical and radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols.

  15. Comparative study of various methods used for determined health effects of inhaled sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Aranyi, C.; Schiff, L.J.; Fenters, J.D.; Graham, J.A.

    1985-12-01

    Various health effect parameters were compared to determine which tests were the most sensitive indicators of toxic effects of exposure to metallic sulfate aerosols. Inhalation studies were conducted involving either single 3-hr exposure to various concentrations of cupric sulfate (0.43-2.64 mg/m/sup 3/ SO/sub 4/), aluminum sulfate (1.65-2.75 mg/m/sup 3/ SO/sub 4/), and aluminum ammonium sulfate (1.47-3.81 mg/m/sup 3/ SO/sub 4/) or multiple (five and ten) daily 3-hr exposures to cupric sulfate (0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ SO/sub 4/). The test parameters studied in male and female CD/sub 1/ mice were changes in mortality after respiratory infection with Group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus; pulmonary bactericidal activity; pulmonary cell number, type, viability, and ATP content; and pulmonary morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Tracheal ciliary beating frequency and morphology were also studied in both CD/sup 1/ mice and Syrian golden hamsters. Differences in bacteria-induced mortality rate appeared to be the most sensitive and consistent indicators of pollutant damage. The other parameters produced evidence of damage but generally only at the higher pollutant concentrations. Cupric sulfate was the most toxic of the three sulfates, but the differences between the toxicity of the aluminum sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate were less clear.

  16. Comparative study of various methods used for determining health effects of inhaled sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Aranyi, C.; Schiff, L.J.; Fenters, J.D.; Graham, J.A.

    1986-12-01

    Various health effect parameters were compared to determine which tests were the most sensitive indicators of toxic effects of exposure to metallic sulfate aerosols. Inhalation studies were conducted involving either single 3-hr exposure to various concentrations of cupric sulfate (0.43-2.64 mg/m3 SO/sub 4/), aluminum sulfate (1.65-2.75 mg/m3 SO/sub 4/), and aluminum ammonium sulfate (1.47-3.81 mg/m3 SO/sub 4/) or multiple (five and ten) daily 3-hr exposures to cupric sulfate (0.1 mg/m3 SO/sub 4/). The test parameters studied in male and female CD1 mice were changes in mortality after respiratory infection with Group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus; pulmonary bactericidal activity; pulmonary cell number, type, viability, and ATP content; and pulmonary morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Tracheal ciliary beating frequency and morphology were also studied in both CD1 mice and Syrian golden hamsters. Differences in bacteria-induced mortality rate appeared to be the most sensitive and consistent indicators of pollutant damage. The other parameters produced evidence of damage but generally only at the higher pollutant concentrations. Cupric sulfate was the most toxic of the three sulfates, but the differences between the toxicity of the aluminum sulfate and aluminum ammonium sulfate were less clear.

  17. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  18. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  4. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker... concentration of marker residues in the target tissue used to monitor for total drug residues in the...

  5. Comparative toxicity of ammonium and nitrate compounds to Pacific treefrog and African clawed frog tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Schuytema, G.S.; Nebeker, A.V.

    1999-10-01

    The effects of ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium nitrate on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla [Baird and Girard]) and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis [Daudin]) tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. The 10-d ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate LC50s for P. regilla were 55.2 and 89.7 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N, respectively. The 10-d LC50s for X. laevis for the three ammonium compounds ranged from 45 to 64 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The 10-d sodium nitrate LC50s were 266.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 1,236.2 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of ammonium compound based on reduced length or weight was 24.6 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for P. regilla and 99.5 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N for X. laevis. The lowest sodium nitrate LOAELs based on reduced length or weight were {lt}30.1 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for P. regilla and 126.3 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N for X. laevis. Calculated un-ionized NH{sub 3} comprised 0.3 to 1.0% of measured NH{sub 4}-N concentrations. Potential harm to amphibians could occur if sensitive life stages were impacted by NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N in agricultural runoff or drainage for a sufficiently long period.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  13. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 582.1137 Section 582.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  20. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  1. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  2. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy.

  3. Effects of Iron and Nitrogen Limitation on Sulfur Isotope Fractionation during Microbial Sulfate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Shuhei; Bosak, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing microbes utilize sulfate as an electron acceptor and produce sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. Thus, the distribution of sulfur isotopes in sediments can trace microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), and it also has the potential to reflect the physiology of sulfate-reducing microbes. This study investigates the relationship between the availability of iron and reduced nitrogen and the magnitude of S-isotope fractionation during MSR by a marine sulfate-reducing bacterium, DMSS-1, a Desulfovibrio species, isolated from salt marsh in Cape Cod, MA. Submicromolar levels of iron increase sulfur isotope fractionation by about 50% relative to iron-replete cultures of DMSS-1. Iron-limited cultures also exhibit decreased cytochrome c-to-total protein ratios and cell-specific sulfate reduction rates (csSRR), implying changes in the electron transport chain that couples carbon and sulfur metabolisms. When DMSS-1 fixes nitrogen in ammonium-deficient medium, it also produces larger fractionation, but it occurs at faster csSRRs than in the ammonium-replete control cultures. The energy and reducing power required for nitrogen fixation may be responsible for the reverse trend between S-isotope fractionation and csSRR in this case. Iron deficiency and nitrogen fixation by sulfate-reducing microbes may lead to the large observed S-isotope effects in some euxinic basins and various anoxic sediments. PMID:23001667

  4. Investigating uncultured microbes and their role in a deep subseafloor ammonium sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Spivack, A. J.; Smith, D. C.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere is thought to hold a large reservoir of both microbial cells and untapped genetic diversity. One potential driving force behind the vast amount of uncultured organisms are unconventional redox pairs which may not be favorable at benchtop conditions, but can support life in other circumstances. One instance of this is the previously documented thermodynamic favorability of ammonium oxidation with sulfate in sediments such as those investigated here from the Indian Ocean. Using 454 tag sequencing of 16S DNA, we identified uncultured archaea and bacteria potentially playing key roles at the sulfate and ammonium interface. First, the phylogenetic identity of organisms potentially involved in this reaction is inferred, as well as thermodynamic considerations of potential pathways. Several novel phyla, as well as Clostridiales, appear over-represented at the reaction zone. Secondly, to understand the metabolic capability of these target organisms, these sequences have been cross-referenced with assemblies from metagenomic data sets, and connections to functional genes are being elucidated. Finally, we discuss parallels with near-shore coastal sediment from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, where geochemical similarities have been found. While the thermodynamic regime is similar to the Indian Ocean, suggesting the potential for a broad geographic distribution, accessibility provides the opportunity to construct bioreactors to test rates and pathways of ammonium and sulfate fluxes. Iron content may be a key factor in determining reaction favorability. We present ongoing work in this area and the pros and cons of different bioreactor designs.

