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Sample records for amnesic shellfish poisoning

  1. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2000-10-01

    A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

  2. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs in Ireland.

    PubMed

    James, Kevin J; Gillman, Marion; Amandi, Mónica Fernández; López-Rivera, Américo; Puente, Patricia Fernández; Lehane, Mary; Mitrovic, Simon; Furey, Ambrose

    2005-12-15

    In December 1999, domoic acid (DA) a potent neurotoxin, responsible for the syndrome Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) was detected for the first time in shellfish harvested in Ireland. Two liquid chromatography (LC) methods were applied to quantify DA in shellfish after sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges. Toxin detection was achieved using photodiode array ultraviolet (LC-UV) and multiple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). DA was identified in four species of bivalve shellfish collected along the west and south coastal regions of the Republic of Ireland. The amount of DA that was present in three species was within EU guideline limits for sale of shellfish (20 microg DA/g); mussels (Mytilus edulis), <1.0 microg DA/g; oysters (Crassostrea edulis), <5.0 microg DA/g and razor clams (Ensis siliqua), <0.3 microg DA/g. However, king scallops (Pecten maximus) posed a significant human health hazard with levels up to 240 microg DA/g total tissues. Most scallop samples (55%) contained DA at levels greater than the regulatory limit. The DA levels in the digestive glands of some samples of scallops were among the highest that have ever been recorded (2,820 microg DA/g).

  3. Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Prem; Kumar, Sreeletha Prem; Nair, G Achuthan

    2009-05-01

    Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin, is evaluated based on its current knowledge and its harmful effects, and is presented under four headings, viz., (1) hazard identification, (2) dose response assessment, (3) exposure assessment and (4) risk characterization. Domoic acid binds the glutamate receptor site of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and causes depolarization of neurons and an increase in cellularcalcium. In nature, domoic acid is produced by the algae, Pseudonitzschia spp. and they enter into the body of shellfish through their consumption. This toxin is reported to cause gastroenteritis, renal insufficiency confusion and memory loss in humans, since it affects the hippocampus of the brain. In rats, intraperitonial and oral administration of domoic acid result in scratching, tremor and convulsions, and in monkeys, the toxic symptoms like mastication, salivation, projectile vomiting, weakness, teeth grinding and lethargy are apparent. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in animals reveals that pure toxin is more effective than those isolated from shellfish. Based on LD50 values, it is found that intraperitonial administration of this toxin in animals is 31 fold more effective than oral administration. Low levels of domoic acid (0.20-0.75 ppm) show no toxic symptoms in non-human primates, but clinical effects are apparent in them and in humans, at a concentration of 1.0 ppm. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) of domoic acid for humans is calculated as 0.075 ppm, whereas for razor clams and crabs, the TDI are 19.4 and 31.5 ppm respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is found to be 2. Being an irreversible neurotoxin, domoic acid has severe public health implications. Death occurs in those above 68 years old. In order to ensure adequate protection to public health, the concentration of domoic acid in shellfish and shellfish parts at point of sale shall not exceed the current permissible limit of 20

  4. High-throughput analysis of amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish by ultra-performance rapid resolution LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Pablo; Barber, Esther; Giménez, Gemma; Rodríguez-Velasco, María Luisa; Villar-González, Adriano; Diogène, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The application of ultra-performance rapid resolution LC on a 1.8 microm particle-size column coupled with tandem MS (RRLC-MS/MS) is described for the analysis of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in shellfish. Complete resolution among domoic acid (DA) and the isomers was achieved in less than 3 min. The method was intralaboratory validated for direct analysis of crude extracts without further cleanup. It showed LODs ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 mg/kg and a working range that complied with the current regulatory level for DA of 20 mg/kg, and with the level of 4.5 mg/kg recently proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Confirmatory capabilities were demonstrated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The results obtained by RRLC-MS/MS agreed with those provided by the reference LC-UV method, both intralaboratory for the analysis of blind samples (R2 = 0.9751) and interlaboratory through participation in the proficiency test for ASP toxins during 2009 (z-score = -0.962 and 0.177 for low- and high-contaminated samples, respectively). RRLC-MS/MS provided fast analysis and additional confirmatory capabilities for direct analysis of crude extracts while the performance and reliability of the results were maintained, even in very complex matrixes.

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the U.S. west coast in spring 1991, when sea lions and sea birds were sickened after eating toxin- ... domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic-acid producing Pseudo-nitzschia ...

  6. Distribution and linkage of domoic acid (amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of the scallop Pecten maximus.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, Aida; Blanco, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus accumulates domoic acid, the main amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the digestive gland for a long time. To try to find if the cause of this characteristic is the binding of the toxin to some cellular component, the subcellular distribution of domoic acid in the cells of the digestive gland was studied, by means of serial centrifugation, ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Domoic acid was found to be present mostly in soluble form in the cytosol, as more than 90% was found in the supernatant after a centrifugation of 1h at 45,000 x g, and passed a 10 kDa ultrafilter. The retention time of the peak with an absorption maximum of 242 nm--the one characteristic of domoic acid--observed in the SEC chromatograms of the scallop samples was found identical to be one of a reference solution of the toxin, indicating therefore, that domoic acid is free in the cytosol of the digestive gland of Pecten maximus. This finding turns the focus from binding to the lack of membrane transporters in this species of the scallop as the cause of the long retention time of domoic acid in this species.

  7. Paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Acres, J.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning after ingestion of mussels occurred in October 1977 in Nova Scotia. The incidence of this type of poisoning is relatively high among persons living on the coast of the Bay of Fundy and the estuary of the St. Lawrence River. The causative organism, Gonyaulax tamarensis, elaborates an endotoxin, saxitoxin, that blocks neuromuscular transmission in the motor axon and muscle membrane while leaving the end-plate unaffected; it also suppresses conduction in the atrioventricular node and inhibits the respiratory centre. The clinical manifestations are unique and include numbness of the lips, tongue and fingertips within minutes of ingestion of the poisoned shellfish, then numbness of the legs, arms and neck, with general muscular incoordination, and finally respiratory distress and muscular paralysis. Treatment is symptomatic and prevention can only occur by public education. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:570450

  8. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  9. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  10. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  11. Seasonality of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning at a coastal lagoon in Portugal: rainfall patterns and folk wisdom.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo; Sampayo, Maria Antónia de M

    2003-02-01

    Of the three types of toxicity known so far in Portuguese shellfish, only diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) are produced by microalgae that seem to have been present in the last decades or centuries. The most important paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) producer, Gymnodinium catenatum, is hypothesised to have been introduced quite recently as only in 1976 PSP toxicity was detected for the first time in shellfish from Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula. While ASP presents very short episodes of contamination, the concentration of DSP toxins in some years surpasses human safety values for much longer periods. It is traditionally stated that shellfish should be consumed in 'months with R' (September-April). A retrospective study of the maximum monthly DSP levels attained in mussels from a coastal lagoon-Ria de Aveiro-between 1994 and 2001, showed that the highest frequency of months with concentrations surpassing the safety level of 2 microg/g digestive glands were found in June-September, followed by May and October. These months correspond with the months of lowest historical average rainfall in the period 1941-1998. Oscillations in the rainfall pattern coincided with earliest (or latest) detection by HPLC of DSP toxins in mussel in the years studied. In a semi-closed lagunar environment prone to in situ growth of DSP-producer microalgae, like Dinophysis acuminata, rainfall affects river output, lowering salinity and disrupting water column stability that favours Dinophysis growth. The seasonality of DSP recurrence may be connected to the folk adage on safety of shellfish consumption, after many years of empirical observations by coastal populations of diarrhoea episodes in summertime.

  12. A survey for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Vancouver Harbour.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tian; Zhou, Mingjiang; Tan, Zhijun; Li, Jun; Yu, Rencheng; Wang, Yunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Shellfish samples were collected from seven inter-tidal and two sub-tidal sites between 23 May and 8 June 1999 in Vancouver Harbour and were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) using a mouse bioassay. PSP was detected in mussels collected at four sampling sites in English Bay and Burrard Inlet, at a concentration below 20 microg saxitoxin equivalents (STXeq)/100 g wet weight.

  13. Commentary on AOAC method for paralytic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Adams, W N; Miescier, J J

    1980-11-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingesting bivalve molluscan shellfish which have fed on the toxigenic marine dinoflagellates Gonyaulax catanella or G. tamarensis. The toxins from these organisms are neurotoxic alkaloids which interfere with nerve conduction and block muscle-action potential. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration cooperates with state shellfish control officials in the National Shellfish Sanitation Program to prevent marketing of toxin-contaminated shellfish. The toxins are quantitated by the standard mouse bioassay method, as found in Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC. This paper discusses the procedure followed in the standard bioassay method in an attempt to clarify for the PSP analyst the rather complex official methodology, and, thus, promote more uniform results among laboratories.

  14. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 2: Shellfish Matrix Materials.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Reeves, Kelley L; Giddings, Sabrina D; Beach, Daniel G; Quilliam, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs. Preliminary work established the appropriate conditions for production of shellfish tissue CRMs for OA and DTXs. Source materials, including naturally incurred shellfish tissue and cultured algae, were screened for their DSP toxins. This preliminary work informed planning and production of a wet mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue homogenate matrix CRM. The homogeneity and stability of the CRM were evaluated and found to be fit-for-purpose. Extraction and LC-tandem MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 using a combination of standard addition and matrix-matched calibration to compensate for matrix effects in electrospray ionization. The concentration of domoic acid was also certified. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization. The presence of other toxins in the CRM was also assessed and information values are reported for OA and DTX acyl esters.

  15. [Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification.

  16. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

    2008-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

  17. Evidence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in milkfish in South Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, H-N; Chung, Y-C; Cho, W-C; Chen, C-Y

    2003-06-01

    Natural phytoplankton blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum, milkfish (Chanos chanos) exposed to natural blooms, sediment and mangrove crab (Scylla serrata) were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxin profiles of milkfish and mangrove crab were similar to that of A. minutum collected from blooming fishponds. In a laboratory A. minutum-blooming environment, the stomach and intestine of milkfish accumulated paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins during the exposure period. The non-visceral tissues were non-toxic. However, milkfish lost their entire body burden of toxin on the first day of transferring to a toxic algae-free environment. The result shows that milkfish concentrate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in digestive organs and did not retain toxins.

  18. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-09-14

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these "food-chain diseases", for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions.

  19. TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONS (PSPS) USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most significant harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin in terms of public health is commonly known as paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs, "red tides" toxins). PSPs are neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates and some cyanobacteria. PSPs comprise of over 21 natural toxins wi...

  20. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  1. Evaluation of mouse bioassay results in an inter-laboratory comparison for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jijuan; Zheng, Jiang; Yu, Bing; Wang, Qiuyan; Xu, Junyi; Li, Aifeng

    2011-07-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish was carried out among 25 Chinese laboratories to examine the overall performance for PSP testing in China, and to analyze the main factors affecting the performance of this method. The toxic scallop Patinopecten yessoensis collected from coast of Bohai Sea, China, was used as a test sample in the comparison study. The results were reported and evaluated using robust statistical methods. The z scores showed that 80%, 8%, and 12% of laboratories reported satisfactory results, unsatisfactory results, and questionable results, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that the PSP mouse bioassay is an appropriate method for screening and testing PSP toxicity in shellfish. However, it was found that the experience and skill of technicians, as well as the body weight and health status of mice being used significantly affected the accuracy of the method.

  2. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  3. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

  4. [Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].

    PubMed

    Vale, P

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution.

  5. Occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) from Tunis north lagoon.

    PubMed

    Armi, Zina; Turki, Souad; Trabelsi, Elbahri; Ceredi, Alfiero; Riccardi, Elena; Milandri, Anna

    2012-08-01

    The main diarrhetic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1, 2 (DTX-2, 2) were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as pyrenacyl esters in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) collected in Tunis north lagoon from January 2007 to June 2008. Sample analyses by LC-MS/MS displayed OA and related congeners (DTX-2, 2) with a highest detected level of 21 μg OA eq/kg shellfish meat for the samples of January 2007. Nevertheless, all samples were MBA negative. During the study period, potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus was recorded all year, blooming at different times. Highest concentrations were recorded during January 2007 with 4.6 × 10(4) cells per liter and 4.10(4) cells per liter in the northern and southern districts, respectively. Results show that there is no significant correlation between D. sacculus densities in water column and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins concentrations unregistered in clams. These data reveal that DSP toxicity in clams of Tunis north lagoon is low according to European regulatory limit (160 μg OA eq/kg shellfish meat). However, a potential threat, in this area, is represented by DSP toxic species as D. sacculus and provides grounds for widen and reinforcing sanitary control of the phycotoxin measures in the region.

  6. A new simple screening method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jinping; Pi, Shuaishuai; Ye, Shufeng; Gao, Haomin; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhenyi; Song, Yuling; Xi, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The current testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay (MBA). To alleviate animal welfare concerns, we evaluated the utility of using sublethal indicators of toxicity as an alternative to measuring time to death. Live mice were injected with a PSP congener and the changes in neurotransmitter levels were measured 60, 90, and 120 min after injection. Acetylcholine (ACh) was the most sensitive marker for PSP toxicity. The changes in neurotransmitter levels were most pronounced in the blood. Thus, measurement of Ach levels in the blood may serve as a sensitive predictor for PSP that would not require sacrifice of the mice. This method was relatively simple, sensitive (less than 1 μg/kg weight, equivalent to 20 ng/mL), low maintenance, and rapid (less than 60 min).

  7. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  8. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties.

  9. Comparison evaluation of liquid chromatographic and bioassay methods of analysis for determination of paralytic shellfish poisons in shellfish tissues.

    PubMed

    Salter, J E; Timperi, R J; Hennigan, L J; Sefton, L; Reece, H

    1989-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was compared with the AOAC mouse bioassay method (18.086-18.092) for determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish tissues. Shellfish samples were collected from Massachusetts coastal waters as part of a state surveillance program, and extracts of shellfish meat were analyzed for toxins by using both analytical methods. Overall correlation of the LC and bioassay methods is good (r = 0.943), but for samples with toxicities less than 100 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat, the correlation is significantly less (r = 0.531). Limits of detection are 10 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat and 40 micrograms saxitoxin/100 g shellfish meat for the LC and bioassay methods, respectively. Analytical capacity of the LC method is limited to 12 samples/person-day compared with 30 samples/person-day for the bioassay. Sampling capacity of the LC method could be increased by using a fluorescence detector with a wider response range, which would eliminate the need for dilution of concentrated samples.

  10. Extraction recoveries and stability of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in naturally contaminated samples.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S M; Vale, P; Botelho, M J; Gomes, S S

    2009-02-01

    During the last few years the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been observed in shellfish from the Portuguese coast. Most of the commercial bivalves contain DSP toxins in ester forms, either acyl derivatives of okadaic acid (OA) or of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). The stability of these toxins in shellfish tissues and in raw methanol extracts was investigated in two different naturally contaminated species, mussel and carpet shell, over a 4-week period. The results for both species revealed that DSP toxins were more stable in tissue than in raw methanol extracts. Losses of DSP toxins were seen in the first 2 weeks and were more than 30%, but after that a period of stabilization was observed. The decrease was due probably from losses of esters of OA and DTX-2, the free toxins were stable over the period studied. The extraction most commonly used for chemical and biochemical assays relied on methanolic extraction with aqueous 80% methanol. In this work we have tested the extraction solvent on the extractability of DSP toxins from several naturally contaminated species. A single dispersive extraction with methanol, with solvent ratios of 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%, were tested. After alkaline hydrolysis of esterified toxins and clean-up with hexane and dichloromethane, the samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The recovery of DSP toxins increased with increasing percentages of methanol up to 90%. A decrease in recovery with 100% methanol was observed probably due to problems during the liquid-liquid partitioning.

  11. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning by Spondylus calcifer contaminated with Pyrodinium bahamense, Costa Rica, 1989-1990].

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Abarca, G; Marranghello, L; Víquez, R

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes an outbreak of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), affecting human populations on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica in October 1989. Numbness in arms, face and legs occurred 30 to 45 minutes after ingestion of the large clam Spondylus calcifer. Paralysis of legs and respiratory symptoms followed, often persisting for one week. Large amounts of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense were found in the intestine of the mollusk. A toxin was detected in crude or filtered and heated macerates of intestine, muscle, mantle and hepatopancreas of S. calcifer, and to a lesser extent Tagelus sp., by injection of its crude or diluted extracts in white mice. The effects in mice consisted in paralysis and asphyxia generally leading to death in less than 5 minutes, compatible with saxitoxin. Mice were killed by the toxin in macerates diluted 1:100 to 1:1000. No toxin was detected in Anadara tuberculosa (Bivalvia) or in peneids. Prevention rests on intersectoral actions between state and private sectors in charge of fishing, distribution and marketing of shellfish, as well as on education of the population at large.

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profile of mussels Perna perna from southern Atlantic coasts of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Abouabdellah, Rachid; Taleb, Hamid; Bennouna, Asmae; Erler, Katrin; Chafik, Abdeghani; Moukrim, Abdelatif

    2008-04-01

    During the monitoring programme of harmful algal blooms established along the south Atlantic coast of Morocco, a bimonthly determination of harmful algae and phycotoxins analysis in Perna perna was carried out from May 2003 to December 2004. Results of mouse bioassay (in organs and whole flesh) showed a seasonal evolution of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin. The mussel's contamination was associated with the occurrence in water of Alexandrium minutum. The PSP toxin profile obtained with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/FD) revealed the dominance of gonyautoxins GTX2 and GTX3 and a minority of GTX1, GTX4 and saxitoxin (STX). This profile explains that the toxicity was mainly associated with A. minutum.

  13. First U.S. report of shellfish harvesting closures due to confirmed okadaic acid in Texas Gulf coast oysters.

    PubMed

    Deeds, Jonathan R; Wiles, Kirk; Heideman, Gary B; White, Kevin D; Abraham, Ann

    2010-06-01

    Between March 7 and April 12, 2008, several bay systems on the east (Gulf of Mexico) coast of Texas, USA were closed to the harvesting of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) due to the presence of the DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) toxin okadaic acid in excess of the 20 microg/100 g tissue FDA regulatory guidance level. This was the first shellfish harvesting closure due to the confirmed presence of DSP toxins in US history. Light microscopic cell counts were performed on water samples collected from numerous sampling sites along the Texas Gulf coast where shellfish harvesting occurs. Ultra performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, selected reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI/SRM/MS) was used to detect DSP toxins in oysters. The closures were associated with an extensive bloom of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis cf. ovum. Only okadaic acid (OA) and OA acyl esters were found in shellfish tissues (max. OA eq. levels 47 microg/100 g tissue). OA was also confirmed in a bloom water sample. No illnesses were reported associated with this event. DSP toxins now add to a growing list of phycotoxins, which include those responsible for PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning), NSP (neurotoxic shellfish poisoning), and ASP (amnesic shellfish poisoning) which must now be monitored for in US coastal waters where shellfish are harvested.

  14. Comparison of AOAC 2005.06 LC official method with other methodologies for the quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova, Monika; Higman, Wendy; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; van de Riet, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Ryan; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael; Lees, David N

    2011-01-01

    A refined version of the pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (ox-LC-FLD) official method AOAC 2005.06 was developed in the UK and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish. Analysis was undertaken here for the comparison of PSP toxicities determined using the LC method for a range of UK bivalve shellfish species against the official European reference method, the PSP mouse bioassay (MBA, AOAC 959.08). Comparative results indicated a good correlation in results for some species (mussels, cockles and clams) but a poor correlation for two species of oysters (Pacific oysters and native oysters), where the LC results in terms of total saxitoxin equivalents were found to be on average more than double the values determined by MBA. With the potential for either LC over-estimation or MBA under-estimation, additional oyster and mussel samples were analysed using MBA and ox-LC-FLD together with further analytical and functional methodologies: a post-column oxidation LC method (LC-ox-FLD), an electrophysiological assay and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Results highlighted a good correlation among non-bioassay results, indicating a likely cause of difference was the under-estimation in the MBA, rather than an over-estimation in the LC results.

  15. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Ruth Alma; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of > 1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized. PMID:26306212

  16. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas Chun-Hung; Fong, Fiona Long-Yan; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed. PMID:27669302

  17. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Keith; Johnson, Sarah; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Six different commercial rapid screening assays for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins were assessed with the analysis of shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the current regulatory HPLC method. Samples assessed consisted of a wide variety of shellfish species of importance to the shellfish industry in GB. These had been sourced over a number of years and with a wide variety of geographical origins. One lateral flow immunoassay was found to provide a quick qualitative assessment of PSP toxicity, with a low proportion of false negative results for PSP-positive samples, but with higher numbers of false positives. The performance of the five quantitative ELISA assays varied considerably, with two demonstrating an inappropriate linear range, with others either over-estimating or under-estimating toxicity. One ELISA from R-Biopharm was found to show a good correlation with the HPLC toxicity results. All ELISAs, however, returned some false negative results, most notably for samples containing high proportions of toxins with low cross reactivity to saxitoxin such as GTX1&4. Whilst the lateral flow assays on the market are of particular use to Food Business Operators for end product testing, further work is required in parallel with instrumental testing methods using a larger number of samples to assess the reliability and accuracy of these kits over the long term.

  18. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  19. LC-MS/MS analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin analogues, and other lipophilic toxins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Quilliam, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a severe gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of shellfish contaminated with DSP toxins that are originally produced by toxic dinoflagellates. Based on their structures, DSP toxins were initially classified into three groups, okadaic acid (OA)/dinophysistoxin (DTX) analogues, pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs). Because PTXs and YTXs have been subsequently shown to have no diarrhetic activities, PTXs and YTXs have recently been eliminated from the definition of DSP toxins. Mouse bioassay (MBA), which is the official testing method of DSP in Japan and many countries, also detects PTXs and YTXs, and thus alternative testing methods detecting only OA/DTX analogues are required in DSP monitoring. Electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a very powerful tool for the detection, identification and quantification of DSP and other lipophilic toxins. In the present review, application of ESI LC-MS techniques to the analysis of each toxin group is described.

