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Sample records for ammotragus lervia bovidae

  1. A cytogenetic study of a Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) x domestic goat (Capra hircus) hybrid.

    PubMed

    Dain, A R

    1980-12-15

    An account is given of stillborn male twins born to a female Saanen goat (Capra hircus) and a Barbary ram (Ammotragus lervia). The cytogenetics of the cultured hybrid cells are described and attention is drawn to the high proportion of cells which lacked one chromosome. PMID:7193597

  2. Balantidiasis in the gastric lymph nodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ho-Seong; Shin, Sung-Shik; Park, Nam-Yong

    2006-06-01

    A 4-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) was found dead in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo. The animal had previously exhibited weakness and lethargy, but no signs of diarrhea. The carcass was emaciated upon presentation. The main gross lesion was characterized by severe serous atrophy of the fat tissues of the coronary and left ventricular grooves, resulting in the transformation of the fat to a gelatinous material. The rumen was fully distended with food, while the abomasum evidenced mucosal corrugation with slight congestion. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Balantidium coli trophozoites within the lymphatic ducts of the gastric lymph node and the abdominal submucosa. On rare occasions, these organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the gastric lymph nodes and abomasum. PMID:16645350

  3. Serologic responses of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra), wallaroos (Macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to an inactivated encephalomyocarditis virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    McLelland, David J; Kirkland, Peter D; Rose, Karrie A; Dixon, Robert J; Smith, Narelle

    2005-03-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a picornavirus with a worldwide distribution, capable of infecting a wide range of species. Episodes of EMCV-associated mortality have been reported in zoos and national parks around the world, including sporadic cases at Taronga Zoo, Sydney. An inactivated EMCV vaccine was evaluated by inoculating Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Indian antelope (Antilope cervicapra), Eastern wallaroos (Macropus robustus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). A proportion of the vaccinated ungulates were administered a second vaccination 4 wk after the initial dose. Neutralizing antibody titers were monitored for a period of 12 mo. One month after vaccination, all vaccinated groups had developed significant antibody titers that persisted for at least 6 mo. Animals receiving two doses of vaccine had higher titers 3, 6, and 12 mo after the initial vaccination compared with animals receiving a single vaccine dose.

  4. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    PubMed Central

    Fornazari, G.A.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Filho, I.R. de Barros; Somma, A.T.; Moore, B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species. PMID:27419103

  5. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations.

    PubMed

    Fornazari, G A; Montiani-Ferreira, F; Filho, I R de Barros; Somma, A T; Moore, B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species.

  6. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates. PMID:27346588

  7. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates.

  8. First description of gastrointestinal nematodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): the case of Camelostrongylus mentulatus as a paradigm of phylogenic and specific relationship between the parasite and its ancient host.

    PubMed

    Mayo, E; Ortiz, J; Martínez-Carrasco, C; Garijo, M M; Espeso, G; Hervías, S; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R

    2013-09-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 24 Barbary sheep or Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) maintained in the Parque de Rescate de la Fauna Sahariana (PRFS, CSIC, Almeria, Spain) was analyzed. Most animals (87.5 %) were parasitized, and multiple infections were highly present. The following species were identified: Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Marshallagia marshalli, Ostertagia ostertagi, O. leptospicularis, O. lyrata, Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, T. colubriformis, T. probolorus, T. capricola, Nematodirus spathiger, N. abnormalis, N. filicollis, N. helvetianus, Trichuris spp. and Skrjabinema ovis. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most prevalent nematode in abomasum (52.6 %) followed by C. mentulatus (50 %). However, this latter nematode had the greater mean intensity and abundance. In the small intestine, T. colubriformis and T. vitrinus had the highest prevalence (36.4 %); the last one showed also the greater mean intensity and abundance. It should be emphasized the presence of Skrjabinema ovis (prevalence 39.1 %) in the large intestine, showing the greater mean abundance and intensity, although with a low values. Camelostrongylus mentulatus could be the most primitive nematode of the family trichostrongylidae recovered in this study; attending to its high prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity, the possible specificity between this parasite and the Aoudad is discussed.

  9. Studies on hybridization between a Barbary ram (Ammotragus lervia) and domestic ewes (Ovis aries) and nanny goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Moore, N W; Halnan, C R; McKee, J J; Watson, J I

    1981-01-01

    Six nanny goats and 9 ewes were inseminated with Barbary semen and 4-5 days after insemination 16 hybrid embryos were recovered: 14 were transferred to ewes or nanny goats. Survival of embryos was monitored by return to service after transfer, peripheral plasma progesterone values and by examination at laparotomy. None of the Barbary ram x ewe embryos transferred to 4 ewes and 4 nanny goats or the Barbary ram x nanny goat embryos transferred to ewes survived. Of the 4 nanny goat recipients of Barbary rm x nanny goat embryos one had a resorbed fetus at 7 weeks after transfer, one was pregnant at 7 weeks but failed to produce a young and a third produced a healthy male 155 days after the transfer oestrus. The karyotype of the hybrid was 2n = 59XY, characterized by a single metacentric chromosome. PMID:7452629

  10. Progesterone and oestrogen concentrations in plasma of Barbary sheep (aoudad, Ammotragus lervia) compared with those of domestic sheep and goats during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hamon, M H; Heap, R B

    1990-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations have been measured in the peripheral plasma of 3 Barbary sheep over 3 breeding seasons. During pregnancy mean progesterone values rose initially and after a small decline between Days 30 and 50, increased again and remained between 17 and 28 nmol/l until the last 2 days of pregnancy. Oestradiol-17 beta reached a peak of about 300 pmol/l during mid-pregnancy, increasing to over 400 pmol/l in the last 5 days of pregnancy. Oestrone sulphate began to increase in concentration from about Day 40 of pregnancy and reached a peak of about 19 nmol/l by Day 120. Following a slight decrease from Day 130, there was a further rise in values just before parturition. Values for these steroids in the Barbary sheep studied were between those expected for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:2172532

  11. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation. PMID:27136937

  12. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation.

  13. Antelopes (Bovidae) kept in European zoological gardens as intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis species.

    PubMed

    Stolte, M; Odening, K; Bockhardt, I

    1996-12-01

    Four different forms of sarcocysts from the zoo-kept antelopes Addax nasomaculatus. Antilope cervicapra, Taurotragus oryx and Boselaphus tragocamelus (Bovidae) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, in special consideration of the cyst wall. The sarcocysts found in Addax (born in a zoo) were not distinguishable from Sarcocystis medusiformis of Australasian sheep by their morphology and would be the first indication for the occurrence of this species in Europe. Sarcocysts from Antilope (born in a zoo) resembled the tenella/capracanis type of sheep/goats and were, therefore, designated as Sarcocystis sp. (? cf. capracanis) in this paper. Sarcocysts from Taurotragus were similar to a zoonotic species of cattle and hence provisionally designated as S. sp. (? cf. hominis). A sarcocyst form with hair-like villar protrusions of the cyst wall was found in Taurotragus. Boselaphus and Antilope and compared with a common species of cattle: S (? cf. cruzi).

  14. Molecular characterization of bot flies, Oestrus spp., (Diptera, Oestridae), from domestic and wild Bovidae hosts.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Virginia; Romero-Fernández, Ismael; Marchal, Juan A; Beltrán, Manuel; Granados, José E; Habela, Miguel A; Tamadon, Amin; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sarasa, Mathieu; Pérez, Jesús M; Sánchez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    The identification of Oestrus spp. larvae from Bovidae hosts is a difficult task due to the great morphological similarity between species. The lack of unambiguous identification criteria could have also serious epidemiological implications since domestic and wild hosts are sympatric in many natural areas. In order to accurately identify the Oestrus parasitizing hosts, we characterized two different genetic markers, 28S (rRNA) and COI, in larvae collected from domestic sheep and goats, European mouflon and Iberian ibex. Our sequence analyses demonstrate that all samples, except those from Iberian ibex, greatly resembles O. ovis and so we conclude that the species parasitizing this ibex is not O. ovis. Further studies will be needed to confirm whether it is in fact O. caucasicus, as previously suggested, or even a new species.

  15. Primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from Bovidae. Impala, Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J

    1980-01-24

    The amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonucleases from impala Thomson's gazelle, nilgai and two types of water buffalo were studied from several enzymic digests. Peptides were positioned by homology with other ribonucleases of known sequence. Only peptides that differ in amino acid composition from the corresponding peptides of ox and goat ribonuclease were sequenced. The primary structures of pancreatic ribonucleases from 11 species of the Bovidae family are known to date. The evolutionary rate of bovid ribonucleases is 2--3 times lower than the average rate observed in all mammals. A possible explanation is that the presence of a stable symbiotic system in the rumen of grass-eating ruminants has caused a slowing down of the evolutionary rate of pancreatic ribonuclease in this taxon. The subfamily of the Bovinae (five species) exhibits a slightly higher evolutionary rate; most replacements in the Bovinae occur near residues 34--36, the most commonly observed carbohydrate attachment site in ribonucleases.

  16. Molecular insights into the evolution of the family Bovidae: a nuclear DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Matthee, C A; Davis, S K

    2001-07-01

    The evolutionary history of the family Bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. In an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear DNA markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial DNA genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. The nuclear DNA fragments were analyzed separately and in combination after partition homogeneity tests were performed. There was no significant rate heterogeneity among lineages, and retention index values indicated the general absence of homoplasy in the nuclear DNA data. The conservative nuclear DNA data were remarkably effective in resolving associations among bovid subfamilies, which had a rapid radiation dating back to approximately 23 MYA. All analyses supported the monophyly of the Bovinae (cow, nilgai, and kudu clade) as a sister lineage to the remaining bovid subfamilies, and the data convincingly suggest that the subfamilies Alcelaphinae (hartebeest, tsessebe, and wildebeest group) and Hippotraginae (roan, sable, and gemsbok clade) share a close evolutionary relationship and together form a sister clade to the more primitive Caprinae (represented by sheep, goat, and muskox). The problematic Reduncinae (waterbuck, reedbuck) seem to be the earliest-diverging group of the Caprinae/Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae clade, whereas the Antilopinae (gazelle and dwarf antelope clade) were always polyphyletic. The sequence data suggest that the initial diversification of the Bovidae took place in Eurasia and that lineages such as the Cephalophinae and other enigmatic taxa (impala, suni, and klipspringer) most likely originated, more or less contemporaneously, in Africa.

  17. Molecular insights into the evolution of the family Bovidae: a nuclear DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Matthee, C A; Davis, S K

    2001-07-01

    The evolutionary history of the family Bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. In an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear DNA markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial DNA genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. The nuclear DNA fragments were analyzed separately and in combination after partition homogeneity tests were performed. There was no significant rate heterogeneity among lineages, and retention index values indicated the general absence of homoplasy in the nuclear DNA data. The conservative nuclear DNA data were remarkably effective in resolving associations among bovid subfamilies, which had a rapid radiation dating back to approximately 23 MYA. All analyses supported the monophyly of the Bovinae (cow, nilgai, and kudu clade) as a sister lineage to the remaining bovid subfamilies, and the data convincingly suggest that the subfamilies Alcelaphinae (hartebeest, tsessebe, and wildebeest group) and Hippotraginae (roan, sable, and gemsbok clade) share a close evolutionary relationship and together form a sister clade to the more primitive Caprinae (represented by sheep, goat, and muskox). The problematic Reduncinae (waterbuck, reedbuck) seem to be the earliest-diverging group of the Caprinae/Alcelaphinae/Hippotraginae clade, whereas the Antilopinae (gazelle and dwarf antelope clade) were always polyphyletic. The sequence data suggest that the initial diversification of the Bovidae took place in Eurasia and that lineages such as the Cephalophinae and other enigmatic taxa (impala, suni, and klipspringer) most likely originated, more or less contemporaneously, in Africa. PMID:11420362

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Cross-Amplification Microsatellite Panels for Species of Procapra (Bovidae; Antilopinae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Li, Chunlin; Yang, Ji; Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Li, Feng; Li, Chunwang; Liu, Bingwan; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    The three Procapra species, Tibetan gazelle (P. picticaudata), Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa) and Przewalski’s gazelle (P. przewalskii) are endemic to Asia. Several intraspecific genetic issues have been studied with species-specific microsatellite loci in these Asian gazelles. However, cross-species microsatellite panels are absent, which inhibits comparative conservation and evolutionary studies of the Procapra. In this study, we isolated 20 cross-species microsatellite loci for Procapra from both related species and the genomic library of P. przewalskii. Fifty-three samples of the three gazelles were used to characterize the markers. Allele numbers ranged from three to 20, with a mean of 7.93 per locus. Observed heterozygosity (HO) averaged 0.680 and expected heterozygosity (HE) 0.767. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.757 for P. picticaudata, 0.803 for P. gutturosa and 0.590 for P. przewalskii. Nine loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium in the three species. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in four pairs of loci in P. przewalskii, five pairs in P. gutturosa and 51 pairs in P. picticaudata. Considering the abundance of published loci and their high success rates of cross-amplification, testing and utilization of loci from related species is efficient for wild species of Bovidae. The cross-species microsatellite loci we developed will facilitate further interspecies genetic studies in Procapra. PMID:22942736

  19. Isolation and characterization of cross-amplification microsatellite panels for species of Procapra (Bovidae; Antilopinae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Chunlin; Yang, Ji; Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Li, Feng; Li, Chunwang; Liu, Bingwan; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    The three Procapra species, Tibetan gazelle (P. picticaudata), Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa) and Przewalski's gazelle (P. przewalskii) are endemic to Asia. Several intraspecific genetic issues have been studied with species-specific microsatellite loci in these Asian gazelles. However, cross-species microsatellite panels are absent, which inhibits comparative conservation and evolutionary studies of the Procapra. In this study, we isolated 20 cross-species microsatellite loci for Procapra from both related species and the genomic library of P. przewalskii. Fifty-three samples of the three gazelles were used to characterize the markers. Allele numbers ranged from three to 20, with a mean of 7.93 per locus. Observed heterozygosity (H(O)) averaged 0.680 and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) 0.767. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.757 for P. picticaudata, 0.803 for P. gutturosa and 0.590 for P. przewalskii. Nine loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium in the three species. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in four pairs of loci in P. przewalskii, five pairs in P. gutturosa and 51 pairs in P. picticaudata. Considering the abundance of published loci and their high success rates of cross-amplification, testing and utilization of loci from related species is efficient for wild species of Bovidae. The cross-species microsatellite loci we developed will facilitate further interspecies genetic studies in Procapra. PMID:22942736

  20. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  1. A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular phylogenetics has provided unprecedented resolution in the ruminant evolutionary tree. However, molecular age estimates using only one or a few (often misapplied) fossil calibration points have produced a diversity of conflicting ages for important evolutionary events within this clade. I here identify 16 fossil calibration points of relevance to the phylogeny of Bovidae and Ruminantia and use these, individually and together, to construct a dated molecular phylogeny through a reanalysis of the full mitochondrial genome of over 100 ruminant species. Results The new multi-calibrated tree provides ages that are younger overall than found in previous studies. Among these are young ages for the origin of crown Ruminantia (39.3–28.8 Ma), and crown Bovidae (17.3–15.1 Ma). These are argued to be reasonable hypotheses given that many basal fossils assigned to these taxa may in fact lie on the stem groups leading to the crown clades, thus inflating previous age estimates. Areas of conflict between molecular and fossil dates do persist, however, especially with regard to the base of the rapid Pecoran radiation and the sister relationship of Moschidae to Bovidae. Results of the single-calibrated analyses also show that a very wide range of molecular age estimates are obtainable using different calibration points, and that the choice of calibration point can influence the topology of the resulting tree. Compared to the single-calibrated trees, the multi-calibrated tree exhibits smaller variance in estimated ages and better reflects the fossil record. Conclusions The use of a large number of vetted fossil calibration points with soft bounds is promoted as a better approach than using just one or a few calibrations, or relying on internal-congruency metrics to discard good fossil data. This study also highlights the importance of considering morphological and ecological characteristics of clades when delimiting higher taxa. I also illustrate how