  5. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

  6. Holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  7. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Studies of Single Crystals of Manganese Ion-Doped Ammonium Sulfate, Gadolinium Ion-Doped Ammonium Praseodymium SULFATE.WATER, Vanadium Oxide Ion-Doped M Ammonium SULFATE.WATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiansheng

    Detailed X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on single crystals of Mn^ {2+}-doped (NH_4)_2 SO_4, Gd^ {3+}-doped NH_4Pr(SO _4)_2cdot4H _2O, VO^{2+} -doped M(NH_4)_2(SO _4)_2cdot6H_2 O (M = Cd, Co, Mg, Fe, Zn) and Mg(ND_4) _2(SO_4)_2cdot 6D_2O, and Cu^ {2+}-doped MNa_2(SO _4)_2cdot4H _2O (M = Mg, Co) are made at variable temperatures. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters for Mn^{2+ }, Gd^{3+}, VO^{2+} and Cu ^{2+} ions are evaluated using a least-squares-fitting procedure. The positions and local symmetries of the impurity ions in these hosts have been well deduced. The ferroelectric transition in (NH_4) _2SO_4 has been extensively studied via the splittings of Mn^{2+ } EPR lines, leading to the determination of the critical exponent beta. The existence of two inequivalent sublattices in the (NH _4)_2SO_4 crystal is confirmed. Temperature variation of Gd^{3+ } EPR spectra reveal two first-order phase transitions in the NH_4Pr(SO _4)_2cdot4H_2 O crystal. The host-ion spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) times (tau) of Pr^ {3+} have been estimated via the EPR linewidths of Gd^{3+} impurity ions using an appropriate expression. The predominant processes of SLR of Pr^{3+} host -ions have been deduced. The superhyperfine structures of VO^ {2+} EPR spectra in the hydrated Tutton -salt hosts M(NH_4)_2(SO _4)_2cdot6H_2 O have been well explained by comparison with the VO^{2+} EPR spectra in the deuterated host crystal Mg(ND_4)_2 (SO_4)_2cdot6D _2O. Using the VO^ {2+} EPR and optical-absorption spectra, the bonding coefficients of the (VO(H_2 O)_5]^{2+ } complex have been estimated. The systematics of EPR of the VO^{2+} ion in this series of Tutton salts is analyzed. The impurity-host exchange-interaction constant of VO^{2+}-Fe ^{2+} pair is determined in the Fe(NH_4)_2(SO_4) _2cdot6H_2O host, using the g-shift due to the exchange interaction and the shape of the crystal at liquid-helium temperature. The tau values of Fe^ {2+} and Co^{2+} in the Fe(NH_4)_2(SO _4)_2cdot6H _2O and Co(NH_4)_2 (SO_4)_2cdot6H _2O hosts, respectively, have been estimated. The symmetry of the g matrix and temperature dependence of the g principal values of Cu^{2+ } in the MNa_2(SO _4)_2cdot4H_2 O hosts have been explained by taking into account the pseudo-static Jahn-Teller effect (JTE) at room and lower temperatures, and dynamic JTE at higher temperatures, experienced by the CuO_2(H _2O)_4 complex.

  8. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  9. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  10. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  11. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  12. Comparison of normal and asthmatic subjects' responses to sulfate pollutant aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between elevated levels of sulfates and acute respiratory disease. To determine if these pollutants produce airway hyperreactivity, 16 normal and 17 asthmatic subjects inhaled a control NaCl aerosol and the following sulfates: ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid. A Lovelace generator produced particles with an average MMAD of approx. 1.0 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ approx. = 2.0) and concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/. By double-blind randomization, all subjects breathed these aerosols for a 16-minute period. To determine if sulfate inhalation caused increased reactivity to a known bronchoconstrictor, all subjects inhaled carbachol following each 16-minute exposure. Before, during, and after exposure, pulmonary function studies were performed. When compared to NaCl, sulfate (1 mg/m/sup 3/) produced significant reductions in airway conductance and flow rates in asthmatics. The two most sensitive asthmatics demonstrated changes even at 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfate. To a far more significant degree, the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol was potentiated by sulfates more or less in relation to their acidity in normals and asthmatics.

  13. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  14. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  16. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  17. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  18. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  20. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  1. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  2. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT Hazardous... ``Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Program'' on October 29, 2008. See 73 FR 64280. The ANPRM solicited... interacting with state and local governments regarding ammonium nitrate security. ] See 73 FR 64280,...

  3. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  4. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  5. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  6. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, ammonium formate, may be safely used in the... safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food, Drug,...

  7. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maduramicin ammonium. 558.340 Section 558.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  8. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  9. Sulfate reducers can outcompete methanogens at freshwater sulfate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, D.R.; Klug, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Acetate and hydrogen metabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens in the profundal sediments of an oligotrophic lake were examined. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate stimulated methane production from both hydrogen and acetate. Molybdate did not stimulate methane production in sediments that were preincubated to deplete the sulfate pool. Sulfate reduction accounted for 30 to 81% of the total of terminal metabolism proceeding through sulfate reduction and methane production in Eckman grab samples of surface sediments. The ability of sulfate reducers to effectively compete with methanogens for acetate was related to the sulfate reducers lower half-saturation constant for acetate metabolism at in situ sulfate concentrations. Processes other than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis consumed hydrogen at elevated hydrogen partial pressures and prevented a kinetic analysis of hydrogen uptake by sulfate reducers and methanogens. The demonstration that sulfate reducers can successfully compete with methanogens for hydrogen and acetate in sediments at in situ sulfate concentrations of 60 to 105 mM extends the known range of sediment habitats in which sulfate reduction can be a dominant terminal process.

  10. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  11. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tami R.; Ward, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  12. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  14. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  15. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  16. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  17. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  18. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  19. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Assorted Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Four different crystal morphologies have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed, Crystals grown at 15 C were generally tetragonal, with space group P43212. Crystallization at 20 C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P21212 1. The tetragonal much less than orthorhombic morphology transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20 C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 0.8 -1.2M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.6 - 8.0 gave a hexagonal (trigonal) crystal form, space group P3121, which diffracted to 2.8 A. Ammonium sulfate was also found to result in a monoclinic form, space group C2. Small twinned monoclinic crystals of approx. 0.2 mm on edge were grown by dialysis followed by seeded sitting drop crystallization.

  20. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  2. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  3. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  4. Ammonium and attachment of Rhodopirellula baltica.

    PubMed

    Frank, Carsten S; Langhammer, Philipp; Fuchs, Bernhard Maximilian; Harder, Jens

    2011-05-01

    A dimorphic life cycle has been described for the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T), with juvenile motile, free-swimming cells and adult sessile, attached-living cells. However, attachment as a response to environmental factors was not investigated. We studied the response of R. baltica to nitrogen limitation. In batch cultures, ammonium limitation coincided with a dominance of free-swimming cells and a low number of aggregates. Flow cytometry revealed a quantitative shift with increasing ammonium availability, from single cells towards attached cells in large aggregates. During growth of R. baltica on glucose and ammonium in chemostats, an ammonium addition caused a macroscopic change of the growth behaviour, from homogeneous growth in the liquid phase to a biofilm on the borosilicate glass wall of the chemostat vessel. Thus, an ammonium limitation-a carbon to nitrogen supply ratio of 30:1-sustained free-living growth without aggregate formation. A sudden increase in ammonium supply induced sessile growth of R. baltica. These observations reveal a response of Rhodopirellula baltica cells to ammonium: they abandon the free-swimming life, attach to particles and form biofilms. PMID:21340506

  5. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  6. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants.

    PubMed

    Dallam, R D

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H2 35SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide...