  20. Anatomical distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Mariño, Carmen; Martín, Helena; Acosta, Carmen P

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this work was to shed light on the anatomical distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and to determine any possible changes undergone during the depuration process. To this end, the distribution of two DSP toxins--okadaic acid and DTX2--and some of their derivatives were studied by means of HPLC/MS at different stages of the depuration process. Mussels were collected from mussel farms located in the Galician Rías and they were collected under three types of circumstances: (a) while ingesting toxic phytoplankton cells; (b) 1 week after the toxic cells had disappeared from the water; and (c) after ca. 2 months of depuration. Additionally, in case (b), the distribution among tissues was checked every week over a depuration period of 35 days in the laboratory. DSP toxins were only detected in non-visceral tissues when the extracts were concentrated 20-fold and, even in these cases, the concentrations found were very low. When the maximum possible contribution of non-visceral tissues was computed, taking into account the technique's detection limits and tissue weight, no relevant contribution to the toxin burden of non-visceral tissues was found at any stage of depuration, with the maximum possible contributions usually below 7%. The concentrated samples analysed showed that the actual contribution in all the cases studied was, in fact, less than 1% of the total toxin burden. These findings suggest that (1) when analytical methods are used to monitor DSP toxic mussels, non-visceral tissues should be assumed to be free of toxins in order to precisely compute the toxin concentration of the whole mass of edible tissues and (2) when studying the accumulation kinetics of DSP toxins, transference from the digestive gland to other tissues should not be taken into account, as the other tissues do not contain relevant amounts of DSP toxins.

  1. Identification of 19-epi-okadaic Acid, a New Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, by Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Beatriz; Daranas, Antonio H.; Cruz, Patricia G.; Franco, José M.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp. In this paper, we report on the detection and identification of a new DSP toxin, the OA isomer 19-epi-okadaic acid (2) (19-epi-OA), isolated from cultures of Prorocentrum belizeanum, by determining its retention time (RT) and fragmentation pattern using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). PMID:19005581

  2. Assessment of specific binding proteins suitable for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisons using optical biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Katrina; Stewart, Linda D; Doucette, Gregory J; Fodey, Terence L; Haughey, Simon A; Vilariño, Natalia; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher T

    2007-08-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin monitoring in shellfish is currently performed using the internationally accredited AOAC mouse bioassay. Due to ethical and performance-related issues associated with this bioassay, the European Commission has recently published directives extending procedures that may be used for official PSP control. The feasibility of using a surface plasmon resonance optical biosensor to detect PSP toxins in shellfish tissue below regulatory levels was examined. Three different PSP toxin protein binders were investigated: a sodium channel receptor (SCR) preparation derived from rat brains, a monoclonal antibody (GT13-A) raised to gonyautoxin 2/3, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody (R895) raised to saxitoxin (STX). Inhibition assay formats were used throughout. Immobilization of STX to the biosensor chip surface was achieved via amino-coupling. Specific binding and inhibition of binding to this surface was achieved using all proteins tested. For STX calibration curves, 0-1000 ng/mL, IC50 values for each binder were as follows: SCR 8.11 ng/mL; GT13-A 5.77 ng/mL; and R895 1.56 ng/mL. Each binder demonstrated a different cross-reactivity profile against a range of STX analogues. R895 delivered a profile that was most likely to detect the widest range of PSP toxins at or below the internationally adopted regulatory limits.

  3. A feasibility study into the production of a freeze-dried oyster reference material for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Higman, Wendy A; Burrell, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Matrix reference materials are an essential component for the validation and quality control of analytical methodologies for the quantitation of marine biotoxins in shellfish. Given the potential advantages of reference materials in powder form, a study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of a freeze-dried oyster tissue reference material containing a range of important paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. One bulk sample of a wet oyster tissue homogenate was generated following mass culturing of toxic Alexandrium and oyster feeding experiments. The bulk tissue was used to prepare untreated wet frozen aliquots with the remainder being freeze-dried and processed into appropriately-sized powder samples. A pre-column oxidation LC-FLD analysis was used to confirm the absence of any chromatographic artefacts resulting from the processing and to confirm acceptable homogeneity of the tissues. Excellent stability over both the short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) of the freeze-dried material was demonstrated as compared with the stability of the untreated wet tissue. A post-column oxidation LC-FLD method was used to confirm the absence of toxin epimerisation in freeze-dried tissues which were observed in the wet tissues. Overall the work showed the feasibility of an approach to produce a homogenous freeze-dried oyster matrix material with enhanced stability in comparison to the untreated wet tissue. The potential for use of the process for preparation of large scale production batches of a freeze-dried CRM for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins has therefore been demonstrated.

  4. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Four commercial rapid screening methods for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning were applied to the analysis of naturally contaminated shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the reference LC-MS/MS method on a range of both positive and negative bivalve mollusc samples. A quantitative PP2A protein phosphatase assay was the only assay to show the complete absence of false negative results. It showed a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS but with an overall overestimation of sample toxicity together with some indications of interference from sample matrix, most notably within oyster species. A quantitative competitive ELISA also gave a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS, with no evidence of toxicity overestimation and with a good response to samples containing little or no DST's, although one false negative was recorded. The two qualitative lateral flow assays both provided a high percentage agreement with the LC-MS/MS results and there were no indications of false positive results, although both kits also returned one false negative result. The false negative results returned by the three assays were all associated with samples containing high proportions of DTX2, a toxin which occurs commonly in UK shellfish. The scanners provided with both lateral flow assays were easy to use and the provision of numerical results enables a semi-quantitative assessment of toxicities which would significantly benefit the end user. Whilst key differences exist between the proposed assays they are all rapid, do not require expensive equipment and the work here has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB. Further work is required however using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples, particularly for those containing high proportions of DTX2.

  5. Assessment of sodium channel mutations in Makah Tribal members of the U.S. Pacific Northwest as a potential mechanism of resistance to paralytic shellfish poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nicolaus G.; Robertson, Alison; Grattan, Lynn M.; Pendleton, Steve; Roberts, Sparkle; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Trainer, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, we aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah Tribal members to saxitoxin is not a function of Nav1.4 modification but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function. PMID:27616973

  6. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Michael Hickey, J.; Nash, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

  7. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management.

    PubMed

    Kleindinst, Judith L; Anderson, Donald M; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Stumpf, Richard P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Couture, Darcie A; Hickey, J Michael; Nash, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as "significant", "moderately large" or "moderate" to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year's PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined ("Level 1: Limited", "Level 2: Moderate", and "Level 3: Extensive") each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

  8. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    PubMed Central

    Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Hickey, J. Michael; Nash, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts. PMID:25076815

  9. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunoassay and reference methods for the detection of shellfish hydrophilic toxins in several presentations of seafood.

    PubMed

    Garet, Elina; González-Fernández, Africa; Lago, Jorge; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

    2010-02-10

    A comparative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in nine naturally contaminated species in fresh, frozen, boiled and canned fish and shellfish. PSP and ASP were analyzed in 138 shellfish samples (mussels, clams, barnacles, razor shells, scallops and cockles) and anchovies by mouse bioassay (MBA) and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), respectively. Results were compared with toxin concentrations obtained using two commercial competitive ELISAs, saxitoxin and ASP kits. Immunoassays were able to quantify toxins in different matrices showing excellent Pearson's correlation coefficients (r = 0.974 for saxitoxin ELISA and r = 0.973 for ASP ELISA) and to detect PSP and ASP with a lower limit of detection (LOD), namely, 50 microg saxitoxin equivalent/kg shellfish meat for PSP and 60 microg/kg domoic acid in shellfish flesh for ASP, than the reference methods (350 microg saxitoxin equivalent/kg shellfish meat and 1.6 mg/kg domoic acid in shellfish flesh, respectively). These results suggest that the ELISA method could be used as screening systems in a variety of species without matrix interference.

  10. Study of cytoskeletal changes induced by okadaic acid in HL-7702 liver cells and development of a fluorimetric microplate assay for detecting diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Aijun; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Huang, Wei; Fu, Yingbin; Peng, Chaoqiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-02-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal illness with symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, chills and moderate to severe abdominal pain. DSP has been recognized as a worldwide public health problem, causing great concern to the shellfish industry. Accumulation of DSP in shellfish is an unpredictable phenomenon that necessitates the implementation of a widespread collection and thorough monitoring program for mollusk toxicity. Therefore, development of accurate analytical protocols for the rapid determination of toxicity levels would be necessary. In this study we investigated cytoskeletal changes induced by okadaic acid in HL-7702 Liver Cells and developed a new cytotoxicity assay for detection and quantitation of DSP. This assay is based on fluorometric of F-actin depolymerization induced by okadaic acid (OA) compounds in HL-7702 liver cell line. The measurable range of OA was 2.5 ∼ 40 nmol/L. The detection limit of the F-actin assay for OA was 2.01 μg/100 g muscles in shellfish extracts. The performance of this assay has been evaluated by comparative analysis of shellfish samples by the fluorescent assay, mouse bioassay, and ELISA assay. Comparison of the results by all three methods revealed excellent consistency, the results of fluorescent assay were in significant correlation with ELISA assay (R(2) = 0.830). Examination of F-actin assay is very convenient, rapid, and sensitive, which can be used to quantify the amount of OA in shellfish samples.

  11. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: the HAB Index

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978 – 2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions -eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index – a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than

  12. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  13. Lipophilic toxin profile in Mytilus galloprovincialis during episodes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in the N.E. Adriatic Sea in 2006.

    PubMed

    Nincevic Gladan, Zivana; Ujevic, Ivana; Milandri, Anna; Marasovic, Ivona; Ceredi, Alfiero; Pigozzi, Silvia; Arapov, Jasna; Skejic, Sanda

    2011-01-21

    Dinophysis spp. blooms and related shellfish toxicity events of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) have been the most reported toxicity event through the Croatian National monitoring program. With the aim to characterize the DSP toxin profile in shellfish farmed in Croatia, for the first time a complete analysis of the toxin profile of Croatian mussels has been carried out using the LC-MS/MS technique. The obtained results showed okadaic acid (OA) as the main toxin contaminating Croatian mussels at that time. The maximum concentration of OA in shellfish tissue was recorded 12 days after the Dinophysis fortii bloom, thus suggesting that rapid growth of the toxin level in the shellfish occurred in the first week after the bloom while it was slower in the second week. Furthermore, the presence of only OA at concentrations which could endanger human health suggests D. fortii as the main organism responsible for the toxic event that occurred in Lim Bay. The presence of gymnodimine and spirolides in Croatian mussel has been detected for the first time, while the presence of yessotoxin and pectenotoxin-2 is confirmed.

  14. N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

    2014-09-01

    Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms.

  15. Dynamic adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in passive sampling relates to pore size distribution of aromatic adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Ma, Feifei; Song, Xiuli; Yu, Rencheng

    2011-03-18

    Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology was developed as an effective passive sampling method for dissolved diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater. HP20 and SP700 resins have been reported as preferred adsorption substrates for lipophilic algal toxins and are recommended for use in SPATT testing. However, information on the mechanism of passive adsorption by these polymeric resins is still limited. Described herein is a study on the adsorption of OA and DTX1 toxins extracted from Prorocentrum lima algae by HP20 and SP700 resins. The pore size distribution of the adsorbents was characterized by a nitrogen adsorption method to determine the relationship between adsorption and resin porosity. The Freundlich equation constant showed that the difference in adsorption capacity for OA and DTX1 toxins was not determined by specific surface area, but by the pore size distribution in particular, with micropores playing an especially important role. Additionally, it was found that differences in affinity between OA and DTX1 for aromatic resins were as a result of polarity discrepancies due to DTX1 having an additional methyl moiety.

  16. Sulfated diesters of okadaic acid and DTX-1: Self-protective precursors of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingmo; LeBlanc, Patricia; Burton, Ian W; Walter, John A; McCarron, Pearse; Melanson, Jeremy E; Strangman, Wendy K; Wright, Jeffrey L C

    2017-03-01

    Many toxic secondary metabolites used for defense are also toxic to the producing organism. One important way to circumvent toxicity is to store the toxin as an inactive precursor. Several sulfated diesters of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin okadaic acid have been reported from cultures of various dinoflagellate species belonging to the genus Prorocentrum. It has been proposed that these sulfated diesters are a means of toxin storage within the dinoflagellate cell, and that a putative enzyme mediated two-step hydrolysis of sulfated diesters such as DTX-4 and DTX-5 initially leads to the formation of diol esters and ultimately to the release of free okadaic acid. However, only one diol ester and no sulfated diesters of DTX-1, a closely related DSP toxin, have been isolated leading some to speculate that this toxin is not stored as a sulfated diester and is processed by some other means. DSP components in organic extracts of two large scale Prorocentrum lima laboratory cultures have been investigated. In addition to the usual suite of okadaic acid esters, as well as the free acids okadaic acid and DTX-1, a group of corresponding diol- and sulfated diesters of both okadaic acid and DTX-1 have now been isolated and structurally characterized, confirming that both okadaic acid and DTX-1 are initially formed in the dinoflagellate cell as the non-toxic sulfated diesters.

  17. Effect of addition of antibiotics and an antioxidant on the stability of tissue reference materials for domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poison.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Burrell, Stephen; Hess, Philipp

    2007-04-01

    Five separate reference materials (RMs) were prepared from a mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue containing domoic acid (DA) from scallop hepatopancreas (Pecten maximus). Homogenates were separately spiked with antibiotics, an antioxidant, or a combination of both. Control materials did not contain any additives and were prepared from lightly cooked and autoclaved mussel tissues. Stability studies were run over a 148-day period at three different temperature conditions: -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C and +40 degrees C. DA contents in all materials were characterised by HPLC-UV. Homogeneities were demonstrated at the beginning of the study, with coefficients of variance of less than 4% (n = 9). DA was stable at -20 degrees C in all materials. The control materials showed significant degradation after two days at +40 degrees C, and after eight days at +4 degrees C. Each of the materials containing additives demonstrated better stability during the initial period of the study. In addition there was no significant degradation in any of the materials with additives stored at +4 degrees C over the duration of the study. The material containing a combination of the antibiotics and the antioxidant displayed the best stability of all the materials. There was no significant reduction in DA concentration at all temperature conditions after eight days, and after 32 days the decrease at +40 degrees C was still <20 %. Following this, a DA laboratory reference material (LRM) was prepared and, based on previous results, spiked with both the antioxidant and antibiotics. A short-term stability study on this material gave similar results to the corresponding material in the additives study. This study shows that combined use of the additives investigated in the preparation of a mussel tissue reference material for DA ensures analyte stability for a period of up to eight days at temperatures of up to +40 degrees C, a condition that is particularly important when shipping test materials globally. Aliquots of individual feasibility materials used in the study.

  18. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... as poison ivy and poison oakvenom from certain snakes and insects. How is poisoning diagnosed? The doctor ... poison, poison control, poison symptoms, poison treatments, poisoning, snake bite, syrup of ipecac First Aid and Injury ...

  19. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected.

  20. Evaluation of variability and quality control procedures for a receptor-binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, S R; Langlois, G W; Masuda, M; Perera, S Kusum

    2012-01-01

    The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for determining saxatoxin (STX) and its numerous analogues, which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans, was evaluated in a single laboratory study. Each step of the assay preparation procedure including the performance of the multi-detector TopCount® instrument was evaluated for its contribution to method variability. The overall inherent RBA variability was determined to be 17%. Variability within the 12 detectors was observed; however, there was no reproducible pattern in detector performance. This observed variability among detectors could be attributed to other factors, such as pipetting errors. In an attempt to reduce the number of plates rejected due to excessive variability in the method's quality control parameters, a statistical approach was evaluated using either Grubbs' test or the Student's t-test for rejecting outliers in the measurement of triplicate wells. This approach improved the ratio of accepted versus rejected plates, saving cost and time for rerunning the assay. However, the potential reduction in accuracy and the lack of improvement in precision suggests caution when using this approach. The current study has recommended an alternate quality control procedure for accepting or rejecting plates in place of the criteria currently used in the published assay, or the alternative of outlier testing. The recommended procedure involves the development of control charts to monitor the critical parameters identified in the published method (QC sample, EC₅₀, slope of calibration curve), with the addition of a fourth critical parameter which is the top value (100% binding) of the calibration curve.

  1. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  2. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching shellfish or breathing in vapors from cooking shellfish. Shellfish allergy can develop at ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  3. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Twiner, Michael J.; Rehmann, Nils; Hess, Philipp; Doucette, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs. PMID:18728760

  4. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst

  5. Two simple models for accounting mussel contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins at Aveiro lagoon: Control by rainfall and atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    At Aveiro lagoon (Portuguese northwest coast) bivalve contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSTs), okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), is a recurrent annual phenomenon seriously affecting seafood safety. The influence of meteorological parameters was studied to understand accumulation of DSTs in mussels, related to the blooming of the causative toxic microalgae, belonging to genus Dinophysis. Two simplified models were useful in predicting the accumulation of DSTs in blue mussels from this lagoon. Either the May river drainage or the rainfall accumulated from January through May could adequately predict the severity of OA accumulated from predation upon Dinophysis acuminata during June/July. In both cases a linear relationship was obtained, with correlation coefficients of 0.85 or greater. Winds with a west direction favour coastal concentration of Dinophysis acuta in Aveiro region. Both OA and DTX2 contamination increased exponentially in September/October with the cumulative number of days with W-wind orientation in the preceding August (correlation coefficients greater than 0.92). This relationship was attributed to the quadratic effect of wind stress on surface currents. August is a transitional month, when the continental runoff effect upon Dinophysis acuminata can still be observed and Dinophysis acuta advection may be promoted by westerly winds occurring in July. The frequency of periods with northerly winds in July can halt accumulation of toxins derived from Dinophysis acuta.

  6. Evaluation of toxicity equivalent factors of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in seven human sodium channels types by an automated high throughput electrophysiology system.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Eva; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Although voltage-gated sodium channels (Na v ) are the cellular target of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and that patch clamp electrophysiology is the most effective way of studying direct interaction of molecules with these channels, nowadays, this technique is still reduced to more specific analysis due to the difficulties of transforming it in a reliable throughput system. Actual functional methods for PSP detection are based in binding assays using receptors but not functional Na v channels. Currently, the availability of automated patch clamp platforms and also of stably transfected cell lines with human Na v channels allow us to introduce this specific and selective method for fast screenings in marine toxin detection. Taking advantage of the accessibility to pure PSP standards, we calculated the toxicity equivalent factors (TEFs) for nine PSP analogs obtaining reliable TEFs in human targets to fulfill the deficiencies of the official analytic methods and to verify automated patch clamp technology as a fast and reliable screening method for marine toxins that interact with the sodium channel. The main observation of this work was the large variation of TEFs depending on the channel subtype selected, being remarkable the variation of potency in the 1.7 channel subtype and the suitability of Na v 1.6 and 1.2 channels for PSP screening.

  7. Contrasting physiological responses of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jorge M; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A; Chaparro, Oscar R; Segura, Cristian J; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J; Labarta, Uxio

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves.

  8. Contrasting Physiological Responses of Two Populations of the Razor Clam Tagelus dombeii with Different Histories of Exposure to Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Jorge M.; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A.; Chaparro, Oscar R.; Segura, Cristian J.; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J.; Labarta, Uxio

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves. PMID:25153329

  9. Distribution, occurrence and biotoxin composition of the main shellfish toxin producing microalgae within European waters: A comparison of methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Sara E; Medlin, Linda K; Kegel, Jessica; McCoy, Gary R; Raine, Robin; Barra, Lucia; Ruggiero, Maria Valeria; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Montresor, Marina; Hagstrom, Johannes; Blanco, Eva Perez; Graneli, Edna; Rodríguez, Francisco; Escalera, Laura; Reguera, Beatriz; Dittami, Simon; Edvardsen, Bente; Taylor, Joe; Lewis, Jane M; Pazos, Yolanda; Elliott, Christopher T; Campbell, Katrina

    2016-05-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe. Seawater samples (n=256) from European waters, collected 2009-2011, were analysed for biotoxins: saxitoxin and analogues, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins 1/2 (DTX1/DTX2) and domoic acid responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), respectively. Biotoxins were detected mainly in samples from Spain and Ireland. France and Norway appeared to have the lowest number of toxic samples. Both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and the RNA microarray were more sensitive at detecting toxic HABs than standard light microscopy phytoplankton monitoring. Correlations between each of the detection methods were performed with the overall agreement, based on statistical 2×2 comparison tables, between each testing platform ranging between 32% and 74% for all three toxin families illustrating that one individual testing method may not be an ideal solution. An efficient early warning monitoring system for the detection of toxic HABs could therefore be achieved by combining both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and RNA microarray.

  10. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a shellfish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  11. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  12. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

    2013-01-01

    Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

  13. Shellfish contamination and spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molluscan shellfish are prone to contamination by fecal and vibrio bacteria, fecal viruses, biotoxins, and chemical pollutants. In this book chapter, the problems and challenges for the shellfish industry are described and discussed. Basic regulatory frameworks, management strategies, critical cont...

  14. Shellfish toxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-11-28

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management.

  15. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management. PMID:24287955

  16. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  17. Occurrence of Harmful Algal Species and Shellfish Toxicity in Sardinia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Mudadu, Alessandro Graziano; Lorenzoni, Giuseppa; Arras, Igor; Lugliè, Antonella; Vivaldi, Barbara; Cicotelli, Valentina; Sanna, Giovanna; Tedde, Giuseppe; Ledda, Salvatore; Alesso, Enrico; Marongiu, Edoardo; Virgilio, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Sardinia (Italy, north-western Mediterranean) is a commercially important producer of edible bivalve molluscs. Since the early 2000s, it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algal poison. Here, we present the studies on toxin concentrations and the associated potentially toxic phytoplankton distribution and abundances carried out by a regular monitoring programme in Sardinian shellfish areas, from January to May 2015. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in several bivalve molluscs samples, while paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were present just once, without exceeding the legal limits. Potentially toxic algal species have been constantly present. Pseudo-nitzschia species were present during the entire study often with high abundances, while Dinophysis species reached high densities sporadically. Among PSP phytoplankton, only Alexandrium minutum Halim was found. The data obtained in this study showed an increase in the DSP toxicity in mussels in Sardinia. No clear relation between the occurrence of toxins in shellfish and the presence of potentially toxic algal species was found, although a slight correlation between DSP toxins and Dinophysis species could be supported. PMID:28058244

  18. Detection of okadaic acid and related esters in mussels during diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes in Greece using the mouse bioassay, the PP2A inhibition assay and HPLC with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Prassopoulou, Eleanna; Katikou, Panagiota; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kyritsakis, Apostolos

    2009-02-01

    An approach involving chemical, functional and biological techniques was taken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) in mussels from Thermaikos and Saronikos Gulfs, Greece, during DSP episodes that occurred in 2006-2007. Samples were analyzed using the mouse bioassay, high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD), using l-bromoacetylpyrene (BAP), as a precolumn derivatisation reagent, and the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2AIA) using a commercially available kit. Okadaic acid (OA) and its polar and non-polar esters were detected and quantified by HPLC-FLD, after hydrolysis of the samples during preparation. The detection limit of the HPLC method for OA was 5.86 microg OA/kg, which permits this method to be used for the regulatory control of these toxins in shellfish. Comparison of the results by all three methods revealed excellent consistency.