  2. Inferring the Phylogeny of Bovidae Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences: Resolving Power of Individual Genes Relative to Complete Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular techniques that assess biodiversity through the analysis of a small segment of mitochondrial genome have been getting wide attention for inferring the mammalian diversity. Due to their highly conserved nature, specific mitochondrial genes offer a promising tool for phylogenetic analysis. However, there is no established criteria for selecting the typical mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments to achieve a greater resolving power. We therefore chose the family Bovidae as a model and compared the tree-topologies resulting from the commonly used and phylogenetically-informative genes including 16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, COI, Cyt b and D-loop with respect to complete mitochondrial genome. The tree topologies from the whole mitochondrial genome of 12 species were not identical albeit similar with those resulting from the five individual genes mentioned above. High bootstrap values were observed for mtDNA compared with that of any single gene. The average pair-wise sequence divergence using different genetic modes was found to be: D-loop (0.229) > Cyt b (0.159) > COI or complete mtDNA (0.143) > 12S rRNA (0.094) > 16S rRNA (0.091). The tree resulting from complete mtDNA clearly separated the 12 taxa of Bovidae into 3 major clusters, one cluster each for subfamily Cervinae and Bovinae and the third cluster comprised the distinctive clades of Caprinae and Antilopinae. However, jumping clades of Antilopinae were observed while using the individual genes. This study showed that Bison bison and Bos Taurus have very close phylogenetic relationship compared to Bubalus bubalis (Bovinae), irrespective of the method used. Our findings suggest that complete mtDNA genome provides most reliable understanding of complex phylogenetic relationships while the reliability of individual gene trees should be verified with high bootstrap support. PMID:22399841

  3. Physical organization of the 1.709 satellite IV DNA family in Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes of the Bovidae: sequence and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Adega, F; Chaves, R; Guedes-Pinto, H; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive DNA in the mammalian genome is a valuable record and marker for evolution, providing information about the order and driving forces related to evolutionary events. The evolutionarily young 1.709 satellite IV DNA family is present near the centromeres of many chromosomes in the Bovidae. Here, we isolated 1.709 satellite DNA sequences from five Bovidae species belonging to Bovini: Bos taurus (BTA, cattle), Bos indicus (BIN, zebu), Bubalus bubalis (BBU, water buffalo) and Tragelaphini tribes: Taurotragus oryx (TOR, eland) and Tragelaphus euryceros (TEU, bongo). Its presence in both tribes shows the sequence predates the evolutionary separation of the two tribes (more than 10 million years ago), and primary sequence shows increasing divergence with evolutionary distance. Genome organization (Southern hybridization) and physical distribution (in situ hybridization) revealed differences in the molecular organization of these satellite DNA sequences. The data suggest that the sequences on the sex chromosomes and the autosomes evolve as relatively independent groups, with the repetitive sequences suggesting that Bovini autosomes and the Tragelaphini sex chromosomes represent the more primitive chromosome forms. PMID:16825766

  4. Physical organization of the 1.709 satellite IV DNA family in Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes of the Bovidae: sequence and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Adega, F; Chaves, R; Guedes-Pinto, H; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive DNA in the mammalian genome is a valuable record and marker for evolution, providing information about the order and driving forces related to evolutionary events. The evolutionarily young 1.709 satellite IV DNA family is present near the centromeres of many chromosomes in the Bovidae. Here, we isolated 1.709 satellite DNA sequences from five Bovidae species belonging to Bovini: Bos taurus (BTA, cattle), Bos indicus (BIN, zebu), Bubalus bubalis (BBU, water buffalo) and Tragelaphini tribes: Taurotragus oryx (TOR, eland) and Tragelaphus euryceros (TEU, bongo). Its presence in both tribes shows the sequence predates the evolutionary separation of the two tribes (more than 10 million years ago), and primary sequence shows increasing divergence with evolutionary distance. Genome organization (Southern hybridization) and physical distribution (in situ hybridization) revealed differences in the molecular organization of these satellite DNA sequences. The data suggest that the sequences on the sex chromosomes and the autosomes evolve as relatively independent groups, with the repetitive sequences suggesting that Bovini autosomes and the Tragelaphini sex chromosomes represent the more primitive chromosome forms.

  5. Oryx callotis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Dana N.; Dolman, Richard W.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Oryx callotis O. Thomas, 1982 (fringe-eared oryx) is a relatively large, long-bodied bovid, with an appropriate common name because of its distinguishing tufts of hair extending from the ends of the ears. It occupies arid lands in Kenya and Tanzania. O. callotis can go up to a month without drinking water if succulent vegetation is available. Some herds have been semidomesticated, and 60% of the presumed 17,000 wild individuals exist in wildlife reserves, currently receiving some protection from settlement and poaching. O. callotis is considered “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources but as a subspecies of O. beisa, which is listed as “Near Threatened.”

  6. Procapra picticaudata (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Procapra picticaudata Hodgson, 1846, is commonly called the Tibetan gazelle, goa (= Tibetan), or zang yuan ling (= Chinese) and is monotypic. It is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the Tibetan Plateau where it prefers alpine meadow and alpine steppe but uses other lower-elevation plains and valleys. It is partial to good grasslands with high diversity of forbs. There have been no systematic estimates of total numbers of P. picticaudata. Populations are currently widespread but have been reduced from historic levels and are vulnerable because of poaching in remote areas and competition with livestock of pastoralists. P. picticaudata is uncommon in zoos and private collections. It is a threatened Class II species in China and considered “Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  7. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    PubMed

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Boer goat (Bovidae; Caprinae).

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiaoyue; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of Boer goat. The mitogenome was 16,639 bp in length, comprised of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Almost all genes were encoded on the H-strand except the ND6 and eight tRNA genes. Most of the genes initiated with ATG, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 started with ATA. The total base composition of the mitogenome was 33.53% for A, 26.05% for C, 13.12% for T and 27.30% for G. These results provide a standard reference sequence for phylogenetic analyses among goats.

  9. Elaeophorosis in Barbary sheep and mule deer from the Texas Panhandle.

    PubMed

    Pence, D B; Gray, G G

    1981-01-01

    Adult Elaeophora schneideri were recovered from the common carotid artery and its branches in 14 of 14 mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and 3 of 9 Barbary sheep or aoudads, Ammotragus lervia, from Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Gross cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis in the Barbary sheep varied from small circumscribed scars up to 10 cm in diameter usually on the poll or orbital region to extensive proliferative irregular encrustations on the frontal, temporal and orbital regions, sometimes extending to the ears and muzzle. Individual lesions varied from slate-gray scarred areas to brown proliferative edematous and hyperemic encrustations, sometimes with depigmented pustules a few millimeters in diameter. Microscopic lesions ranged from granulation tissue to severe pyogranulomatous reactions with neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells as the primary infiltration. Foreign body giant cells and/or microfilariae were not observed. Microscopic changes in the carotid arteries and their branches were limited to small villous projections on the intimal surface apparently resulting from medial hyperplasia. Cutaneous lesions attributable to elaeophorosis were not observed in mule deer. Histopathologic lesions in the carotid arteries of mule deer were similar to those observed in Barbary sheep. The comparative pathology of elaeophorosis in various hosts is reviewed and discussed in terms of its pathology in Barbary sheep. The potential ramifications of this infection on the expanding aoudad population in the southwestern United States require that elaeophorosis be considered in the management of this species, particularly in areas with sympatric mule deer populations.

  10. A serologic survey of viral infections in captive ungulates in Turkish zoos.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Alpay, Gizem; Karakuzulu, Hatice

    2011-03-01

    Zoos and zoologic gardens make optimal environments for interspecies transmission of viral infections. There are seven zoos and several small zoologic collections in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the current status of viral infections in captive ungulates living in these environments. Blood samples were taken from 163 captive animals from two zoos. There were 39 Cameroon sheep (Ovis ammon f aries), 11 Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), 57 pygmy goats (Capra hircus), 9 Angora goats (Capra hircus), 21 mountain goats (Capra aegagrus-aegagrus), 7 llamas (Lama glama), 8 Persian goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa), 7 Caspian red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), 2 fallow deer (Dama dama), and 2 camels (Camelus dromedarius). Antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine adenoviruses (BAV-1 and -3), parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI-3), and bluetongue viruses (BTV-4 and -9) were investigated using the virus neutralization test, and malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) antibodies were screened by ELISA. All animals were negative for BVDV and BHV-1 antibodies. Seroprevalence of BAV-1, BAV-3, PI-3, BRSV, BT-4, BT-9, and MCF were detected as follows: 46.6%, 60.1%, 0.6%, 7.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 51.6%, respectively. Seroprevalence of BAVs and MCF were more common than all other viruses (P < 0.0001). Ten sheep (37.0%), 48 goats (84.2), and 1 Ilama (14.2%) were the only species positive for MCF antibodies. Prevalence of BRSV and MCF antibodies were found to be significantly higher in goats than in sheep. BTV antibodies were detected both in Cameroon sheep and mountain goats and suggest that zoo animals are at risk for BTV in endemic regions. PMID:22946369

  11. A serologic survey of viral infections in captive ungulates in Turkish zoos.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Kadir; Alpay, Gizem; Karakuzulu, Hatice

    2011-03-01

    Zoos and zoologic gardens make optimal environments for interspecies transmission of viral infections. There are seven zoos and several small zoologic collections in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the current status of viral infections in captive ungulates living in these environments. Blood samples were taken from 163 captive animals from two zoos. There were 39 Cameroon sheep (Ovis ammon f aries), 11 Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), 57 pygmy goats (Capra hircus), 9 Angora goats (Capra hircus), 21 mountain goats (Capra aegagrus-aegagrus), 7 llamas (Lama glama), 8 Persian goitred gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa), 7 Caspian red deer (Cervus elaphus maral), 2 fallow deer (Dama dama), and 2 camels (Camelus dromedarius). Antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine adenoviruses (BAV-1 and -3), parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI-3), and bluetongue viruses (BTV-4 and -9) were investigated using the virus neutralization test, and malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) antibodies were screened by ELISA. All animals were negative for BVDV and BHV-1 antibodies. Seroprevalence of BAV-1, BAV-3, PI-3, BRSV, BT-4, BT-9, and MCF were detected as follows: 46.6%, 60.1%, 0.6%, 7.3%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 51.6%, respectively. Seroprevalence of BAVs and MCF were more common than all other viruses (P < 0.0001). Ten sheep (37.0%), 48 goats (84.2), and 1 Ilama (14.2%) were the only species positive for MCF antibodies. Prevalence of BRSV and MCF antibodies were found to be significantly higher in goats than in sheep. BTV antibodies were detected both in Cameroon sheep and mountain goats and suggest that zoo animals are at risk for BTV in endemic regions.

  12. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock. PMID:20205703

  13. Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope form a well-supported chromosomal clade within Antilopini (Bovidae, Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Vozdova, Miluse; Matthee, Conrad A; Robinson, Terence J; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionary clade comprising Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope, defined by an X;BTA5 translocation, is noteworthy for the many autosomal Robertsonian fusions that have driven the chromosome number variation from 2n = 30 observed in Antilope cervicapra, to the 2n = 58 in present Eudorcas thomsoni and Eudorcas rufifrons. This work reports the phylogenetic relationships within the Antilopini using comprehensive cytogenetic data from A. cervicapra, Gazella leptoceros, Nanger dama ruficollis, and E. thomsoni together with corrected karyotypic data from an additional nine species previously reported in the literature. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC and microdissected cattle painting probes, in conjunction with differential staining techniques, provide the following: (i) a detailed analysis of the E. thomsoni chromosomes, (ii) the identification and fine-scale analysis the BTA3 orthologue in species of Antilopini, and (iii) the location of the pseudoautosomal regions on sex chromosomes of the four species. Our phylogenetic analysis of the chromosomal data supports monophyly of Nanger and Eudorcas and suggests an affiliation between A. cervicapra and some of the Gazella species. This renders Gazella paraphyletic and emphasizes a closer relationship between Antilope and Gazella than what has previously been considered. PMID:25416455

  14. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  15. A revised phylogeny of Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Bärmann, Eva Verena; Rössner, Gertrud Elisabeth; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-05-01

    Antilopini (gazelles and their allies) are one of the most diverse but phylogenetically controversial groups of bovids. Here we provide a molecular phylogeny of this poorly understood taxon using combined analyses of mitochondrial (CYTB, COIII, 12S, 16S) and nuclear (KCAS, SPTBN1, PRKCI, MC1R, THYR) genes. We explore the influence of data partitioning and different analytical methods, including Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, on the inferred relationships within Antilopini. We achieve increased resolution and support compared to previous analyses especially in the two most problematic parts of their tree. First, taxa commonly referred to as "gazelles" are recovered as paraphyletic, as the genus Gazella appears more closely related to the Indian blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) than to the other two gazelle genera (Nanger and Eudorcas). Second, we recovered a strongly supported sister relationship between one of the dwarf antelopes (Ourebia) and the Antilopini subgroup Antilopina (Saiga, Gerenuk, Springbok, Blackbuck and gazelles). The assessment of the influence of taxon sampling, outgroup rooting, and data partitioning in Bayesian analyses helps explain the contradictory results of previous studies. PMID:23485920

  16. A revised phylogeny of Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Bärmann, Eva Verena; Rössner, Gertrud Elisabeth; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-05-01

    Antilopini (gazelles and their allies) are one of the most diverse but phylogenetically controversial groups of bovids. Here we provide a molecular phylogeny of this poorly understood taxon using combined analyses of mitochondrial (CYTB, COIII, 12S, 16S) and nuclear (KCAS, SPTBN1, PRKCI, MC1R, THYR) genes. We explore the influence of data partitioning and different analytical methods, including Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, on the inferred relationships within Antilopini. We achieve increased resolution and support compared to previous analyses especially in the two most problematic parts of their tree. First, taxa commonly referred to as "gazelles" are recovered as paraphyletic, as the genus Gazella appears more closely related to the Indian blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) than to the other two gazelle genera (Nanger and Eudorcas). Second, we recovered a strongly supported sister relationship between one of the dwarf antelopes (Ourebia) and the Antilopini subgroup Antilopina (Saiga, Gerenuk, Springbok, Blackbuck and gazelles). The assessment of the influence of taxon sampling, outgroup rooting, and data partitioning in Bayesian analyses helps explain the contradictory results of previous studies.

  17. Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope form a well-supported chromosomal clade within Antilopini (Bovidae, Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Vozdova, Miluse; Matthee, Conrad A; Robinson, Terence J; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionary clade comprising Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope, defined by an X;BTA5 translocation, is noteworthy for the many autosomal Robertsonian fusions that have driven the chromosome number variation from 2n = 30 observed in Antilope cervicapra, to the 2n = 58 in present Eudorcas thomsoni and Eudorcas rufifrons. This work reports the phylogenetic relationships within the Antilopini using comprehensive cytogenetic data from A. cervicapra, Gazella leptoceros, Nanger dama ruficollis, and E. thomsoni together with corrected karyotypic data from an additional nine species previously reported in the literature. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC and microdissected cattle painting probes, in conjunction with differential staining techniques, provide the following: (i) a detailed analysis of the E. thomsoni chromosomes, (ii) the identification and fine-scale analysis the BTA3 orthologue in species of Antilopini, and (iii) the location of the pseudoautosomal regions on sex chromosomes of the four species. Our phylogenetic analysis of the chromosomal data supports monophyly of Nanger and Eudorcas and suggests an affiliation between A. cervicapra and some of the Gazella species. This renders Gazella paraphyletic and emphasizes a closer relationship between Antilope and Gazella than what has previously been considered.