  9. Coupling between anammox and autotrophic denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide by enriched marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Rios-Del Toro, E Emilia; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the capacity of enrichments derived from marine sediments collected from different sites of the Mexican littoral to perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) coupled to sulfide-dependent denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide linked to nitrite reduction was evaluated. Sulfide-dependent denitrification out-competed anammox during the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and ammonium. Significant accumulation of elemental sulfur (ca. 14-30 % of added sulfide) occurred during the coupling between the two respiratory processes, while ammonium was partly oxidized (31-47 %) due to nitrite limitation imposed in sediment incubations. Nevertheless, mass balances revealed up to 38 % more oxidation of the electron donors available (ammonium and sulfide) than that expected from stoichiometry. Recycling of nitrite, from nitrate produced through anammox, is proposed to contribute to extra oxidation of sulfide, while additional ammonium oxidation is suggested by sulfate-reducing anammox (SR-anammox). The complex interaction between nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds occurring through the concomitant presence of autotrophic denitrification, conventional anammox and SR-anammox may significantly drive the nitrogen and sulfur fluxes in marine environments. PMID:26994921

  10. Oxygen-18 study of the mechanism of promoter action of thiocyanate ions in the electrosynthesis of persulfuric acid and ammonium persulfate at platinum anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kasatkin, E.V.; Larchenko, L.I.; Potapova, G.F.

    1987-02-01

    The authors use labelled oxygen to study the involvement of water and sulfate ions in molecular oxygen evolution during the anodic synthesis of persulfuric acid and ammonium persulfate at a platinum anode in an electrolytic cell with and without thiocyanate as a promoter for the electrocatalytic reaction.

  11. Impact of sulfate pollution on anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Darren S; Mitchell, Alison

    2012-03-15

    The impact of sulfate pollution is increasingly being seen as an issue in the management of inland aquatic ecosystems. In this study we use sediment slurry experiments to explore the addition of sulfate, with or without added carbon, on the anaerobic biogeochemical cycles in a wetland sediment that previously had not been exposed to high levels of sulfate. Specifically we looked at the cycling of S (sulfate, dissolved and particulate sulfide--the latter measured as acid volatile sulfide; AVS), C (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, methane and the short chain volatile fatty acids formate, acetate, butyrate and propionate), N (dinitrogen, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite) and redox active metals (Fe(II) and Mn(II)). Sulfate had the largest effects on the cycling of S and C. All the added S at lower loadings were converted to AVS over the course of the experiment (30 days). At the highest loading (8 mmol) less than 50% of consumed S was converted to AVS, however this is believed to be a kinetic effect. Although sulfate reduction was occurring in sediments with added sulfate, dissolved sulfide concentrations remained low throughout the study. Sulfate addition affected methanogenesis. In the absence of added carbon, addition of sulfate, even at a loading of 1 mmol, resulted in a halving of methane formation. The initial rate of formation of methane was not affected by sulfate if additional carbon was added to the sediment. However, there was evidence for anaerobic methane oxidation in those sediments with added sulfate and carbon, but not in those sediments treated only with carbon. Surprisingly, sulfate addition had little apparent impact on N dynamics; previous studies have shown that sulfide can inhibit denitrification and stimulate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. We propose that because most of the reduced sulfur was in particulate form, levels of dissolved sulfide were too low to interfere with the N cycle.

  12. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  13. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  14. Electrochemically and bioelectrochemically induced ammonium recovery.

    PubMed

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K; Andersen, Stephen J; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-22

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems.

  15. Novel diffusive gradients in thin films technique to assess labile sulfate in soil.

    PubMed

    Hanousek, Ondrej; Mason, Sean; Santner, Jakob; Chowdhury, Md Mobaroqul Ahsan; Berger, Torsten W; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A novel diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for sampling labile soil sulfate was developed, based on a strong basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400) for sulfate immobilization on the binding gel. For reducing the sulfate background on the resin gels, photopolymerization was applied instead of ammonium persulfate-induced polymerization. Agarose cross-linked polyacrylamide (APA) hydrogels were used as diffusive layer. The sulfate diffusion coefficient in APA gel was determined as 9.83 × 10(-6) ± 0.35 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at 25 °C. The accumulated sulfate was eluted in 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 with a recovery of 90.9 ± 1.6 %. The developed method was tested against two standard extraction methods for soil sulfate measurement. The obtained low correlation coefficients indicate that DGT and conventional soil test methods assess differential soil sulfate pools, rendering DGT a potentially important tool for measuring labile soil sulfate.

  16. Novel diffusive gradients in thin films technique to assess labile sulfate in soil.

    PubMed

    Hanousek, Ondrej; Mason, Sean; Santner, Jakob; Chowdhury, Md Mobaroqul Ahsan; Berger, Torsten W; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    A novel diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for sampling labile soil sulfate was developed, based on a strong basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400) for sulfate immobilization on the binding gel. For reducing the sulfate background on the resin gels, photopolymerization was applied instead of ammonium persulfate-induced polymerization. Agarose cross-linked polyacrylamide (APA) hydrogels were used as diffusive layer. The sulfate diffusion coefficient in APA gel was determined as 9.83 × 10(-6) ± 0.35 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) at 25 °C. The accumulated sulfate was eluted in 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 with a recovery of 90.9 ± 1.6 %. The developed method was tested against two standard extraction methods for soil sulfate measurement. The obtained low correlation coefficients indicate that DGT and conventional soil test methods assess differential soil sulfate pools, rendering DGT a potentially important tool for measuring labile soil sulfate. PMID:27491301

  17. Novel diffusive gradients in thin films technique to assess labile sulfate in soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan Chowdhury, Md Mobaroqul; Berger, Torsten W.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A novel diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique for sampling labile soil sulfate was developed, based on a strong basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400) for sulfate immobilization on the binding gel. For reducing the sulfate background on the resin gels, photopolymerization was applied instead of ammonium persulfate-induced polymerization. Agarose cross-linked polyacrylamide (APA) hydrogels were used as diffusive layer. The sulfate diffusion coefficient in APA gel was determined as 9.83 × 10−6 ± 0.35 × 10-6 cm2 s−1 at 25 °C. The accumulated sulfate was eluted in 1 mol L−1 HNO3 with a recovery of 90.9 ± 1.6 %. The developed method was tested against two standard extraction methods for soil sulfate measurement. The obtained low correlation coefficients indicate that DGT and conventional soil test methods assess differential soil sulfate pools, rendering DGT a potentially important tool for measuring labile soil sulfate. PMID:27491301

  18. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  19. Microtitration of various anions with quaternary ammonium halides using solid-state electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1980-01-01

    Many solid-state electrodes were found to respond as endpoint detectors in the potentiometric titration of large inorganic and organic anions with quaternary ammonium halides. The best response was obtained with the iodide and cyanide electrodes although practically any electrode can function as endpoint sensor. The titrants were hexadecylpyridinium chloride and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and Hyamine 1622 may also be used. Some inorganic anions thus titratable are perrhenate, persulfate, ferricyanide, hexafluorophosphate, and hexachloroplatinate. Examples of organic anions titratable are nitroform, tetraphenylborate, cyanotriphenylborate, picrate, long-chain sulfates and sulfonates, and some soaps. The reverse titration of quaternary ammonium halides vs dodecylsulfate is also feasible. Some titrations are feasible in a partially nonaqueous medium.

  20. Complex Refractive Index of Ammonium Nitrate in the 2-20 micron Spectral Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Norman, Mark L.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Cutten, Dean R.

    2002-01-01

    Using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) absorbance/transmittance spectral data for ammonium sulfate (AMS), calcium carbonate (CAC) and ammonium nitrate (AMN), comparisons were made with previously published complex refractive indices data for AMS and CAC to infer experimental parameters to determine the imaginary refractive index for AMN in the infrared wavelength range from 2 to 20 microns. Kramers-Kronig mathematical relations were applied to calculate the real refractive index for the three compositions. Excellent agreement for AMS and CAC with the published values was found, validating the complex refractive indices obtained for AMN. Backscatter calculations using a lognormal size distribution for AMS, AMN, and CAC aerosols were performed to show differences in their backscattered spectra.

  1. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  2. Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by ammonium ions (NH4(+)).