  19. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  20. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  1. Dinophysis toxins: causative organisms, distribution and fate in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-20

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L⁻¹). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  2. Problems associated with shellfish farming.

    PubMed

    Chinabut, S; Somsiri, T; Limsuwan, C; Lewis, S

    2006-08-01

    Shellfish culture is a major sector of aquaculture production worldwide, and zoonoses and drug residues associated with shellfish farm practice are of concern to public health. This paper focuses on three of the most important shellfish species: molluscs, crabs and shrimp. Although many diseases can affect shellfish, they do not appear to be transmittable to humans. Rather, the main hazards are associated with the methods used to farm the different species. The risk to human health from shellfish most commonly relates to contamination by biotoxins produced by marine algae. Another well-recognised problem associated with shellfish culture is the contamination of shellfish with domestic sewage that contains human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, which causes diseases such as typhoid fever and hepatitis. In shrimp farming, the main potential food safety hazards are zoonoses, chemical contamination and veterinary drug residues. Untreated effluent from shrimp farms is a major concern to the environmental sector as it is known to promote plankton blooms if directly discharged into natural water sources.

  3. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

  4. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  5. A review of selected seafood poisonings.

    PubMed

    Clark, R F; Williams, S R; Nordt, S P; Manoguerra, A S

    1999-01-01

    Seafood poisoning has been recognized as a problem in both coastal and inland populations for millennia. Many types of sea creatures from shellfish to the largest fish have been implicated. Severe cases of many different types of seafood poisonings can result in fatalities. While the pathophysiology of the toxins is well known in some cases, others, like ciguatera, remain somewhat confusing. As a result, the treatment of these conditions remains controversial, although supportive care continues to be the mainstay of therapy. In this manuscript, we review the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of some of the most common and toxic varieties of seafood poisoning resulting from toxins.

  6. A competitive ELISA to detect brevetoxins from Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) in seawater, shellfish, and mammalian body fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Naar, Jerome; Bourdelais, Andrea; Tomas, Carmelo; Kubanek, Julia; Whitney, Philip L; Flewelling, Leanne; Steidinger, Karen; Lancaster, Johnny; Baden, Daniel G

    2002-01-01

    We developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to analyze brevetoxins, using goat anti-brevetoxin antibodies obtained after immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-brevetoxin conjugates, in combination with a three-step signal amplification process. The procedure, which used secondary biotinylated antibodies, streptavidine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, and chromogenic enzyme substrate, was useful in reducing nonspecific background signals commonly observed with complex matrices. This competitive ELISA detected brevetoxins in seawater, shellfish extract and homogenate, and mammalian body fluid such as urine and serum without pretreatment, dilution, or purification. We investigated the application of this technique for shellfish monitoring by spiking shellfish meat with brevetoxins and by analyzing oysters from two commercial shellfish beds in Florida that were exposed to a bloom of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve). We performed brevetoxin analysis of shellfish extracts and homogenates by ELISA and compared it with the mouse bioassay and receptor binding assay. The detection limit for brevetoxins in spiked oysters was 2.5 microg/100 g shellfish meat. This assay appears to be a useful tool for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning monitoring in shellfish and seawater, and for mammalian exposure diagnostics, and significantly reduces the time required for analyses. PMID:11836147

  7. Development and validation of the first high performance-lateral flow immunoassay (HP-LFIA) for the rapid screening of domoic acid from shellfish extracts.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Waqass; Meneely, Julie; Campbell, Katrina; Hooper, Mark; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher

    2013-11-15

    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed and fully validated to detect the primary amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin, domoic acid (DA). The performance characteristics of two versions of the test were investigated using spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). The tests provide a qualitative result, to indicate the absence or presence of DA in extracts of shellfish tissues, at concentrations that are relevant to regulatory limits. The new rapid assay (LFIA version 2) was designed to overcome the performance limitations identified in the first version of the assay. The improved test uses an electronic reader to remove the subjective nature of the generated results, and the positive cut-off for screening of DA in shellfish was increased from 10 ppm (version 1) to 17.5 ppm (version 2). A simple extraction and test procedure was employed, which required minimal equipment and materials; results were available 15 min after sample preparation. Stability of the aqueous extracts at room temperature (22 °C) at four time points (up to 245 min after extraction) and across a range of DA concentrations was 100.3±1.3% and 98.8±2.4% for pre- and post-buffered extracts, respectively. The assay can be used both within laboratory settings and in remote locations. The accuracy of the new assay, to indicate negative results at or below 10 ppm DA, and positive results at or above 17.5 ppm, was 99.5% (n=216 tests). Validation data were obtained from a 2-day, randomised, blind study consisting of multiple LFIA lots (n=3), readers (n=3) and operators (n=3), carrying out multiple extractions of mussel tissue (n=3) at each concentration (0, 10, 17.5, and 20 ppm). No matrix effects were observed on the performance of the assay with different species (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). There was no impact on accuracy or interference from other phycotoxins, glutamic acid or glutamine with various strip

  8. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Bee poison

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  12. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Oleander poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Nicotine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Kerosene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Hydrocarbons, substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. Where ... oil poisoning; Coal oil poisoning References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  18. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  19. Remembering and Voting: Theory and Evidence from Amnesic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, Jason C.; Duff, Melissa C.; Warren, David E.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Gonsalves, Brian D.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most prominent claims to emerge from the field of public opinion is that citizens can vote for candidates whose issue positions best reflect their own beliefs even when they cannot remember previously learned stances associated with the candidates. The current experiment provides a unique and powerful examination of this claim by determining whether individuals with profound amnesia, whose severe memory impairments prevent them from remembering specific issue information associated with any particular candidate, can vote for candidates whose issue positions come closest to their own political views. We report here that amnesic patients, despite not being able to remember any issue information, consistently voted for candidates with favored political positions. Thus, sound voting decisions do not require recall or recognition of previously learned associations between candidates and their issue positions. This result supports a multiple memory systems model of political decision making. PMID:24511170

  20. Shellfish Allergy: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Shellfish allergy is of increasing concern, as its prevalence has risen in recent years. Many advances have been made in allergen characterization. B cell epitopes in the major allergen tropomyosin have been characterized. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and myosin light chain have recently been reported in shellfish. All are proteins that play a role in muscular contraction. Additional allergens such as hemocyanin have also been described. The effect of processing methods on these allergens has been studied, revealing thermal stability and resistance to peptic digestion in some cases. Modifications after Maillard reactions have also been addressed, although in some cases with conflicting results. In recent years, new hypoallergenic molecules have been developed, which constitute a new therapeutic approach to allergic disorders. A recombinant hypoallergenic tropomyosin has been developed, which opens a new avenue in the treatment of shellfish allergy. Cross-reactivity with species that are not closely related is common in shellfish-allergic patients, as many of shellfish allergens are widely distributed panallergens in invertebrates. Cross-reactivity with house dust mites is well known, but other species can also be involved in this phenomenon.

  1. Warmer Waters May Mean More Toxic Shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162947.html Warmer Waters May Mean More Toxic Shellfish New scientific tool ... in shellfish to ocean conditions caused by warm water phases of natural climate event cycles," said study ...

  2. Shellfish allergens: tropomyosin and beyond.

    PubMed

    Faber, M A; Pascal, M; El Kharbouchi, O; Sabato, V; Hagendorens, M M; Decuyper, I I; Bridts, C H; Ebo, D G

    2016-12-27

    IgE-mediated shellfish allergy constitutes an important cause of food-related adverse reactions. Shellfish are classified into mollusks and crustaceans, the latter belonging to the class of arthropoda. Among crustaceans, shrimps are the most predominant cause of allergic reactions and thus more extensively studied. Several major and minor allergens have been identified and cloned. Among them, invertebrate tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and hemocyanin are the most relevant. This review summarizes our current knowledge about these allergens.

  3. Solder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethylene glycol is extremely poisonous. Complete recovery from lead poisoning takes a year or more. It may cause ... Long-term poisoning with antimony and cadmium may lead to lung cancer. Recovery from acid poisoning depends on how much tissue has been damaged.

  4. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  5. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from lead poisoning in New Hampshire and in Alabama. Lead poisoning has also been associated with juvenile ... for decades—after it first enters the blood stream. (The same process can occur with the onset ...

  6. Varnish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clear liquid that is used as coating on woodwork and other products. Varnish poisoning occurs ... NOT make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. ...

  7. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  8. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Poisoning Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  9. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  10. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the woods ... pill or liquid form. Preventing Rashes From Poison Plants The best approach is to avoid getting the ...

  11. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  12. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe poisoning occurs when someone eats any part of this plant. Poisoning can also occur if you drink tea ...

  13. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  14. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  15. Methylmercury poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Methylmercury is a type of mercury , a metal that is liquid at room temperature. A nickname for mercury is quicksilver. Most compounds containing mercury are poisonous. Methylmercury is a very poisonous ...

  16. Overview of Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Caustic Substances Poisoning Hydrocarbon Poisoning Insecticide Poisoning Iron Poisoning Lead Poisoning Overview of Food ... in their original containers. Toxic substances, such as insecticides and cleaning agents, should not be put in ...

  17. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  18. Failure to elicit conditioned taste aversion by severe poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Buresová, O

    1977-03-01

    In an attempt to assess the universal validity of the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, various types of poisoning (UC) were associated with the gustatory CS. Water deprived rats were habituated for two days to the drinking box, where water was available for 15 min. On Day 3, access to the CS (0.1% saccharin 15 min) was followed after 30 min by a sublethal dose of the poison (0.15 M LiCl, 4% body weight; 0.1 M sodium malonate, 1% body weight; pyrrolopyrimidine drug BW 58-271, 15 mg/kg; sodium cyanide 4 mg/kg; sodium iodoacetate 40 mg/kg; sodium fluoride 30 mg/kg; gallamine triethiodide 40 mg/kg). Rats injected with the last drug were maintained under artificial respiration until muscular paralysis disappeared. After 4 days of recovery, water deprivation schedule was resumed on Days 8 and 9. During the retention test on Day 10 saccharin consumption dropped by 60% in the LiCl poisoned rats, but not CTA developed in animals poisoned by pyrrolopyrimidine, gallamine, malonate and cyanide. CTA of intermediate intensity was evoked by iodoacetate and fluoride. The absence of CTA was not due to the amnesic effect of poisoning, since LiCl administration to NaCN poisoned rats produced CTA of usual intensity. It is concluded that CTA is not related to the overall severity of poisoning but rather to the effect of the poison on specific interoceptors.

  19. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus and hepatitis A virus contamination are significant threats to the safety of shellfish and other foods. Methods for the extraction and assay of these viruses from shellfish are complex, time consuming, and technically challenging. Here, we itemize some of the salient points in extracting...

  20. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  2. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D; Adams, Nicolaus G; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A M; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L

    2013-05-28

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound.

  3. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  4. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  5. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  6. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  7. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... harvester by the shellfish control authority, where applicable or, if such identification numbers are not assigned, the name of the harvester or the name or registration number of the harvester's vessel). In...

  8. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... harvester by the shellfish control authority, where applicable or, if such identification numbers are not assigned, the name of the harvester or the name or registration number of the harvester's vessel). In...

  9. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can kill a child, while ...

  10. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, ed. Haddad and ...

  11. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  12. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  13. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  14. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... dangerous and is not advised. References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  16. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  17. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure at school Hearing problems Kidney damage Reduced IQ Slowed body growth The symptoms of lead poisoning ... can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater ...

  19. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  20. Naphthalene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ... Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  1. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little ...

  2. Distribution of indicator bacteria and bacteriophages in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters.

    PubMed

    Legnani, P; Leoni, E; Lev, D; Rossi, R; Villa, G C; Bisbini, P

    1998-11-01

    Shellfish (mussels and clams) and shellfish-growing waters were examined for indicator bacteria according to the EC regulations, Salmonella spp., coliphages and anti-Salmonella phages. Samples were collected both from natural-growing areas along the coast and from authorized shellfish-harvesting beds. The coastal area was affected by organic pollution and extensive faecal contamination and, according to the legal requirements, was unsuitable for shellfish farming. The shellfish collected along the coast also showed faecal contamination at levels which did not conform to legal standards. No significant differences were observed between the frequency of isolation of somatic coliphages and indicator bacteria from sea water. In contrast, both the authorized and wild coastal shellfish were contaminated by coliphages at a significantly higher level than the corresponding bacterial indicators for faecal contamination (chi 2 test, P < 0.01). Coliphage concentrations were significantly correlated with faecal indicators in marine waters (P < 0.001) and sediments (P < 0.05), but no correlation was found in shellfish, thus showing their low specificity as indicators of faecal pollution of human origin in shellfish of economic importance.

  3. Acquisition of a new color name in amnesics and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, S; Kovner, R; Goldmeier, E

    1990-06-01

    Six Korsakoffs amnesics, three mixed amnesics, and eight normal controls were taught the meaning of "bice", the word for a particular shade of blue-green. The conceptual interpretation that the Korsakoffs developed for "bice" differed in three respects from the one that the controls developed. (1) Although both Korsakoffs and controls applied the term more liberally to pens than to other objects, two of the Korsakoffs showed an extreme form of this tendency. (2) The Korsakoffs tended to generalize more broadly along the spectral dimension in using the term. (3) Whereas there was a positive relationship, in the data for the controls, between measures of syntactic and semantic awareness concerning "bice", there was no such relationship in the Korsakoffs data. It was concluded that the Korsakoffs had difficulty mastering the new word, and difficulty specifically in integrating their representation for the word with the rest of their lexical knowledge.

  4. Effects of surface features on word-fragment completion in amnesic subjects.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Wayland, S V

    1993-01-01

    Patients with amnesia resulting from alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and elderly control patients studied a list of words in two typographies (typed and handwritten) and then received a word-fragment completion test (e.g., -ys-e-y for mystery) in which the test cues also varied in typography. Unlike the elderly control patients, the amnesic patients did not show greater priming effect when the typography at test matched that at study. The amount of typography-dependent priming was positively correlated with the score on the Wechsler Memory Scale. These results suggest that the effects of typography change on repetition priming in word-fragment completion reflect explicit recollection, and that the representation that supports repetition priming effects observed with amnesic subjects in the word-fragment completion task does not code typography information.

  5. Ameliorative effect of betulin from Betula platyphylla bark on scopolamine-induced amnesic mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Namki; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Jeon, Byung Ju; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease induced by cholinergic neuron damage or amyloid-beta aggregation in the basal forebrain region and resulting in cognitive disorder. We previously reported on the neuroprotective effects of Betula platyphylla bark (BPB) in an amyloid-beta-induced amnesic mouse model. In this study, we obtained a cognitive-enhancing compound by assessing results using a scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse model. Our results show that oral treatment of mice with BPB and betulin significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits in both passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. In the Morris water maze test, administration of BPB and betulin significantly improved memory and cognitive function indicating the formation of working and reference memories in treated mice. Moreover, betulin significantly increased glutathione content in mouse hippocampus, and the increase was greater than that from betulinic acid treatment. We conclude that BPB and its active component betulin have potential as therapeutic, cognitive enhancer in AD.

  6. Poison Ivy Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Page Content Article Body Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac commonly cause skin rashes in ... swampy areas of the Mississippi River region. Poison oak grows as a shrub, and it is seen ...

  7. Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Rat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning ... up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional. ... a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

  8. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  9. Pentachlorophenol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.; Rom, W.N.; White, G.L. Jr.; Logan, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a pesticide commonly used as a wood preservative. Although exposure has been well controlled in large chemical manufacturing plants, over-exposures have recently becomes a concern at smaller facilities. Five cases of PCP poisoning, including two fatalities, occurred in two small wood preservative plants. All cases presented with fever, including severe hyperpyrexia in two; an increased anion gap and renal insufficiency were noted in two others. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a poisoning syndrome characterized by hyperpyrexia, diaphoresis, tachycardia, tachypnea, abdominal pain, nausea, and even death.

  10. Infectious diseases associated with molluscan shellfish consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Rippey, S R

    1994-01-01

    A history of shellfish-vectored illnesses (i.e., those associated with consumption of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops) occurring in the past nine decades is presented. Typhoid fever was a significant public health problem among consumers of raw molluscan shellfish earlier in this century. The development of more effective sewage treatment procedures and the institution of a national program following these outbreaks led to a series of measures which eventually eliminated shellfish-associated typhoid fever. Present-day problems associated with this food source still involve some wastewaterborne bacterial illnesses. However, the principal public health concerns are with wastewater-derived viral pathogens and with bacterial agents of an environmental origin. The nature, occurrence, and magnitude of these public health problems are described. PMID:7834599

  11. A Potential Mechanism of Virus Persistence within Bivalve Shellfish.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of enteric virus bioaccumulation by molluscan shellfish has been widely studied and documented. However, it is not understood why some human enteric viruses, which cannot replicate within shellfish, are selectively retained and remain viable within shellfish tissues for extended periods...

  12. Open-sandwich immunoassay for sensitive and broad-range detection of a shellfish toxin gonyautoxin.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yuko; Dong, Jinhua; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-09-02

    At present, the analytical method for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish is the mouse bioassay (MBA), which is an official method of the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC [8]). However, the low sensitivity and concerns over the number of live animals required for testing have been cited as the major reason for seeking its replacement. In this report, we employed an open-sandwich immunoassay (OS-IA) to detect gonyautoxin (GTX2/3), a kind of PSP toxins. OS-IA, which utilizes the antigen-induced enhancement of antibody VH/VL interaction, can measure a small molecule antigen in a noncompetitive format. Hence it has a wider working range and shorter measurement time. We isolated anti-GTX2/3 antibody gene from a hybridoma GT-13A by screening a Fab-displaying phage library. Then the vectors for OS-IA were constructed, and examined for antigen concentration-dependency of the VH/VL interaction by OS-ELISA. As a result, in each case, signal intensity increases notably in a wide concentration range (0.1 to >1000 ng mL(-1)) of free GTX2/3, which was enough to cover its regulation value (80 μg 100 g(-1)) in many countries. So OS-IA will be widely applicable to detect PSP toxins in shellfish meats and in drinking water.

  13. Cluster analysis of toxins profile pattern as a tool for tracing shellfish contaminated with PSP-toxins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwan; Hung, Patricia; Ng, Henry C C; Lee, Siu-Yuen; Kam, Kai-Man

    2011-11-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the most lethal biotoxin-induced diseases worldwide, which may pose serious public health threat and potential devastating economic damage on fisheries industry in the affected region(s). To prevent the importation of PSP contaminated shellfish to a community, detailed documentation on the supply chain and routine surveillance systems are, in principle, crucial measures to protect people from this intoxication. However, difficulties have always been encountered on the traceability of the source/origin of contaminated shellfish. In the present study, we reported the potential application of PSP-toxins profiles with similarity analysis that can be used to identify epidemiological linkage between shellfish samples collected from markets and patients during a PSP outbreak. PSP-toxins were identified and quantified by ion-pair chromatographic separation followed by post-column oxidation to fluorescent imino purine derivatives. Samples from a PSP incident and other surveillance samples collected in our past 7-year record were also compared for their similarity in PSP-toxins profiles patterns. Molar distributions (nmol%) of 10 PSP-toxins were analyzed by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetric averages (UPGMA). Three prominent clusters emerged with similarity levels reaching over 80% for each, suggesting that each group of samples probably originated from a same source/batch. The PSP-toxins profiles and toxicities determined from surveillance samples could provide premonitory clues on the occurrences of PSP incident and outbreak with corresponding toxin profiles in the later time. Due to species-specific characteristics of PSP-toxins composition and profile in shellfish under varieties of environmental and physiological conditions, PSP-toxins profile can be a specific and useful biochemical indicator for tracing PSP contaminated shellfish provided that spatio-temporal occurrence patterns of toxins profiles are available

  14. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  15. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  16. Confirmation by LC-MS/MS of azaspiracids in shellfish from the Portuguese north-western coast.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo; Bire, Ronel; Hess, Philipp

    2008-06-15

    The search for azaspiracids (AZAs) in shellfish on the Portuguese coast started in 2002, but the presence of these toxins could not be demonstrated until the summer of 2006. Analysis by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the confirmation of AZA2 as a dominant compound, followed by AZA1, in blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule), clams (Venerupis senegalensis, Ruditapes decussatus), razor clam (Solen marginatus) and oyster (Crassostrea spp). Traces of AZA3 were found only in blue mussel. Total levels of AZA1-3 determined in the whole flesh by LC-MS/MS ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 microg/kg. The finding of low levels of AZAs since 2002 suggests a low risk level when compared with the highest risks posed by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. However, the limited number of years studied might generate a misleading conclusion. The contamination with PSP is an example, as no contamination occurred for an extended period of time between 1996 and 2004, despite high levels having occurred outside this period. Thus, there appears overall a moderate likelihood of occurrence of AZAs in the range that may be relevant to consumers.

  17. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  19. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  20. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  1. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  2. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  3. Poison Ivy Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from ... Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a ...

  4. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Cuticle remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  16. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eaten Amount swallowed The time it was swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  18. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  19. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  20. Irradiated Shellfish: Identification by Photostimulated Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Falconi, Grazia; Verità, Francesca Della; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation of food is a technology used in the industry to prevent the deterioration of foodstuff in some countries. The European Community legislation states that each Member State must carry out annual checks on the products during commercialisation. The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle regioni Lazio e Toscana (Rome, Italy) has developed and validated the screening method of photostimulated luminescence UNI EN 13751:2009 to identify irradiated shellfish. A total of 30 tests of shellfish samples, consisting of 22 certified as irradiated and 8 not-irradiated samples, were performed. The validation procedure was based on sensitivity and specificity; the compatibility between the screening method and the reference standard EN 13751:2009 was evaluated. Data were processed: 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity were obtained. Results obtained in our laboratory were perfectly compatible with the reference standard. For this reason, the method has been validated and proved to be suitable for its intended use. PMID:27800335

  1. RELATIONS OF FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS TO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Bay estuary provides rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those identified as economically and ecologically important. The National Estuary Program has focused on restoration of degraded estuarine habitat on which these species depend. To support this effort, we developed statistical models to relate distributions of individual fish and shellfish species and species assemblages to two dozen wter quality and habitat variables in a geo-referenced database. Ordination was used to arrange species according to axes that represented gradients of low to high salinity and upland to offshore habitat area. A hierarchical cluster analysis performed on species abbundance data identified groups or clusters of co-occurring species with a high degree of spatial fidelity. Fifteen clusters were subsequently used in a discriminant analysis with water quality and habitat vriables; a 53% success rate in classifying the fish assemblages was achieved. Overall, we found that species occurred in definitive, spatially-oriented assemblages that could be related to habitat characteristics; however, due to mobility of organisms among sampling locations and the dynamic environmental conditions in estuaries, we conclude that the analyses presented here are most appropriate for an evaluation of the estuary as a whole. Development of statistical models to relate distributions of individual fish and shellfish species and species assemblages to two dozen water qua

  2. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  3. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2016-01-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  4. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  5. Amnesic effects of the anticholinergic drugs, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden: differences in binding properties to the brain muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ohue, M; Kitaura, T; Kihira, K

    1999-07-10

    An amnesic effect of anticholinergic drugs was previously described from several behavioral studies. We examined this effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden, clinically used in the parkinsonism and schizophrenic patients, by using passive avoidance tasks. Both of these drugs (0.1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) showed dose-dependent amnesic effects in the acquisition and retrieval phases. However, the effect induced by trihexyphenidyl was transient, whereas that of biperiden was long-lasting. To clarify the reason for the different duration of the amnesic activity, binding to the muscarinic receptor was examined. In the Scatchard analysis, trihexyphenidyl competed with [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H]QNB) on the muscarinic receptor (showed increased K(d) and unchanged B(max) value), while biperiden decreased [(3)H]QNB binding (B(max) value) significantly. Furthermore, in an exchange assay for receptor inactivation, trihexyphenidyl binding to muscarinic receptors was exchanged by [(3)H]QNB completely, but biperiden decreased the exchangeable binding of [(3)H]QNB in a dose dependent manner (0.1-100 nM). These results suggested that the binding of trihexyphenidyl and biperiden to muscarinic receptor might be completely reversible and partially irreversible, respectively, whereas the K(i) values of these two drugs were similar. In conclusion, this difference in binding property may explain the difference in the time-course of the amnesic effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden.