  18. New filarial nematode from Japanese serows (Naemorhedus crispus: Bovidae) close to parasites from elephants.

    PubMed

    Uni, S; Bain, O; Agatsuma, T; Katsumi, A; Baba, M; Yanai, T; Takaoka, H

    2006-09-01

    A new onchocercid species, Loxodontofilaria caprini n. sp. (Filarioidea: Nematoda), found in subcutaneous tissues of 37 (33%) of 112 serows (Noemorhedus crispus) examined in Japan, is described. The female worm had the characteristics of Loxodontofilaria, e.g., the large body size, well-developed esophagus with a shallow buccal cavity, and the long tail with three caudal lappets. The male worm of the new species, which was first described in the genus, had unequal length of spicules, 10 pairs of pre- and post-caudal papillae, and three terminal caudal lappets. Deirids were present in both sexes. Among four species of the genus loxodontofiloria: one from the hippopotamus and three from the Elepantidae, L. caprini n. sp. appears close to L. asiatica Bain, Baker & Chabaud, 1982, a subcutaneous parasite of Elephas indicus in Myanmar (Burma). However, L. caprini n. sp. is distinct from L. asiatica in that the Japanese female worm has an esophagus half as long and the microfilariae also half as long with a coiled posterior. The microfilariae were found in the skin of serows. The new parasite appears to clearly illustrate a major event in the evolution of onchocercids: the host-switching. This might have occurred on the Eurasian continent, where elephantids and the lineage of rupicaprines diversified during the Pliocene-Pleistocene, or in Japan, into which some of these hosts migrated. PMID:17007210

  19. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-12-01

    Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  20. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  1. Chromosomes of the antelope genus Kobus (Artiodactyla, Bovidae): karyotypic divergence by centric fusion rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Kingswood, S C; Kumamoto, A T; Charter, S J; Houck, M L; Benirschke, K

    2000-01-01

    G- and C-banded karyotypes of four species of the genus Kobus were compared using the standard karyotype of Bos taurus. Chromosomal complements were 2n = 50-54 in K. ellipsiprymnus, 2n = 50 in K. kob, 2n = 48 in K. leche, and 2n = 52 in K. megaceros. The number of autosomal arms in all karyotypes was 58. Fifteen autosomal pairs were conserved among these four species, including the 1;19 and 2;25 centric fusions, and autosomal differences involved eight centric fusion rearrangements. Five centric fusions were each unique to a particular taxon: 3;10 (K. leche), 3;11 and 6;29 (K. kob), and 5;17 and 7;11 (K. ellipsiprymnus). The 4;7 fusion occurred in K. leche and K. megaceros, whereas the 5;13 fusion occurred in K. kob and K. leche; the 6;18 fusion was found in three species but was absent in K. kob. Differences between the X chromosomes of the four Kobus species were attributed to heterochromatic additions or deletions, and Y-chromosome differences may have been the result of pericentric inversion. G-banded karyotypes of putative K. l. leche and K. l. kafuensis appeared identical, as did C-banded karyotypes of the two subspecies. Karyotypes of K. e. ellipsiprymnus and K. e. defassa differed as a result of the 6;18 centric fusion, which was polymorphic in K. e. defassa, and the 7;11 centric fusion, which was polymorphic in K. e. ellipsiprymnus but absent in K. e. defassa. Several centric fusions were related by monobrachial chain-IV complexes; however, records of hybridization indicate that reproductive isolation between at least certain species of Kobus is incomplete. Karyotypic differences between K. ellipsiprymnus (including K. e. ellipsiprymnus and K. e. defassa), K. kob, K. leche, and K. megaceros support the validity of these taxa, as well as the need to manage them as separate populations.

  2. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  3. Survival of European mouflon (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Hawai'i based on tooth cementum lines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Stephens, R.M.; Thompson, T.L.; Danner, R.M.; Kawakami, B.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable techniques for estimating age of ungulates are necessary to determine population parameters such as age structure and survival. Techniques that rely on dentition, horn, and facial patterns have limited utility for European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), but tooth cementum lines may offer a useful alternative. Cementum lines may not be reliable outside temperate regions, however, because lack of seasonality in diet may affect annulus formation. We evaluated the utility of tooth cementum lines for estimating age of mouflon in Hawai'i in comparison to dentition. Cementum lines were present in mouflon from Mauna Loa, island of Hawai'i, but were less distinct than in North American sheep. The two age-estimation methods provided similar estimates for individuals aged ???3 yr by dentition (the maximum age estimable by dentition), with exact matches in 51% (18/35) of individuals, and an average difference of 0.8 yr (range 04). Estimates of age from cementum lines were higher than those from dentition in 40% (14/35) and lower in 9% (3/35) of individuals. Discrepancies in age estimates between techniques and between paired tooth samples estimated by cementum lines were related to certainty categories assigned by the clarity of cementum lines, reinforcing the importance of collecting a sufficient number of samples to compensate for samples of lower quality, which in our experience, comprised approximately 22% of teeth. Cementum lines appear to provide relatively accurate age estimates for mouflon in Hawai'i, allow estimating age beyond 3 yr, and they offer more precise estimates than tooth eruption patterns. After constructing an age distribution, we estimated annual survival with a log-linear model to be 0.596 (95% CI 0.5540.642) for this heavily controlled population. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press.

  4. Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François

    2010-02-01

    New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

  5. New data on the distribution and taxonomy of fossil Soergel's ox (Soergelia sp., Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) in Yakutia.

    PubMed

    Boeskorov, G G

    2016-07-01

    Novel findings of fossil remains of the extinct artiodactyl Soergel's ox, as well as some findings that were not analyzed previously, are presented in the article. Soergelia remains are extremely rare; therefore, the species range of these animals remains uncharacterized by now and the taxonomic positions of some findings are not clear. Analysis of the new material extends the knowledge on the species range and the limits of morphological variation of the Soergel's ox and allowed a more precise assessment of the taxonomic position of the findings from Yakutia. PMID:27595828

  6. A new African fossil caprin and a combined molecular and morphological Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of caprini (Mammalia: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Bibi, F; Vrba, E; Fack, F

    2012-09-01

    Given that most species that have ever existed on Earth are extinct, no evolutionary history can ever be complete without the inclusion of fossil taxa. Bovids (antelopes and relatives) are one of the most diverse clades of large mammals alive today, with over a hundred living species and hundreds of documented fossil species. With the advent of molecular phylogenetics, major advances have been made in the phylogeny of this clade; however, there has been little attempt to integrate the fossil record into the developing phylogenetic picture. We here describe a new large fossil caprin species from ca. 1.9-Ma deposits from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. To place the new species phylogenetically, we perform a Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular (cytochrome b) and morphological (osteological) character supermatrix. We include all living species of Caprini, the new fossil species, a fossil takin from the Pliocene of Ethiopia (Budorcas churcheri), and the insular subfossil Myotragus balearicus. The combined analysis demonstrates successful incorporation of both living and fossil species within a single phylogeny based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Analysis of the combined supermatrix produces superior resolution than with either the molecular or morphological data sets considered alone. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the data set are also compared and shown to produce similar results. The combined phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new fossil species is nested within Capra, making it one of the earliest representatives of this clade, with implications for molecular clock calibration. Geographical optimization indicates no less than four independent dispersals into Africa by caprins since the Pliocene.

  7. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  8. The first caprine rotavirus detected in Argentina displays genomic features resembling virus strains infecting members of the Bovidae and Camelidae.

    PubMed

    Louge Uriarte, Enrique L; Badaracco, Alejandra; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Zeller, Mark; Heylen, Elizabeth; Manazza, Jorge; Miño, Samuel; Van Ranst, Marc; Odeón, Anselmo; Parreño, Viviana

    2014-06-25

    Rotavirus group A (RVA) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and young animals including small ruminants. The purpose of this study was to identify RVA in dairy goat kids, and to characterize the complete genomic constellation and genetic relatedness with other RVA strains. Four out of twenty fecal samples from diarrheic and non-diarrheic goat kids were positive for RVA by ELISA. A representative sample was selected for further genome analyses. The RVA strain RVA/Goat-wt/ARG/0040/2011/G8P[1] displayed the following genomic constellation: G8-P[1]-I2-R5-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E12-H3, reminiscent to guanaco and other bovine-like RVA strains detected in Argentina. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that most of the genome segments had a rather close relatedness with RVA strains typically obtained from cattle, sheep, South American camelids and goats. Interestingly, strain 0040 possessed the R5 and E12 genotypes which have up to date only been found in different animal species from Argentina. Overall, these findings suggest that strain 0040 could represent a typical goat RVA genome constellation similar to those previously found in other animal species within the order Artiodactyla.

  9. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the Kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne

    2004-12-01

    The kouprey is a very rare bovid species of the Indochinese peninsula, and no living specimen has been described for a long time, suggesting that it is possibly extinct. Its systematic position within the tribe Bovini remains confused since the analyses of morphological characters have led to several conflicting hypotheses. Some authors have also suggested that it could be a hybrid species produced by the crossing of the banteng with gaur, zebu, or water buffalo. Here we performed a molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini to determine the taxonomic status of the kouprey. DNA was extracted from the holotype specimen preserved in the MNHN collections. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on a matrix including all the taxonomic diversity described in the tribe Bovini, and 2065 nucleotide characters, representing three different markers, i.e., the promotor of the lactoferrin and two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidase). The results show that the kouprey belongs to the subtribe Bovina, and that three different clades can be evidenced into this group: the first includes the domestic ox, zebu, and European bison; the second incorporates the yak and American bison; and the third contains the kouprey, banteng and gaur. All hypotheses involving hybridization for the origin of the kouprey can be rejected, confirming that it is a real wild species. Molecular datings and biogeographic inferences suggest that the kouprey diverged from banteng and gaur during the Plio-Pleistocene of Asia. In addition, several molecular signatures were detected in the cytochrome b gene, permitting a molecular identification of the kouprey. We propose a conservation project based on a molecular taxonomy approach for tracking the kouprey in Indochina in order to determine whether some populations still survive in the wild.

  11. Infective larvae of Cercopithifilaria spp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from hard ticks (Ixodidae) recovered from the Japanese serow (Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uni, Shigehiko; Bain, Odile; Fujita, Hiromi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masako; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Hard ticks taken from the Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus, in Yamagata Prefecture, Honshu, harboured infective larvae of onchocercid filariae after incubation from the 22nd to the 158th day. Haemaphysalis flava and H. japonica contained one to eight filarial larvae; females, males and a nymph of the ticks were infected. The 44 infective larvae recovered were 612–1,370 μm long, and 11 of them, 930–1,340 μm long, were studied in detail. The larvae possessed the morphologic characteristics of the larvae of the genus Cercopithifilaria, namely an oesophagus with a posterior glandular part, no buccal capsule and a long tail with three terminal lappets. Five types (A to E) of infective larvae were identified based on the morphologic characteristics. While to date five species of Cercopithifilaria have been described from the Japanese serow, a specific identification of the larvae found in this study was generally not possible. Only type E larvae could be tentatively assigned to Cercopithifilaria tumidicervicata, as they had a cervical swelling similar to that of the adults of this species. A key for the identification of the five larval types is presented. The study presents circumstantial evidences indicating that H. flava and H. japonica may transmit Cercopithifilaria spp. to Japanese serows. It also suggests the possibility that such filarial larvae will be found in hard ticks anywhere, because Cercopithifilaria is distributed worldwide, though this genus generally goes unnoticed, as its microfilariae occur in the skin, not in the blood, of host animals. PMID:23340227

  12. Description of a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej

    2012-06-01

    Examination of faecal samples from semi-captive western Derby elands Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray, in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves of Senegal, revealed the presence of oöcysts of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 that we considered to represent a new species, Eimeria derbiani n. sp. The new species possesses nearly ellipsoidal oöcysts (length/width ratio 1.3) with a bi-layered wall and an average size of 27.6 × 21.5 μm. E. derbiani possesses a micropyle covered by a micropylar cap and ovoidal, single-layered sporocysts with an average size of 14.9 × 7.7 μm, each with a Stieda body. Sporozoites of E. derbiani possess a large refractile body and a nucleus. Sporulation lasted for 2 days at 23°C. The new species is differentiated from the two species parasitising Taurotragus oryx Pallas, E. canna Triffitt, 1924 and E. triffittae Yakimoff, 1934. PMID:22581248

  13. Chromosome conservation among the advanced pecorans and determination of the primitive bovid karyotype.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D S; Derr, J N; Womack, J E

    1994-01-01

    Extensive monobrachial QFH-band homologies were found among cattle (Bovidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Masai giraffe (Giraffidae), and mule and whitetail deer (Cervidae). The deer species had identical karyotypes (2n = 70, NAA = 70). Interfamily comparisons demonstrated that cattle (2n = 60, NAA = 58) and pronghorn (2n = 58, NAA = 60) were karyotypically the most similar. The giraffe possessed a 2n = 30, NAA = 54, and differed from the other artiodactyls by having a preponderance of biarmed autosomes. The primarily acrocentric deer karyotypes showed several chromosome arm disruptions relative to the other species. Comparative cytogenetic data among the advanced pecorans strongly suggest that the 2n = 60, NAA = 58 karyotype found in several species of the tribe Bovini is probably near the primitive condition for the Bovidae. However, the ancestral conditions of the sex chromosomes within the Bovidae and among the advanced pecorans remain in question. PMID:8014460

  14. Evolution and recombination of bovine DNA repeats.

    PubMed

    Jobse, C; Buntjer, J B; Haagsma, N; Breukelman, H J; Beintema, J J; Lenstra, J A

    1995-09-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattle, sheep, and goat is also present in Cervidae (deer) and apparently predates the Bovidae. However, the other components of the bovine satellites were amplified after the divergence of the cattle and the Caprinae (sheep and goat). A 23-bp motif, which as subrepeat of two major satellites occupies 5% of the cattle genome, emerged only after the split of the water buffalo and other cattle species. During the evolution of the Bovidae the satellite repeat units were shaped by recombination events involving subrepeats, other satellite components, and SINE elements. Differences in restriction sites of homologous satellites indicate a continuing rapid horizontal spread of new sequence variants.

  15. Resolving the Evolution of Extant and Extinct Ruminants With High-Throughput Phylogenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pecorans (higher ruminants) are believed to have rapidly speciated in the Mid-Eocene, resulting in five distinct extant families; Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae. Due to the rapid radiation, the Pecoran phylogeny has proven difficult to resolve and eleven of the fift...

  16. 76 FR 66954 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) to enhance their propagation or.... Families: Bovidae. Equidae. Psittacidae. Crocodilidae. Species: Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoides nigra). radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata). Red-crowned crane (Grus japonica). ring-tailed lemur (Lemur...

  17. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  18. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency.

  19. The melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1-R) gene as a tool in evolutionary studies of artiodactyles.