    PubMed

    Nozière, Barbara; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2009-01-01

    Glyoxal, a common atmospheric gas, has been reported to be depleted in some regions of the atmosphere. The corresponding sink could be accounted for by reactions in or at the surface of atmospheric particles, but these reactions were not identified. Recently, we showed that inorganic ammonium ions, NH(4)(+), are efficient catalysts for reactions of carbonyl compounds, including glyoxal, in the liquid phase. To determine whether ammonium-catalyzed reactions can contribute to depletion of glyoxal in the atmosphere, the reactivity of this compound in aqueous solutions containing ammonium salts (ammonium sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and phosphate) at 298 K has been studied. The products identified by LC-HRMS and UV absorption revealed a mechanism involving two distinct pathways: a Bronsted acid pathway and an iminium pathway. The kinetics of the iminium pathway was studied by monitoring formation of a specific product. This pathway was second order in glyoxal in most of the solutions studied and should therefore be second order in most ammonium-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. The corresponding rate constant, k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)), increased strongly with ammonium ion activity, a(NH(4)(+)), and pH: k(II) (M(-1) s(-1)) = (2 +/- 1) x 10(-10) exp((1.5 +/- 0.8)aNH(4)(+)) exp((2.5 +/- 0.2)pH). This iminium pathway is a lower limit for the ammonium-catalyzed consumption of glyoxal, but the contribution of the acid pathway is expected to be small in tropospheric aerosols. With these results the reactive uptake of glyoxal on ammonium-containing aerosols was estimated and shown to be a possible explanation for depletion of this compound in Mexico City.

  3. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  4. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  5. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  6. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  7. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  8. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1296 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric...

  10. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process.

  11. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  12. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  13. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  14. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  15. Adeninium cytosinium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Cherouana, Aouatef; Bousboua, Raja; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H6N5 +·C4H6N3O+·SO4 2−, the adeninium (AdH+) and cytosinium (CytH+) cations and sulfate dianion are involved in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network with four different modes, viz. AdH+⋯AdH+, AdH+⋯CytH+, AdH+⋯SO4 2− and CytH+⋯SO4 2−. The adeninium cations form N—H⋯N dimers through the Hoogsteen faces, generating a characteristic R 2 2(10) motif. This AdH+⋯AdH+ hydrogen bond in combination with AdH+⋯CytH+ H-bonds leads to two-dimensional cationic ribbons parallel to the a axis. The sulfate anions inter­link the ribbons into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network and thus reinforce the crystal structure. PMID:21577678

  16. Supercritical water oxidation of ammonium picrate

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.

    1994-11-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy ammonium picrate. Analyses of reactor effluent composition at various temperatures, residence times, and oxidant concentrations were used to design an improved reactor configuration for achieving destruction with minimum corrosion. The engineering evaluation reactor, a room-sized laboratory scale reactor, was reconfigured to incorporate this design change. Destruction of ammonium picrate with minimized corrosion was demonstrated on this reconfigured reactor. Factors that must be considered in scaling up to pilot plant size are discussed.

  17. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  18. Interactions of proteins in aqueous ammonium-sulfate solutions:Mixtures of lysozyme and ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Camille O.; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-11-10

    We present a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number model with detailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential species diffusion. The algorithm is based on a second-order projection formulation and does not require an explicit sub grid model for turbulence or turbulence chemistry interaction. Adaptive mesh refinement is used to dynamically resolve the flame and turbulent structures. Here, we briefly discuss the numerical procedure and present detailed comparisons with experimental measurements showing that the computation is able to accurately capture the basic flame morphology and associated mean velocity field. Finally, we discuss key issues that arise in performing these types of simulations and the implications of these issues for using computation to form a bridge between turbulent flame experiments and basic combustion chemistry.

  19. Thermodynamics and kinetics of extracting zinc from zinc oxide ore by the ammonium sulfate roasting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Shen, Xiao-yi; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic analyses and kinetic studies were performed on zinc oxide ore treatment by (NH4)2SO4 roasting technology. The results show that it is theoretically feasible to realize a roasting reaction between the zinc oxide ore and (NH4)2SO4 in a temperature range of 573-723 K. The effects of reaction temperature and particle size on the extraction rate of zinc were also examined. It is found that a surface chemical reaction is the rate-controlling step in roasting kinetics. The calculated activation energy of this process is about 45.57 kJ/mol, and the kinetic model can be expressed as follows: 1 - (1 - α)1/3 = 30.85 exp(-45.57/ RT)· t. An extraction ratio of zinc as high as 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions.

  20. Nitrogen retention capacity of a northern hardwood forest soil under ammonium sulfate additions

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, M. |; Zhang, Y.; Likens, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    To determine the N-retaining capacity of a beech-dominated stand in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, we added (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} at three levels (40, 160 and 520 kg N{center_dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) to replicate plots in monthly increments for two years, and measured NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations in monthly samples from zero-tension lysimeters. The two lower treatment levels failed to increase N loss through the deepest soils horizon when compared to controls. Plots under the highest treatment level retained >95% of the added N; NH{sub 4}{sup +} accounted for 77% of the leaching loss. The treatments caused an accumulation of exchangeable NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the soil, but concentrations of exchangeable NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} remained small, even after samples were incubated at room temperature. Leaching, uptake by plants, and the increase exchangeable NH{sub 4}{sup +} accounted for 3-25% of the added N. Accumulation of available N without nitrification contradicts common expectations concerning N saturation. It was not clear why excess N was not nitrified. 74 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. ASSESSING THE COMPARABILITY OF AMMONIUM, NITRATE AND SULFATE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED BY THREE AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne fine particulate matter across the United States is monitored by different networks, the three prevalent ones presently being the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet), the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment Network (IMPROVE) and the Speciati...

  2. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Hanna M; Meany, Brendan; Ticey, Jeremy; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Wang, YuHuang; Cumings, John

    2015-06-30

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS. PMID:26020583

  3. Differences in the reactivity of ammonium salts with methylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Han, C.; Liu, C.; Ma, J.; Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-06-01

    The heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA) onto (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3 and NH4Cl was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer, in situ Raman spectrometer and theoretical calculations. Exchange reactions were observed between MA and NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl were observed at 298 K. Simple acid-base reaction for MA was found taking place on NH4HSO4. CH3NH3NO3 and CH3NH3Cl are not stable at low pressure and have higher dissociation vapor pressure than methylammonium sulfate. The observed uptake coefficients of MA on (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, NH4NO3 and NH4Cl at 298 K were measured to be 6.30±1.03×10-3, 1.78±0.36×10-2, 8.79±1.99×10-3 and 2.29±0.28×10-3, respectively. A linear free energy relationship was found for the heterogeneous reactions between MA and NH4Cl, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3. Namely, the natural logarithm of uptake coefficients of MA on these ammonium salts is linearly related to the electrostatic potential of the H atom in the NH4+ group.