  6. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  7. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  8. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  9. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  10. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance. PMID:25232312

  11. New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ's rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece's musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ's complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  12. Ciguatera poisoning.

    PubMed

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  13. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  14. 50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... guest of that enterprise, shellfish that has been taken under this section, unless: (i) The shellfish has been taken with gear deployed and retrieved by the client or guest who is a Federally-qualified subsistence user; (ii) The gear has been marked with the client's or guest's name and address; and (iii)...

  15. Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Ángeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week−1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559

  16. Determination of Na channel blockers in paralytic shellfish toxins and pufferfish toxins with a tissue biosensor.

    PubMed

    Cheun, B S; Takagi, S; Hayashi, T; Nagashima, Y; Watanabe, E

    1998-06-01

    The biosensor consisted of a sodium electrode and covered with the frog bladder membrane within a flow cell was tested for the estimation of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX). This sensor was applied to detect very low amounts of the Na+ channel blockers, STX and TTX, in different shellfishes and swellfishes. A good agreement was obtained between TTX activities determined by mouse assay and amounts of Na+ channel blockers estimated by frog membrane sensor. The lowest level of TTX (fg) that can be determined by frog membrane sensor does not cause human poisoning. The channel blockers in short-necked clam, which was assumed to be STX, were monitored by this sensor continuously every week for one year. It was discovered that the STX content increased from July until September and then decreased from October until March. The biosensor proposed here may be used for the estimation of STX and TTX conventionally in the future.

  17. Just lying there, remembering: improving recall of prose in amnesic patients with mild cognitive impairment by minimising interference.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Cowan, Nelson; Beschin, Nicoletta; Perini, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The hallmark of amnesia is poor explicit long-term memory along with normal short-term memory. It is often stated that information encountered by amnesic patients is forgotten within 1 minute of presentation. However, previous work has not distinguished between forgetting as a function of time versus the interfering material occupying that time. We show that there is a marked benefit of reduced interference in amnesic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that is characterised by anterograde amnesia in the absence of other neuropsychological deficits and carries an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The result suggests that long-term memory is encoded in these patients to a greater extent than had been realised but that their memory is highly vulnerable to interference.

  18. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  19. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  20. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  1. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a ... American Association of Poison Control Centers, Inc. CDC: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Prevention Guidelines U.S. Food and Drug ...

  2. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  3. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  4. Nitric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. ... national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This ...

  5. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  6. Effect of ozonation and γ-irradiation on post-harvest decontamination of mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) containing diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Louppis, A P; Katikou, P; Georgantelis, D; Badeka, A V; Kontominas, M G

    2011-12-01

    Contamination of shellfish with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins readily occurs during algal blooms. Such phenomena raise important public health concerns and thus comprise a constant challenge to shellfish farmers, the seafood industry and health services, considering the increasing occurrence of toxic episodes around the world. To avoid the detrimental effects of such episodes, research has focused on the use of various detoxification methodologies that should be rapid, efficient, easy to apply, and will not alter the quality and sensory properties of shellfish. In the present study, both ozonation (15 mg kg(-1) for 6 h) and γ-irradiation (6 kGy) were utilised in order to reduce the toxin content of contaminated shucked mussels, collected during the DSP episodes of 2007 and 2009 in Greece. DSP toxicity was monitored using the mouse bioassay (MBA) whilst the determination of toxin content of the okadaic acid (OA) group (both free and esterified forms) was carried out by LC/MS/MS analysis. Toxin reduction using γ-irradiation was in the range of 12-36%, 8-53% and 10-41% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. The appearance and texture of irradiated mussels deteriorated, pointing to a low potential for commercial use of this method. Ozonation of mussels resulted in toxin reduction in the range of 6-100%, 25-83% and 21-66% for free OA, OA esters and total OA, respectively. Reduction of OA content was substantially higher in homogenised mussel tissue compared with that of whole shucked mussels. In addition, differences detected with regard to quality parameters (TBA, sensory attributes) between ozonated and control mussels were not considerable. Even though varying percentage reductions in OA and its derivatives were achieved using ozonation under specific experimental conditions tested, it is postulated that upon optimisation ozonation may have the potential for post-harvest commercial DSP detoxification of shucked mussels.

  7. Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

  8. Development of a novel immunobiosensor method for the rapid detection of okadaic acid contamination in shellfish extracts.

    PubMed

    Llamas, Nuria M; Stewart, Linda; Fodey, Terry; Higgins, H Cowan; Velasco, María Luisa R; Botana, Luis M; Elliott, Christopher T

    2007-09-01

    The mouse bioassay is the methodology that is most widely used to detect okadaic acid (OA) in shellfish samples. This is one of the best-known toxins, and it belongs to the family of marine biotoxins referred to as the diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSP). Due to animal welfare concerns, alternative methods of toxin detection are being sought. A rapid and specific biosensor immunoassay method was developed and validated for the detection of OA. An optical sensor instrument based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon was utilised. A polyclonal antibody to OA was raised against OA-bovine thyroglobulin conjugate and OA-N-hydroxy succinimide ester was immobilised onto an amine sensor chip surface. The assay parameters selected for the analysis of the samples were: antibody dilution, 1/750; ratio of antibody to standard, 1:1; volume of sample injected, 25 microl min(-1); flow rate, 25 microl min(-1). An assay action limit of 126 ng g(-1) was established by analysing of 20 shellfish samples spiked with OA at the critical concentration of 160 ng g(-1), which is the action limit established by the European Union (EU). At this concentration of OA, the assay delivered coefficient of variations (CVs) of <10%. The chip surface developed was shown to be highly stable, allowing more than 50 analyses per channel. When the concentrations of OA determined with the biosensor method were compared with the values obtained by LC-MS in contaminated shellfish samples, the correlation between the two analytical methods was found to be highly satisfactory (r(2) = 0.991).

  9. Environmental Transmission of Human Noroviruses in Shellfish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Lees, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis following consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated with fecal matter. NoV levels can be effectively reduced by some sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge and membrane bioreactors. However, tertiary sewage treatment and substantial sewage dilution are usually required to achieve low concentrations of virus in shellfish. Most outbreaks have been associated with shellfish harvested from waters affected by untreated sewage from, for example, storm overflows or overboard disposal of feces from boats. In coastal waters, NoV can remain in suspension or associate with organic and inorganic matter and be accumulated by shellfish. Shellfish take considerably longer to purge NoV than fecal indicator bacteria when transferred from sewage-polluted estuarine waters to uncontaminated waters. The abundance and distribution of NoV in shellfish waters are influenced by the levels of sewage treatment, proximity of shellfish beds to sewage sources, rainfall, river flows, salinity, and water temperature. Detailed site-specific information on these factors is required to design measures to control the viral risk. PMID:24705321

  10. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  11. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  12. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  13. Contamination of Atlantic coast commercial shellfish with Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Trout, J M; Lewis, E J; Santin, M; Zhou, L; Lal, A A; Xiao, L

    2003-01-01

    Shellfish (oysters and/or clams) were obtained from 37 commercial harvesting sites in 13 Atlantic coast states from Maine to Florida and one site in New Brunswick, Canada. Gill washings from each of 25 shellfish at each site were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA) for oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Gill washings from another 25 shellfish at each site were grouped into five pools of five shellfish each. DNA from each pool was utilized for PCR and genotyping. Oocysts were found in 3.7% of 925 oysters and clams examined by IFA in shellfish from New Brunswick and 11 of 13 states. Cryptosporidium DNA was detected by PCR in 35.2% of 185 pools. Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, and Cryptosporidium meleagridis,all of which have been identified in infected humans, were identified at 37.8% of the sites. Gill washings from every site were tested for the presence of infectious oocysts by biological assay in neonatal BALB/c mice but no mice were found infected, suggesting that either the oocysts were no longer infectious or infections in mice were below the level of detection. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cryptosporidium species, indicative of pollution from human and animal feces and potentially infectious for humans, were found in commercial shellfish from 64.9% of sites examined along the Atlantic coast by either microscopy or molecular testing. Previous reports link periods of high rainfall with the elevated numbers of pathogen contaminated shellfish. Because shellfish in the present study were examined during a period of exceptionally low precipitation, the data are thought to underestimate the number of Cryptosporidium contaminated shellfish likely to be found during periods of normal or above normal precipitation.

  14. Assessment of Cholinergic Properties of Ashwagandha Leaf-Extract in the Amnesic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Akash; Wadhwa, Renu; Thakur, Mahendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In our earlier study, we have shown the memory enhancing and scopolamine-induced amnesia recovery properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract using behavioral paradigm and expression analysis of synaptic plasticity genes. Purpose However, the exact mechanism through which Ashwagandha demonstrates these effects is still unknown. Methods In the present study, we hypothesized that the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract) possesses cholinergic properties, which in turn inhibit the anti-cholinergic nature of scopolamine. Therefore, the potential of i-Extract to recover from the scopolamine-induced cholinergic deficits was assessed by measuring acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and Arc (synaptic activity-related gene) expression level in the mouse brain. Results The enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase was assessed through colorimetric assays, and expression level of Arc protein was examined by Western blotting. Furthermore, mRNA level of these genes was examined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. We observed that the treatment of i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse attenuates scopolamine-induced detrimental alterations in the cholinergic system. Conclusion Thus, our study provided biochemical and molecular evidence of cholinergic properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract during brain disorders associated with cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:27647956

  15. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: evidence from an amnesic artist

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports) and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings). Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events) may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia. PMID:24834048

  16. Parietal Fast Sleep Spindle Density Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Lauri, Giulia; Truglia, Ilaria; Cordone, Susanna; Sarasso, Simone; Scarpelli, Serena; Mangiaruga, Anastasia; D'Atri, Aurora; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have identified two types of sleep spindles: fast (13–15 Hz) centroparietal and slow (11–13 Hz) frontal spindles. Alterations in spindle activity have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Only few studies have separately assessed fast and slow spindles in these patients showing a reduction of fast spindle count, but the possible local specificity of this phenomenon and its relation to cognitive decline severity are not clear. Moreover, fast and slow spindle density have never been assessed in AD/MCI. We have assessed fast and slow spindles in 15 AD patients, 15 amnesic MCI patients, and 15 healthy elderly controls (HC). Participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording (19 cortical derivations). Spindles during nonrapid eye movements sleep were automatically detected, and spindle densities of the three groups were compared in the derivations where fast and slow spindles exhibited their maximum expression (parietal and frontal, resp.). AD and MCI patients showed a significant parietal fast spindle density decrease, positively correlated with Minimental State Examination scores. Our results suggest that AD-related changes in spindle density are specific for frequency and location, are related to cognitive decline severity, and may have an early onset in the pathology development. PMID:27066274

  17. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  18. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  19. Should I Be Concerned about Eating Fish and Shellfish?

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Choose Fish and Shellfish Wisely ... a doctor The nutritional value of fish is important during growth and development before birth, in early ...

  20. Expanding shellfish aquaculture: A review of the ecological services provided by and impacts of native and cultured bivalves in shellfish dominated ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is making an increasing contribution to world-wide demand for bivalve shellfish at the same time that substantial efforts are being made to restore wild shellfish populations because they are declining. Impacts of shellfish culture to natural systems have been evaluated, but both native...

  1. The human hippocampus beyond the cognitive map: evidence from a densely amnesic patient.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela A; Colombo, Françoise; Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We tested a densely amnesic patient (P9), with bilateral hippocampal damage resulting from an autoimmune disorder, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls on a series of memory tasks designed to characterize allocentric spatial learning and memory abilities. We compared P9's ability to perform spatial memory tasks with her ability to perform non-spatial, color memory tasks. First, P9's performance was impaired as compared to controls even in the simplest versions of an allocentric spatial memory task, in which she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same location(s) of one, two or three illuminating foot pad(s) among 23 pads distributed in an open-field arena. In contrast, she performed as well as controls when she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same one, two or three pad(s) marked by color cue(s), whose locations varied between trials. Second, P9's performance was severely impaired in working memory tasks, when she had to learn on a trial-unique basis and remember the location(s) or the color(s) of one, two or three pad(s), while performing an interfering task during the 1-min interval separating encoding and retrieval. Without interference during the retention interval of the trial-unique tasks, P9's performance was partially preserved in the color tasks, whereas it remained severely impaired in the allocentric spatial tasks. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that P9's memory representations are more limited than those of controls both in their precision (metric coding) and in the number of items that can be maintained in memory (capacity). These findings are consistent with the theory that the hippocampus contributes to the integration or binding of multiple items, in order to produce high-resolution/high-capacity representations of spatial and non-spatial information in the service of short-term/working and long-term memory.

  2. The human hippocampus beyond the cognitive map: evidence from a densely amnesic patient

    PubMed Central

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela A.; Colombo, Françoise; Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We tested a densely amnesic patient (P9), with bilateral hippocampal damage resulting from an autoimmune disorder, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls on a series of memory tasks designed to characterize allocentric spatial learning and memory abilities. We compared P9's ability to perform spatial memory tasks with her ability to perform non-spatial, color memory tasks. First, P9's performance was impaired as compared to controls even in the simplest versions of an allocentric spatial memory task, in which she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same location(s) of one, two or three illuminating foot pad(s) among 23 pads distributed in an open-field arena. In contrast, she performed as well as controls when she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same one, two or three pad(s) marked by color cue(s), whose locations varied between trials. Second, P9's performance was severely impaired in working memory tasks, when she had to learn on a trial-unique basis and remember the location(s) or the color(s) of one, two or three pad(s), while performing an interfering task during the 1-min interval separating encoding and retrieval. Without interference during the retention interval of the trial-unique tasks, P9's performance was partially preserved in the color tasks, whereas it remained severely impaired in the allocentric spatial tasks. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that P9's memory representations are more limited than those of controls both in their precision (metric coding) and in the number of items that can be maintained in memory (capacity). These findings are consistent with the theory that the hippocampus contributes to the integration or binding of multiple items, in order to produce high-resolution/high-capacity representations of spatial and non-spatial information in the service of short-term/working and long-term memory. PMID:25309387

  3. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  4. Speech errors of amnesic H.M.: unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E; Hadley, Christopher B; Fogler, Kethera A

    2011-03-01

    Three language production studies indicate that amnesic H.M. produces speech errors unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue. Study 1 was a naturalistic task: H.M. and six controls closely matched for age, education, background and IQ described what makes captioned cartoons funny. Nine judges rated the descriptions blind to speaker identity and gave reliably more negative ratings for coherence, vagueness, comprehensibility, grammaticality, and adequacy of humor-description for H.M. than the controls. Study 2 examined "major errors", a novel type of speech error that is uncorrected and reduces the coherence, grammaticality, accuracy and/or comprehensibility of an utterance. The results indicated that H.M. produced seven types of major errors reliably more often than controls: substitutions, omissions, additions, transpositions, reading errors, free associations, and accuracy errors. These results contradict recent claims that H.M. retains unconscious or implicit language abilities and produces spoken discourse that is "sophisticated," "intact" and "without major errors." Study 3 examined whether three classical types of errors (omissions, additions, and substitutions of words and phrases) differed for H.M. versus controls in basic nature and relative frequency by error type. The results indicated that omissions, and especially multi-word omissions, were relatively more common for H.M. than the controls; and substitutions violated the syntactic class regularity (whereby, e.g., nouns substitute with nouns but not verbs) relatively more often for H.M. than the controls. These results suggest that H.M.'s medial temporal lobe damage impaired his ability to rapidly form new connections between units in the cortex, a process necessary to form complete and coherent internal representations for novel sentence-level plans. In short, different brain mechanisms underlie H.M.'s major errors (which reflect incomplete and incoherent sentence-level plans) versus everyday slips

  5. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice.

  6. Norovirus and other human enteric viruses in moroccan shellfish.

    PubMed

    Benabbes, Laila; Ollivier, Joanna; Schaeffer, Julien; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Rhaissi, Houria; Nourlil, Jalal; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of human enteric viruses in shellfish collected along the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Coast of Morocco. A total of 77 samples were collected from areas potentially contaminated by human sewage. Noroviruses were detected in 30 % of samples, with an equal representation of GI and GII strains, but were much more frequently found in cockles or clams than in oysters. The method used, including extraction efficiency controls, allowed the quantification of virus concentration. As in previous reports, results showed levels of contamination between 100 and 1,000 copies/g of digestive tissues. Sapoviruses were detected in 13 % of samples mainly in oyster and clam samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in two samples, with concentrations around 100 RNA copies/g of digestive tissues. Only two samples were contaminated with enterovirus and none with norovirus GIV or Aichi virus. This study highlights the interest of studying shellfish samples from different countries and different production areas. A better knowledge of shellfish contamination helps us to understand virus levels in shellfish and to improve shellfish safety, thus protecting consumers.

  7. Clinical marine toxicology: a European perspective for clinical toxicologists and poison centers.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Corinne; De Haro, Luc

    2013-08-02

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances--including global warming--that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  8. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

  9. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  10. 77 FR 36260 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... recreational shellfish harvesting through statistical estimation of models; and (3) the potential changes in... Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting Project AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration..., affecting local growers and restricting commercial and recreational harvest opportunities. The Puget...

  11. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zeller, W P; Miele, A; Suarez, C; Hannigan, J; Hurley, R M

    1984-12-01

    In this case report of an accidental automobile carbon monoxide poisoning, we identify the following risk factors: freezing temperature, young passenger age, location in the rear of the auto, smaller patient mass, and auto disrepair. The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Emergency treatment and suggested criteria for hyperbaric oxygen use in pediatric patients are discussed.

  12. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  13. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  14. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  15. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids.

  16. Shellfish conflict in Baynes Sound: a strategic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Luai; Hipel, Keith W; Kilgour, D Marc

    2004-10-01

    The shellfish aquaculture industry (SAI) has operated in Baynes Sound, British Columbia (BC) since the early 1900s. Recognizing the economic potential of the area, the industry has requested additional farming opportunities. However, Baynes Sound upland residents and many other stakeholders have expressed concerns that SAI activities are having a negative impact on the environment, quality of life, and other nonaquaculture resource uses in the area. In order to address these issues, the Action Plan was initiated by a BC government interagency project team in November 2001. To assist in assessing the strategic aspects of this conflict, the decision support system GMCR II is employed here to apply a new methodology, the graph model for conflict resolution, to systematically analyze the ongoing conflict over shellfish aquaculture development in Baynes Sound within a social, economic, and environmental framework. Valuable insights are procured to guide decision-makers toward sustainability of the shellfish industry.

  17. Inhibition equivalency factors for dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in protein phosphatase assays: applicability to the analysis of shellfish samples and comparison with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Garibo, Diana; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2013-03-13

    The protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) is a well-known strategy for the determination of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) lipophilic toxins, which deserves better characterization and understanding to be used as a routine screening tool in monitoring programs. In this work, the applicability of two PPIAs to the determination of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2), and their acyl ester derivatives in shellfish has been investigated. The inhibitory potencies of the DSP toxins on a recombinant and a wild PP2A have been determined, allowing the establishment of inhibition equivalency factors (IEFs) (1.1 and 0.9 for DTX-1, and 0.4 and 0.6 for DTX-2, for recombinant and wild PP2A, respectively). The PPIAs have been applied to the determination of OA equivalent contents in spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish samples. Results have been compared to those obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis, after application of the IEFs, showing good agreements.

  18. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  19. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different from the accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  20. Natural resource response guide: Mrine shellfish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Natural Resource Response Guides were developed for use by responders to oil and hazardous materials spills to determine the seasonal presence and activities of potential resources at risk and then to evaluate the probability and types of expected impacts to these resources. The set includes guides for Marine Fish, Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Marine Shellfish.

  1. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infaunal (Mercemaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different. The accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  2. 48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of shellfish. 852.270-3 Section 852.270-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  3. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  4. Potential virus detection and intervention methods for molluscan shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus is the number one cause of foodborne illness in the Unites States, causing an estimated 9 million cases/yr. Hepatitis A is uncommon in the US but can result in serious illness. Bivalve shellfish are efficient bioconcentrators of these viruses from contaminated growing waters. Consequentl...

  5. Sterol composition shellfish species commonly consumed in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shellfish commonly consumed in the U.S. were sampled and analyzed to update nutrient data in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR), using a nationwide sampling plan and validated analytical methodology. In 2007-8, raw shrimp and se...

  6. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shellfish and fishery products. 14.21 Section 14.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  7. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shellfish and fishery products. 14.21 Section 14.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  8. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shellfish and fishery products. 14.21 Section 14.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  9. 50 CFR 100.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) A pot; (viii) A ring net; (ix) A scallop dredge; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A... boundaries of Womens Bay, Gibson Cove, and an area defined by a line 1/2 mile on either side of the mouth of...) Bering Sea Area. (i) In that portion of the area north of the latitude of Cape Newenham, shellfish...

  10. 36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SUBSISTENCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PUBLIC LANDS IN ALASKA Subsistence Taking of Fish and... parts. (b) (c) You may take shellfish for subsistence uses at any time in any area of the public lands...; (x) A sea urchin rake; (xi) A shovel; and (xii) A trawl. (3) You are prohibited from buying...