    PubMed

    Klungland, H; Røed, K H; Nesbø, C L; Jakobsen, K S; Våge, D I

    1999-01-01

    The complete coding region of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1-R) gene was characterized in species belonging to the two families Bovidae and Cervidae; cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), muskox (Ovibos moschatus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). This well conserved gene is a central regulator of mammalian coat colour. Examination of the interspecies variability revealed a 5.3-6.8% divergence between the Cervidae and Bovidae families, whereas the divergence within the families were 1.0-3.1% and 1.2-4.6%, respectively. Complete identity was found when two subspecies of reindeer, Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus) and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platvrhynehus), were analyzed. An rooted phylogenetic tree based on Bovidae and Cervidae MC1-R DNA sequences was in complete agreement with current taxonomy, and was supported by bootstrapping analysis. Due to different frequencies of silent vs. replacement mutations, the amino acid based phylogenetic tree contains several dissimilarities when compared to the DNA based phylogenetic tree.

  20. The melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1-R) gene as a tool in evolutionary studies of artiodactyles.

    PubMed

    Klungland, H; Røed, K H; Nesbø, C L; Jakobsen, K S; Våge, D I

    1999-01-01

    The complete coding region of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1-R) gene was characterized in species belonging to the two families Bovidae and Cervidae; cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), muskox (Ovibos moschatus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). This well conserved gene is a central regulator of mammalian coat colour. Examination of the interspecies variability revealed a 5.3-6.8% divergence between the Cervidae and Bovidae families, whereas the divergence within the families were 1.0-3.1% and 1.2-4.6%, respectively. Complete identity was found when two subspecies of reindeer, Eurasian tundra reindeer (R.t. tarandus) and Svalbard reindeer (R.t. platvrhynehus), were analyzed. An rooted phylogenetic tree based on Bovidae and Cervidae MC1-R DNA sequences was in complete agreement with current taxonomy, and was supported by bootstrapping analysis. Due to different frequencies of silent vs. replacement mutations, the amino acid based phylogenetic tree contains several dissimilarities when compared to the DNA based phylogenetic tree. PMID:10628296

  1. Molecular cytogenetic insights to the phylogenetic affinities of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Perelman, Polina L; Elder, Frederick F B; Robinson, Terence J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Rubes, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    Five families are traditionally recognized within higher ruminants (Pecora): Bovidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Antilocapridae. The phylogenetic relationships of Antilocapridae and Giraffidae within Pecora are, however, uncertain. While numerous fusions (mostly Robertsonian) have accumulated in the giraffe's karyotype (Giraffa camelopardalis, Giraffidae, 2n = 30), that of the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) is very similar to the hypothesised pecoran ancestral state (2n = 58). We examined the chromosomal rearrangements of two species, the giraffe and pronghorn, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization painting probes and BAC clones derived from cattle (Bos taurus, Bovidae). Our data place Moschus (Moschidae) closer to Bovidae than Cervidae. Although the alternative (i.e., Moschidae + Cervidae as sister groups) could not be discounted in recent sequence-based analyses, cytogenetics bolsters conclusions that the former is more likely. Additionally, DNA sequences were isolated from the centromeric regions of both species and compared. Analysis of cenDNA show that unlike the pronghorn, the centromeres of the giraffe are probably organized in a more complex fashion comprising different repetitive sequences specific to single chromosomal pairs or groups of chromosomes. The distribution of nucleolar organiser region (NOR) sites, often an effective phylogenetic marker, were also examined in the two species. In the giraffe, the position of NORs seems to be autapomorphic since similar localizations have not been found in other species within Pecora. PMID:23896647

  2. Distribution and origin of bovine major histocompatibility complex class II DQA1 genes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S; Chen, S; Miki, M; Kado, M; Aida, Y

    2008-09-01

    We sequenced the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQA1 gene in 352 Japanese cattle (95 Japanese Black, 91 Holstein, 102 Japanese Shorthorn and 64 Jersey cattle) using a new sequence-based typing method. In total, 19 bovine MHC (BoLA)-DQA1 alleles, of which two were novel alleles, were detected. The Holstein, Jersey, Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Black breeds had 13, 12, 10 and 15 alleles, respectively. The dendrogram that was constructed by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the DQA1 gene allele frequencies of the four Japanese cattle breeds showed that the Holstein and Japanese Black breeds were closest to each other, with Jersey being farther from these two breeds than Japanese Shorthorn. In addition, Wu-Kabat analysis showed that the DQA1 alleles of the Holstein and Japanese Black were the most and least polymorphic, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the DQA1 gene of Bovidae such as cattle, sheep, bison and goat were more similar to pig SLA-DQA genes than to human HLA-DQA1 and dog DLA-DQA genes. The cattle, goat, bison, sheep, human and pig DQA1 molecules had similar rates of amino acid sequence polymorphism, but the distribution of their polymorphic residues differed from that in the dog DQA1 protein. However, the Bovidae DQA1 molecule had more polymorphic residues than the human, pig and dog DQA molecules at two regions, namely positions 52-53 and 65-66. This indicates that the Bovidae DQA1 locus is more polymorphic than the DQA loci of other species.

  3. Origins and function of 3-ribosylurate in bovid erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Davids, V; Blackhurst, D M; Katz, A A; Harley, E H

    2012-06-01

    3-Ribosylurate is a dominant feature on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of acid extracts of erythrocytes from cows and buffalo, but is HPLC-undetectable in acid extracts of erythrocytes from all other species examined to date. Various aspects of this unique low molecular weight substance remain unexplored since it was first identified. In this study, the mutation(s) responsible for the appearance of ribosylurate in these cells is shown to be specific to members of both tribes of the Bovinae subfamily (Bovidae family), being detectable in the erythrocytes of both the cow and the buffalo (Bovini tribe) as well as in the kudu (Strepsicerotini tribe), but not in representative species from the other subfamilies of the Bovidae family. More specifically, expression of the mutation(s) seems to be restricted to the erythrocyte lineage of these species, ribosylurate being undetectable in cow white blood cells and primary cultures of fibroblasts. Novel evidence is presented that ribosylurate has antioxidant activity. Accumulation of high levels specifically within the haemoglobin-rich milieu of circulating erythrocytes may serve to protect perfused tissues by removing pathophysiological levels of hydrogen peroxide from plasma. Maintenance of ribosylurate levels may be important in conditions associated with oxidative stress in Bovinae.

  4. New cryptic karyotypic differences between cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Planas, Jordi; Rossi, Elena; Malagutti, Luca; Parma, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) and goat (Capra hircus) belong to the Bovidae family, and they share a common ancestor 19.7-21.5 Ma ago (MYA). The Bovidae family apparently experienced a rapid species radiation in the middle Miocene. The present day cattle and goat possess the same diploid chromosome number (2n = 60) and structurally similar autosomes, except that a small subcentromeric portion of cattle chromosome nine has been translocated to goat chromosome 14. In this study, we adopted a new strategy that involves the use of bioinformatics approach to detect unknown cryptic chromosome divergences between cattle and goat using and subsequent validation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacterial artificial chromosome clones. We identified two hypothetical discrepancies between the cattle and goat genome assemblies: an inversion in the goat chromosome 13 and a transposition in the goat chromosome 6. The FISH technique allowed clear validation of the existence of a new 7.4 Mb chromosomal inversion in the goat chromosome 13. Regarding the transposition in the goat chromosome six, FISH analyses revealed that the cattle and goat genomes shared the same organization, with the assembly of the goat genome being the correct one. Moreover, we defined, for the first time, the size and orientation of the translocated fragment involved in the evolutionary translocation between cattle chromosomes 9 and goat chromosome 14. Our results suggest that bioinformatics represents an efficient method for detecting cryptic chromosome divergences among species.

  5. [Cloning and analysis of highly repetitive sequence fragments from takin (Budorcas taxicolor)].

    PubMed

    Qian, Min; Dou, Zhen; Gu, Yong Xi; Zhang, Qin; Lu, Run Long; Zhu, Xue Liang

    2002-03-01

    Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) is a large animal living in China and other adjacent countries, which belongs to Bovidae of Artiodactyla. The anatomy, morphology and behavior of takin are between species of the subfamily Bovinae and Caprinae. It is now in a separated genus or in the same genus with muskox (Ovibos moschatus). To gain insight into the evolution of takin, we purified and cloned its highly repetitive BamHI fragments from the genomic DNA. The sequences of three fragments were highly homologous, indicative of units of a large repetitive DNA arrays. Southern hybridization using these fragments as probes showed identical patterns among individuals in both the same and different subspecies, implying conserved sequences and distributions of the BamHI clusters in takin genome. Sequence comparison with 1.714 and 1.715 satellite DNA of other species in Bovidae supports that takin has a closer relationship with the subfamily Caprinae than with Bovinae. It also suggests that these BamHI fragments may represent repeat units of the centromeric satellite DNA of takin. PMID:15344315

  6. Regional diversity patterns in African bovids, hyaenids, and felids during the past 3 million years: the role of taphonomic bias and implications for the evolution of Paranthropus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, David B.; Faith, J. Tyler; Bobe, René; Wood, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Reconstructing patterns of Plio-Pleistocene mammalian faunal exchange between eastern and southern Africa may help us to better understand patterns of evolution within the hominin clade. However, differences in geological context, taphonomic history and collection methods, as well as a lack of a precise chronology in one of the regions, complicate attempts to compare the faunas of the two regions, but access to new comprehensive datasets encouraged us to re-examine this critical time period in the African paleontological record. In this study, we examine the biogeographic histories of three terrestrial African mammalian families whose fossil records span the past 3 million years to test hypotheses related to the evolutionary history of the hominin genus Paranthropus. We used presence/absence data for 117 species from 38 genera within the family Bovidae and 34 species from 15 genera within the families Hyaenidae and Felidae from 52 eastern African and 40 southern African fossil localities. These assemblages were placed into 500 ka time slices and compared at both the genus and species level using the Jaccard index of faunal similarity. Our findings indicate that sampling biases have more effect on the patterns of interchange between eastern and southern African Bovidae than they do the patterns of interchange seen in the Hyaenidae and Felidae. However, even when these biases are taken into account there are persistent differences in the degree of interchange within and between these families. These findings suggest that mammalian groups (including hominins) can have very different histories of exchange between eastern and southern Africa over the past 3 million years. There is no a priori reason why any of the three families we examined is a suitable proxy for the eastern and southern African hyper-megadont and megadont hominin taxa presently included in Paranthropus, but of the three we suggest that the Bovidae is likely to come closest to being an appropriate

  7. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Fieke M.; La Rocca, S. Anna; Khatri, Meenakshi; Lopez, Javier; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice. PMID:26274399

  8. [Recent developments relevant to animal welfare for the optimization of distance immobilization].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H

    1998-07-01

    Developments in the field of distance immobilization with regard to animal welfare are reported. In order to prevent trauma, the impact energy of the darts has to be adjusted species specifically to the quality of the epidermis, the subcutaneous tissue and the thickness of the coat. A momentum of 10 joule in Equidae, or 20 joule in Bovidae and Cervidae should not be exceeded in any case. The impact energy can be reduced to 50% by using rubber caps with the darts; it is therefore recommended to use them regularly. The use of a laser range finder allows the most precise and careful application. Dosage recommendations for the "Hellabrunner Mixture" (mortality rate 0.35%) and for Long Acting Neuroleptic (LAN) are given. It is referred to the relevant legal regulations. PMID:9710926

  9. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 2. The structure and changes over time.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2014-09-01

    During the last century the recorded parasite fauna of Bison bonasus includes 88 species. These are 22 species of protozoa, 4 trematode species, 4 cestode species, 43 nematode species, 7 mites, 4 Ixodidae ticks, 1 Mallophaga species, 1 Anoplura, and 2 Hippoboscidae flies. There are few monoxenous parasites, the majority of parasites are typical for other Bovidae and Cervidae species and many are newly acquired from Cervidae. This is an evident increased trend in the parasite species richness, in both the prevalence and intensity of infections, which is associated with the bison population size, host status (captive breeding or free-ranging) and the possibility of contact with other ruminant species. In light of the changes to parasite species richness during the last decades, special emphasis shall be given to new parasite species reported in European bison, their pathogenicity and potential implications for conservation.

  10. Anatomical and genetic study of an ancient animal tooth showing brachyodont and hypsodont mixed taxonomical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, L V; Obón, J A; Whyte, A; Tejedor, M T; Whyte, J; Cisneros, A

    2013-05-01

    A non-human dental piece was found in a Roman Empire tomb dated the 3rd century A.C. in Zaragoza (Spain). The morphology of this piece showed mixed brachyodont (carnivores) and hypsodont (herbivores) characteristics. As a result, the taxonomical assignation of the piece was impossible. Therefore, a protocol based on the DNA sequence of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial region (COI) was applied. For this purpose, a pair of primers able to amplify this region in a large variety of animals was designed. The results point to a species of the Genus Bos (Family Bovidae). This assignation was later confirmed by these quencing of a short fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop region. A complete morphological description of the tooth is presented together with the DNA sequence study and comparison protocol.

  11. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi.

  12. Blood-gas and acid-base parameters in nontranquilized Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor; Bailey, Tom; Arca-Ruibal, Barbara; Misheff, Martha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2008-03-01

    Arterial and venous blood-gas and acid-base values were established from a herd (n = 19; 14 male, 5 female) of semi-free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the United Arab Emirates. The animals were restrained with the use of a modified raceway incorporating a commercially available handling crate. Statistically significant differences were found between arterial and venous values for PO2 (p < 0.001), PCO2 (p = 0.0141), SO2 (p < 0.001), pH (p = 0.0494), and glucose (p < 0.0001). The results are similar to those reported for the same species under field anesthetic conditions, and to those reported from other species of wild bovidae, both tranquilized and nontranquilized, established under similar methods of restraint. In addition, Bland and Altman plots suggest adequate levels of clinical agreement between venous and arterial pH but not between arterial and venous PCO2. PMID:18432091

  13. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Fieke M; La Rocca, S Anna; Khatri, Meenakshi; Lopez, Javier; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice. PMID:26274399

  14. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi. PMID:25868849

  15. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Fieke M; La Rocca, S Anna; Khatri, Meenakshi; Lopez, Javier; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice.

  16. Stable isotopes provide independent support for the use of mesowear variables for inferring diets in African antelopes.

    PubMed

    Louys, Julien; Ditchfield, Peter; Meloro, Carlo; Elton, Sarah; Bishop, Laura C

    2012-11-01

    We examine the relationship between mesowear variables and carbon and nitrogen isotopes in 16 species of African antelope (Mammalia: Bovidae). We show significant differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values between individuals exhibiting sharp versus round cusps, and high versus low occlusal relief. We show significant correlations between mesowear variables and both carbon and nitrogen isotopes. We find significant correlations between mesowear score and nitrogen, but not carbon isotopes. Finally, we find no significant correlations between hypsodonty index and either isotope examined. Our results provide strong support for the use of mesowear variables in palaeodietary reconstructions of antelopes. Our results further suggest that for the antelopes examined here, mesowear signals are a direct result of diet, while hyposodonty may be the result of phylogenetic legacy.