  4. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Assorted Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Snell, Edward H.; Malone, Christine C.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Chicken egg white lysozyme has been found to crystallize from ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates at acidic and basic pH, with protein concentrations from 60 to 190 mg/ml. Crystals have also been grown at 4 C in the absence of any other added salts using isoionic lysozyme which was titrated to pH 4.6 with dilute sulfuric acid. Four different crystal forms have been obtained, depending upon the temperature, protein concentration, and precipitating salt employed. Crystals grown at 15 C were generally tetragonal, with space group P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2. Crystallization at 20 C typically resulted in the formation of orthorhombic crystals, space group P2(sub 1)2(sub 1)2(sub 1). The tetragonal reversible reaction orthorhombic transition appeared to be a function of both the temperature and protein concentration, occurring between 15 and 20 C and between 100 and 125 mg/ml protein concentration. Crystallization from 1.2 M magnesium sulfate at pH 7.8 gave a trigonal crystal, space group P3(sub 1)2(sub 1), a = b = 87.4, c = 73.7, gamma = 120 deg, which diffracted to 2.8 A. Crystallization from ammonium sulfate at pH 4.6, generally at lower temperatures, was also found to result in a monoclinic form. space group C2, a = 65.6, b = 95.0, c = 41.2, beta = 119.2 deg. A crystal of approximately 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.5 mm grown from bulk solution diffracted to approximately 3.5 A.

  5. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  6. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  8. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Department previously announced a series of public meetings on the same topic on October 2, 2011 (see 76 FR... public comment on August 3, 2011. See 73 FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908... SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program...

  9. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908 (notice of proposed rulemaking...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security.... SUMMARY: The National Protection and Programs Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  20. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  1. Connections between the microbial community and a mysterious ammonium flux in the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Spivack, A. J.; Smith, D. C.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The deep biosphere, represented in the marine realm by marine sediment and ocean crust, is difficult to sample but plays host to an enormous reservoir of microorganisms. There is tremendous potential for many novel catabolic metabolisms about which little or nothing is known. These pathways, as understood based on Gibbs energy calculations, may not be favorable under standard conditions— but the deep biosphere is anything but standard. Here, we highlight one such example of deep-biosphere potential in regards to novel metabolisms and organisms. In our work, we have focused on ammonium oxidation with sulfate, a reaction suggested by recent geochemical and water treatment research.Using continental margin sediment, we applied high-throughput techniques (454 tag sequencing of 16S RNA and DNA) to try and identify the organisms involved, and evaluate the potential of several suggested phylotypes for this metabolism. Here we discuss the potential phylogenetic identity of organisms involved in this reaction, as well as thermodynamic considerations of potential syntrophic pathways as compared to a "complete" reaction catalyzed by a single organism. Finally, we also discuss geochemical data and modeling of N species and isotopes in an effort to better understand N flow through the system and the significance of nonstandard reactions. While our main sample set includes cores from the Bay of Bengal, similar features have also been noted off the east coast of the U.S.; potentially, processes such as this reaction of ammonium and sulfate may be of global biogeochemical importance.

  2. The role of the anion in the reaction of reducing sugars with ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Agyei-Aye, Kwasi; Chian, May X; Lauterbach, John H; Moldoveanu, Serban C

    2002-11-19

    Reactions of reducing sugars with ammonia and its compounds are important commercially, particularly in the preparation of flavors and caramel colors. However, such reactions generally produce a complex series of products ranging from simple molecules to complex polymeric materials, particularly since commercial systems generally involve mixtures of sugars as opposed to single sugars. This complexity has made understanding the mechanisms of such reactions difficult. Therefore, investigatory work has generally been focused on model systems. Herein we report one such study with model systems: the effects of the nature of the anion of the reactions of reducing sugars with ammonium salts. D-Glucose was reacted in aqueous solution with each of the following ammonium salts: acetate, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, citrate, formate, monohydrogenphosphate (DAP), sulfate, and sulfite. These reactions were carried out in a Parr bomb at 93 degrees C for 2.5 h. The initial pH of the reaction mixtures was adjusted to pH 8.0 at 25 degrees C. The resulting mixtures were analyzed by LC-MS, and the results were analyzed by comparing the product yields and distributions with those obtained with DAP. The major reaction product of interest was 2,6-deoxyfructosazine, as it had been shown to be a marker for the polymeric material formed from such reactions. It was found that ammonium salts of weak acids were much more effective in effecting the desired reactions than were those of strong acids; however, none was as effective as DAP. PMID:12433492

  3. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Urakaev, F.K.

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  4. Biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Marzia; Loy, Alexander; Antheunisse, A Martijn; Loeb, Roos; Bodelier, Paul L E; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2008-06-01

    In this study, a large-scale field survey was conducted to describe the biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) in river floodplains. Fingerprints obtained with three methods, i.e. 16S rRNA gene-based oligonucleotide microarray, dsrB-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and polar lipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analyses, were used as a proxy to describe the SRPs community diversity. Each set of profiles was subjected to a combined multivariate/correlation analysis in order to compare SRP community profiles and to highlight the environmental variables influencing the SRPs distribution along environmental gradients. Floodplain soils harbored distinct SRP communities displaying biogeographic patterns. Nearly all profiles from the tidal sites consistently separated from the nontidal sites, independently from the screening method and the multivariate statistics used. The distribution of the microarray/DGGE/PLFA-based fingerprints in the principal component plots could be correlated to eight soil variables, i.e. soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous and total potassium, and extractable ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate, as well as seven pore water variables, i.e. phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, chloride, sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. Indication of a salinity- and plant nutrient-dependent distribution of SRPs related to Desulfosarcina, Desulfomonile and Desulfobacter was suggested by microarray, DGGE and PLFA analyses.

  5. Determination of homologues of quaternary ammonium surfactants by capillary electrophoresis using indirect UV detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsueh-Ying; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-01

    This investigation describes the simultaneous separation of two major non-chromophoric quaternary ammonium surfactants, alkyltrimethyl- and dialkyldimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs and DADMACs, respectively), by capillary electrophoresis (CE) using indirect UV detection. The most effective separation conditions was 10 mM phosphate buffer with 57.5% tetrahydrofuran and 3 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at pH 4.3, and the sample hydrodynamic injection of up to 20 s at 1 psi (approximately 60 nl), and an applied voltage of 25 kV (1 psi = 6.9 kPa). Specially, the selection of an appropriate chromophore and an internal standard (I.S.) to improve the peak identification and quantitation was systematically investigated. Decylbenzyldimethyl ammonium chloride (C10-BDMA+C-) as a chromophore with 3 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate provided the best detectability for all homologues. The reproducibility of the migration time and quantitative analysis can be improved by using tetraoctyl ammonium ion as an internal standard, giving the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 0.8% for the relative migration times, and 2.5-5.5% for the relative peak areas. A good linearity of CE analysis was obtained in the range of 1.0-20 microg/ml with r2 values of above 0.999. The analysis of cationic surfactants in commercial products of hair conditioners and fabric softeners was also performed. Electrospray mass spectrometric method was applied to evaluate the CE method, and the compatible results were obtained. PMID:14763815

  6. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  2. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  4. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Structure of catabolite activator protein with cobalt(II) and sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Ramya R.; Lawson, Catherine L.

    2014-04-15

    The crystal structure of E. coli catabolite activator protein with bound cobalt(II) and sulfate ions at 1.97 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure of cyclic AMP–catabolite activator protein (CAP) from Escherichia coli containing cobalt(II) chloride and ammonium sulfate is reported at 1.97 Å resolution. Each of the two CAP subunits in the asymmetric unit binds one cobalt(II) ion, in each case coordinated by N-terminal domain residues His19, His21 and Glu96 plus an additional acidic residue contributed via a crystal contact. The three identified N-terminal domain cobalt-binding residues are part of a region of CAP that is important for transcription activation at class II CAP-dependent promoters. Sulfate anions mediate additional crystal lattice contacts and occupy sites corresponding to DNA backbone phosphate positions in CAP–DNA complex structures.