  11. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  12. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  13. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... gl/xomtXD Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  14. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be adversely affected by toxic or harmful marine algae. + Causative algae implicated, not confirmed. Medical Community Ciguatera Fish Poisoning ... Contact Us | Related Links | Site Map The Harmful Algae Page is supported by a National Oceanic and ...

  15. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  16. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  17. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  18. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  19. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  20. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  1. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from ... Potassium carbonate is found in: Glass Some dishwasher soaps Some ... that is used in fertilizers) Some home permanent-wave solutions ...

  2. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... considered if the person is found near a furnace, car, fire, or in an area that is ... can cause poisoning include: Carbon monoxide gas (from furnaces, gas engines, fires, space heaters) Certain foods Chemicals ...

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  4. Asphalt cement poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  5. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  6. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  7. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  8. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  9. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in: Fingernail polish Glues and adhesives Lacquers Octane booster in gasoline Paints Paint thinners Printing and ... anywhere in the United States.This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ...

  10. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Found Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. Symptoms ...

  11. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move them to fresh air.

  12. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic fixatives are chemicals used to develop photographs. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing such chemicals. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an ...

  13. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  14. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  15. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  16. Piracetam Facilitates the Anti-Amnesic but not Anti-Diabetic Activity of Metformin in Experimentally Induced Type-2 Diabetic Encephalopathic Rats.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shruti; Garabadu, Debapriya

    2016-09-01

    Piracetam exhibits anti-amnesic activity in several animal models of dementia. However, its anti-amnesic potential has yet to be evaluated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced encephalopathy. Therefore, in the present study, piracetam (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was screened for anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activity in T2DM-induced encephalopathic male rats. Subsequently, anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activities were evaluated for piracetam, metformin and their combination in T2DM-induced encephalopathic animals. Rats received streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) injections on day-1 (D-1) of the experimental schedule and were kept undisturbed for 35 days to exhibit T2DM-induced encephalopathy. All drug treatments were continued from D-7 to D-35 in both experiments. Piracetam (100 mg/kg) attenuated loss in learning and memory in terms of increase in escape latency on D-4 (D-34) and decrease in time spent in the target quadrant on D-5 (D-35) of Morris water maze test protocol, and spatial memory in terms of reduced spontaneous alternation behavior in Y-maze test of encephalopathic rats. Additionally, piracetam attenuated altered levels of fasting plasma glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in encephalopathic animals, comparatively lesser than metformin. In the next experiment, combination of piracetam and metformin exhibited better anti-amnesic but not anti-diabetic activity than respective monotherapies in encephalopathic rats. Further, the combination attenuated reduced acetylcholine level and increased acetylcholinesterase activity, increased glycogen synthase kinase-3β level and decreased brain-derived neurotropic factor level in hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of encephalopathic animals. Thus, piracetam could be used as an adjuvant to metformin in the management of dementia in T2DM-induced encephalopathy.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  18. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging.

  19. Bioactive potential of Streptomyces against fish and shellfish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, D; Arun, K; Suguna, S; Kumar, D; Dhevendaran, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the present study, isolation of Streptomyces associated with marine sponges and its bioactive potential against fish and shellfish pathogens were assessed. The Streptomyces sp. were isolated from the marine sponges namely Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis collected from Vizhinjam port, situated in the South-West coast of India. Materials and Methods The Streptomyces associated with marine sponges were isolated using specific ISP media. The isolates of Streptomyces were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. The strains were cultivated on a lab scale level as shake-flask cultures and the crude extracts of the bioactive compounds obtained with ethyl acetate were screened biologically and chemically. By biological screening, the extracts were analyzed for their activity against fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp, using the disk and agar-well diffusion bioassay method, while by chemical screening the crude culture extracts were analyzed by TLC and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. Results Ninety-four isolates were found to be associated with marine sponges, among them only seven strains showed antagonism against fish and shellfish pathogens. Analysis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics suggested that these strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. The initial screening of the isolates by spot inoculation method exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila. In-vitro screening of the submerge culture extracts showed positive inhibition against the fish and shellfish pathogens namely Aeromonas hydrophila, Serratia sp. and Vibrio spp. The screening of bioactive compounds confirmed the production of polyene substances by UV spectrum, which resulted in absorbance peaks ranging from 225 to 245 nm and TLC

  20. Efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic during caesarean section under general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sunil; Hassain, Anwar; Puthenveettil, Nitu; Kumar, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The practice of avoiding sedatives or anxiolytics during caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA) until delivery of the baby could result in exaggerated haemodynamic responses and an increased risk of awareness. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine, used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic, in attenuating these responses during caesarean section under GA. Methods: This prospective, randomised study was conducted in 40 patients. Group K (n = 20) received 0.25 mg/kg ketamine, whereas Group C received 5 ml normal saline intravenously (IV) just before induction of anaesthesia. After intubation, patients were ventilated with O2 and N2O (40:60%) with 0.7% end-tidal isoflurane. Fentanyl and midazolam were given following delivery of the baby. Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Preinduction haemodynamic parameters and those recorded at 1 min after induction were comparable in both groups. However, heart rate and systolic blood pressure recorded after intubation (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min after induction) showed significantly high values in Group C (P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure also showed a similar pattern. Umbilical vein pO2, pCO2 and pH were comparable in both groups. Though Apgar score at 1 min showed a higher scoring in Group K, at 5 min both groups had comparable scores. In Group C, intraoperative lacrimation (50% vs. 0%) and hallucinations/recall of intraoperative events (10% vs. 0%) were high. Conclusion: IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg can be safely used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic to attenuate haemodynamic responses during caesarean section under GA without affecting the foetal outcome. PMID:26644613

  1. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your smartphone. Take the pledge! National Poison Prevention Week is March 19-25! Be a part of ... Centers Celebrates the 55th Annual National Poison Prevention Week › View more Find Your Local Poison Center Poison ...

  2. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... the woods. Alternative Names Arisaema triphyllum poisoning; Bog onion poisoning; Brown dragon poisoning; Indian turnip poisoning; Wake ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  3. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  4. Contribution of Shellfish Consumption to Lower Mercury Health Risk for Residents in Northern Jiaozhou Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fish and marine mammal consumption are an important pathway for human exposure to mercury. The low mercury content in shellfish poses a low mercury health risk to people who consume shellfish. The objectives of this study are to detect mercury concentrations in different species of shellfish and to calculate the mercury health risk from shellfish consumption among traditional residents near northern Jiaozhou Bay. A total of 356 shellfish samples, which comprised 7 species from 5 different places in northern Jiaozhou Bay, were collected from April to June in 2012. The average mercury content in the collected shellfish ranged from 0.024 mg·kg−1 to 0.452 mg·kg−1. A total of 44 shellfish samples (12.36%) had mercury levels exceeding the national pollution-free aquatic products limit (0.3 mg·kg−1). Generally, the viscus had the highest mercury content among all parts of the shellfish. A positive correlation between mercury content and total weight/edible part weight was found in most species of the collected shellfish. The results showed that shellfish consumption resulted in the lower risk of mercury exposure to residents based on the calculation of daily intake (DI) and target hazard quotient (THQ). PMID:26101470

  5. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  6. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  7. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  8. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  9. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  10. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  11. Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blogoslawski, Walter J.

    1992-07-01

    For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

  12. Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2012-05-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus.

  13. Impact of Xynthia Tempest on Viral Contamination of Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named “Xynthia tempest” destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

  14. [Poisoning by household products].

    PubMed

    Lambert, H; Manel, J; Gabrion, I

    2000-02-15

    Caustic products are responsible for the most serious cases of poisoning, which are always emergency cases. Application of current intervention procedures has decreased both morbidity and mortality. Water-diluted bleach, the ingestion of which remains extremely frequent, is a moderate irritant rather than a caustic product. Emission of gas produced when mixing bleach with other agents can be responsible for choking gas poisoning. Anionic and nonionic detergents are mostly dangerous because of their foam-producing properties. Mercury vapours and methanol are other potentially hazardous products.

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of death as a result of unintentional poisoning in the United States. CO toxicity is the result of a combination of tissue hypoxia-ischemia secondary to carboxyhemoglobin formation and direct CO-mediated damage at a cellular level. Presenting symptoms are mostly nonspecific and depend on the duration of exposure and levels of CO. Diagnosis is made by prompt measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels. Treatment consists of the patient's removal from the source of exposure and the immediate administration of 100% supplemental oxygen in addition to aggressive supportive measures. The use of hyperbaric oxygen is controversial.

  16. Mushrooms and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varma, Amit; Gaur, K J B S; Bhatia, Payal

    2011-11-01

    The mushrooms are probably one of the oldest consumption of mankind having mythological and spiritual significance apart from being a great delicacy. Its poisoning is a common yet poorly recognised. There are more than 2000 varieties which are edible, and nearly 80 varieties are non-edible (or poisonous) type. Not only they resemble some of the edible types, they even grow long with them. Most of the toxic events go unnoticed, yet, sometimes it may be life threatening as some mushrooms are one of the most toxic fungi known to manking. Awareness is pobably the only prevention.

  17. Evaluating shellfish gathering ( Lucina pectinata) in a tropical mangrove system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondinelli, S. F.; Barros, F.

    2010-10-01

    Fish resources are important sources of income and protein to traditional inhabitants of coastal zones. In Garapuá village, the shellfish Lucina pectinata is the main resource exploited in mangroves. This study tests whether if in less explored areas (far from the village) L. pectinata individuals have higher densities and greater lengths, and if there was a decrease in cpue's over the last years. Samples were taken monthly in two habitats (mangrove channels and mangrove roots) in six mangrove areas by random squares. The results indicated that closer areas showed significantly lower densities than areas far from the village. Densities were significantly higher in mangrove roots (quizangas) than at channels. There was a significant increase in monthly L. pectinata cpue, from 18.2 dz./shellfish gatherers/day in 2001 to 19.3 in 2007, showing that this stock does not seem to be overexploited. However, (i) a long-term monitoring of Garapuá shellfish gatherers to evaluate if the stock will support an increasing pressure and (ii) several manipulative experiments to better understand ecological processes are suggested.

  18. Paralytic toxins in three new gastropod (Olividae) species implicated in food poisoning in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Pai-An; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Lu, Ya-Hui; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2003-03-01

    The toxins in the new gastropods Oliva miniacea, O. mustelina and O. nirasei implicated in a food paralytic poisoning incident in South Taiwan in February 2002 were studied. It was found that the three species of gastropods contained moderate amounts of toxin in edible portion only, and the highest toxicity score was 18 MU/g for O. miniacea, 10 MU/g for O. mustelina, and 27 MU/g for O. nirasei. The toxin was partially purified from the toxic specimens of each species by ultrafiltration using a YM-1 membrane, followed by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 column. Analyses by HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS showed that the toxin from O. miniacea, O. nirasei and O. mustelina contained TTX, and related compounds 4-epi TTX and anhydro-TTX. The paralytic shellfish poisons were not found.

  19. Beta-CCT, a selective BZ-omega1 receptor antagonist, blocks the anti-anxiety but not the amnesic action of chlordiazepoxide in mice.

    PubMed

    Belzung, C; Le Guisquet, A M; Griebel, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test further the hypothesis that different benzodiazepine (BZ-omega) receptor subtypes may mediate anxiolytic and amnesic effects of BZ agonists, using the selective BZ-omega1 receptor antagonist beta-CCT (beta-carboline-3-carboxylate t-butyl-ester). Experiments were performed in Swiss mice using the elevated plus-maze anxiety test and two learning tasks - passive avoidance and the radial arm maze. In the elevated plus-maze test, beta-CCT (30 mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished the increase in open-arm entries induced by the BZ chlordiazepoxide (5mg/kg, i.p.). Chlordiazepoxide decreased retention latency in the passive avoidance step-through procedure, and increased the number of errors in the radial arm maze. These effects were not modified by beta-CCT. Except for a slight, albeit significant, amnesic effect in the passive avoidance test, beta-CCT was devoid of intrinsic activity when administered alone. These results are in agreement with previous studies using selective BZ-omega1 agonists, and thus provide further evidence that BZ-omega1 receptors may be involved in the anxiolytic but not in the amnesic effects of BZ agonists.

  20. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  1. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  2. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  3. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  4. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  5. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... that make it hard to swallow. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  6. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  7. Metal polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.

  8. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxide may be found in some: Button batteries (batteries containing mercury are no longer sold in the United States) Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: This list may ...

  9. Validation of a confirmatory method for lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish using UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Gabriel; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Janssen, Colin; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    Lipophilic marine toxins are produced by harmful microalgae and can accumulate in edible filter feeders such as shellfish, leading to an introduction of toxins into the human food chain, causing different poisoning effects. During the last years, analytical methods, based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), have been consolidated by interlaboratory validations. However, the main drawback of LC-MS/MS methods remains the limited number of compounds that can be analyzed in a single run. Due to the targeted nature of these methods, only known toxins, previously considered during method optimization, will be detected. Therefore in this study, a method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS) was developed. Its quantitative performance was evaluated for confirmatory analysis of regulated lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish flesh according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), yessotoxin (YTX), and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) were quantified using matrix-matched calibration curves (MMS). For all compounds, the reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 4.9 %, repeatability from 2.9 to 4.9 %, and recoveries from 82.9 to 113 % at the three different spiked levels. In addition, confirmatory identification of the compounds was effectively performed by the presence of a second diagnostic ion ((13)C). In conclusion, UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS permitted more accurate and faster detection of the target toxins than previously described LC-MS/MS methods. Furthermore, HRMS allows to retrospectively screen for many analogues and metabolites using its full-scan capabilities but also untargeted screening through the use of metabolomics software.

  10. Liquid chromatography--multiple tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of ten azaspiracids, including hydroxyl analogues in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Lehane, Mary; Fidalgo Sáez, María José; Magdalena, Ana Braña; Ruppén Cañás, Isabel; Díaz Sierra, Mónica; Hamilton, Brett; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2004-01-23

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of polyether toxins that cause food poisoning in humans. These toxins, produced by marine dinoflagellates, accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish, especially mussels. Sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(n)) methods have been developed for the determination of the major AZAs and their hydroxyl analogues. These methods, utilising both chromatographic and mass resolution, were applied for the determination of 10 AZAs in mussels (Mytilus edulis). An optimised isocratic reversed phase method (3 microm Luna-2 C18 column) separated 10 azaspiracids using acetonitrile/water (46:54, v/v) containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and 0.004% ammonium acetate in 55 min. Analyte determination using MS3 involved trapping and fragmentation of the [M + H]+ and [M + H - H2O]+ ions with detection of the [M + H - 2H2O]+ ion for each AZA. Linear calibrations were obtained for AZA1, using spiked shellfish extracts, in the range 0.05-1.00 microg/ml (r2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 5 pg (signal : noise = 3). The major fragmentation pathways in hydroxylated azaspiracids were elucidated using hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange experiments. An LC-MS3 method was developed using unique parent ions and product ions, [M + H - H2O - CgH10O2R1R3]+, that involved fragmentation of the A-ring. This facilitated the discrimination between 10 azapiracids, AZA1-10. Thus, this rapid LC-MS3 method did not require complete chromatographic resolution and the run-time of 7 min had detection limits better than 20 pg for each toxin.

  11. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes.

  12. Amnesic H.M.'s performance on the language competence test: parallel deficits in memory and sentence production.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E; Hadley, Christopher B

    2008-04-01

    To test conflicting hypotheses regarding amnesic H.M.'s language abilities, this study examined H.M.'s sentence production on the Language Competence Test (Wiig & Secord, 1988). The task for H.M. and 8 education-, age-, and IQ-matched controls was to describe pictures using a single grammatical sentence containing prespecified target words. The results indicated selective deficits in H.M.'s picture descriptions: H.M. produced fewer single grammatical sentences, included fewer target words, and described the pictures less completely and accurately than did the controls. However, H.M.'s deficits diminished with repeated processing of unfamiliar stimuli and disappeared for familiar stimuli-effects that help explain why other researchers have concluded that H.M.'s language production is intact. Besides resolving the conflicting hypotheses, present results replicated other well-controlled sentence production results and indicated that H.M.'s language and memory exhibit parallel deficits and sparing. Present results comport in detail with binding theory but pose problems for current systems theories of H.M.'s condition.

  13. Visual cognition in amnesic H.M.: selective deficits on the What's-Wrong-Here and Hidden-Figure tasks.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments compared the visual cognition performance of amnesic H.M. and memory-normal controls matched for age, background, intelligence, and education. In Experiment 1 H.M. exhibited deficits relative to the controls in detecting "erroneous objects" in complex visual scenes--for example, a bird flying inside a fishbowl. In Experiment 2 H.M. exhibited deficits relative to the controls in standard Hidden-Figure tasks when detecting unfamiliar targets but not when detecting familiar targets--for example, circles, squares, and right-angle triangles. H.M.'s visual cognition deficits were not due to his well-known problems in explicit learning and recall, inability to comprehend or remember the instructions, general slowness, motoric difficulties, low motivation, low IQ relative to the controls, or working-memory limitations. Parallels between H.M.'s selective deficits in visual cognition, language, and memory are discussed. These parallels contradict the standard "systems theory" account of H.M.'s condition but comport with the hypothesis that H.M. has difficulty representing unfamiliar but not familiar information in visual cognition, language, and memory. Implications of our results are discussed for binding theory and the ongoing debate over what counts as "memory" versus "not-memory."

  14. Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Harada, M

    1995-01-01

    Minamata disease (M. d.) is methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning that occurred in humans who ingested fish and shellfish contaminated by MeHg discharged in waste water from a chemical plant (Chisso Co. Ltd.). It was in May 1956, that M. d. was first officially "discovered" in Minamata City, south-west region of Japan's Kyushu Island. The marine products in Minamata Bay displayed high levels of Hg contamination (5.61 to 35.7 ppm). The Hg content in hair of patients, their family and inhabitants of the Shiranui Sea coastline were also detected at high levels of Hg (max. 705 ppm). Typical symptoms of M. d. are as follows: sensory disturbances (glove and stocking type), ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of the visual field, auditory disturbances and tremor were also seen. Further, the fetus was poisoned by MeHg when their mothers ingested contaminated marine life (named congenital M. d.). The symptom of patients were serious, and extensive lesions of the brain were observed. While the number of grave cases with acute M. d. in the initial stage was decreasing, the numbers of chronic M. d. patients who manifested symptoms gradually over an extended period of time was on the increase. For the past 36 years, of the 2252 patients who have been officially recognized as having M. d., 1043 have died. This paper also discusses the recent remaining problems.

  15. Phylogeography of Cylindrospermopsin and Paralytic Shellfish Toxin-Producing Nostocales Cyanobacteria from Mediterranean Europe (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg−1 [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. PMID:24334673

  16. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  17. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Alex T; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister

    2006-01-01

    Sodium fluoroacetate was introduced as a rodenticide in the US in 1946. However, its considerable efficacy against target species is offset by comparable toxicity to other mammals and, to a lesser extent, birds and its use as a general rodenticide was therefore severely curtailed by 1990. Currently, sodium fluoroacetate is licensed in the US for use against coyotes, which prey on sheep and goats, and in Australia and New Zealand to kill unwanted introduced species. The extreme toxicity of fluoroacetate to mammals and insects stems from its similarity to acetate, which has a pivotal role in cellular metabolism. Fluoroacetate combines with coenzyme A (CoA-SH) to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which can substitute for acetyl CoA in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and reacts with citrate synthase to produce fluorocitrate, a metabolite of which then binds very tightly to aconitase, thereby halting the cycle. Many of the features of fluoroacetate poisoning are, therefore, largely direct and indirect consequences of impaired oxidative metabolism. Energy production is reduced and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle subsequent to citrate are depleted. Among these is oxoglutarate, a precursor of glutamate, which is not only an excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS but is also required for efficient removal of ammonia via the urea cycle. Increased ammonia concentrations may contribute to the incidence of seizures. Glutamate is also required for glutamine synthesis and glutamine depletion has been observed in the brain of fluoroacetate-poisoned rodents. Reduced cellular oxidative metabolism contributes to a lactic acidosis. Inability to oxidise fatty acids via the tricarboxylic acid cycle leads to ketone body accumulation and worsening acidosis. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion results in inhibition of high energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis. Fluoroacetate poisoning is associated with citrate accumulation in several tissues, including the brain. Fluoride

  18. Shellfish: toxicology studies. October 1982-May 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for October 1982-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of toxic substances on shellfish. Petroleum products, solvents, sewage, copper, mercury, chromium, dredged materials, and organic chemicals are among the toxic substances studied. Reproductive impairement, molting behavior, and population reduction caused by toxic chemicals are discussed. Shellfish as bioindicators and shellfish tolerance to toxic substances are briefly considered. Shellfish farming and economics are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 108 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.; Vicale, T.J.; Dahl, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of bacterial standards as indices of the overall sanitary quality of water and shellfish.

  20. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  1. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales.

  2. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  3. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  4. Childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Linakis, J G

    1995-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been referred to as the most important environmental health hazard for children in New England. Medical professionals are in a unique position to perform a number of interventions that could make a lasting impact. First, physicians and nurses, particularly in the areas of pediatrics and family medicine, can provide anticipatory guidance to all families with young children. Lead poisoning, in contrast to long held beliefs, is an affliction that affects all socioeconomic groups. Parents should thus be informed regarding sources of lead, including occupational and hobby sources, and basic nutritional and abatement information should be provided. Second, health care workers should encourage lead screening in appropriately aged children at recommended intervals based on known risk factors. Once a blood lead concentration greater than 20[symbol: see text]g/dl has been obtained in a child, treatment or referral to an established lead clinic should be undertaken in a timely fashion. For children with low or moderate lead levels, many pediatricians or family physicians prefer to supervise their patients' treatment, including chelation therapy. For children with higher levels or in instances when the health care professional elects to refer, there are several lead clinics throughout New England whose clinicians are experienced in the treatment of childhood lead poisoning. Finally the medical profession needs to publicly recognize, as child advocates, that lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States and that it is entirely preventable. Fortunately, after many years and much hard work, Rhode Island finally has laws that start to deal with the lead problem in an appropriately aggressive fashion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Screening of Okadaic Acid and All Dinophysis Toxins from Shellfish Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Waqass; Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-09-30

    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay was developed and validated to detect okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysis toxins (DTXs), which cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The performance characteristics of the test were investigated, in comparison to reference methods (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and/or bioassay), using both spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish. A portable reader was used to generate a qualitative result, indicating the absence or presence of OA-group toxins, at concentrations relevant to the maximum permitted level (MPL). Sample homogenates could be screened in 20 min (including extraction and assay time) for the presence of free toxins (OA, DTX1, DTX2). DTX3 detection could be included with the addition of a hydrolysis procedure. No matrix effects were observed from the species evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, and clams). Results from naturally contaminated samples (n = 72) indicated no false compliant results and no false noncompliant results at <50% MPL. Thus, the development of a new low-cost but highly effective tool for monitoring a range of important phycotoxins has been demonstrated.