  17. Comparative chromosome painting of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) karyotypes with human and dromedary camel probes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pronghorn (Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) and saola (Bovidae, 2n = 50) are members of Pecora, a highly diversified group of even-toed hoofed mammals. Karyotypes of these species were not involved in chromosome painting studies despite their intriguing phylogenetic positions in Pecora. Results To trace the chromosome evolution during very fast radiation of main families from the common Pecoran ancestor, high-resolution comparative chromosome maps of pronghorn and saola with human (HSA) and dromedary camel (CDR) painting probes were established. The human and dromedary camel painting probes revealed 50 and 64 conserved segments respectively in the pronghorn genome, while 51 and 63 conserved segments respectively in the saola genome. Integrative analysis with published comparative maps showed that inversions in chromosomes homologous to CDR19/35/19 (HSA 10/20/10), CDR12/34/12 (HSA12/22/12/22), CDR10/33/10 (HSA 11) are present in representatives of all five living Pecoran families. The pronghorn karyotype could have formed from a putative 2n = 58 Pecoran ancestral karyotype by one fission and one fusion and that the saola karyotype differs from the presumed 2n = 60 bovid ancestral karyotype (2n = 60) by five fusions. Conclusion The establishment of high-resolution comparative maps for pronghorn and saola has shed some new insights into the putative ancestral karyotype, chromosomal evolution and phylogenic relationships in Pecora. No cytogenetic signature rearrangements were found that could unite the Antilocapridae with Giraffidae or with any other Pecoran families. Our data on the saola support a separate position of Pseudorigyna subtribe rather than its affinity to either Bovina or Bubalina, but the saola phylogenetic position within Bovidae remains unresolved. PMID:24923361

  18. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of ruminantia and the alternative position of the moschidae.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2003-04-01

    The ruminants constitute the largest group of ungulates, with >190 species, and its distribution is widespread throughout all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Six families are traditionally recognized within the suborder Ruminantia: Antilocapridae (pronghorns), Bovidae (cattle, sheep, and antelopes), Cervidae (deer), Giraffidae (giraffes and okapis), Moschidae (musk deer), and Tragulidae (chevrotains). The interrelationships of the families have been an area of controversy among morphology, palaeontology, and molecular studies, and almost all possible evolutionary scenarios have been proposed in the literature. We analyzed a large DNA data set (5,322 nucleotides) for 23 species including both mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 16S rRNA) and nuclear (kappa-casein, cytochrome P-450, lactoferrin, and alpha-lactalbumin) markers. Our results show that the family Tragulidae occupies a basal position with respect to all other ruminant families, confirming the traditional view that separates Tragulina and Pecora. Within the pecorans, Antilocapridae and Giraffidae emerge first, and the families Bovidae, Moschidae, and Cervidae are allied, with the unexpected placement of Moschus close to bovids rather than to cervids. We used these molecular results to assess the homoplastic evolution of morphological characters within the Ruminantia. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach based on the continuous autocorrelation of evolutionary rates along branches was applied to estimate the divergence ages between the major clades of ruminants. The evolutionary radiation of Pecora occurred at the Early/Late Oligocene transition, and Pecoran families diversified and dispersed rapidly during the Early and Middle Miocene. We propose a biogeographic scenario to explain the extraordinary expansion of this group during the Cenozoic era.

  19. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries.

  20. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries. PMID:26096044

  1. Globally dispersed Y chromosomal haplotypes in wild and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hanotte, O; Drögemüller, C; Calvo, J; Godfrey, R; Coltman, D; Maddox, J F; Marzanov, N; Kantanen, J; Kijas, J W

    2006-10-01

    To date, investigations of genetic diversity and the origins of domestication in sheep have utilised autosomal microsatellites and variation in the mitochondrial genome. We present the first analysis of both domestic and wild sheep using genetic markers residing on the ovine Y chromosome. Analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism (oY1) in the SRY promoter region revealed that allele A-oY1 was present in all wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), two subspecies of thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli), European Mouflon (Ovis musimon) and the Barbary (Ammontragis lervia). A-oY1 also had the highest frequency (71.4%) within 458 domestic sheep drawn from 65 breeds sampled from Africa, Asia, Australia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia. Sequence analysis of a second locus, microsatellite SRYM18, revealed a compound repeat array displaying fixed differences, which identified bighorn and thinhorn sheep as distinct from the European Mouflon and domestic animals. Combined genotypic data identified 11 male-specific haplotypes that represented at least two separate lineages. Investigation of the geographical distribution of each haplotype revealed that one (H6) was both very common and widespread in the global sample of domestic breeds. The remaining haplotypes each displayed more restricted and informative distributions. For example, H5 was likely founded following the domestication of European breeds and was used to trace the recent transportation of animals to both the Caribbean and Australia. A high rate of Y chromosomal dispersal appears to have taken place during the development of domestic sheep as only 12.9% of the total observed variation was partitioned between major geographical regions.

  2. Genomic organization and recombinational unit duplication-driven evolution of ovine and bovine T cell receptor gamma loci

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Miccoli, Maria C; Antonacci, Rachele; Pesole, Graziano; Ciccarese, Salvatrice

    2008-01-01

    Background In humans and mice ("γδ low species") less than 5% of the peripheral blood T lymphocytes are gamma/delta T cells, whereas in chicken and artiodactyls ("γδ high species") gamma/delta T cells represent about half of the T cells in peripheral blood. In cattle and sheep (Bovidae) two paralogous T cell receptor gamma loci (TRG1 and TRG2) have been found. TRG1 is located on 4q3.1, within a region of homology with the human TRG locus on chromosome 7, while TRG2 localizes on 4q2.2 and appears to be unique to ruminants. The purpose of this study was the sequencing of the genomic regions encompassing both loci in a "γδ high" organism and the analysis of their evolutionary history. Results We obtained the contiguous genomic sequences of the complete sheep TRG1 and TRG2 loci gene repertoire and we performed cattle/sheep sequence analysis comparison using data available through public databases. Dot plot similarity matrix comparing the two sheep loci with each other has shown that variable (V), joining (J) and constant (C) genes have evolved through a series of duplication events involving either entire cassettes, each containing the basic V-J-J-C recombinational unit, or single V genes. The phylogenetic behaviour of the eight enhancer-like elements found in the sheep, compared with the single copy present in the human TRG locus, and evidence from concordant insertions of repetitive elements in all analyzed TRGJ blocks allowed us to infer an evolutionary scenario which highlights the genetic "flexibility" of this region and the duplication-driven evolution of gene cassettes. The strong similarity of the human and Bovidae intergenic J-J-C regions, which display an enhancer-like element at their 3' ends, further supports their key role in duplications. Conclusion We propose that only duplications of entire J-J-C regions that possessed an enhancer-like element at their 3' end, and acquired at least one V segment at their 5' end, were selected and fixed as

  3. Adaptive explanation in socio-ecology: lessons from the Equidae.

    PubMed

    Linklater, W L

    2000-02-01

    Socio-ecological explanations for intra- and interspecific variation in the social and spatial organization of animals predominate in the scientific literature. The socio-ecological model, developed first for the Bovidae and Cervidae, is commonly applied more widely to other groups including the Equidae. Intraspecific comparisons are particularly valuable because they allow the role of environment and demography on social and spatial organization to be understood while controlling for phylogeny or morphology which confound interspecific comparisons. Feral horse (Equus caballus Linnaeus 1758) populations with different demography inhabit a range of environments throughout the world. I use 56 reports to obtain 23 measures or characteristics of the behaviour and the social and spatial organization of 19 feral horse populations in which the environment, demography, management, research effort and sample size are also described. Comparison shows that different populations had remarkably similar social and spatial organization and that group sizes and composition, and home range sizes varied as much within as between populations. I assess the few exceptions to uniformity and conclude that they are due to the attributes of the studies themselves, particularly to poor definition of terms and inadequate empiricism, rather than to the environment or demography per se. Interspecific comparisons show that equid species adhere to their different social and spatial organizations despite similarities in their environments and even when species are sympatric. Furthermore, equid male territoriality has been ill-defined in previous studies, observations presented as evidence of territoriality are also found in non-territorial equids, and populations of supposedly territorial species demonstrate female defence polygyny. Thus, territoriality may not be a useful categorization in the Equidae. Moreover, although equid socio-ecologists have relied on the socio-ecological model derived

  4. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-25

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales. PMID:26261300

  5. Phylogeny of ruminants secretory ribonuclease gene sequences of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Beintema, Jaap J; Breukelman, Heleen J; Dubois, Jean-Yves F; Warmels, Hayo W

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on primary structures of mammalian ribonucleases, indicated that three homologous enzymes (pancreatic, seminal and brain ribonucleases) present in the bovine species are the results of gene duplication events, which occurred in the ancestor of the ruminants after divergence from other artiodactyls. In this paper sequences are presented of genes encoding pancreatic and brain-type ribonuclease genes of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). The seminal-type ribonuclease gene could not be detected in this species, neither by PCR amplification nor by Southern blot analyses, indicating that it may be deleted completely in this species. Previously we demonstrated of a study of amino acid sequences of pancreatic ribonucleases of a large number of ruminants the monophyly of bovids and cervids, and that pronghorn groups with giraffe. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribonucleases and other molecules from ruminant species and compare these with published data. Chevrotain (Tragulus) always groups with the other ruminants as separate taxon from the pecora or true ruminants. Within the pecora the relationships between Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, and pronghorn (Antilocapra) cannot be decided with certainty, although in the majority of analyses Antilocapra diverges first, separately or joined with giraffe. Broad taxon sampling and investigation of specific sequence features may be as important for reliable conclusions in phylogeny as the lengths of analyzed sequences. PMID:12470934

  6. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective.

  7. Adaptation of IFN-gamma ELISA and ELISPOT tests for feline tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Shelley G; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle; Jahans, Keith

    2008-08-15

    There are currently no reliable immunodiagnostic tests for feline tuberculosis. Infection of domestic cats in the UK is thought to occur via their contact with the relevant reservoir of infection, e.g. cattle and badgers for Mycobacterium bovis, and rodents for M. microti. In the African National Parks, where M. bovis infection of Bovidae is an increasing problem, transmission to big cats is occurring via their ingestion of infected carcasses. We have adapted feline ELISA and ELISPOT assays to potentially provide the first cell-based diagnostic test for the detection of tuberculosis in cats. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cell antigen-specific IFN-gamma responses of 18 cats suspected of mycobacterial infection for which biopsy material was co-submitted to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency for mycobacterial culture and identification. Seventeen cats were tested by ELISA while seven cats were tested by ELISPOT (six cats were tested by both ELISA and ELISPOT). Six healthy control cats provided baseline data for these tests. Responses to bovine and avian tuberculins (PPDB and PPDA) and a protein cocktail of ESAT6 and CFP10 were measured, together with positive mitogen (PMA and calcium ionophore) and negative (medium) controls. Overall, both ELISPOT and ELISA tests were found to be suitable for generating rapid results (2 and 4 days, respectively), which provided good predictive information for M. bovis and M. microti infections, but were unable to reliably discern M. avium infection.

  8. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae.

  9. Development of a sequential multicolor-FISH approach with 13 chromosome-specific painting probes for the rapid identification of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Perucatti, Angela; Iannuzzi, Alessandra; Incarnato, Domenico; Genualdo, Viviana; Di Berardino, Dino; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2014-08-01

    The development of new molecular techniques (array CGH, M-FISH, SKY-FISH, etc.) has led to great advancements in the entire field of molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of these methods is still very limited in farm animals. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the production of 13 river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) chromosome-specific painting probes, generated via chromosome microdissection and the DOP-PCR procedure. A sequential multicolor-FISH approach is also proposed on the same slide for the rapid identification of river buffalo chromosome/arms, namely, 1p-1q, 2p-2q, 3p-3q, 4p-4q, 5p-5q, 18, X, and Y, using both conventional and late-replicating banded chromosome preparations counterstained by DAPI. The provided 'bank' of chromosome-specific painting probes is useful for any further cytogenetic investigation not only for the buffalo breeds, but also for other species of the family Bovidae, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, for chromosome abnormality diagnosis, and, more generally, for evolutionary studies.

  10. Comparative analysis of the course of the facial and transverse facial arteries in selected ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Maryniak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes variations in patterns of origin from the main arteries as well as of branching and course demonstrated on the basis of selected facial arteries in several species of ruminants. The studies included 35 species of 27 genera, 9 subfamilies of animals belonging to families of Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Moschidae from the suborder of Ruminantia, including species maintained by humans. Altogether, 435 preparations of head arteries were studied. Arteries of the examined animals were filled with acetone-dissolved stained vinyl superchloride or stained latex LBS3060. The facial artery was found to originate from the main arteries of the head in three different manners. In species devoid of facial arteries, the presence of a pronounced transverse facial artery could be demonstrated. Division of the animals into large and small ruminants, generally accepted by authors of animal anatomy textbooks, was found to be oversimplified and lacking in universal character, as to the patterns of origin and course of the facial artery and the transverse facial artery.

  11. Water buffalo genome science comes of age.

    PubMed

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N; Dodson, Michael V; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J; McLean, Derek J; Womack, James E; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-06-17

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.

  12. Role of the prion protein family in the gonads

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pailhoux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The prion-gene family comprises four members named PRNP (PRPc), PRND (Doppel), PRNT (PRT), and SPRN (Shadoo). According to species, PRND is located 16–52 kb downstream from the PRNP locus, whereas SPRN is located on another chromosome. The fourth prion-family gene, PRNT, belongs to the same genomic cluster as PRNP and PRND in humans and bovidae. PRNT and PRND possibly resulted from a duplication event of PRND and PRNP, respectively, that occurred early during eutherian species divergence. Although most of the studies concerning the prion-family has been done on PRPc and its involvement in transmissible neurodegenerative disorders, different works report some potential roles of these proteins in the reproductive function of both sexes. Among them, a clear role of PRND, that encodes for the Doppel protein, in male fertility has been demonstrated through gene targeting studies in mice. In other species, Doppel seems to play a role in testis and ovary development but its cellular localization is variable according to the gonadal developmental stage and to the mammalian species considered. For the other three genes, their roles in reproductive function appear ill-defined and/or controversial. The present review aimed to synthesize all the available data on these prion-family members and their relations with reproductive processes, mainly in the gonad of both sexes. PMID:25364761

  13. A genome-wide association study identifies a genomic region for the polycerate phenotype in sheep (Ovis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xue; Yang, Guang-Li; Peng, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Min; Chen, Ze-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Kantanen, Juha; Shen, Min; Li, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Horns are a cranial appendage found exclusively in Bovidae, and play important roles in accessing resources and mates. In sheep (Ovies aries), horns vary from polled to six-horned, and human have been selecting polled animals in farming and breeding. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study on 24 two-horned versus 22 four-horned phenotypes in a native Chinese breed of Sishui Fur sheep. Together with linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses and haplotype-based association tests, we identified a genomic region comprising 132.0–133.1 Mb on chromosome 2 that contained the top 10 SNPs (including 4 significant SNPs) and 5 most significant haplotypes associated with the polycerate phenotype. In humans and mice, this genomic region contains the HOXD gene cluster and adjacent functional genes EVX2 and KIAA1715, which have a close association with the formation of limbs and genital buds. Our results provide new insights into the genetic basis underlying variable numbers of horns and represent a new resource for use in sheep genetics and breeding. PMID:26883901

  14. Ancient specimens and DNA contamination: a case study from the 12S rRNA gene sequence of the "Linh Duong" bovid ( Pseudonovibos spiralis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2002-03-01

    In 1993, several unusual horn sheaths, collected in the South of Vietnam, were regarded as evidence for a new mammal species, Pseudonovibos spiralis. However, the taxonomic status of P. spiralis remains a highly controversial subject: firstly, it has been related to three different groups of the family Bovidae: Antilopini (gazelles), Bovini (oxen, bisons, and buffaloes), and Caprini sensu lato (goats, sheep and allies). Secondly, certain horns have been shown to be faked. Most recently, it has been suggested, on the basis of 12S rRNA gene sequences, that P. spiralis was a new species of buffalo. I demonstrate here that this conclusion was inaccurate, and base this on the grounds that: (1) the putative sequence of P. spiralis is shown to be a chimera obtained from three different species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis and Saiga tatarica, and (2) several factors indicate that the specimen used was not authentic. This new study confirms earlier suggestions that the horns used to formally describe P. spiralis were bogus and were in fact derived from the horns of domesticated cattle ( Bos taurus). The data suggest that P. spiralis never existed.