  10. Structure determination of the glycolipid sulfate from the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum.

    PubMed

    Kates, M; Deroo, P W

    1973-07-01

    A sulfur-containing glycolipid, accounting for ca. 25% of the total polar lipids, has been isolated from the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum. The ammonium salt of the lipid was found to have the molecular formula C(61)H(117)O(21)S.NH(4), and on strong acid hydrolysis it yielded 2,3-di-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol, glucose, mannose, galactose, and sulfate in equimolar proportions. Infrared and NMR spectra indicated the presence of a secondary sulfate group. Solvolysis of the lipid in 0.004 m HCl in tetrahydrofuran resulted in rapid release of inorganic sulfate and formation of galactosyl-mannosyl-glucosyl diphytanyl glycerol ether. With higher acid concentration (0.25 m methanolic HCl), stepwise hydrolysis of monosaccharide units occurred, giving mannosyl-glucosyl glycerol diphytanyl ether and monoglucosyl glycerol diphytanyl ether. The position of attachment of the sugars and of the sulfate group was determined by methylation of the free acid form of the glycolipid sulfate, followed by acid hydrolysis and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the partially methylated sugars as the alditol acetates. The configuration of the glycosidic linkages was established both by optical rotation measurements and by specific enzymatic hydrolysis. The results obtained established the structure as 2,3-di-O-phytanyl-1-O-[beta-d-galactopyranosyl-3'-sulfate-(1' -->6')-O-alpha-d-mannopyranosyl-(1' --> 2')-O-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol.

  11. Impact of sulfation and desulfation on NOx reduction using Cu-chabazite SCR catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Brookshear, Daniel William; Nam, Jeong -Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J.; Binder, Andrew J.

    2015-06-05

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 °C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 °C; however, above 250 °C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements revealmore » that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Moreover, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 °C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.« less

  12. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  13. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  14. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. PMID:25812396

  15. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  16. 3-Quaternary ammonium 1-carba-1-dethiacephems.

    PubMed

    Cook, G K; McDonald, J H; Alborn, W; Boyd, D B; Eudaly, J A; Indelicato, J M; Johnson, R; Kasher, J S; Pasini, C E; Preston, D A

    1989-11-01

    A series of structurally unique 1-carba-1-dethiacephems is described. The structural stability of the 1-carba-1-dethiacephem nucleus was essential for the preparation of this series of 3-quaternary ammonium carbacephems. The known p-nitrobenzyl 7 beta-(phenoxyacetamido)- 3-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem- 4-carboxylate served as both a quaternization substrate as well as a precursor to derivatives such as allyl 7 beta-[[2-[allyloxy)carbonyl]amino-4- thiazoly] (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-3-[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl] oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem-4-carboxylate. Quaternization of these enol triflates was accomplished either by dissolution in acetonitrile containing the base or by dissolution in the base, with or without warning to 50 degrees C. Bases nucleophilic enough to displace the triflate include a variety of substituted pyridines and N-methylimidazole. Deprotection then produced a very active series of 1-[7 beta-[(2-amino- 4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-2-carboxy-8-oxo- 1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] quaternary ammonium hydroxide inner salts. These compounds were extremely potent antibacterials against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria including constitutive cephalosporinase producers, such as Enterobacter cloacae. The compounds exhibit similar hydrolysis kinetics and pharmacokinetics to the analogous cephalosporin-3'-quaternary ammonium salts.

  17. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  18. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Fuente, A.; Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Pearson, J.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH{sub 3}D{sup +}. The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH{sub 3}D{sup +} as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 {+-} 6 MHz (3{sigma}), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH{sub 2}D, we derive N(NH{sub 4}{sup +}) {approx_equal} 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10{sup -11}.

  19. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  20. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  5. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  6. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network.

  7. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 +·NH4 +·2Cl−, the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  8. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  9. Bacterial Investigation of Ammonium-rich Sediment in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Chunbo, H.; Jiao, J. J.; Jidong, G.

    2011-12-01

    High ammonium loading of groundwater is a major concern because of the potential toxicity to ecosystem and human health. As one of the most complex large-scale delta systems in China, Pearl River Delta (PRD) was reported to have the highest ammonium concentration for natural groundwater ever reported globally. In this research, borehole SD14 was drilled through the aquitard into the basal aquifer in the PRD. 16S rRNA gene library construction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis were conducted to reveal bacterial community variation of different geology strata. A total of 161 clones from three 16S rRNA libraries were sequenced and clustered into 55 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 3% cutoff. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predominant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria (50.9%), followed by Chloroflexi (16.8%), Acidobacteria (4.38%) and Firmicutes (3.73%). In the sediment samples from SD14 at the depths of 6.9m, 22.5m and 37.4m, Proteobacteria made up 60.3%, 42.0% and 35.3% of the communities respectively, showing a declining ratio with the depth. Most of the bacteria in all the samples were previously discovered in marine environments, indicating that SD14 used to be in a marine sedimentary environment. Bacteria associated with iron oxidation and nitrogen fixing were found in the sample at 6.9 m, while in the other two samples there existed bacteria which were associated with methane cycling, sulfate reducing and denitrifying. The DGGE results showed that microbial community structures varied significantly with the increase of depth, and that Delftia acidovorans, a species of Proteobacteria which was able to reduce nitrate to nitrite, was the predominant species in samples at 22.5 and 37.4 m, suggesting ammonium as a control factor shaping the bacterial community. The results of this research provided important information of the bacteria in the PRD sediments. High bacterial diversity was observed in samples, and

  10. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  11. Sulfate Aerosol Formation and Oxidation Pathways on Haze Event over East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China largely contribute to high PM (Particulate Matter) concentration in Korea. Especially, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) such as nitrate, sulfate and ammonium are largely transported from China to Korea during haze event. The measured PM2.5 (Particle Matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5㎛) concentrations at the supersite monitoring stations in Korea are normally over 100 ug/m3 and SIAs are major chemical species with more than 70% of PM2.5 during the event. According to our air quality forecast model, sulfate concentrations are largely under-predicted in winter and slightly over-predicted in summer. Those discrepancies between model predicted and observed sulfate concentrations are mainly due to uncertainties of precursor emissions of NOx, SO2, and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and chemical mechanism of the sulfate formation in the chemical forecast model of CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model). Formation of sulfate is chemically linked to primary emissions of sulfur dioxide and to be abundancy of atmospheric oxidants such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, methyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyacetic acid. All of these oxidant species are formed via photochemical reactions with NOx and VOCs. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependency of sulfate formation on oxidant levels in winter and summer during episode event using CMAQ and its sulfate tracking probing tool. The sensitivity of the precursor emissions of SO2, NOx, VOCs and NH3 was also tested to understand the pathways of the sulfate formation. The results show that long range transport from China is a major factor to determine sulfate level in Korea during haze events and dominant mechanisms in the sulfate formation are the gas-phase OH and aqueous phase H2O2 reactions. NOx-SO2-VOCs chemical regimes for the sulfate formation is the VOCs limited regimes in Korea. The further details of the sensitivity run of the precursor emissions and

  12. Review: Mechanisms of ammonium toxicity and the quest for tolerance.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Ariz, Idoia; Cruz, Cristina; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Ammonium sensitivity of plants is a worldwide problem, constraining crop production. Prolonged application of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source may result in physiological and morphological disorders that lead to decreased plant growth and toxicity. The main causes of ammonium toxicity/tolerance described until now include high ammonium assimilation by plants and/or low sensitivity to external pH acidification. The various ammonium transport-related components, especially the non-electrogenic influx of NH3 (related to the depletion of (15)N) and the electrogenic influx of NH4(+), may contribute to ammonium accumulation, and therefore to NH3 toxicity. However, this accumulation may be influenced by increasing K(+) concentration in the root medium. Recently, new insights have been provided by "omics" studies, leading to a suggested involvement of GDP mannose-pyrophosphorylase in the response pathways of NH4(+) stress. In this review, we highlight the cross-talk signaling between nitrate, auxins and NO, and the importance of the connection of the plants' urea cycle to metabolism of polyamines. Overall, the tolerance and amelioration of ammonium toxicity are outlined to improve the yield of ammonium-grown plants. This review identifies future directions of research, focusing on the putative importance of aquaporins in ammonium influx, and on genes involved in ammonium sensitivity and tolerance. PMID:27181951