  6. In vitro bioaccessibility of the marine biotoxins okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and their 7-O-acyl fatty acid ester derivatives in raw and steamed shellfish.

    PubMed

    Manita, Diana; Alves, Ricardo N; Braga, Ana Catarina; Fogaça, Fabiola H S; Marques, António; Costa, Pedro Reis

    2017-03-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model. Higher bioaccessibility was found in mussels (86 ± 4%) than in cockles (59 ± 9%). A significant reduction of ester derivatives of OA and an increase of OA were observed in the bioaccessible fraction of mussel samples, suggesting that DTX3 undergo conversion into their more toxic parent compounds during human digestion. However, similar increase of DTX2 and reduction of the respective acyl derivatives was not observed. Steaming lead to significant reduction of OA and analogues bioaccessibility in both species even though increased concentrations of toxins are obtained after this treatment. Risk assessment based solely on DSP toxins occurrence in seafood can conduct to an overestimation of the exposure and lead to more conservative regulatory measures.

  7. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  8. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management.

  9. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  10. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  11. Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.

    PubMed

    Ting, J Y; Brown, A F

    2001-12-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Increase in travel between temperate countries and endemic areas and importation of susceptible fish has led to its encroachment into regions of the world where ciguatera has previously been rarely encountered. In the developed world, ciguatera poses a public health threat due to delayed or missed diagnosis. Ciguatera is frequently encountered in Australia. Sporadic cases are often misdiagnosed or not medically attended to, leading to persistent or recurrent debilitating symptoms lasting months to years. Without treatment, distinctive neurologic symptoms persist, occasionally being mistaken for multiple sclerosis. Constitutional symptoms may be misdiagnosed as chronic fatigue syndrome. A common source outbreak is easier to recognize and therefore notify to public health organizations. We present a case series of four adult tourists who developed ciguatera poisoning after consuming contaminated fish in Vanuatu. All responded well to intravenous mannitol. This is in contrast to a fifth patient who developed symptoms suggestive of ciguatoxicity in the same week as the index cases but actually had staphylococcal endocarditis with bacteraemia. In addition to a lack of response to mannitol, clinical and laboratory indices of sepsis were present in this patient. Apart from ciguatera, acute gastroenteritis followed by neurological symptoms may be due to paralytic or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, scombroid and pufferfish toxicity, botulism, enterovirus 71, toxidromes and

  12. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  13. Seasonal variation of bacterial communities in shellfish harvesting waters: preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Santos, L; Silva, A P; Silva, Y J; Cunha, A; Romalde, J L; Nunes, M L; Almeida, A

    2015-01-15

    The recurrent emergence of infections outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption is an important health problem, which results in substantial economic losses to the seafood industry. Even after depuration, shellfish is still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new efficient strategies to control the shellfish infection transmission. Phage therapy during the shellfish depuration is a promising approach, but its success depends on a detailed understanding of the dynamics of bacterial communities in the harvesting waters. This study intends to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, disease-causing bacterial populations and bacterial sanitary quality indicators in two authorized harvesting-zones at Ria de Aveiro. During the hot season, the total bacterial community presented high complexity and new prevalent populations of the main shellfish pathogenic bacteria emerged. These results indicate that the spring/summer season is a critical period during which phage therapy should be applied.

  14. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Was it poisoning?

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R J

    The aim of post-mortem toxicology is to help establish the role that drugs or other poisons played in a death, or in events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected then the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that may be required is confirmation of the agents involved. If the cause of death is not immediately obvious, however, then suspicion of possible poisoning is of course crucial. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, e.g. femoral, ideally after proximal ligation) before opening the body, minimises the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. The site of blood sampling should always be recorded. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor) may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The availability of ante-mortem specimens should not preclude post-mortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of post-mortem toxicology must take into account what is known of the clinical pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the agent(s) in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the possible mechanism(s) of exposure, and other factors such as the sample(s) analysed and the analytical methods used. It was thought that concentrations of poisons measured in blood obtained at autopsy reflected the situation peri-mortem. However, we now know that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater with centrally-acting drugs such as clozapine with large volumes of distribution, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly. Better training in analytical toxicology is needed for pathologists and others who may be called upon to interpret toxicological data for the Courts. Undue reliance on

  16. Paraquat Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Gaur, Subhash; Singla, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is commonly used herbicide by farmers in North West Rajasthan. Despite its easy availability, poisoning of its not common. Fatal dose of paraquat is so small that >10 ml poison can damage lungs permanently. Diagnosis is often difficult without proper history, absence of specific clinical feature and lack of diagnostic test. Inhalation exposures represent one of the most important routes of poisoning. We are reporting a case of inhaled paraquat poisoning with complication of irreversible acute kidney, liver and lung injury. PMID:27042505

  17. [Carrying capacity of shellfish culture in Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenbin; Du, Qi; Fang, Minjie; Qian, Xiaoming; Cai, Qinghai; Xu, Cuiya

    2005-05-01

    To fully and rationally exploit local living marine resources while have a sustainable, efficient and healthy development of shellfish culture in the Dadeng Island sea area of Xiamen, this paper determined and analyzed the related model parameters of this area, including chlorophyll a, primary productivity, phytoplankton organic carbon tent, wild filter feeder yields in subtidal and intertidal zones and suspension culture area, cultured shellfish filtration rate and organic carbon content, shellfish's total weight to fresh meat ratio, and adopted the Nutrient namic Model and Coastal Waters' Energy Flow Analysis Model to estimate the ecological capacity of shellfish this area, from which, the wild filter feeder yields were deducted for estimating shellfish carrying capacity. model established by Fang Jianguang was also used to estimate the shellfish carrying capacity. Statistics analysis was used to estimate the suitable culture area of shellfish and other species, aiming at limiting local shellfish ture and optimizing the culture of various species mollusks. According to the estimation of the three models, shellfish carrying capacity in this area should be 35,248-39,990 tons, with an average of 37,488 tons, 140,008 x 10(4) - 158,850 x 10(4) individuals, averaging 148,903 x 10(4). The theoretically suitable culture area 2 145 hm2, 1,900 hm2 for Ostreidae, 81 hm2 for razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta), 20 hm2 for blood (Tegillarca granosa), and 144 hm2 for musculus (Musculus senhousei). In 2000, the actual culture area of shellfish and other species in the waters around Dadeng surpassed the estimated suitable culture area. It is proposed that some measures should be taken to reduce the overexploited area.

  18. Probabilistic dietary exposure to phycotoxins in a recreational shellfish harvester subpopulation (France).

    PubMed

    Picot, Cyndie; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Parent-Massin, Dominique; Roudot, Alain-Claude

    2013-07-01

    Phycotoxins, secondary phytoplankton metabolites, are considered as an important food safety issue because their accumulation by shellfish may render them unfit for human consumption. However, the likely intakes of phycotoxins via shellfish consumption are almost unknown because both contamination and consumption data are very scarce. Thus, two 1-year surveys were conducted (through the same population: recreational shellfish harvesters and from the same geographical area) to assess: shellfish consumption and contamination by major toxins (domoic acid (DA) group, okadaic acid (OA) group and spirolides (SPXs)). Recreational shellfish harvesters had been targeted as an at-risk subpopulation because they consume more shellfish than general population and because they eat not only commercial shellfish species controlled by official authorities but also their own harvests of shellfish species may be in non-controlled areas and more over shellfish species non-considered in the official control species. Then, these two kinds of data were combined with deterministic and probabilistic approaches for both acute and chronic exposures, on considering the impact of shellfish species and cooking on phycotoxin levels. For acute risk, monitoring programs seem to be adequate for DAs, whereas OAs could be a matter of concern for high consumers (their acute intakes were up to ninefold the acute reference dose (ARfD)). About chronic risk, OAs are a matter of concern. The daily OAs intakes were close to the ARfD, which is, by definition, greater than the tolerable daily intake. Moreover, SPX contamination is low but regular, no (sub)chronic SPX toxicity data exist; but in case of (sub)chronic toxicity, SPX exposure should be considered.

  19. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  20. Arsenic speciation in marine fish and shellfish from American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Peshut, Peter J; Morrison, R John; Brooks, Barbara A

    2008-03-01

    We speciated arsenic compounds in marine fish and shellfish from two islands of the United States Territory of American Samoa in the South Pacific, and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. The proportion of inorganic arsenic was generally far below the levels of prevailing assumptions typically used in human health risk assessments when only total arsenic is analysed. Fish and shellfish were collected from Tutuila and Ofu between May 2001 and March 2002 (n=383 individual specimens, with 117 composites); sites were selected based on habitat type and were representative of those frequented by local fishers. These islands have moderately developed reef fish fisheries among artisanal fishers, are far removed from any industrial or mining sources of arsenic, and presented an opportunity to study arsenic variations in marine biota from un-impacted environments. Target species were from various trophic levels and are among those frequently harvested for human consumption. We found evidence that arsenic concentrated in some marine species, but did not tend to follow classic trophic patterns for biomagnification or bioaccumulation. For the majority of samples, inorganic arsenic was less than 0.5% of total arsenic, with only a few samples in the range of 1-5%, the latter being mollusks which are recognized to have unusually high arsenic levels in general. This work supports the importance of speciation analysis for arsenic, because of the ubiquitous occurrence of arsenic in the environment, and its variable toxicity depending on chemical form.

  1. Occurrence of a water soluble toxin in a parrotfish (Ypsiscarus ovifrons) which is probably responsible for parrotfish liver poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fusetani, N; Sato, S; Hashimoto, K

    1985-01-01

    The liver of the parrotfish Ypsiscarus ovifrons sometimes causes severe muscle pain, paralysis and dyspnea when ingested by humans. Individual livers, ovaries and digestive tracts and their contents were examined for lethal potency in mice. They were all toxic, except for livers obtained from April to June. Lethal potency ranged from 0.25 to 5.0 MU/g tissue. Livers were extracted with acidic aqueous ethanol and the extracts purified by charcoal treatment, gel filtration and partition and reversed phase column chromatography. Both the crude and partially purified toxin showed chemical and/or pharmacological properties different from those of tetrodotoxin or paralytic shellfish poisons.

  2. Monitoring the Presence of Domoic Acid in the Production Areas of Bivalve Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Rachele; Arace, Olga; Buonomo, Maria Giovanna; Capozzo, Daniela; Castellano, Vincenzo; Imbimbo, Samantha; Soprano, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Algal biotoxins, chemical compounds produced by some microscopic algae, constitute the phytoplankton. The mussels, feeding on phytoplankton, can accumulate these compounds to become themselves toxic. There have been several cases of food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Such food poisoning have pushed our health care system to provide monitoring of shellfish in the framework of the monitoring plans carried out by AASSLL. In this paper we report the results obtained monitoring the presence of amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, like domoic acid and its isomers, produced by Pseudonitzschia algae. The analyses were carried out by using both the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet official method and an experimental method performed with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF). The 100% of samples analysed by the official method have always been below the limits of sensitivity (except one sample), and the 65% of samples analysed by ESI-TOF showed the presence of domoic acid. PMID:27995097

  3. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  4. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  5. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. Images Figure 1. PMID:8553638

  6. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  7. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  8. Juniper tar poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  9. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  10. Paralytic shellfish toxin content is related to genomic sxtA4 copy number in Alexandrium minutum strains

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Guillou, Laure; Figueroa, Rosa I.

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) synthesis. PSTs are small neurotoxic compounds that can accumulate in the food chain and cause serious poisoning incidences when ingested. They are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodium, and Pyrodinium. Here we investigated if the genomic CPN of sxtA4 is related to PST content in Alexandrium minutum cells. SxtA4 is the 4th domain of the sxtA gene and its presence is essential for PST synthesis in dinoflagellates. We used PST and genome size measurements as well as quantitative PCR to analyze sxtA4 CPN and toxin content in 15 A. minutum strains. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the sxtA4 CPN and the total amount of PST produced in actively growing A. minutum cells. This correlation was independent of the toxin profile produced, as long as the strain contained the genomic domains sxtA1 and sxtA4. PMID:25983733

  11. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid, 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid and pectenotoxin-2 in shellfish and plankton from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo; de M Sampayo, Maria Antónia

    2002-07-01

    Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2sa) and 7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (7-epi-PTX2sa) were found in Portuguese shellfish both by fluorescence detection after ADAM derivatisation and, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. Two time-series both with blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) from Aveiro lagoon illustrate how PTX2sa has a strong association with Dinophysis acuta occurrence in the plankton, as well as Dinophysis fortii. Data so far excludes D. acuminata from contributing to contamination with pectenotoxins. It also shows that mussel may not be the best indicator of contamination with PTX2sa. At Aveiro lagoon also oyster, razor clam and clams were all less toxic than cockle. Pectenotoxin-2 seco acid was not involved in a previously reported incident of human poisoning that took place in February 1998 after consumption of Donax trunculus. In plankton extracts the most abundant pectenotoxin found was PTX2. Concentration of PTX2sa was around 10% of PTX2, and 7-epi-PTX2sa was not detected.

  12. Fatal aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anger, F; Paysant, F; Brousse, F; Le Normand, I; Develay, P; Gaillard, Y; Baert, A; Le Gueut, M A; Pepin, G; Anger, J P

    2000-03-01

    A 39-year-old man committed suicide by ingestion of aluminum phosphide, a potent mole pesticide, which was available at the victim's workplace. The judicial authority ordered an autopsy, which ruled out any other cause of death. The victim was discovered 10 days after the ingestion of the pesticide. When aluminum phosphide comes into contact with humidity, it releases large quantities of hydrogen phosphine (PH3), a very toxic gas. Macroscopic examination during the autopsy revealed a very important asphyxia syndrome with major visceral congestion. Blood, urine, liver, kidney, adrenal, and heart samples were analyzed. Phosphine gas was absent in the blood and urine but present in the brain (94 mL/g), the liver (24 mL/g), and the kidneys (41 mL/g). High levels of phosphorus were found in the blood (76.3 mg/L) and liver (8.22 mg/g). Aluminum concentrations were very high in the blood (1.54 mg/L), brain (36 microg/g), and liver (75 microg/g) compared to the usual published values. Microscopic examination revealed congestion of all the organs studied and obvious asphyxia lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma. All these results confirmed a diagnosis of poisoning by aluminum phosphide. This report points out that this type of poisoning is rare and that hydrogen phosphine is very toxic. The phosphorus and aluminum concentrations observed and their distribution in the different viscera are discussed in relation to data in the literature.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  14. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons".

  15. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  16. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    PubMed

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  17. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  18. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  19. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  20. Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, George J.

    This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

  1. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  2. Antibiotic resistance of Shewanella putrefaciens isolated from shellfish collected from the West Sea in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Shin, YuJin; Jeon, HanEul; Choi, Jae-Ho; Jeong, SuYeon; So, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-15

    In this study, we isolated and characterized Shewanella putrefaciens from shellfish harvested from the West Sea in Korea. For the initial isolation of S. putrefaciens, LB agar plates supplemented with ferrous sulfate and sodium thiosulfate were inoculated with shellfish homogenates, incubated for 24h, and then black colonies were selected. Gram-negative and catalase-positive colonies were subsequently confirmed by PCR assays and API 20E kit test system. The Shewanella-specific 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were used to design S. putrefaciens-specific PCR primers. From 6 species of shellfish tested, 24 S. putrefaciens strains were isolated. These 24 isolates had the following profiles of resistance against 16 antibiotics: all the isolates were resistant to cephalothin and vancomycin and 95.8% were resistant to ampicillin. Here, we report the isolation of S. putrefaciens from shellfish and our results point to a new possible route for exposing healthy individuals to S. putrefaciens.

  3. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  4. PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

  5. Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

  6. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  7. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  8. Temperature effects on kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxin elimination in Atlantic surfclams, Spisula solidissima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica Bricelj, V.; Cembella, Allan D.; Laby, David

    2014-05-01

    Surfclams, Spisula solidissima, pose a particular health risk for human consumption as they are characterized by accumulation of extremely high levels of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), slow toxin elimination and an extremely high post-ingestive capacity for toxin bioconversion. Surfclam populations experience a wide range of temperatures along the NW Atlantic continental shelf, and are undergoing range contraction that has been attributed to global warming. In this study the influence of temperature (5, 12 and 21 °C) on detoxification kinetics of individual PSP toxins in two tissue compartments of juvenile surfclams (∼35 mm shell length) was determined under controlled laboratory conditions, over prolonged (2.4 months) depuration. Clams were toxified with a representative regional Gulf of Maine isolate of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense of known toxin profile, allowing tracking of changes in toxin composition and calculated toxicity in surfclam tissues. The visceral mass detoxified at all temperatures, although toxin loss rate increased with increasing temperature. In contrast, total toxin content and calculated toxicities in other tissues remained constant or even increased during depuration, suggesting a physiological or biochemical toxin-retention mechanism in this tissue pool and temperature-independent detoxification. In vivo toxin compositional changes in surfclam tissues found in this study provide evidence of specific toxin conversion pathways, involving both reductive and decarbamoylation pathways. We conclude that such toxin biotransformations, especially in non-visceral tissues, may introduce a discrepancy in describing kinetics of total toxicity (in saxitoxin equivalents [STXeq]) of S. solidissima over prolonged detoxification. Nevertheless, use of total toxicity values generated by routine regulatory monitoring based upon mouse bioassays or calculated from chemical analytical determination of molar toxin

  9. Detection of sapoviruses and noroviruses in an outbreak of gastroenteritis linked genetically to shellfish.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Setsuko; Oka, Tomoichiro; Tabara, Kenji; Omura, Tamaki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Noda, Mamoru

    2010-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) are important pathogens of human gastroenteritis. Compared to NoV, the transmission route of SaV is unclear. An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred at a restaurant in June 2008, and SaV and NoV were detected in fecal specimens from 17 people who ate at the restaurant and one asymptomatic food handler and also in stripped shellfish and liquids remaining in the shellfish packages by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or real-time RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of the RT-PCR products corresponding to the partial capsid region revealed 99.3-100% identities for SaV and 98.6-99.3% identities for NoV among the digestive diverticulum of the frozen stripped shellfish (Ruditapes philippinarum), "Asari," the package liquid, and feces from symptomatic or asymptomatic guests. These results suggested a link between the consumption of contaminated shellfish and clinical features in the patients. While the transmission of NoV by shellfish has been reported, this report shows that SaV can also be transmitted by shellfish.

  10. A management strategy to reduce bacterial pollution in shellfish areas: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Stuart R.; Moore, James A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of bacterial pollution in shellfishing areas is not uncommon in the coastal regions of the United States. Bacterial contamination from man's activities can effectively reduce our natural shellfish resource areas by forcing their closure because of high potential risk of diseases being spread by shellfish harvested in these areas. Tillamook Bay, a relatively small, enclosed drainage basin of nonurban character, presents an excellent study area for observing this problem. The high population density of animals, raised on a relatively small floodplain area, represents one of the major sources of pollution in the bay. This paper summarizes the history of the agencies involved with the problem and presents the current approach to alleviate bacterial pollution in the bay without unduly penalizing other industries in the Tillamook basin. The paper also presents some of the legal aspects of reducing water pollution in shellfish harvesting areas and the jurisdiction of federal agencies in these matters. Finally, recommendations are given to reduce bacterial output by the major source categories in the basin, and criteria for bay closure to shellfish harvest are developed to protect the public from bacterially contaminated shellfish.

  11. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  12. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  13. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ...

  14. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  15. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pesticides Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  18. Trends in the levels of Escherichia coli in commercially harvested bivalve shellfish from England and Wales, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos J A; Acornley, Richard; Morgan, Owen C; Kershaw, Simon

    2013-02-15

    Temporal trends in Escherichia coli concentrations in bivalve shellfish were examined using data collected from 57 production areas around the coast of England and Wales during 1999-2008. Downward trends were detected in annual geometric means of E. coli in shellfish from 12% of the sampling points. The percentage of class B areas (E. coli ≤ 4600/100 g shellfish in 90% of samples) increased from 69% to 86% during the 10-year period. The improvement in the microbial quality of shellfish is associated with sewerage improvement schemes largely implemented during 2000-2005. Upward trends were detected in 9% of the points. The causes of these increases are not known. It is recommended that quantitative sanitary profiling of shellfish waters and cost-benefit appraisal over long-term planning horizons are considered as part of sewerage investment programmes under the Water Framework Directive. This would allow greater scope to secure protection and improvement of shellfish water quality.

  19. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08) Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rakesh; Singh, Hemant K.; Prasad, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication, we have investigated effects of the CDRI-08, a well characterized extract of Bacopa monnieri, on expression of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in various brain regions of the scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Our behavioral data reveal that scopolamine-treated amnesic mice exhibit significant decline in the spatial memory compared to the normal control mice. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting data revealed that the scopolamine treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our enzyme assay data revealed that scopolamine caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity in both the brain regions. Further, oral administration of the CDRI-08 to scopolamine-treated amnesic mice restored the spatial memory which was found to be associated with significant upregulation of the GluN2B subunit expression and decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus towards their levels in the normal control mice. Our study provides the evidence for the mechanism underlying role of the Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08) in restoring spatial memory in amnesic mice, which may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26413117

  20. Zebrafish neurotoxicity from aphantoxins--cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Li, Genbao; Liu, Yongding

    2013-05-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae), a cyanobacterium frequently encountered in water blooms worldwide, is source of neurotoxins known as PSPs or aphantoxins that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Although the molecular mechanism of PSP action is well known, many unresolved questions remain concerning its mechanisms of toxicity. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the major component toxins were the gonyautoxins1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). The LD50 of the aphantoxin preparation was determined to be 11.33 μg/kg (7.75 μg saxitoxin equivalents (STXeq) per kg) following intraperitoneal injection of zebrafish (Danio rerio). To address the neurotoxicology of the aphantoxin preparation, zebrafish were injected with low and high sublethal doses of A. flos-aquae DC-1 toxins 7.73 and 9.28 μg /kg (5.3 and 6.4 μg STXeq/kg, respectively) and brain tissues were analyzed by electron microscopy and RT-PCR at different timepoints postinjection. Low-dose aphantoxin exposure was associated with chromatin condensation, cell-membrane blebbing, and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. High-dose exposure was associated with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial swelling, and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. At early timepoints (3 h) many cells exhibited characteristic features of both apoptosis and necrosis. At later timepoints apoptosis appeared to predominate in the low-dose group, whereas necrosis predominated in the high-dose group. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA levels of the apoptosis-related genes encoding p53, Bax, caspase-3, and c-Jun were upregulated after aphantoxin exposure, but there was no evidence of DNA laddering; apoptosis could take place by pathways independent of DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate that aphantoxin exposure can cause cell death in zebrafish brain tissue, with low doses inducing apoptosis and higher doses inducing necrosis.