  15. Species identification of Tanzanian antelopes using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bitanyi, Stella; Bjørnstad, Gro; Ernest, Eblate M; Nesje, Marit; Kusiluka, Lughano J; Keyyu, Julius D; Mdegela, Robinson H; Røed, Knut H

    2011-05-01

    Efficient tools for consistent species identification are important in wildlife conservation as it can provide information on the levels of species exploitation and assist in solving forensic-related problems. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode in species identification of Tanzanian antelope species. A 470 base-pair region of the COI gene was examined in 95 specimens representing 20 species of antelopes, buffalo and domestic Bovidae. All the Tanzanian species showed unique clades, and sequence divergence within species was <1%, whereas divergence between species ranged from 6.3% to 22%. Lowest interspecific divergence was noted within the Tragelaphus genus. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the examined COI region provided correct and highly supported species clustering using short fragments down to 100 base-pair lengths. This study demonstrates that even short COI fragments can efficiently identify antelope species, thus demonstrating its high potential for use in wildlife conservation activities.

  16. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales.

  17. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-25

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales.

  18. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  19. Species composition and community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur and elephant in the moist forests of South Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K V; Sabu, Thomas K

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats.

  20. Conserved synteny between pig chromosome 8 and human chromosome 4 but rearranged and distorted linkage maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ellegren, H.; Edfors-Lilja, I.; Anderson, L. ); Wintero, A.K. )

    1993-09-01

    The porcine genes encoding interleukin 2, alcohol dehydrogenase (class I) gamma polypeptide, and osteopontin were mapped to chromosome 8 by linkage analysis. Together with previous assignments to this chromosome (the albumin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, and fibrinogen genes), an extensive syntenic homology with human chromosome 4 was discovered. Loci from about three-quarters of the q arm of human chromosome 4 are on pig chromosome 8. However, the linear order of the markers is not identical in the two species, and there are several examples of interspecific differences in the recombination fractions between adjacent markers. The conserved synteny between man and the pig gives strong support to a previous suggestion that a synteny group present in the ancestor of mammalian species has been retained on human chromosome 4q. Since loci from this synteny group are found on two cattle chromosomes, the bovine rearrangement must have occurred after the split of Suidae and Bovidae within Artiodactyla. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  2. Chromosomal variation and perinatal mortality in San Diego zoo Soemmerring's gazelles.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Charter, Suellen J; Goddard, Natalie; Davis, Heidi; Brandt, Margot; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations play a fundamental role in the evolution and speciation of antelopes (Antilopinae, Bovidae), with several species exhibiting polymorphism for centric fusions. For the past 35 years, the San Diego Zoo Global (SDZG) captive population of Soemmerring's gazelles has revealed complex karyotypes resulting from chromosomal translocations with diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 39. Poor reproductive performance of this species in captivity and elevated mortality the first month of life (perinatal) has been attributed to this chromosomal dynamism. We have extended the studies of karyotypic variation in the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle population and analyzed the effect of chromosomal and genetic variation upon perinatal mortality. Karyotypes from 149 captive Soemmerring's gazelles were evaluated revealing two unreported autosomal combinations, now constituting a total of 15 distinct karyotypes for the 3 Robertsonian centric fusions originally described for this population. Among SDZG founders, distinct chromosomal variation and nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure were detected corresponding to the institution of origin of the founders. Low levels of genetic distance and nucleotide diversity among individuals, in addition to high relatedness values, suggested that outbreeding is less of a concern than inbreeding for maintaining a sustainable captive population. Finally, analysis of karyotypes of offspring born into the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle herds, in conjunction with the maternal karyotype showed association of chromosomal makeup with perinatal mortality. This supports the importance of continuing cytogenetic screening efforts, particularly to evaluate the presence of deleterious chromosomal rearrangements in stillborns.

  3. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls.

  4. Effect of species-specific differences in chromosome morphology on chromatin compaction and the frequency and distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in two bovid species: cattle (Bos taurus) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Sebestova, Hana; Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Kotrba, Radim; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema. PMID:26194101

  5. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production.

  6. Horizontal transfer of non-LTR retrotransposons in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1999-01-01

    Since their discovery in family Bovidae (bovids), Bov-B LINEs, believed to be order-specific SINEs, have been found in all ruminants and recently also in Viperidae snakes. The distribution and the evolutionary relationships of Bov-B LINEs provide an indication of their origin and evolutionary dynamics in different species. The evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINE elements has been shown unequivocally to be in Squamata (squamates). The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINE elements in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The direction of horizontal transfer from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of Bov-B LINE elements. The ancestral snake lineage (Boidae) has been recognized as a possible donor of Bov-B LINE elements to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINE elements in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 mya. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINE elements from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINE elements have been stably maintained by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era.

  7. Molecular evolution of Bov-B LINEs in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1999-09-30

    Since their discovery in family Bovidae (bovids), Bov-B LINEs, believed to be order-specific SINEs, have been found in all ruminants and recently also in Viperidae snakes. The distribution and the evolutionary relationships of Bov-B LINEs provide an indication of their origin and evolutionary dynamics in different species. The evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINE elements has been shown unequivocally to be in Squamata (squamates). The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINE elements in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The direction of horizontal transfer from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of Bov-B LINE elements. The ancestor of Colubroidea snakes has been recognized as a possible donor of Bov-B LINE elements to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINE elements in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 My ago. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINE elements from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINE elements have been stably maintained by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era.

  8. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  9. Chromosomal variation and perinatal mortality in San Diego zoo Soemmerring's gazelles.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Charter, Suellen J; Goddard, Natalie; Davis, Heidi; Brandt, Margot; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations play a fundamental role in the evolution and speciation of antelopes (Antilopinae, Bovidae), with several species exhibiting polymorphism for centric fusions. For the past 35 years, the San Diego Zoo Global (SDZG) captive population of Soemmerring's gazelles has revealed complex karyotypes resulting from chromosomal translocations with diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 39. Poor reproductive performance of this species in captivity and elevated mortality the first month of life (perinatal) has been attributed to this chromosomal dynamism. We have extended the studies of karyotypic variation in the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle population and analyzed the effect of chromosomal and genetic variation upon perinatal mortality. Karyotypes from 149 captive Soemmerring's gazelles were evaluated revealing two unreported autosomal combinations, now constituting a total of 15 distinct karyotypes for the 3 Robertsonian centric fusions originally described for this population. Among SDZG founders, distinct chromosomal variation and nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure were detected corresponding to the institution of origin of the founders. Low levels of genetic distance and nucleotide diversity among individuals, in addition to high relatedness values, suggested that outbreeding is less of a concern than inbreeding for maintaining a sustainable captive population. Finally, analysis of karyotypes of offspring born into the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle herds, in conjunction with the maternal karyotype showed association of chromosomal makeup with perinatal mortality. This supports the importance of continuing cytogenetic screening efforts, particularly to evaluate the presence of deleterious chromosomal rearrangements in stillborns. PMID:26011774

  10. Polymorphism of DLK1 and CLPG gene and their association with phenotypic traits in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, F Y; Niu, H; Wang, J Q; Lei, C Z; Lan, X Y; Zhang, C L; Li, M J; Hua, L S; Wang, J; Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    DLK1 and CLPG were located in DLK1-GTL2 imprinted cluster. They all affected muscle growth and meat tenderness. The functional importance of DLK1 and CLPG imply that the variation of the genes could affect the growth traits of animal. PCR-SSCP and sequencing were used to analyze the four loci of DLK1 gene and CLPG gene in 1109 individuals, which belong to eight breeds/species of bovidae, including cattle, buffalo and yak. A synonymous mutation (C451T) was detected in exon 5 of DLK1 in Qinchuan cattle, but didn't change significantly with phenotypic traits. Three genotypes AA, AB and AC of CLPG were identified in Jiaxian cattle. The associations analyst of different genotypes showed that the individuals with genotypes AA and AC had a greater body weight and longer body length than those with genotype AB (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively); the AA individuals were different from those AB (P<0.05) in the circumference of cannon bone. No polymorphism was observed in the other populations at other loci. These results were in agreement with the homology analysis: DLK1 and CLPG genes were in a highly conserved. PMID:20352349

  11. Advanced comparative cytogenetic analysis of X chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, sheep, and human.

    PubMed

    Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; Rebl, A; Di Berardino, D; Goldammer, T; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2012-05-01

    Based on a recently generated comprehensive gene map for Ovis aries chromosome X (OARX) with an approximately even locus distribution, we assigned selected bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes corresponding to these OARX loci to Bubalus bubalis (BBU) and Bos taurus (BTA) by comparative fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to improve cytogenetically the X chromosome maps in these species. Twenty-five added loci in BBUX and BTAX, respectively, contribute to a more detailed description of the cytogenetic organization of these chromosomes. Further seven loci were identified in OARX and two DNA probes were assigned to X and Y chromosomes in river buffalo, cattle, and sheep, respectively, and thus identified loci in the pseudoautosomal region. The additional assignments double the number of cytogenetic loci in BBUX and increase their number in BTAX and OARX. The larger quantity of cytogenetic anchors allows a more precise morphological comparison of bovid X chromosomes among each other and with the Homo sapiens (HSA) X chromosome. The anchor loci confirm and refine syntenic fragments in HSAX and identify several evolutionary breakpoints between the compared chromosomes. The cytogenetic assignments in BBUX, BTAX, and OARX represent useable anchors for the ongoing genome sequence assembly in Bovidae. PMID:22669522

  12. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  13. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective. PMID:25633896

  14. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in deer (Odocoileus spp.) using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Gwilym D; Latch, Emily K

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are growing in popularity as a genetic marker for investigating evolutionary processes. A panel of SNPs is often developed by comparing large quantities of DNA sequence data across multiple individuals to identify polymorphic sites. For non-model species, this is particularly difficult, as performing the necessary large-scale genomic sequencing often exceeds the resources available for the project. In this study, we trial the Bovine SNP50 BeadChip developed in cattle (Bos taurus) for identifying polymorphic SNPs in cervids Odocoileus hemionus (mule deer and black-tailed deer) and O. virginianus (white-tailed deer) in the Pacific Northwest. We found that 38.7% of loci could be genotyped, of which 5% (n = 1068) were polymorphic. Of these 1068 polymorphic SNPs, a mixture of putatively neutral loci (n = 878) and loci under selection (n = 190) were identified with the F(ST)-outlier method. A range of population genetic analyses were implemented using these SNPs and a panel of 10 microsatellite loci. The three types of deer could readily be distinguished with both the SNP and microsatellite datasets. This study demonstrates that commercially developed SNP chips are a viable means of SNP discovery for non-model organisms, even when used between very distantly related species (the Bovidae and Cervidae families diverged some 25.1-30.1 million years before present).

  15. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development.

  16. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-04-16

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. PMID:8622932

  17. Ancient specimens and DNA contamination: a case study from the 12S rRNA gene sequence of the "Linh Duong" bovid (Pseudonovibos spiralis).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2002-03-01

    In 1993, several unusual horn sheaths, collected in the South of Vietnam, were regarded as evidence for a new mammal species, Pseudonovibos spiralis. However, the taxonomic status of P. spiralis remains a highly controversial subject: firstly, it has been related to three different groups of the family Bovidae: Antilopini (gazelles), Bovini (oxen, bisons, and buffaloes), and Caprini sensu lato (goats, sheep and allies). Secondly, certain horns have been shown to be faked. Most recently, it has been suggested, on the basis of 12S rRNA gene sequences, that P. spiralis was a new species of buffalo. I demonstrate here that this conclusion was inaccurate, and base this on the grounds that: (1) the putative sequence of P. spiralis is shown to be a chimera obtained from three different species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis and Saiga tatarica, and (2) several factors indicate that the specimen used was not authentic. This new study confirms earlier suggestions that the horns used to formally describe P. spiralis were bogus and were in fact derived from the horns of domesticated cattle (Bos taurus). The data suggest that P. spiralis never existed. PMID:12046628

  18. A radiation hybrid map for the bovine Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Sheng; Mariani, Paola; Beattie, Craig W; Alexander, Leeson J; Ponce De León, F Abel

    2002-06-01

    Screening a bovine Y Chromosome-specific DNA library resulted in 34 new microsatellites, six of which mapped to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), and 28 localized to the Y-specific region. These microsatellites, together with 23 markers previously mapped to the bovine Y Chr, were scored on a 7000-rad cattle-hamster radiation hybrid (RH) panel. Retention frequency of individual markers ranged from 18.5% to 76.5% with an average of 48.4%. Markers with high retention frequency (>55%) were found to exist in multiple copies on the Y Chr. Thirteen markers were placed on the PAR RH map with the AmelY gene proximal to the pseudoautosomal boundary and 46 markers, including Sry and Tspy gene, on the Y-specific region of the RH map. The microsatellites developed and mapped in this work will be useful for comparative mapping of cattle, sheep, and goat, studying the origin, evolution, and migration of bovidae species and provide an initial platform to develop a high-resolution map of the Y Chr and positional cloning of Y-specific genes. PMID:12115036

  19. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. PMID:26639827

  20. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  1. PCR-RFLP analysis: a promising technique for host species identification of blood meals from tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae).

    PubMed

    Steuber, Stephan; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2005-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using universal primers complementary to the conserved region of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of the mitochondrion DNA (mtDNA) of vertebrates was applied to the identification of the origin of blood meals in tsetse flies. Blood samples from ten potential tsetse hosts of the family bovidae (cattle, water buffalo, red buffalo, waterbuck, springbok, goat, sheep, sable antelope, oryx and dik-dik) were included in this study. Sites for appropriate restriction endonucleases cuts were chosen by pairwise alignment of the amplified 359 bp fragments. A flow chart of endonucleases digestion using three restriction enzymes (e.g. TaqI, AluI and HindII) for the unequivocal identification of the respective bovid species was developed. A number of additional non-specific DNA fragments attributed to the co-amplification of cytochrome b pseudogenes were observed in some species (e.g. in red buffalo and dik-dik after digestion with AluI) but did not hamper assignment of bovid species. The detection rate of host DNA in tsetse by PCR-RFLP was 100, 80, 60 and 40% at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after in vitro feeding, respectively. Identification of the last blood meal was possible even when tsetse had previously fed on different hosts.

  2. The HK/LK polymorphism of erythrocyte cation content in two wild species of east African bovids: demonstrated in wildebeest but not in African buffalo.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, N; Dunham, P B

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of K and Na were determined in erythrocytes from wildebeest and African buffalo resident in Tanzania. The object was to determine if these species possess the HK/LK polymorphism which is typical of other bovid species, but not of other mammals. The polymorphism is characterized by individuals that are either of the HK phenotype (high K and low Na concentrations in red cells) or LK phenotype (low K and high Na concentrations in red cells). Wildebeest were shown to be polymorphic, with the distribution of phenotypes resembling that in domestic cattle. By contrast the polymorphism was not found in the African buffalo; all 59 individuals examined exhibited the HK phenotype. This was unexpected, since the polymorphism has been observed in five divergent bovid species, including two species (water buffalo and domestic cow) that are closely related to the African buffalo, and classified in the same subfamily (Bovinae). The most parsimonious interpretation of this pattern is that the trait was lost from the African buffalo after species in the Bovinae diverged. The biological significance of the HK/LK polymorphism, and reasons for its presence or absence among species in the Bovidae, remain obscure.

  3. [Research on constructing phylogenetics trees of ruminants basing on the database of milk protein gene sequences].