  13. Analytical techniques for ambient sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Graczyk, D.G.; Kumar, R.; Cunningham, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    Work done to further develop the infrared spectroscopic analytical method for the analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles, as well as some exploratory work on a new procedure for determining proton acidity in aerosol samples is described. Earlier work had led to the successful use of infrared (ir) spectrophotometry for the analysis of nitrate, ammonium, and neutral and acidic sulfates in aerosol samples collected by an impactor on a Mylar-film substrate. In this work, a filter-extraction method was developed to prepare filter-collected aerosol samples for ir analysis. A study was made comparing the ir analytical results on filter-collected samples with impactor-collected samples. Also, the infrared analytical technique was compared in field studies with light-scattering techniques for aerosol analysis. A highly sensitive instrument for aerosol analysis using attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy was designed, built, and tested. This instrument provides a measurement sensitivity much greater (by a factor of 6 for SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) than that obtainable using the KBr-pellet method. This instrument collect size- and time-resolved samples and is potentially capable of providing automated, near real-time aerosol analysis. Exploratory work on a novel approach to the determination of proton acidity in filter- or impactor-collected aerosol samples is also described. In this technique, the acidic sample is reacted with an access of a tagged, vapor-phase base. The unreacted base is flushed off and the amount of the tag retained by the sample is a direct measure of the proton acidity of the sample. The base was tagged with Ge, which can be conveniently determined by the x-ray fluorescence technique.

  14. Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Sulfate Brines and the Astrobiological Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, C. L.; Chevrier, V. F.; Ivey, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    We suggest sulfate-reducing bacteria as a model for life on Mars, as sulfate brines have been shown to be stable in martian conditions. We have performed experiments to determine the survivability of these bacteria in high sulfate concentrations.

  15. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  16. Growth Layers on Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, J L; Jackson, R W

    1965-05-14

    Microscopic observations of growth layers and etch pits on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals reveal screw dislocations on the {100} face generating elliptical spirals that change rapidly but reversibly to rectangular shape when chromium-ion impurity is added. The effects of the impurity on crystal habit are judged to be secondary to changes in the morphology of the growth layers. No sources of growth are observed on the {101} faces; the layers spread inward from the edges and at times are mutually annihilating so that, temporarily, no steps are observed. Similar behavior is recorded for the {1011} faces of NaNO(3).

  17. Sulfate deposition to surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Critical loads are the highest deposition of strong acid anions in surface waters that will not cause harmful biological effects on populations, such as declines in or extinctions of fish. Our analysis focuses on sulfate deposition because in glaciated regions sulfate is conservative in soils, whereas nitrate in biologically cycled. Sulfate also is the dominant anion in acidic deposition and in most acidic lakes. This analysis, represents the first evaluation of certain data available from Norway and the eastern United States, with an emphasis on the data from Scandinavia. The concept of dose-response is widely used in connection with water pollution. Any lake system subjected to an external dose of pollutants will have an internal resistance (or buffer capacity) to the change. The response of the lake system will depend on the relative magnitudes of the dose and the resistance parameters.

  18. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of α-(1 → 6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-α-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  19. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  20. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  1. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  2. Protein sulfation analysis--A primer.

    PubMed

    Monigatti, Flavio; Hekking, Brian; Steen, Hanno

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this review is to present an overview of protein sulfation in the context of 'modificomics', i.e. post-translational modification-specific proteome research. In addition to a short introduction to the biology of protein sulfation (part 1), we will provide detailed discussion regarding (i) methods and tools for prediction of protein tyrosine sulfation sites (part 2), (ii) biochemical techniques used for protein sulfation analysis (part 3.1), and (iii) mass spectrometric strategies and methods applied to protein sulfation analysis (part 3.2). We will highlight strengths and limitations of different strategies and approaches (including references), providing a primer for newcomers to protein sulfation analysis.

  3. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  5. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, H.; Gopi, M.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  6. Crystal structure of tris-(ethyl-enedi-ammonium) hexasulfatopraseodymium(III) hexa-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Held, Peter

    2014-10-01

    In the title salt, (C2H10N2)3[Pr2(SO4)6]·6H2O, the Pr(III) cation is surrounded ninefold by five sulfate groups (two monodentate and three chelating) and by one water mol-ecule [range of Pr-O bond lengths 2.383 (3) to 2.582 (3) Å]. The [Pr(SO4)5(H2O)] groups are arranged in sheets parallel to (010). Two crystal water mol-ecules and two ethyl-enedi-ammonium cations (one with point group symmetry -1) connect the sheets via O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds from weak up to medium strength into a three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:25484661

  7. Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals in Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. V. V.; Clark, R. N.; Calvin, W. M.; Sherman, D. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals was found on the surface of the largest asteroid Ceres. The presence of ammonium-bearing clays suggests that Ceres has experienced a period of alteration by substantial amounts of an ammonium-bearing fluid. The presence of the ammonium-bearing clays does not preclude Ceres maintaining a volatile inventory in the core or in a volatile-rich zone at some distance below the surface. Telescopic observations of Ceres, using the 3.0 meter NASA Infrared telescope facility prompted this reevaluation of its surface mineralogy.

  8. Sensitivity studies for incorporating the direct effect of sulfate aerosols into climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Rawlings Lamberton

    2000-09-01

    Aerosols have been identified as a major element of the climate system known to scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation, but the development of procedures for representing them is still rudimentary. This study addresses the need to improve the treatment of sulfate aerosols in climate models by investigating how sensitive radiative particles are to varying specific sulfate aerosol properties. The degree to which sulfate particles absorb or scatter radiation, termed the direct effect, varies with the size distribution of particles, the aerosol mass density, the aerosol refractive indices, the relative humidity and the concentration of the aerosol. This study develops 504 case studies of altering sulfate aerosol chemistry, size distributions, refractive indices and densities at various ambient relative humidity conditions. Ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols are studied with seven distinct size distributions at a given mode radius with three corresponding standard deviations implemented from field measurements. These test cases are evaluated for increasing relative humidity. As the relative humidity increases, the complex index of refraction and the mode radius for each distribution correspondingly change. Mie theory is employed to obtain the radiative properties for each case study. The case studies are then incorporated into a box model, the National Center of Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) column radiation model (CRM), and NCAR's community climate model version 3 (CCM3) to determine how sensitive the radiative properties and potential climatic effects are to altering sulfate properties. This study found the spatial variability of the sulfate aerosol leads to regional areas of intense aerosol forcing (W/m2). These areas are particularly sensitive to altering sulfate properties. Changes in the sulfate lognormal distribution standard deviation can lead to substantial regional differences in the annual aerosol forcing greater than 2 W/m 2. Changes in the

  9. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  10. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. Nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots from ammonium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Xu, Minghan; Liu, Yun; He, Fengjiao; Gao, Feng; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis.The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The curve of photoluminescence and absorbance of N-doped CDs and quinine sulfate, and the table showing XPS detailed information. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05380f

  12. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  13. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  14. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  7. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  14. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  16. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...-propionic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid equivalents, in or on the... ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-, monoammonium salt and its metabolite,...