  1. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls.

  2. Derivation of shellfish harvest reopening criteria following the New Carissa oil spill in Coos Bay, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, D J

    2000-07-14

    Oil spills in Alaska, California, Maine, and other states have raised concerns regarding potential contamination of fish and shellfish, and have led to temporary closures of seafood harvests while health risks are assessed. Lacking standardized protocols, these assessments are generally ad hoc, site-specific efforts, with significant differences in risk evaluation criteria. This article describes the response of a state health agency to shellfish contamination following an oil spill on the Oregon coast, and discusses some of the factors that can complicate the evaluation of potential health risks from consumption of oil-contaminated shellfish. On 4 February 1999, the Japanese-owned cargo ship M/V New Carissa, carrying an estimated 400,000 gallons of light diesel and heavy fuel oil, ran aground 2 miles north of Coos Bay, Oregon. Damage to the ship's hull from the grounding and pounding surf caused the release of an estimated 25,000 to 70,000 gallons of oil. Concern for potential contamination of local recreational shellfish and commercial oyster beds prompted the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) to close shellfish harvesting in Coos and Douglas counties. ODA requested assistance from the Oregon Health Division in the derivation of risk-based criteria for reopening the shellfish harvest. Criteria were developed for the primary contaminants of concern, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) expressed as total benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) equivalents. "Safe" (<10 microg/kg) and "unsafe" (>45 microg/kg) BaP equivalent levels were derived based on upper end (32.5 g/d) and average (7.5 g/d) estimates of shellfish consumption, respectively. Composite samples of oysters, clams, and mussels (15-20 per composite) were collected from target areas and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Carcinogenic PAHs were converted to total BaP equivalents (wet weight) and compared with criteria. Two oyster samples, collected from a slough off of Coos Bay

  3. Poisoning with Organophosphorus Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. J. Russell; Kalow, Werner; Sellers, Edward A.

    1965-01-01

    Because of an increasing incidence of poisoning with the newer organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticides, these compounds have been reviewed in terms of their history and pharmacology, relationship with other drugs, factors affecting toxicity, mechanism of action, toxic signs and treatment. The modern organophosphorus pesticide requires metabolic conversion before toxicity develops. Insects have a greater propensity for this conversion than humans. Nevertheless, this conversion does occur in humans and can be potentiated by other drugs. Toxicity also varies with age, sex, route and frequency of administration, and previous exposure. The mechanism of toxicity is inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, causing an intoxicating build-up of acetylcholine. Signs and symptoms consist of the clinical manifestations of unopposed parasympathetic and central activity. Treatment must be initiated early. Respiration must be maintained and the effects of acetylcholine must be counteracted by massive doses of atropine. Metaraminol enhances the antagonistic action of atropine against acetylcholine and may also be given. Once acetylcholinesterase is inactivated, restoration is slow. Recovery can be accelerated by enzyme reactivators like the oxime compounds. Pyridine aldoxime (Pralidoxime, Protopam, P2S and 2-PAM) can be given in combination with atropine and metaraminol (AMP therapy) and may be the treatment of choice. PMID:5831217

  4. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  5. Development of SNP-genotyping arrays in two shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Lapègue, S; Harrang, E; Heurtebise, S; Flahauw, E; Donnadieu, C; Gayral, P; Ballenghien, M; Genestout, L; Barbotte, L; Mahla, R; Haffray, P; Klopp, C

    2014-07-01

    Use of SNPs has been favoured due to their abundance in plant and animal genomes, accompanied by the falling cost and rising throughput capacity for detection and genotyping. Here, we present in vitro (obtained from targeted sequencing) and in silico discovery of SNPs, and the design of medium-throughput genotyping arrays for two oyster species, the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Two sets of 384 SNP markers were designed for two Illumina GoldenGate arrays and genotyped on more than 1000 samples for each species. In each case, oyster samples were obtained from wild and selected populations and from three-generation families segregating for traits of interest in aquaculture. The rate of successfully genotyped polymorphic SNPs was about 60% for each species. Effects of SNP origin and quality on genotyping success (Illumina functionality Score) were analysed and compared with other model and nonmodel species. Furthermore, a simulation was made based on a subset of the C. gigas SNP array with a minor allele frequency of 0.3 and typical crosses used in shellfish hatcheries. This simulation indicated that at least 150 markers were needed to perform an accurate parental assignment. Such panels might provide valuable tools to improve our understanding of the connectivity between wild (and selected) populations and could contribute to future selective breeding programmes.

  6. Superabsorbent materials from shellfish waste--a review.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek K

    2002-01-01

    Increasing global demand for improved absorbent materials for body fluids in disposable medical and personal-care articles creates an incentive for new basic research and development of efficient absorbent materials and systems with additional benefits such as biodegradability or certain biomedical functions. Highly absorbing materials based on polyelectrolyte polymers can absorb up to 50 grams of body fluid per gram of dry mass. Currently available synthetic superabsorbents are not biodegradable in landfills and do not offer any value-added functions to personal and medical-care products. Various academic and industrial research groups have put considerable amounts of effort and resources toward development of new absorbent materials from natural polymers, which would decompose in landfills. The basic substrates in these studies have been mainly polysaccharides, particularly cellulose and starch. The most common approach has involved converting these polymers into carboxymethyl derivatives followed by structural cross-linking. Commercial synthetic superabsorbent polymers as well as those derived from cellulose and starch are essentially polyanionic. On the other hand, polycationic absorbers seem to have potential functional advantages over the polyanionic counterparts. Chitin is the second abundant natural polymer, whose main derivative, chitosan, becomes polycationic in acid media. Currently, the main source of this polysaccharide is shellfish waste. This review provides basic information about new superabsorbent materials based on chitosan salts, their properties and preparation.

  7. Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C.; Borsuk, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985–2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our

  8. Interlaboratory comparison of two AOAC liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis through characterization of an oyster reference material.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Rourke, Wade A; Higman, Wendy A

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory ring trial was designed and conducted by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science to investigate a range of issues affecting the analysis of a candidate Pacific oyster paralytic shellfish toxin reference material. A total of 21 laboratories participated in the study and supplied results using one or more of three instrumental methods, specifically precolumn oxidation (Pre-COX) LC with fluorescence detection (FLD; AOAC Official Method 2005.06), postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD (AOAC Official Method 2011.02), and hydrophilic interaction LC/MS/MS. Each participant analyzed nine replicate samples of the oyster tissue in three separate batches of three samples over a period of time longer than 1 week. Results were reported in a standardized format, reporting both individual toxin concentrations and total sample toxicity. Data were assessed to determine the equivalency of the two AOAC LC methods and the LC/MS/MS method as well as an assessment of intrabatch and interbatch repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility of each method. Differences among the results reported using the three methods were shown to be statistically significant, although visual comparisons showed an overlap between results generated by the majority of tests, the exception being the Pre-COX quantitation of N-hydroxylated toxins in post ion-exchange fractions. Intralaboratory repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility were acceptable for most of the results, with the exception of results generated from fractions. The results provided good evidence for the acceptable performance of the PCOX method for the quantitation of C toxins. Overall the study showed the usefulness of interlaboratory analysis for the characterization of paralytic shellfish poisoning matrix reference materials, highlighting some issues that may need to be addressed with further method assessment at individual participant laboratories.

  9. [Accidental poisoning in the home].

    PubMed

    Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J

    1989-09-25

    During a period of one year, a total of 79 cases of accidental poisoning were registered prospectively in the County Hospital in Aarhus and the City Hospital in Randers. The female/male ratio was 1/1.5. The incidence in children aged 0-14 years of age was 13 per 10,000. In Denmark as a whole, a total of 1,300 cases of accidental poisoning were estimated to occur during a period of one year. Sixty-four (81%) of the accidents occurred in small children aged 0-4 years. Twenty-five patients (32%) were hospitalized. The average duration of hospitalization was 2.4 days (1-4 days) and 84% of the inpatients were aged 0-4 years. The survey revealed that 27 case of accidental poisoning were due to medicine, 20 to organic solvents, eight to chemicals, 22 to poison and two to asphyxiation. It is concluded that the special legal regulations about packing and labelling are not sufficient when storage of the potential poison is not safe enough.

  10. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  11. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  12. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Investigation of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Lingshan Bay, Yellow Sea, China, using solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Ling; Li, Zhao-Xin; Guo, Meng-Meng; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Song, Cai-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Early detection of toxin contamination in shellfish (i.e., prior to harvest) would be of considerable advantage to fish farmers, researchers and food safety administrators. In 2004, a solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technique was developed to study algal toxins in New Zealand shellfish harvesting areas. In subsequent years, the basic idea have been further developed. Using a SPATT method, an investigation into diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) was conducted over a 10.5-month period in 2012 in shellfish farming areas in Lingshan Bay (Yellow Sea, China). This paper discusses the relationship among DSTs in toxic algae, seawater and contaminated shellfish. OA, DTX1 and PTX2 toxins were found in this shellfish farming area from summer to autumn. In shellfish the maximum concentrations of OA and DTX1 were 81 and 41 ng g(-1) respectively. PTX2 was very low. The maximum levels of OA and DTX1 in seawater were 165 and 56 ng g(-1) respectively, and were detected on June, separated by a 14-day period. Shellfish had accumulated the highest levels of OA and DTX1 recorded in this study. Comparison of the variations in DST levels in seawater showed there to be about 2 weeks for administrators to warn of the potential for toxin contamination in shellfish. Further research to explore the relationship between the variables of seawater temperature, sunlight and salinity, and DSTs in shellfish may help to establish a more suitable model for forecasting DST contamination in shellfish.

  14. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident.

  15. Toxic and harmful marine phytoplankton and microalgae (HABs) in Mexican Coasts.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, David U; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba; Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Barón-Campis, Sofia A; Ceballos-Corona, Gerardo; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Meave Del Castillo, María E; Juárez-Ruíz, Norma; Merino-Virgilio, Fanny; Morales-Blake, Alejandro; Ochoa, José L; Orellana-Cepeda, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Camarena, Casimiro; Rodríguez-Salvador, Raciel

    2007-08-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are becoming an increasing problem to human health and environment (including effects on natural and cultured resources, tourism and ecosystems) all over the world. In Mexico a number of human fatalities and important economic losses have occurred in the last 30 years because of these events. There are about 70 species of planktonic and non-planktonic microalgae considered harmful in Mexican coasts. The most important toxin-producing species are the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, in the Mexican Pacific, and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico, and consequently the poisonings documented in Mexico are Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). Although there is evidence that Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) and Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) also occur in Mexico, these problems are reported less frequently. The type of phytoplankton and epiphytic microalgae, their toxins and harmful effects as well as current methodology used to study these phenomena are presented in this paper. As an experienced group of workers, we include descriptions of monitoring and mitigation programs, our proposals for collaborative projects and perspectives on future research.

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  18. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  19. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  2. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

  3. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  4. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning. PMID:23243353

  5. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  6. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  7. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  8. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  9. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  11. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  12. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  13. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  14. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  15. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  16. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  17. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  18. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-09

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  19. Parathion Poisoning from Flannelette Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L. S.; Warner, D. L.; Parker, J. E.; Bluman, N.; Page, B. D.

    1965-01-01

    Two small boys were admitted to the Lions Gate Hospital in coma and acute respiratory distress. They improved and the first boy was sent home; after two nights he was back in hospital in a worsened state. Poisoning with organic phosphate was suspected, and after investigation some flannelette sheets were taken from his home for testing. They proved to have been contaminated with parathion (“nerve gas”) in the hold of a ship sailing from Antwerp to Vancouver; the parathion had been offloaded in California. The remainder of the sheets were traced. The symptomatology and treatment of organic phosphate ester poisoning and the chemical testing of parathion are discussed. PMID:14272498

  20. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

  1. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  2. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    PubMed

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  3. Treatment of the Poisoned Child

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David H. S.

    1970-01-01

    Syrup of ipecac has measurable advantages over gastric lavage in evacuating the stomach of children with accidental poisoning, in terms of safety, effectiveness, and rapidity of action. The average period for action with ipecac is likely to be about 17 minutes, or 82 minutes, depending on whether the child is treated at home or in hospital. In contrast, the mean delay to completion of gastric lavage is estimated at 126 minutes, and this procedure has little place in the treatment of the child with poisoning. PMID:4393311

  4. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  5. Neuropsychic Disorders in Trichlorfon Poisoning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-21

    timidity and obsessive fears. Attention was drawn to the persistence of autonomic disorders in these patients. Complaints of impotence were not...I ADAO~g939 OREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSDN AFS 0DH F/G 6/20 E NUR OPSY(CHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHL ORFON POISONING,(U) IAUG 7 9 V I BAR A 3AS...SHEET DTIC OCT79 70A oc’r 7, ’K FTD-ID (RS)T-1179-79 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION NEUROPSYCHIC DISORDERS IN TRICHLORFON POISONING by 7,- I. Barabash

  6. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    PubMed

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment.

  7. Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Shellfish-Harvesting Areas and Their Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Balière, Charlotte; Rincé, Alain; Blanco, Jorge; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Harel, Josée; Vogeleer, Philippe; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18 than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these shellfish-harvesting areas were consumed. PMID:26648928

  8. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent.

  9. High Pressure Processing of Bivalve Shellfish and HPP’s Use as a Virus Intervention †

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan shellfish and its potential to inactivate food-borne viruses and bacteria are discussed. Mechanisms of action of high pressure against bacteria and viruses, as well as how time of pressure application, pressure levels, and pre-pressurization temperature influence inactivation are described. Matrix influences such as ionic strength are noted as important additional considerations. The potential of HPP to influence spoilage and enhance shelf-life of shucked shellfish is also discussed. PMID:28234323

  10. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored. PMID:28231124

  11. Warm temperature acclimation impacts metabolism of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in commercial oysters.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Seebacher, Frank; O'Connor, Wayne; Zammit, Anthony; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna

    2015-09-01

    Species of Alexandrium produce potent neurotoxins termed paralytic shellfish toxins and are expanding their ranges worldwide, concurrent with increases in sea surface temperature. The metabolism of molluscs is temperature dependent, and increases in ocean temperature may influence both the abundance and distribution of Alexandrium and the dynamics of toxin uptake and depuration in shellfish. Here, we conducted a large-scale study of the effect of temperature on the uptake and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in three commercial oysters (Saccostrea glomerata and diploid and triploid Crassostrea gigas, n = 252 per species/ploidy level). Oysters were acclimated to two constant temperatures, reflecting current and predicted climate scenarios (22 and 27 °C), and fed a diet including the paralytic shellfish toxin-producing species Alexandrium minutum. While the oysters fed on A. minutum in similar quantities, concentrations of the toxin analogue GTX1,4 were significantly lower in warm-acclimated S. glomerata and diploid C. gigas after 12 days. Following exposure to A. minutum, toxicity of triploid C. gigas was not affected by temperature. Generally, detoxification rates were reduced in warm-acclimated oysters. The routine metabolism of the oysters was not affected by the toxins, but a significant effect was found at a cellular level in diploid C. gigas. The increasing incidences of Alexandrium blooms worldwide are a challenge for shellfish food safety regulation. Our findings indicate that rising ocean temperatures may reduce paralytic shellfish toxin accumulation in two of the three oyster types; however, they may persist for longer periods in oyster tissue.

  12. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 μp.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT

  13. Interannual variability of Alexandrium fundyense abundance and shellfish toxicity in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillicuddy, D. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Solow, A. R.; Townsend, D. W.

    2005-09-01

    Six years of oceanographic surveys of Alexandrium fundyense concentrations in the Gulf of Maine are combined with shellfish toxicity records from coastal monitoring stations to assess covariations of these quantities on seasonal to interannual time scales. Annual mean gulf-wide cell abundance varies by less than one order of magnitude during the time interval examined (1993-2002). Fluctuations in gulf-wide annual mean cell abundance and shellfish toxicity are not related in a consistent manner. This suggests that interannual variations in toxicity may be regulated by transport and delivery of offshore cell populations, rather than the absolute abundance of the source populations themselves.

  14. Shellfish depuration by gamma irradiation. Progress report No. 1, October 1, 1985-July 25, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Beghian, L.; Melnick, J.

    1986-07-25

    Objective is to investigate the feasibility of employing food irradiation technology to reduce or eliminate the threat of viral diseases contracted as a result of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked shellfish. Several recently published studies warn of the health risks associated with eating of raw shellfish - particularly American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and the hardshelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. This study addresses the possibility of reducing the incidence of molluscanborne diseases through the application of /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation processing to effect the inactivation of pathogenic viruses in live, raw shwllfish. Dosimetry, D/sub 10/ doses, and organoleptic effects were studied.

  15. The Dose Makes the Poison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottoboni, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

  16. Antifreeze poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofei; Lu, Guoyu; Qi, Benquan; Wang, Ran; Guo, Daohua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    The current study reported the case of a 35-year-old male that presented with antifreeze poisoning. The clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations and treatments were analyzed, and the obtained results were compared with those in previous reports. Subsequent to consuming antifreeze, the patient mainly presented nausea and agitation, without disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory investigations indicated severe metabolic acidosis, renal dysfunction and hyperkalemia. The patient underwent hemodialysis and his condition was significantly improved on the day of admission. Renal function gradually deteriorated, but was eventually improved due to treatment, including hemodialysis, mannitol for catharsis, furosemide for diuresis, Xuebijing for the removal of blood stasis and detoxication, and reduced glutathione for the protection of major organs. The patient was discharged 1 month after hospital admission. In conclusion, the significance and clinical manifestations of antifreeze poisoning should be identified in clinical practice, and active hemodialysis should be provided. The aim of the current study was to summarize the clinical manifestations and treatments of patients with antifreeze poisoning, and to advance the recognition of antifreeze poisoning. PMID:28352354

  17. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  18. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  19. The Kidney in Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Radošević, Zdenko; Šarić, Marko; Beritić, Tihomil; Knežević, Jelica

    1961-01-01

    Kidney damage due to lead is still an interesting problem of industrial toxicology. In spite of abundant literature data, much still remains to be explained. There are controversial opinions, not only on the type of renal lesions due to lead, but also on whether lead affects the kidney at all. In this paper our clinical observations on the effect of lead upon the kidney in 53 patients suffering from lead poisoning are presented. In 44 patients (40 men and four women) lead poisoning was due to occupation, and in nine (five men and four women) to the use of lead-glazed pottery. The length of exposure varied from two months to 35 years. In all cases the diagnosis of lead poisoning was made clinically and confirmed by laboratory tests. Permanent changes in the form of chronic nephropathy were observed in only two patients. These were the two cases in which exposure to lead was the longest and most intense. Twenty-three patients showed functional renal lesions tending to normalize. In addition to the cases of organic nephropathy, blood pressure was persistently raised in one further patient; in two patients a raised blood pressure was observed only in the acute stage of poisoning. On the basis of these findings we consider that lead intoxication can cause renal lesions. These lesions are for the most part functional and temporary. In cases of long and severe exposure and repeated lead intoxication, organic renal lesions seem possible. The disturbances of renal function observed in this study may be ascribed to disordered intrarenal circulation, due to the spastic effect of lead on intrarenal blood vessels, and to a direct toxic or indirect hypoxic effect of lead on the tubules. When investigating renal function, we have observed that the timing of individual tests is of paramount importance. Some lesions are subject to changes in the natural course of lead poisoning, and unless this is borne in mind, apparently contradictory results may be obtained. PMID:13739013

  20. PSP toxins profile in ascidian Microcosmus vulgaris (Heller, 1877) after human poisoning in Croatia (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Roje-Busatto, Romana; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.

  1. Partition coefficients as a measure of bioconcentration potential of crude oil compounds in fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Ogino, Y.; Mano, E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the correlation between the partition coefficient and the concentration factor of alkyl benzenes in crude oil for gold fish and also the correlation between the partition coefficients and concentration factor of alkyl dibenzothiophene for shellfish reared in oil suspension and that caught in the sea.

  2. Disease management strategies for shellfish aquaculture: the important role of hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease management is a critical component of the successful production of bivalves. Infections by bacterial pathogens can cause rapid mortality of shellfish larvae with devastating consequences for both the hatcheries and the farmers that rely upon them. Furthermore, several bacterial and parasiti...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the larval shellfish pathogen Vibrio Tubiashii type strain ATCC 19109

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (American Type Culture Collection type strain 19109), which has two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp) and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,9...

  4. Occurrence of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and Synergies among Them

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Laura P.; González, Virginia; Martínez, Aníbal; Paz, Beatriz; Lago, Jorge; Cordeiro, Victoria; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G.

    2015-01-01

    Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro. PMID:25815891

  5. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to <11 years, males/females 11 to <16 years, 16 to <21 years, and adults 21+ years. Estimated mean fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to <2 years and 2 to <3 years, at 0.37 g/kg-day for both age groups, and lowest for females 11 to <16 years, at 0.13 g/kg-day. In all age groups, daily intake estimates were highest for breaded fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  6. Current scientific understanding of the environmental biosafety of transgenic fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Kapuscinski, A R

    2005-04-01

    A fluorescent zebrafish was the first genetically engineered animal to be marketed, and biotechnologists are developing many transgenic fish and shellfish. Biosafety science is not sufficiently advanced to be able to draw scientifically reliable and broadly trusted conclusions about the environmental effects of these animals. The science is best developed for identifying hazards posed by environmental spread of a transgenic fish or shellfish and least developed for assessing potential ecological harms of spread. Environmental spread of certain transgenic fish or shellfish could be an indirect route of entry into the human food supply. The management of predicted environmental risks is in its infancy and has thus far focused on the first step of the risk management process, i.e. risk reduction, via a few confinement methods. There is a critical need to improve scientific methods of environmental safety assessment and management and to gather empirical data needed to substantiate biosafety conclusions and to effectively manage transgenic fish and shellfish. Scientists and potentially affected parties should participate in prioritising the knowledge gaps to be addressed.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shellfish in Shanghai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that poses a large threat to human health worldwide. It has been the leading bacterial cause of seafood-borne illness. This study investigated the prevalence and drug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shellfish in Shang...

  8. High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

  9. New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

  10. Shellfish-associated enteric virus illness: virus localization, disease outbreaks and prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous outbreaks of shellfish-borne enteric virus illness have been reported worldwide. Most notable among the outbreaks are those involving norovirus illness and hepatitis A. Lessons learned from outbreak investigations indicate that most outbreaks are preventable. Anthropogenic sources of con...

  11. MODELING FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Gulf of Mexico provide rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those that have been identified as economically and ecologically important. For the Mobile Bay estuary, we developed statistical models to relate distributions of individual species and sp...