    PubMed

    Fan, B L; Li, N; Wu, C X

    2000-01-01

    Primers designed according to the sequences of four milk protein genes of cow Bos taurus (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-lactoglobin, beta- and kappa-casein) were used to amplify the full length gene of alpha-lactalbumin in yak Bos grunniens (2999 bp), water buffalo Bubalus arnee bubalis (278 bp), partial sequence of this gene in red deer cervus elaphs xanthopygus (1582 bp), 5' and 3' flanking region of beta-lactoglobin gene (2167 bp and 1096 bp in length respectively), 5'-flanking region and exon VIII to exon IX of beta-casein gene (987 bp and 1096 bp in length respectively), exonIV of kappa-casein gene (780 bp). All the amplified DNA fragments were cloned and the Nt sequences were determined. Phylogenetic tree containing 20 species (or subspecies) of ruminantia suborder was constructed according to the partial sequence of kappa-casein gene exon IV (363 bp in length), which shows good monophyly of the Bovidae. And trees constructed according to other milk protein genes indicate that all the milk protein genes have good features for drawing phylogenetics tree at least among species belonging to different subfamilies.

  4. Evolution of ruminant hemoglobins. Thermodynamic divergence of ox and buffalo hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Giardina, B; Arevalo, F; Clementi, M E; Ferrara, L; Di Luccia, A; Lendaro, E; Bellelli, A; Condò, S G

    1992-03-01

    The ligand-binding properties of hemoglobins from two homozygote phenotypes (AA and BB) of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) have been characterized by equilibrium and kinetic techniques. In the case of the BB phenotype, the two constituent hemoglobins have been purified and separately analysed. Buffalo hemoglobins display the reduced sensitivity to organic phosphates characteristic of ruminant hemoglobins, their physiological effector probably being the chloride ion. In contrast to the other known hemoglobins from ruminants, all the hemoglobins from the water buffalo display a significant temperature sensitivity, the delta H for oxygen binding in the presence of physiological effectors approaching that of human hemoglobin (delta H = -30.5 kJ/mol O2). This discrepancy with the other ruminant hemoglobins (e.g. ox, delta H = -10.4 kJ/mol O2), whose primary structure is very similar to that of buffalo, hemoglobins might be correlated to the different habitat and phylogenetic history of the two subfamilies (Bos and Bubalus) of Bovidae.

  5. Embryo sexing and sex chromosomal chimerism analysis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification in cattle and water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Moriyasu, Satoru; Sawai, Ken; Minamihashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    In domestic animals of the family Bovidae, sex preselection of offspring has been demanded for convenience of milk/beef production and animal breeding. Development of the nonsurgical embryo transfer technique and sexing methods of preimplantation embryos made it possible. Sexing based on detection of Y chromosome-specific DNA sequences is considered the most reliable method to date. PCR enables amplification of a target sequence from a small number of blastomeres. However, it requires technical skill and is time consuming. Furthermore, PCR has the risk of false positives because of DNA contamination during handling of the PCR products in duplicate PCR procedures and/or electrophoresis. Therefore, for embryo sexing to become widely used in the cattle embryo transfer industry, a simple, rapid and precise sexing method needs to be developed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method, and the reaction is carried out under isothermal conditions (range, 60 to 65 C) using DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. When the target DNA is amplified by LAMP, a white precipitate derived from magnesium pyrophosphate (a by-product of the LAMP reaction) is observed. It is noteworthy that LAMP does not need special reagents or electrophoresis to detect the amplified DNA. This review describes the development and application of an embryo sexing method using LAMP in cattle and water buffaloes.

  6. Analysis of conserved microsatellite sequences suggests closer relationship between water buffalo Bubalus bubalis and sheep Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Mattapallil, M J; Ali, S

    1999-06-01

    The distribution and evolutionary pattern of the conserved microsatellite repeat sequences (CA)n, (TGG)6, and (GGAT)4 were studied to determine the divergence time and phylogenetic position of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The mean allelic frequencies of these repeat loci showed a high level of heterozygosity among the euartiodactyls (buffalo, cattle, sheep, and goat). Genetic distances calculated from the allelic frequencies of these microsatellites were used to position Bubalus bubalis in the phylogenetic tree. The tree topology revealed a closer proximity of the Bubalus bubalis to the Ovis aries (sheep) genome than to other domestic species. The estimated time of divergence of the water buffalo genome relative to cattle, goat, sheep, pig, rabbit, and horse was found to be 21, 0.5, 0.7, 94, 20.3, and 408 million years (Myr), respectively. Although water buffaloes share morphological and biochemical similarities with cattle, our study using the microsatellite sequences places the bubaline species in an entirely new phylogenetic position. Our results also suggest that with respect to these repeat loci, the water buffalo genome shares a common ancestry with sheep and goat after the divergence of subfamily Bovinae (Bos taurus) from the family Bovidae.

  7. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0–1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales. PMID:26261300

  8. Adaptive explanation in socio-ecology: lessons from the Equidae.

    PubMed

    Linklater, W L

    2000-02-01

    Socio-ecological explanations for intra- and interspecific variation in the social and spatial organization of animals predominate in the scientific literature. The socio-ecological model, developed first for the Bovidae and Cervidae, is commonly applied more widely to other groups including the Equidae. Intraspecific comparisons are particularly valuable because they allow the role of environment and demography on social and spatial organization to be understood while controlling for phylogeny or morphology which confound interspecific comparisons. Feral horse (Equus caballus Linnaeus 1758) populations with different demography inhabit a range of environments throughout the world. I use 56 reports to obtain 23 measures or characteristics of the behaviour and the social and spatial organization of 19 feral horse populations in which the environment, demography, management, research effort and sample size are also described. Comparison shows that different populations had remarkably similar social and spatial organization and that group sizes and composition, and home range sizes varied as much within as between populations. I assess the few exceptions to uniformity and conclude that they are due to the attributes of the studies themselves, particularly to poor definition of terms and inadequate empiricism, rather than to the environment or demography per se. Interspecific comparisons show that equid species adhere to their different social and spatial organizations despite similarities in their environments and even when species are sympatric. Furthermore, equid male territoriality has been ill-defined in previous studies, observations presented as evidence of territoriality are also found in non-territorial equids, and populations of supposedly territorial species demonstrate female defence polygyny. Thus, territoriality may not be a useful categorization in the Equidae. Moreover, although equid socio-ecologists have relied on the socio-ecological model derived

  9. The arterial circle of the brain, its branches and connections in selected representatives of the Antilopinae.

    PubMed

    Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Dębiński, Dariusz; Komosa, Marcin; Zdun, Maciej

    2015-07-01

    The arterial circle of the brain, that is, the circle of Willis, and its branches in ruminants have been chiefly described in farm animals and only in selected wild species. In view of the deficit of information about this vascular region in numerous other species of the Ruminantia, the arteries of the encephalic base were analyzed in five antelope species representing different genera of the Bovidae, Antilopinae. Specimens of the following species were examined: springbuck (Antidorcas marsupialis), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii), saiga (Saiga tatarica), and oribi (Ourebia ourebi). Post-autopsy material received from domestic zoological gardens was used to inject the bilateral common carotid arteries with a stained acetone solution of vinyl superchloride. When the material was polymerized, the specimens were macerated enzymatically. The process resulted in casts of arteries of the head and encephalic base on a skeletal scaffold. The investigations revealed that the bilateral components of the arterial circle of the brain, that is, the rostral cerebral artery and caudal communicating artery, arose from the division of the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery, which emerges from the rostral epidural rete mirabile. The extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery was obliterated. In consequence of this process, the blood reaches the brain chiefly from the maxillary artery. The research proved that the arteries of the encephalic base in the Antilopinae are most similar to the vessels described in antelopes of Tragelaphus, Taurotragus, and Boselaphus genera and small domestic ruminants. However, they are different from the arterial pattern of the encephalic base in bovines and other species classified as the Bovini. PMID:25694115

  10. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  11. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum. PMID:26408585

  12. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of gazelles reveal repeated transitions of key ecological traits and provide novel insights into the origin of the genus Gazella.

    PubMed

    Lerp, Hannes; Klaus, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Stefanie; Wronski, Torsten; Pfenninger, Markus; Plath, Martin

    2016-05-01

    African bovids are a famous example of a taxonomic group in which the correlated evolution of body size, feeding mode, gregariousness, and social organization in relation to the preferred habitat type has been investigated. A continuum has been described ranging from small-bodied, sedentary, solitary or socially monogamous, forest- or bush-dwelling, browsing species that seek shelter from predation in dense vegetation, to large-bodied, migratory, highly gregarious, grazing taxa inhabiting open savannahs and relying on flight or group-defense behaviors when facing predators. Here, we examined a geographically widespread clade within the Bovidae (the genus Gazella) that shows minimal interspecific variation in body size and asked if we could still uncover correlated changes of key ecological and behavioral traits during repeated transitions from open-land to mountain-dwelling. Our study used a multi-locus phylogeny (based on sequence variation of Cytb and six nuclear intron markers) of all extant members of the genus Gazella to infer evolutionary patterns of key ecological and behavioral traits and to estimate ancestral character states using Bayesian inference. At the base of the Gazella-phylogeny, open plains were inferred as the most likely habitat type, and three independent transitions toward mountain-dwelling were uncovered. Those shifts coincided with shifts from migratory to sedentary lifestyles. Character estimation for group size was largely congruent with movement patterns in that species forming large groups tended to be migratory, while small group size was correlated with a sedentary lifestyle. Evolutionary patterns of two other conspicuous traits (twinning ability vs. exclusive singleton births and hornless vs. horned females) did not follow this trend in the Gazella-phylogeny. Furthermore, we inferred the genus Gazella to have emerged in the Late Miocene to Pliocene (10-3Mya), and estimating ancestral ranges based on a Dispersal

  14. Phylogenetic analyses of gazelles reveal repeated transitions of key ecological traits and provide novel insights into the origin of the genus Gazella.

    PubMed

    Lerp, Hannes; Klaus, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Stefanie; Wronski, Torsten; Pfenninger, Markus; Plath, Martin

    2016-05-01

    African bovids are a famous example of a taxonomic group in which the correlated evolution of body size, feeding mode, gregariousness, and social organization in relation to the preferred habitat type has been investigated. A continuum has been described ranging from small-bodied, sedentary, solitary or socially monogamous, forest- or bush-dwelling, browsing species that seek shelter from predation in dense vegetation, to large-bodied, migratory, highly gregarious, grazing taxa inhabiting open savannahs and relying on flight or group-defense behaviors when facing predators. Here, we examined a geographically widespread clade within the Bovidae (the genus Gazella) that shows minimal interspecific variation in body size and asked if we could still uncover correlated changes of key ecological and behavioral traits during repeated transitions from open-land to mountain-dwelling. Our study used a multi-locus phylogeny (based on sequence variation of Cytb and six nuclear intron markers) of all extant members of the genus Gazella to infer evolutionary patterns of key ecological and behavioral traits and to estimate ancestral character states using Bayesian inference. At the base of the Gazella-phylogeny, open plains were inferred as the most likely habitat type, and three independent transitions toward mountain-dwelling were uncovered. Those shifts coincided with shifts from migratory to sedentary lifestyles. Character estimation for group size was largely congruent with movement patterns in that species forming large groups tended to be migratory, while small group size was correlated with a sedentary lifestyle. Evolutionary patterns of two other conspicuous traits (twinning ability vs. exclusive singleton births and hornless vs. horned females) did not follow this trend in the Gazella-phylogeny. Furthermore, we inferred the genus Gazella to have emerged in the Late Miocene to Pliocene (10-3Mya), and estimating ancestral ranges based on a Dispersal

  15. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  16. Cross-species chromosome painting in Cetartiodactyla: reconstructing the karyotype evolution in key phylogenetic lineages.

    PubMed

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Perelman, Polina L; Rubtsova, Nadezhda V; Volobuev, Vitaly; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Stanyon, Roscoe; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    Recent molecular and morphological studies place Artiodactyla and Cetacea into the order Cetartiodactyla. Within the Cetartiodactyla such families as Bovidae, Cervidae, and Suidae are well studied by comparative chromosome painting, but many taxa that are crucial for understanding cetartiodactyl phylogeny remain poorly studied. Here we present the genome-wide comparative maps of five cetartiodactyl species obtained by chromosome painting with human and dromedary paint probes from four taxa: Cetacea, Hippopotamidae, Giraffidae, and Moschidae. This is the first molecular cytogenetic report on pilot whale, hippopotamus, okapi, and Siberian musk deer. Our results, when integrated with previously published comparative chromosome maps allow us to reconstruct the evolutionary pathway and rates of chromosomal rearrangements in Cetartiodactyla. We hypothesize that the putative cetartiodactyl ancestral karyotype (CAK) contained 25-26 pairs of autosomes, 2n = 52-54, and that the association of human chromosomes 8/9 could be a cytogenetic signature that unites non-camelid cetartiodactyls. There are no unambiguous cytogenetic landmarks that unite Hippopotamidae and Cetacea. If we superimpose chromosome rearrangements on the supertree generated by Price and colleagues, several homoplasy events are needed to explain cetartiodactyl karyotype evolution. Our results apparently favour a model of non-random breakpoints in chromosome evolution. Cetariodactyl karyotype evolution is characterized by alternating periods of low and fast rates in various lineages. The highest rates are found in Suina (Suidae+Tayasuidae) lineage (1.76 rearrangements per million years (R/My)) and the lowest in Cetaceans (0.07 R/My). Our study demonstrates that the combined use of human and camel paints is highly informative for revealing evolutionary karyotypic rearrangements among cetartiodactyl species. PMID:19350402

  17. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  18. Paleoenvironment of Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya, Hungary: evidence from dental meso- and micro-wear analyses of large vegetarian mammals.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Schulz, Ellen; Kordos, László; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2007-10-01

    The environment of the hominoid Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya (Late Miocene of Hungary) is reconstructed here using the dietary traits of fossil ruminants and equids. Two independent approaches, dental micro- and meso-wear analyses, are applied to a sample of 73 specimens representing three ruminants: Miotragocerus sp. (Bovidae), Lucentia aff. pierensis (Cervidae), Micromeryx flourensianus (Moschidae), and one equid, Hippotherium intrans (Equidae). The combination of meso- and micro-wear signatures provides both long- and short-term dietary signals, and through comparisons with extant species, the feeding styles of the fossil species are reconstructed. Both approaches categorize the cervid as an intermediate feeder engaged in both browsing and grazing. The bovid Miotragocerus sp. is depicted as a traditional browser. Although the dental meso-wear pattern of the moschid has affinities with intermediate feeders, its dental micro-wear pattern also indicates significant intake of fruits and seeds. Hippotherium intrans was not a grazer and its dental micro-wear pattern significantly differs from that of living browsers, which may suggest that the fossil equid was engaged both in grazing and browsing. However, the lack of extant equids which are pure browsers prevents any definitive judgment on the feeding habits of Hippotherium. Based on these dietary findings, the Rudabánya paleoenvironment is reconstructed as a dense forest. The presence of two intermediate feeders indicates some clearings within this forest; however the absence of grazers suggests that these clearings were most likely confined. To demonstrate the ecological diversity among the late Miocene hominoids in Europe, the diet and habitat of Dryopithecus brancoi and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Greece) are compared.

  19. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum.

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-10-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene.