  17. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was
    quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility
    particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter<...

  18. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  1. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  2. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  3. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution рН. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with λ max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to λmax=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

  5. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, R.J. ); Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F. ); Mariotti, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to {sup 15}N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass.

  6. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  7. Sulfate ingress in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick; Leterrier, Nikos

    2010-08-15

    The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

  8. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  9. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  10. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications. PMID:24738412

  11. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  12. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  13. Impact of sulfation and desulfation on NOx reduction using Cu-chabazite SCR catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshear, Daniel William; Nam, Jeong -Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J.; Binder, Andrew J.

    2015-06-05

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 °C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 °C; however, above 250 °C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements reveal that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Moreover, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 °C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.

  14. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  15. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  16. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins.

  17. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Bryan E.; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by Type I Herpes Simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. PMID:24361527

  18. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  19. Acclimation and toxicity of high ammonium concentrations to unicellular algae.

    PubMed

    Collos, Yves; Harrison, Paul J

    2014-03-15

    A literature review on the effects of high ammonium concentrations on the growth of 6 classes of microalgae suggests the following rankings. Mean optimal ammonium concentrations were 7600, 2500, 1400, 340, 260, 100 μM for Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Diatomophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Dinophyceae respectively and their tolerance to high toxic ammonium levels was 39,000, 13,000, 2300, 3600, 2500, 1200 μM respectively. Field ammonium concentrations <100 μM would not likely reduce the growth rate of most microalgae. Chlorophytes were significantly more tolerant to high ammonium than diatoms, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes. Cyanophytes were significantly more tolerant than dinoflagellates which were the least tolerant. A smaller but more complete data set was used to estimate ammonium EC₅₀ values, and the ranking was: Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Diatomophyceae, and Raphidophyceae. Ammonia toxicity is mainly attributed to NH₃ at pHs >9 and at pHs <8, toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia. PMID:24533997

  20. Quantifying sulfate reducing bacteria in microbiologically influenced corrosion. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1992-11-01

    Iron-oxidizing, sulfur-oxidizing, iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing, acid producing, slime-producing, ammonium-producing, and hydrogen-producing bacteria in addition to other physiological groups have been implicated in the corrosion of metals and alloys. However, the most widely recognized and most easily detected bacteria in most corrosion processes are the bacteria that reduce sulfate to sulfide that are collectively called sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB constitute a physiological-ecological assemblage of morphologically very different types of anaerobic bacteria that have in common the capacity to reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide in dissimilatory energy-conserving reactions. Hydrogen sulfide can react with metals to produce metal sulfides as corrosion products. Most techniques for the evaluation of SRB populations are related to their potential to cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Standard practices for evaluating the contribution of SRB to corrosion processes depend on the detection and quantification of SRB using culturing techniques that enumerate organisms or quantify intrinsic characteristics of SRB including enzymes and antibodies. Mineralogy of metal sulfides and sulfur isotope fractionation can also be used to verify the involvement of SRB in corrosion. This paper will review standard practices and innovative techniques for detecting and quantifying SRB.

  1. Combustion of ammonium and hydrazine azides

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelzang, A.E.; Egorshev, V.Y.; Sinditsky, V.P.; Kolesov, B.I. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that steady-state combustion of ammonium azide (AA) and hydrazne azide (HA) was studied in a window constant-pressure bomb over a pressure range of 0.1-36 MPa. HA burns three to four times faster than AA over the whole pressure range. The temperature distribution in the combustion wave of AA and HA was measured using 5-{mu}m-thick {pi}-shaped tungsten-rhenium tape thermocouples. The combustion temperature of both compounds is 240-430 K higher than the temperature calculated for the thermodynamically equilibrium composition of the combustion products due to the presence of large amounts of ammonia (0.97 and 0.87 mol per AA and HA mole, respectively). The burning surface is formed via dissociation of the salts into hydrazoic acid HN{sub 3} and the parent base. The growth of the surface temperature with pressure is determined by the dissociation enthalpy of the slats. The burning rate of these compounds is determined by heat release in the gas phase.

  2. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  3. Subcellular localization of ammonium transporters in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Janet H; Xiong, Yanhua; Davis, Carter T; Singleton, Charles K

    2008-01-01

    Background With the exception of vertebrates, most organisms have plasma membrane associated ammonium transporters which primarily serve to import a source of nitrogen for nutritional purposes. Dictyostelium discoideum has three ammonium transporters, Amts A, B and C. Our present work used fluorescent fusion proteins to determine the cellular localization of the Amts and tested the hypothesis that the transporters mediate removal of ammonia generated endogenously from the elevated protein catabolism common to many protists. Results Using RFP and YFP fusion constructs driven by the actin 15 promoter, we found that the three ammonium transporters were localized on the plasma membrane and on the membranes of subcellular organelles. AmtA and AmtB were localized on the membranes of endolysosomes and phagosomes, with AmtB further localized on the membranes of contractile vacuoles. AmtC also was localized on subcellular organelles when it was stabilized by coexpression with either the AmtA or AmtB fusion transporter. The three ammonium transporters exported ammonia linearly with regard to time during the first 18 hours of the developmental program as revealed by reduced export in the null strains. The fluorescently tagged transporters rescued export when expressed in the null strains, and thus they were functional transporters. Conclusion Unlike ammonium transporters in most organisms, which import NH3/NH4+ as a nitrogen source, those of Dictyostelium export ammonia/ammonium as a waste product from extensive catabolism of exogenously derived and endogenous proteins. Localization on proteolytic organelles and on the neutral contractile vacuole suggests that Dictyostelium ammonium transporters may have unique subcellular functions and play a role in the maintenance of intracellular ammonium distribution. A lack of correlation between the null strain phenotypes and ammonia excretion properties of the ammonium transporters suggests that it is not the excretion function that

  4. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  5. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  6. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  7. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  8. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles

  9. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  10. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  11. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    PubMed

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  12. Methods to Stabilize and Destabilize Ammonium Borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Besenbacher, Fleming; Jensen, Torben R.; Autrey, Thomas

    2013-01-21

    Ammonium borohydride, NH4BH4, has a high hydrogen content of ρm = 24.5 wt% H2 and releases 18 wt% H2 below T = 160 °C. However, the half-life of bulk NH4BH4 at ambient temperatures, ~6 h, is insufficient for practical applications. The decomposition of NH4BH4 (ABH2) was studied at variable hydrogen and argon back pressures to investigate possible pressure mediated stabilization effects. The hydrogen release rate from solid ABH2 at ambient temperatures is reduced by ~16 % upon increasing the hydrogen back pressure from 5 to 54 bar. Similar results were obtained using argon pressure and the observed stabilization may be explained by a positive volume of activation in the transition state leading to hydrogen release. Nanoconfinement in mesoporous silica, MCM-41, was investigated as alternative means to stabilize NH4BH4. However, other factors appear to significantly destabilize NH4BH4 and it rapidly decomposes at ambient temperatures into [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] (DADB) in accordance with the bulk reaction scheme. The hydrogen desorption kinetics from nanoconfined [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] is moderately enhanced as evidenced by a reduction in the DSC decomposition peak temperature of ΔT = -13 °C as compared to the bulk material. Finally, we note a surprising result, storage of DADB at temperature < -30 °C transformed, reversibly, the [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] into a new low temperature polymorph as revealed by both XRD and solid state MAS 11B MAS NMR. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle.

  13. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  14. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid in the presence of ammonia. The complex chelates occur in brown...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  20. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.