  12. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Yao, Jianhua; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Zhou, Deqing; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2015-07-14

    To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product.

  13. Occurrence of lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish from Galicia (NW of Spain) and synergies among them.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Laura P; González, Virginia; Martínez, Aníbal; Paz, Beatriz; Lago, Jorge; Cordeiro, Victoria; Blanco, Lucía; Vieites, Juan Manuel; Cabado, Ana G

    2015-03-25

    Lipophilic marine toxins pose a serious threat for consumers and an enormous economic problem for shellfish producers. Synergistic interaction among toxins may play an important role in the toxicity of shellfish and consequently in human intoxications. In order to study the toxic profile of molluscs, sampled during toxic episodes occurring in different locations in Galicia in 2014, shellfish were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), the official method for the detection of lipophilic toxins. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose and was validated in house following European guidelines. The vast majority of toxins present in shellfish belonged to the okadaic acid (OA) group and some samples from a particular area contained yessotoxin (YTX). Since these toxins occur very often with other lipophilic toxins, we evaluated the potential interactions among them. A human neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the possible synergies of OA with other lipophilic toxins. Results show that combination of OA with dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2) or YTX enhances the toxicity triggered by OA, decreasing cell viability and cell proliferation, depending on the toxin concentration and incubation time. The effects of other lipophilic toxins as 13-desmethyl Spirolide C were also evaluated in vitro.

  14. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (commonly called rabbits) in Alaska and includes snowshoe hare and tundra hare. Harvest limit means the... person, including theft of the harvested fish, wildlife, or shellfish, unanticipated weather conditions.... 1361-1407); and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703-711), or to any...

  15. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (commonly called rabbits) in Alaska and includes snowshoe hare and tundra hare. Harvest limit means the... person, including theft of the harvested fish, wildlife, or shellfish, unanticipated weather conditions.... 1361-1407); and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703-711), or to any...

  16. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (commonly called rabbits) in Alaska and includes snowshoe hare and tundra hare. Harvest limit means the... person, including theft of the harvested fish, wildlife, or shellfish, unanticipated weather conditions.... 1361-1407); and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703-711), or to any...

  17. Metal Content in Four Shellfish Species from the Istrian Coast of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Džafić, Natalija; Ostojić, Dijana Mišetić; Potočnjak, Dalibor

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were measured in four shellfish species (oysters, mussels, scallops, warty venus) collected along the Istria Peninsula coast during autumn 2013. Mean metal levels in shellfish ranged as follows (mg/kg): As 1.69-3.91, Cd 0.15-0.99, Hg 0.06-0.2, Pb 0.33-0.74, Cu 1.23-36.2, Zn 16.3-511. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in As (p<0.05), Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu and Zn (p<0.01, all) levels among shellfish species. The highest metal concentrations were found in oysters (mg/kg): As 3.91, Cd 0.99, Cu 36.2 and Zn 511. The highest means of Pb and Hg were measured in (mg/kg): warty venus 0.74; scallops 0.12. The estimated daily intakes for oysters shown it as a good source of Cu and Zn. The higher contribution of Cd and As levels to the provisional tolerable weekly intake in shellfishes suggest a careful approach for consumption.

  18. Development and Validation of a Novel Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) for the Rapid Screening of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) from Shellfish Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Waqass; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-05-19

    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed and validated for the rapid screening of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from a variety of shellfish species, at concentrations relevant to regulatory limits of 800 μg STX-diHCl equivalents/kg shellfish meat. A simple aqueous extraction protocol was performed within several minutes from sample homogenate. The qualitative result was generated after a 5 min run time using a portable reader which removed subjectivity from data interpretation. The test was designed to generate noncompliant results with samples containing approximately 800 μg of STX-diHCl/kg. The cross-reactivities in relation to STX, expressed as mean ± SD, were as follows: NEO: 128.9% ± 29%; GTX1&4: 5.7% ± 1.5%; GTX2&3: 23.4% ± 10.4%; dcSTX: 55.6% ± 10.9%; dcNEO: 28.0% ± 8.9%; dcGTX2&3: 8.3% ± 2.7%; C1&C2: 3.1% ± 1.2%; GTX5: 23.3% ± 14.4% (n = 5 LFIA lots). There were no indications of matrix effects from the different samples evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, cockles) nor interference from other shellfish toxins (domoic acid, okadaic acid group). Naturally contaminated sample evaluations showed no false negative results were generated from a variety of different samples and profiles (n = 23), in comparison to reference methods (MBA method 959.08, LC-FD method 2005.06). External laboratory evaluations of naturally contaminated samples (n = 39) indicated good correlation with reference methods (MBA, LC-FD). This is the first LFIA which has been shown, through rigorous validation, to have the ability to detect most major PSTs in a reliable manner and will be a huge benefit to both industry and regulators, who need to perform rapid and reliable testing to ensure shellfish are safe to eat.

  19. Single-laboratory validation of a refined AOAC HPLC method 2005.06 for oysters, cockles, and clams in U.K. shellfish.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova-Dhanji, Monika; Norton, Deirdre M; Algoet, Myriam; Lees, David N

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, a refined HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 was developed and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in mussels. A single-laboratory validation study of this method was undertaken here for the analysis of PSP toxins in oysters, cockles, clams, and razor clams. The method was characterized for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, repeatability, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty of measurement. Validation data were utilized to determine method performance characteristics for non-mussel bivalves for all commercially available certified reference toxins, extending the method to dcNEO and dcGTX2,3, where available. A period of parallel testing of oysters, cockles, and clams enabled a comparison of sample toxicities obtained using mouse bioassay (MBA) and HPLC methodologies, although only a very low number of PSP-positive samples were obtained through the United Kingdom official control monitoring program. Results from the MBA and HPLC methods were well-correlated for PSP-negative samples, but the low number of naturally contaminated PSP-positive samples has prevented any comparative statistical assessment of method performance for non-mussels between the two official methods. However, some evidence for potentially significant differences in total saxitoxin equivalents obtained by the two methods in some species has highlighted the need for further comparative testing in non-mussel samples to be conducted prior to implementation of the HPLC method in routine official control monitoring programs.

  20. Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2014-06-23

    Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed.

  1. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of bacteria across an intertidal shellfish bed: implications for regulatory monitoring of faecal indicator organisms.

    PubMed

    Clements, Katie; Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L; Wilson, James; Malham, Shelagh K

    2015-02-15

    Routine bacterial monitoring of shellfish beds using indicator species is a common global practice designed to prevent human consumption of contaminated shellfish products. However, current bacteriological monitoring procedures which focus on the quantification of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) as a proxy for microbial pollution may not be representative of total bacterial contamination levels present in shellfish harvesting areas. The objective of this study was to critically assess the accuracy of current monitoring strategies by quantifying the spatial (lateral and longitudinal distance) and temporal (seasonality and tidal state) concentrations of FIOs (Escherichia coli and total coliforms) within a single intertidal commercially harvested shellfish bed. Spatial and temporal FIO dynamics, including the effects of tidal state and seasonality, were quantified in mussel flesh and sediment samples from a single intertidal mussel (Mytilus edulis) bed. Our results confirmed that FIO concentrations across a shellfish bed were heterogeneous over larger spatial and temporal scales, but showed no relation to the concentrations of autochthonous bacteria, such as Vibrio spp., or the physico-chemical parameters of the sediment. These results have important implications for both public health and the economic prosperity of the shellfish industry, and demonstrate the importance of accommodating both spatial and temporal fluctuations in routine bacteriological monitoring protocols. We conclude that current FIO monitoring procedures may not accurately represent levels of microbial contamination within shellfish harvesting areas and that more robust microbiological testing procedures need developing.

  2. [Microbiological monitoring of mussels and clams collected from the shellfish-growing marine areas in Rimini Province].

    PubMed

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E; Villa, G C

    2002-01-01

    A 5 years survey (1996-2000) was performed on the microbiological quality of shellfish (mussels and clams) collected from authorized shellfish-growing area of the North Adriatic Sea (province of Rimini). 7.0% of mussel samples (33/474) and 21.9% of clam samples (218/996) exceeded the legal limits for faecal indicators (Dlgs 530/92). The faecal contamination of shellfish was related to the organic pollution arriving from inland surface waters. In fact shellfish harvested near the coast were more contaminated, as well as shellfish grown in the surface layers of the open sea, where the fresh waters of the streams tend to stratify. Faecal contamination was also directly correlated with rainfall, probably because the atmospheric precipitation, increasing the flow of the streams, favoured the transport of organic substances and micro-organisms deriving from the soil washing and the municipal sewage effluents. Furthermore, when rainfall was particularly plentiful, sewage inflow could also exceed the hydraulic capacity of the treatment plants; thus making necessary to discharge untreated waste directly into surface waters. Salmonellae were found in 0.7% of clam samples. Although this percentage is very low, it shows that pathogenic micro-organisms are present in this area of sea. This finding, together with the high variability of shellfish pollution due to occasional factors as rainfall, emphasise the importance of the systematic monitoring of the microbiological quality of shellfish.

  3. Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Pusparajah, Priyia; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid

  4. Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Pusparajah, Priyia; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid

  5. Potential risk assessment of heavy metals by consuming shellfish collected from Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Huang, Zhiyong; Huang, Zhiyong Y; Hu, Yue; Yang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr in 240 shellfish including oyster, short-necked clam, razor clam, and mud clam collected from six administrative regions in Xiamen of China were measured. The daily intakes of heavy metals through the consumption of shellfish were estimated based on both of the metal concentrations in shellfish and the consuming amounts of shellfish. In addition, the target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to evaluate the potential risk of heavy metals in shellfish on human body. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in shellfish ranged at the following sequence: Cr > Cd > Pb > Hg. The concentrations of Hg and Pb in most samples were below the limits (0.3 mg kg(-1) for Hg and 0.5 mg kg(-1) for Pb) of national standard (GB 18406.4-2001) set in China. About 57 % of samples were found to contain more than 0.1 mg kg(-1) of Cd, in which the highest level was found in oyster from Xiangan with a value of 1.21 mg kg(-1). The average concentrations of Cd in oyster and mud clam samples were 0.338 and 0.369 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the samples of short-necked clam and razor clam. The highest concentration of Cr was found to present in short-necked clam from Jimei with a value of 10.4 mg kg(-1), but a mean value of 1.95 mg kg(-1) in all the shellfish was observed, and no significant difference was found among the different sampling regions. The calculated daily intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr through consuming the shellfish were 0.005, 0.122, 0.137, and 1.20 μg kg(-1) day(-1), respectively, which accounted for 2.19, 3.42, 13.7, and 40.1 % of the corresponding tolerable limits suggested by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The THQ values of the four metals were far below 1 for most samples, except for those of Cd and Cr in the four shellfish species with the mean values of 0.132 and 0.385, respectively. The highest THQ values of Cd were observed in the species of

  6. The poisoning women of Tiszazug.

    PubMed

    Bodó, B

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the social causes of the infamous Tiszazug murders (i.e., the poisoning of more than forty people, mainly men, by their female relatives) in interwar Hungary. First, it looks at those elements in peasant culture, such as the traditional neglect of the sick elderly and the disabled, which proved conducive to a violent solution of family problems. Then, the essay analyzes the changes in family structures and inheritance patterns and discusses the impact of political events such as the end of overseas migration, the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the autarchic policies of the "successor states" and the failure of land reform on peasants' lives. Finally, the article looks at the discovery of the murders and the peasants' interpretations of the poisonings.

  7. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  8. Anti-Amnesic Effect of Fermented Ganoderma lucidum Water Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yu Jin; Yang, Hee Sun; Jo, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Cheon; Park, Tae Young; Choi, Bong Suk; Seo, Kyoung Sun; Huh, Chang Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-amnesic effect of fermented Ganoderma lucidum water extracts (GW) on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. GW were fermented by the lactic acid bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (FGWB), followed by Lactobacillus sakei LI033 (FGWBL). To induce amnesia, scopolamine (1 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into rats 30 min before the behavioral tests. Step-through latencies of rats treated with primary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWB) and secondary fermented extracts (300 mg/kg, FGWBL) were significantly longer than those of rats treated with GW (300 mg/kg) in the retention trial of the multiple trial passive avoidance test. In the Morris water maze task, FGWBL significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials. Furthermore, swimming times within the target zone during the probe trial with FGWBL were significantly higher than the GW and FGWB treatments. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activities were lower in the brains of scopolamine-treated rats treated with FGWBL. These results suggest that FGWBL could be useful to enhance learning memory and cognitive function via cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:26176000

  9. Anti-amnesic effect of alkaloid fraction from Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Nguyen Ngoc; Trung, Bui Huu; Luan, Tran Cong; Hung, Tran Manh; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Dat, Nguyen Tien

    2014-07-11

    Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. (Licopodiaceae) has been used in Vietnamese folk medicine for treating central nervous system conditions. In this study, the alkaloid fraction from the methanol extract of this plant (VLC) was evaluated for in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice. In in vivo study, the cognitive-enhancing effect of VLC on amnesic mice induced by scopolamine was investigated by assessing a passive avoidance and a Morris water maze test. VLC inhibited AChE activity in mouse frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum with IC50 values of 26.7, 32.2 and 25.7μg/mL, respectively. Administration of VLC (10, 20, 50 and 100mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed cognitive impairments in mice by passive avoidance test. Treating with VLC (50mg/kg) reduced escape latencies in training trials and prolonged swimming times in the target quadrant during the probe trial in the water maze task (P<0.05). These results indicated that L. cernua originated from Vietnam has anti-cholinesterase activity and might be useful for the treatment of cognitive impairment.

  10. [Poisoning by foodstuffs, plants and mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Pinillos, M A; Gómez, J; Elizalde, J; Dueñas, A

    2003-01-01

    Food poisoning is defined as poisoning caused by any foodstuff or alimentary product that causes poisoning because it contains toxic substances, germs, metals, additives, hormones, etc. It forms an important part of Clinical Toxicology, although in the majority of statistics, alimentary toxic infections provoked by bacteria, protozoa and viruses are not classified as poisonings, since they are caused by germs, and are classified as infections. Reference is made within this subject to all types of pathologies due to food, with special emphasis given to botulism. The clinical picture of botulism is discussed in its different clinical forms, but above all in its adult form which is contracted through the consumption of undercooked or badly preserved foods; poisoning by fish and seafood. Also described are the toxicological pictures that can be caused by the consumption of plants containing toxic substances, framed by the different symptomologies they produce; finally, poisonings by mushrooms are set out according to the period of incubation and possible confusions.

  11. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  12. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  13. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  14. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  15. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    AD____ AD-A 194 466 DNOFLACU.ATh TOXINS RESIONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING Annual Summary Report 0 Donald M. Miller 10 December 1987 Supported...21701-5012 62770A 162770A87] AA 7 7 A11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING .12...occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from

  16. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia

  17. Bio-filler from waste shellfish shell: preparation, characterization, and its effect on the mechanical properties on polypropylene composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Tan, Ye-Qiang; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yun-Xiang; Song, Yi-Hu; Ye, Ying; Xia, Mei-Sheng

    2012-05-30

    Waste shellfish shell stacking with a significant odor and toxicity which are hazardous to human constitutes a serious environmental hazard. For utilization of waste shellfish shell resource, granule of shellfish shell (SS) was prepared from waste shellfish shell by removing cuticle, crushing, grinding and shearing emulsification and was introduced as a filler to reinforce polypropylene (PP). The mechanical behavior of PP/SS composite shows a higher yield strain, yield strength, tensile strength and elongation at break than traditional commercial calcium carbonate (CC) filled PP. Yield strength of PP/SS composite with 2% SS is improved by 11.1% due to the formation of β-crystalline PP phase. Using waste SS for producing bio-filler for filling PP is an effective and prospective measure to deal with waste SS, which is valuable for industrial production and practical application as fillers for reinforcing polymers.

  18. RELATIONS OF FISH AND SHELLFISH DISTRIBUTIONS TO HABITAT AND WATER QUALITY IN THE MOBILE BAY ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mobile Bay estuary provides rich habitat for many fish and shellfish, including those identified as economically and ecologically important. The National Estuary Program has focused on restoration of degraded estuarine habitat on which these species depend. To support this ...

  19. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  20. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  1. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  2. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  3. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  4. Antidote review: fomepizole for methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mycyk, Mark B; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2003-01-01

    Fomepizole (Antizol) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of methanol poisoning. By inhibiting the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, it presents formation of toxic metabolites with far fewer consequences than traditional ethanol therapy. It appears that fomepizole will become standard therapy for methanol intoxication as it is for ethylene glycol poisoning.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  6. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  7. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  8. Death by poison in Elizabethan theatre.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giovanni R

    2009-12-01

    In Elizabethan theatre, many deaths and attempted murders are based on the use of poison and Shakespearean works are not an exception. This article reviews the plots of a number of Elizabethan plays, some of which are based on real events, where poisoning is the preferred method of murder.

  9. Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.


Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

  10. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  11. Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective actions of the sigma-1 receptor agonist (-)-MR22 in rats with selective cholinergic lesion and amyloid infusion.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Vuokko; Marrazzo, Agostino; Kleiner, Giulio; Coradazzi, Marino; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Prezzavento, Orazio; Ronsisvalle, Giuseppe; Leanza, Giampiero

    2011-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor agonists have recently attracted much attention as potential therapeutic drugs for cognitive and affective disorders, however, it is still unclear whether they act via modulation of transmitter release or activation of sigma-1 receptors in memory-related brain regions. In the present study,we have investigated the anti-amnesic and neuroprotective actions of the compound (-)-methyl (1S,2R)-2-{[1-adamantyl(methyl)amino]methyl}-1-phenylcyclopropane-carboxylate) [(-)-MR22],a selective sigma-1 receptor agonist able to protect cultured cortical neurons from amyloid toxicity. To this aim, cognitive deficits, cholinergic loss, and amyloid peptide accumulation were obtained in the rat by simultaneous injections of a selective immunotoxin and pre-aggregated amyloid peptide into the basal forebrain and the hippocampus, respectively. At about five–six weeks post-lesion, the double-lesioned animals exhibited dramatic deficits in spatial learning and memory, whereas animals with single injections of either compound were not or only marginally affected, in spite of equally severe cholinergic loss oramyloid deposition. Administration of (-)-MR22 appeared to reverse cognitive impairments in double lesioned animals, whereas pre-treatment with the selective sigma-1 antagonist BD1047 abolished this effect. Moreover, (-)-MR22 normalized the levels of cell-associated amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) in the neocortex and hippocampus, thus sustaining a non-amyloidogenic AβPP processing. By contrast, treatment with (-)-MR22 produced no effects whatsoever in intact animals. Thus, sigma-1 receptor agonists such as (-)-MR22 may ameliorate perturbed cognitive abilities and exert a protective action onto target neurons, holding promises as viable tools for memory enhancement and neuroprotection.

  12. Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials of the mixed muscarinic receptor/sigma 1 (σ1) ligand ANAVEX2-73, a novel aminotetrahydrofuran derivative.

    PubMed

    Villard, Vanessa; Espallergues, Julie; Keller, Emeline; Vamvakides, Alexandre; Maurice, Tangui

    2011-08-01

    Tetrahydro-N, N-dimethyl-2, 2-diphenyl-3-furanmethanamine hydrochloride (ANAVEX2-73) binds to muscarinic acetylcholine and sigma(1) (σ(1)) receptors with affinities in the low micromolar range. We characterized its anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials in pharmacological and pathological amnesia models. Spatial working memory was evaluated using spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze and non-spatial memory using passive avoidance procedures. ANAVEX2-73 (0.01-3.0 mg/kg i.p.) alleviated the scopolamine- and dizocilpine-induced learning impairments. ANAVEX2-73 (300 µg/kg) also reversed the learning deficits in mice injected with Aβ(25-35) peptide, a non-transgenic Alzheimer's disease model. When the drug was injected simultaneously with Aβ(25-35), 7 days before the tests, it blocked the appearance of learning impairments. This protective activity was confirmed since ANAVEX2-73 blocked the Aβ(25-35)-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus. This effect was differentially sensitive to the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the σ(1) protein antagonist BD1047, confirming the mixed muscarinic/σ(1) pharmacological action. Finally, its unique demethyl metabolite, ANAVEX19-144, was also effective and ANAVEX2-73 presented a longer duration of action, effective 12 h before Aβ(25-35), than its related compound ANAVEX1-41. The neuroprotective activity of ANAVEX2-73, its mixed cholinergic/σ(1) activity, its low active dose range and its long duration of action together reinforce its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease.

  13. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  14. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  15. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  16. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Oreihaka, E

    1992-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands.

  17. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis.

  18. Evidence that mortality from Vibrio vulnificus infection results from single strains among heterogeneous populations in shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J K; Murphree, R L; Tamplin, M L

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the leading cause of food-related mortality reported in the state of Florida. It is normal microflora in marine environments, where seawater and molluscan shellfish are the primary vectors of V. vulnificus disease. Risk correlates with seasonally high numbers of V. vulnificus bacteria during the summer months. Currently, the infectious dose for humans, as well as whether the disease is caused by single or multiple strains found in molluscan shellfish, is unknown. In this work, we studied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of V. vulnificus strains isolated from blood and oysters associated with V. vulnificus disease. Results showed that ca. 10(3) V. vulnificus bacteria/gram of oyster and higher concentrations were associated with human infections and that a single V. vulnificus strain, evidenced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, was isolated from human tissues. PMID:9230389

  19. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  20. Comparison of fatal poisonings by prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Launiainen, Terhi; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-10-10

    There is a rising trend of fatal poisonings due to medicinal opioids in several countries. The present study evaluates the drug and alcohol findings as well as the cause and manner of death in opioid-related post-mortem cases in Finland from 2000 to 2008. During this period, fatal poisonings by prescription opioids (buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, tramadol) increased as a share of all drug poisonings from 9.5% to 32.4%, being 22.3% over the whole period. A detailed study including the most prevalent opioids was carried out for the age group of 14-44 years, which is the most susceptible age for drug abuse in Finland. Poisonings by the weak opioids, codeine and tramadol, were found to be associated with large, often suicidal overdoses resulting in high drug concentrations in blood. Methadone poisonings were associated with accidental overdoses with the drug concentration in blood remaining within a therapeutic range. The manner of death was accidental in 43%, 55% and 94% of cases in codeine, tramadol and methadone poisonings, respectively. The median concentration of codeine and the median codeine/morphine concentration ratio were higher in codeine poisonings (1.4 and 22.5 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.09 and 5.9 mg/l, respectively). The median concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were higher in tramadol poisonings (5.3 and 0.8 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.6 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively). In methadone poisonings, the median concentration of methadone (0.35 mg/l) was not different from that in other causes of death (0.30 mg/l). Sedative drugs and/or alcohol were very frequently found in fatal poisonings involving these prescription opioids.