  1. Applications of pig zona pellucida immunocontraception to wildlife fertility control.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Turner, J W; Liu, I K; Fayrer-Hosken, R

    1996-01-01

    A unique application of pig zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception is the control of wildlife populations. A native PZP vaccine has been successfully applied to wild horse and donkey populations. A single annual booster inoculation was capable of maintaining contraception. Seven consecutive years of PZP treatment in wild mares resulted in no detectable debilitating side effects, and reversibility of contraception has been documented among mares treated for up to 4 consecutive years. Long-term treatment (5-7 years) is associated with some ovulation failure and depressed urinary oestrogen concentrations. Complex social behaviours in horses were unaffected by treatment. PZP immunocontraception has also been successfully applied to white-tailed deer, with no detectable changes in ovarian histology after 2 years of treatment. Seventy-four species of captive zoo animals have been treated with the PZP vaccine, with documented success in 27 species, including members of the orders Perissodactyla (Equidae), Artiodactyla (Cervidae, Capridae, Giraffidae, Bovidae), and Carnivora (Ursidae, Mustelidae, Felidae). Immunocytochemistry studies have demonstrated a high degree of crossreactivity between anti-PZP antibodies and African elephant zona pellucida. The need for a one-inoculation form of the vaccine has led to the incorporation of PZP into lactide-glycolide microspheres, which cause a delayed release of the PZP. PZP immunocontraception of wildlife has potential because of (1) > 90% effectiveness, (2) the ability for remote delivery, via darts, (3) reversibility after short-term use, (4) a wide breadth of effectiveness across many species, (5) a lack of debilitating side-effects even after long-term treatment, and (6) minimal effects upon social behaviours. PMID:8984182

  2. Forensic DNA Barcoding and Bio-Response Studies of Animal Horn Products Used in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu M.; Peng, Cheng; Dong, Xiao P.; Chen, Shi L.; Sun, Li G.; Xiao, Xiao H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens). Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli). We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding) of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response) can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance between the

  3. Paleoenvironment of Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya, Hungary: evidence from dental meso- and micro-wear analyses of large vegetarian mammals.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Schulz, Ellen; Kordos, László; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2007-10-01

    The environment of the hominoid Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya (Late Miocene of Hungary) is reconstructed here using the dietary traits of fossil ruminants and equids. Two independent approaches, dental micro- and meso-wear analyses, are applied to a sample of 73 specimens representing three ruminants: Miotragocerus sp. (Bovidae), Lucentia aff. pierensis (Cervidae), Micromeryx flourensianus (Moschidae), and one equid, Hippotherium intrans (Equidae). The combination of meso- and micro-wear signatures provides both long- and short-term dietary signals, and through comparisons with extant species, the feeding styles of the fossil species are reconstructed. Both approaches categorize the cervid as an intermediate feeder engaged in both browsing and grazing. The bovid Miotragocerus sp. is depicted as a traditional browser. Although the dental meso-wear pattern of the moschid has affinities with intermediate feeders, its dental micro-wear pattern also indicates significant intake of fruits and seeds. Hippotherium intrans was not a grazer and its dental micro-wear pattern significantly differs from that of living browsers, which may suggest that the fossil equid was engaged both in grazing and browsing. However, the lack of extant equids which are pure browsers prevents any definitive judgment on the feeding habits of Hippotherium. Based on these dietary findings, the Rudabánya paleoenvironment is reconstructed as a dense forest. The presence of two intermediate feeders indicates some clearings within this forest; however the absence of grazers suggests that these clearings were most likely confined. To demonstrate the ecological diversity among the late Miocene hominoids in Europe, the diet and habitat of Dryopithecus brancoi and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Greece) are compared. PMID:17719619

  4. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  5. Bovine Polledness – An Autosomal Dominant Trait with Allelic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Medugorac, Ivica; Seichter, Doris; Graf, Alexander; Russ, Ingolf; Blum, Helmut; Göpel, Karl Heinrich; Rothammer, Sophie; Förster, Martin; Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. The polledness is highly favourable in modern cattle breeding systems but serious animal welfare issues urge for a solution in the production of hornless cattle other than dehorning. Although the dominant inhibition of horn morphogenesis was discovered more than 70 years ago, and the causative mutation was mapped almost 20 years ago, its molecular nature remained unknown. Here, we report allelic heterogeneity of the POLLED locus. First, we mapped the POLLED locus to a ∼381-kb interval in a multi-breed case-control design. Targeted re-sequencing of an enlarged candidate interval (547 kb) in 16 sires with known POLLED genotype did not detect a common allele associated with polled status. In eight sires of Alpine and Scottish origin (four polled versus four horned), we identified a single candidate mutation, a complex 202 bp insertion-deletion event that showed perfect association to the polled phenotype in various European cattle breeds, except Holstein-Friesian. The analysis of the same candidate interval in eight Holsteins identified five candidate variants which segregate as a 260 kb haplotype also perfectly associated with the POLLED gene without recombination or interference with the 202 bp insertion-deletion. We further identified bulls which are progeny tested as homozygous polled but bearing both, 202 bp insertion-deletion and Friesian haplotype. The distribution of genotypes of the two putative POLLED alleles in large semi-random sample (1,261 animals) supports the hypothesis of two independent mutations. PMID:22737241

  6. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  7. Expression and identification of folate-sensitive fragile sites in British Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Javed, Khalid; Nadeem, Asif

    2008-12-01

    An investigation to understand the dynamics and biological significance of fragile site expression, and identification of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) induced chromosomal gaps/breaks, were carried out in an experimental flock of 45 Suffolk sheep. The statistical comparison revealed, highly significant variation in the frequency of chromosomal fragile site expression between control and FUdR cultures. Mean (+/- S.D.) values for cells with gaps and breaks, or aberrant cell count (AC), and the number of aberrations (NoA) per animal were 2.02 +/- 0.34, 2.42 +/- 0.48, 13.26 +/- 0.85 and 21.87 +/- 1.88 (P lessthan 0.01) in control and FUdR cultures, respectively. The comparison of age revealed nonsignificant variation between control and FUdR cultures. The G-band analysis of fragile site data revealed gaps in 29 autosomal and two X-chromosomal bands in the control cultures, whereas FUdR treated cultures scored 78 unstable bands in autosomes of which 56 were significantly fragile. X-chromosomes expressed breaks and gaps in six G-negative bands and five of them (Xq13, Xq15, Xq17, Xq24 and Xq26) were significantly fragile. The distribution comparison of autosomal fragile sites between sex groups did not reveal any significant variation. Female X-chromosomes were significantly more fragile than the male X-chromosomes. The distribution comparison for age groups (lambs versus adults) revealed significantly higher number of fragile bands in adults. Comparison of published data on reciprocal translocations in sheep with the fragile-site data obtained in this study indicated that the break sites of both phenomena were correlated. Similarities were also found between fragile sites and breakpoints of evolutionary significance in family Bovidae. PMID:19147906

  8. Seminal-type ribonuclease genes in ruminants, sequence conservation without protein expression?

    PubMed

    Kleineidam, R G; Jekel, P A; Beintema, J J; Situmorang, P

    1999-04-29

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is an interesting enzyme both for functional and structural reasons. The enzyme is the product of a gene duplication that occurred in an ancestral ruminant. It is possible to demonstrate the presence of seminal-type genes in all other investigated ruminant species, but they are not expressed and show features of pseudogenes. In this paper we report the determination of two pancreatic and one seminal-type ribonuclease gene sequences of swamp-type water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The two pancreatic sequences encode proteins with identical amino acid sequences as previously determined for the enzymes isolated from swamp-type and river-type water buffalo, respectively. The seminal-type sequence has no pseudogene features and codes for an enzyme with no unusual features compared with the active bovine enzyme, except for the replacement of one of the cysteines which takes part in the two intersubunit disulfide bridges. However, Western blotting demonstrates the presence of only small amounts of the pancreatic enzymes in water buffalo semen, suggesting that also in this species the seminal-type sequence is not expressed. But it is still possible that the gene is expressed somewhere else in the body or during development. Reconstruction of seminal-type ribonuclease sequences in ancestors of Bovinae and Bovidae indicates no serious abnormalities in the encoded proteins and leads us to the hypothesis that the ruminant seminal-type ribonuclease gene has not come to expression during most of its evolutionary history, but did not exhibit a high evolutionary rate that is generally observed in pseudogenes.

  9. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  10. Invited review: ruminant ecology and evolution: perspectives useful to ruminant livestock research and production.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, T J; Spain, J N

    2010-04-01

    The article reviews ruminant ecology and evolution and shows insights they offer into livestock research. The first ruminants evolved about 50 million years ago and were small (<5 kg) forest-dwelling omnivores. Today there are almost 200 living ruminant species in 6 families. Wild ruminants number about 75 million, range from about 2 to more than 800 kg, and generally prefer at least some browse in their diets. Nine species have been domesticated within the last 10,000 yr. Their combined population currently numbers 3.6 billion. In contrast to wild ruminants, domestic species naturally prefer at least some grass in their diets, are of large body weight (BW; roughly from 35 to 800 kg), and, excepting reindeer, belong to one family (Bovidae). Wild ruminants thus have a comparatively rich ecological diversity and long evolutionary history. Studying them gives a broad perspective that can augment and challenge the status quo of ruminant research and production. Allometric equations, often used in ecology, relate BW to physiological measurements from several species (typically both wild and domestic). They are chiefly used to predict or explain values of physiological parameters from BW alone. Results of one such equation suggest that artificial selection has increased peak milk energy yield by 250% over its natural level. Voluntary feed intake is proportional to BW(0.9) across wild and domestic ruminant species. This proportionality suggests that physical and metabolic factors regulate intake simultaneously, not mutually exclusively as often presumed. Studying the omasum in wild species suggests it functions primarily in particle separation and retention and only secondarily in absorption and other roles. Studies on the African Serengeti show that multiple species, when grazed together, feed such that they use grasslands more completely. They support the use of mixed-species grazing systems in production agriculture. When under metabolic stress, wild species will not

  11. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  12. Invited review: ruminant ecology and evolution: perspectives useful to ruminant livestock research and production.

    PubMed

    Hackmann, T J; Spain, J N

    2010-04-01

    The article reviews ruminant ecology and evolution and shows insights they offer into livestock research. The first ruminants evolved about 50 million years ago and were small (<5 kg) forest-dwelling omnivores. Today there are almost 200 living ruminant species in 6 families. Wild ruminants number about 75 million, range from about 2 to more than 800 kg, and generally prefer at least some browse in their diets. Nine species have been domesticated within the last 10,000 yr. Their combined population currently numbers 3.6 billion. In contrast to wild ruminants, domestic species naturally prefer at least some grass in their diets, are of large body weight (BW; roughly from 35 to 800 kg), and, excepting reindeer, belong to one family (Bovidae). Wild ruminants thus have a comparatively rich ecological diversity and long evolutionary history. Studying them gives a broad perspective that can augment and challenge the status quo of ruminant research and production. Allometric equations, often used in ecology, relate BW to physiological measurements from several species (typically both wild and domestic). They are chiefly used to predict or explain values of physiological parameters from BW alone. Results of one such equation suggest that artificial selection has increased peak milk energy yield by 250% over its natural level. Voluntary feed intake is proportional to BW(0.9) across wild and domestic ruminant species. This proportionality suggests that physical and metabolic factors regulate intake simultaneously, not mutually exclusively as often presumed. Studying the omasum in wild species suggests it functions primarily in particle separation and retention and only secondarily in absorption and other roles. Studies on the African Serengeti show that multiple species, when grazed together, feed such that they use grasslands more completely. They support the use of mixed-species grazing systems in production agriculture. When under metabolic stress, wild species will not

  13. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography, as these interacting facets determine the history of biodiverse systems. These components, relating to Haemonchus, can inform about the complex history of geographical distribution, host association and the intricacies of host-parasite associations that are played out in physiological and behavioural processes that influence the potential for disease and our capacity for effective control in a rapidly changing world. Origins and evolutionary diversification among species of the genus Haemonchus and Haemonchus contortus occurred in a complex crucible defined by shifts in environmental structure emerging from cycles of climate change and ecological perturbation during the late Tertiary and through the Quaternary. A history of sequential host colonization associated with waves of dispersal bringing assemblages of ungulates from Eurasia into Africa and processes emerging from ecosystems in collision and faunal turnover defined the arena for radiation among 12 recognized species of Haemonchus. Among congeners, the host range for H. contortus is exceptionally broad, including species among artiodactyls of 40 genera representing 5 families (and within 12 tribes of Bovidae). Broad host range is dramatically reflected in the degree to which translocation, introduction and invasion with host switching, has characterized an expanding distribution over time in North America, South America, southern Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand, coincidental with agriculture, husbandry and global colonization by human populations driven particularly by European exploration after the 1500s. African origins in xeric to mesic habitats of the African savannah suggest that historical constraints linked to ecological adaptations (tolerances and

  14. Quantification of damage at different stages of cryopreservation of endangered North American bison (Bison bison) semen and the effects of extender and freeze rate on post-thaw sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S A; Lessard, C; Anzar, M

    2011-12-01

    Semen cryopreservation is an important technique for the banking of animal germplasm from endangered species and exploitation of genetically superior sires through artificial insemination. Being a member of bovidae family, bison semen has poor freezing ability as compared to dairy and beef bulls' semen. This study was designed to quantify the damage to bison sperm at different stages of cryopreservation, and to determine the effects of extender (commercial Triladyl(®) vs. custom made tris-citric acid [TCA]) and freeze rate (-10, -25 and -40°C/min) on post-thaw quality of bison semen. Semen was collected from five bison bulls (three woods and two plains) via electroejaculation. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted in Triladyl® extender and frozen with freeze rate -10°C/min. Sperm motility characteristics were recorded in fresh, diluted, cooled (4°C) and freeze-thawed semen using computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA). In Experiment 2, semen was diluted in Triladyl® or TCA extender, and frozen with three different freeze rates, i.e. -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Thawing was performed at 37°C for 60s. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and sperm structural characteristics (plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and acrosomes) were evaluated using flow cytometer, at 0 and 3h while incubating semen at 37°C. In Experiment 1, total and progressive motilities did not differ among pre-freeze stages of cryopreservation (P>0.05). However, sperm total and progressive motilities declined (P<0.001) in freeze-thawed semen by 35% and 42%, respectively, compared to after cooling (pre-freeze) semen. In Experiment 2, Triladyl®, as compared to TCA, yielded greater (P<0.05) post-thaw sperm total motility (41% compared to 36%) and progressive motility (34% compared to 29%) at 0h, respectively. The percent change in post-thaw sperm total and progressive motilities, VAP, VCL, VSL, IPM-high ΔΨm and IPM-IACR during 3h incubation at 37°C, was

  15. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography, as these interacting facets determine the history of biodiverse systems. These components, relating to Haemonchus, can inform about the complex history of geographical distribution, host association and the intricacies of host-parasite associations that are played out in physiological and behavioural processes that influence the potential for disease and our capacity for effective control in a rapidly changing world. Origins and evolutionary diversification among species of the genus Haemonchus and Haemonchus contortus occurred in a complex crucible defined by shifts in environmental structure emerging from cycles of climate change and ecological perturbation during the late Tertiary and through the Quaternary. A history of sequential host colonization associated with waves of dispersal bringing assemblages of ungulates from Eurasia into Africa and processes emerging from ecosystems in collision and faunal turnover defined the arena for radiation among 12 recognized species of Haemonchus. Among congeners, the host range for H. contortus is exceptionally broad, including species among artiodactyls of 40 genera representing 5 families (and within 12 tribes of Bovidae). Broad host range is dramatically reflected in the degree to which translocation, introduction and invasion with host switching, has characterized an expanding distribution over time in North America, South America, southern Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand, coincidental with agriculture, husbandry and global colonization by human populations driven particularly by European exploration after the 1500s. African origins in xeric to mesic habitats of the African savannah suggest that historical constraints linked to ecological adaptations (tolerances and

  16. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers

  17. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury

  18. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury