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Sample records for amnesic shellfish poisoning

  1. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2000-10-01

    A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

  2. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Five commercial rapid screening methods for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning were assessed for the analysis of naturally contaminated bivalve mollusc samples from GB. A range of shellfish species including mussels, scallops, clams, oysters and cockles, both positive and negative for domoic acid were assessed, with kit performance measured through comparison with the reference HPLC-UV method. Two lateral flow immunoassays manufactured by Neogen and Scotia Rapid Testing Ltd, were both found to provide a simple and accurate qualitative detection of ASP in shellfish. No false negative or false positive results were returned by either assay. The Scotia method showed the additional advantage of providing a numerical result which was found to correlate well with domoic acid concentration, thus providing a useful additional semi-quantitative aspect to the testing. Three ELISA kits, supplied by Beacon, Biosense and Bioo Scientific were all found to provide a good qualitative indication for the presence of domoic acid. Quantitative results varied between the three assays. The Beacon assay was the only kit to return no false negative results for samples containing domoic acid at concentrations above the maximum permitted regulatory limit of 20 mg/kg, but with, on average, a slight over-estimation of toxin concentrations. Both the Biosense and, more notably, the Bioo Scientific kits tended to under-estimate toxin levels, with both assays also returning false negative results. All methods were relatively straightforward to use, with the lateral flow assays in particular providing a simple and rapid methodology suited to those with no access to laboratory equipment. Whilst the data has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB, further work would ideally be required using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples for any method being utilised safely for routine testing. PMID:27070387

  3. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Five commercial rapid screening methods for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning were assessed for the analysis of naturally contaminated bivalve mollusc samples from GB. A range of shellfish species including mussels, scallops, clams, oysters and cockles, both positive and negative for domoic acid were assessed, with kit performance measured through comparison with the reference HPLC-UV method. Two lateral flow immunoassays manufactured by Neogen and Scotia Rapid Testing Ltd, were both found to provide a simple and accurate qualitative detection of ASP in shellfish. No false negative or false positive results were returned by either assay. The Scotia method showed the additional advantage of providing a numerical result which was found to correlate well with domoic acid concentration, thus providing a useful additional semi-quantitative aspect to the testing. Three ELISA kits, supplied by Beacon, Biosense and Bioo Scientific were all found to provide a good qualitative indication for the presence of domoic acid. Quantitative results varied between the three assays. The Beacon assay was the only kit to return no false negative results for samples containing domoic acid at concentrations above the maximum permitted regulatory limit of 20 mg/kg, but with, on average, a slight over-estimation of toxin concentrations. Both the Biosense and, more notably, the Bioo Scientific kits tended to under-estimate toxin levels, with both assays also returning false negative results. All methods were relatively straightforward to use, with the lateral flow assays in particular providing a simple and rapid methodology suited to those with no access to laboratory equipment. Whilst the data has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB, further work would ideally be required using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples for any method being utilised safely for routine testing.

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... year, domoic acid was also measured in razor clams collected on Washington State beaches. Since then, the ... multiseries California Mussel Rock crab Dungeness crab Razor clams Sand crab ( Emerita ) P. australis P. cuspidata Washington ...

  5. Transcriptional responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, HSP70 and Na+/K+ -ATPase in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Huang, Yan; Li, Shi-Ying; Ip, Kok-Chao

    2008-06-01

    Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin domoic acid (DA) is a marine neurotoxin that accumulates in fish and shellfish, and has been implicated to be involved in human and marine wildlife mortality. The transcriptional responses of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase rho (GSTR), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 (ATP1A1) in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with DA, were investigated. Experimental fish were administered with one injection of DA (2 microg/g wet weight) or PBS as control. After 24 h, fish were killed and hepatic RNA was isolated. Partial cDNA of rabbitfish CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, ATP1A1, and beta-actin were obtained by PCR using degenerate primers. Using beta-actin as an external control, the relative liver CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, and ATP1A1 mRNA abundance of rabbitfish were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR within the exponential phase. The ratio CYP1A/beta-actin mRNA (%) of exposure group was determined to be 148.92+/-12.69, whereas the ratio of control group was 82.3+/-8.35, indicating that CYP1A was induced significantly in rabbitfish following DA exposure (P<0.05). Although the expressions of GSTA, HSP70, and ATP1A1 tended to increase and GSTR tended to decrease, no significant changes were found (P>0.05). The induction of hepatic CYP1A in response to DA suggests a potential role for fish phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme in DA metabolism.

  6. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  7. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, you may receive: Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ... and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ...

  8. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  9. Multidetection of paralytic, diarrheic, and amnesic shellfish toxins by an inhibition immunoassay using a microsphere-flow cytometry system.

    PubMed

    Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Rodríguez, Paula; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; Botana, Luis M

    2013-08-20

    The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in seafood is a severe and growing threat to human health. In order to minimize the risks of human exposure, the maximum content of these toxins in seafood has been limited by legal regulations worldwide. The regulated limits are established in equivalents of the main representatives of the groups: saxitoxin (STX), okadaic acid (OA), and domoic acid (DA), for PSP, DSP, and ASP, respectively. In this study a multidetection method to screen shellfish samples for the presence of these toxins simultaneously was developed. Multiplexing was achieved using a solid-phase microsphere assay coupled to flow-fluorimetry detection, based on the Luminex xMap technology. The multidetection method consists of three simultaneous competition immunoassays. Free toxins in solution compete with STX, OA, or DA immobilized on the surface of three different classes of microspheres for binding to specific monoclonal antibodies. The IC50 obtained in the buffer was similar in single- and multidetection: 5.6 ± 1.1 ng/mL for STX, 1.1 ± 0.03 ng/mL for OA, and 1.9 ± 0.1 ng/mL for DA. The sample preparation protocol was optimized for the simultaneous extraction of STX, OA, and DA with a mixture of methanol and acetate buffer. The three immunoassays performed well with mussel and scallop matrixes displaying adequate dynamic ranges and recovery rates (around 90% for STX, 80% for OA, and 100% for DA). This microsphere-based multidetection immunoassay provides an easy and rapid screening method capable of detecting simultaneously in the same sample three regulated groups of marine toxins.

  10. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

  11. Paralytic shellfish poisoning--Massachusetts and Alaska, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-03-15

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a foodborne illness caused by consumption of shellfish or broth from cooked shellfish that contain either concentrated saxitoxin, an alkaloid neurotoxin, or related compounds. This report summarizes outbreaks of PSP that occurred in Massachusetts and Alaska in June 1990.

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning --- southeast Alaska, May--June 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-11-18

    On June 6, 2011, the Section of Epidemiology (SOE) of the Alaska Division of Public Health was notified of a case of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in southeast Alaska. In collaboration with local partners, SOE investigated and identified a total of eight confirmed and 13 probable PSP cases that occurred during May--June 2011. Warnings to avoid noncommercially harvested shellfish were broadcast on local radio and television and displayed at beaches and in post offices, government offices, and businesses throughout the region. Commercially harvested shellfish, which are tested for the presence of PSP-causing toxins, were safe. Because the risk for PSP is unpredictable, persons who consume noncommercially harvested Alaskan shellfish should know that they are at risk for PSP, and suspected cases should be reported promptly to SOE to initiate control measures in the affected area.

  13. Source and profile of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Shi-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Changes in cell density and cyst flux of Alexandrium tamarense, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin contents in shellfishes, and environmental parameters were measured in two stations in Daya Bay, South China Sea from March 2005 to July 2006. Vegetative cells of A. tamarense occurred sporadically; however, they presented abundantly during the winter months. Meanwhile, cyst flux reached its maximum level just following the peak abundance of motile cells. The PSP contents in shellfish were generally low, but higher in winter with the maximum of 14,015 μg STX equiv./kg. The majority of toxins were found in digestive glands, with a maximum of 66,227 μg STX equiv./kg. There were significant positive relationships between toxin level and vegetative cell density and cyst flux. This indicates that vegetative cells and cysts of Alexandrium significantly influenced PSP level, and could be an important source of PSP toxins in shellfish during winter.

  14. [Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification.

  15. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara Watt

    2008-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and non-filter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors. PMID:18728730

  16. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-09-01

    A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP. PMID:17465121

  17. [Rapid biochemical method for the detection of paralytical shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish from seafood market].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-yuan; Cheng, Jin-ping; Gao, Li-li; Wang, Jin-hui; Song, Yu-ling; Chen, Xue; Wang, Wen-hua

    2010-07-01

    A rapid biochemical method was discussed in order to detect low concentration of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in sea food. The mice were injected with PSP extract of bivalves (1 and 0.2 microg/kg respectively, as STX equivalents) purchased from seafood market. ACh, AChE, NO and NOS in blood were studied at 15, 60, 120 min respectively. The results showed that at low dose (0.2 microg/kg) and 15 min, only the contents of ACh changed significantly compared with control group (p < 0.05), which was (141.2 +/- 14.8) microg/mg, while the contents of NO and the activities of NOS changed until 120 min, compared to control group (p < 0.05) ,which were (68.7 +/- 3.8) micromol/g and (40.1 +/- 4.9) U/mg respectively. At high dose the contents of ACh changed at all three time point. It can be suggested that the contents of ACh is the only one of four indexes which can response to PSP at low dose in an early stage (15 min) and may be selected as a biochemical index for rapid detection of PSP.

  18. Evidence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin in milkfish in South Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, H-N; Chung, Y-C; Cho, W-C; Chen, C-Y

    2003-06-01

    Natural phytoplankton blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum, milkfish (Chanos chanos) exposed to natural blooms, sediment and mangrove crab (Scylla serrata) were analysed for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxin profiles of milkfish and mangrove crab were similar to that of A. minutum collected from blooming fishponds. In a laboratory A. minutum-blooming environment, the stomach and intestine of milkfish accumulated paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins during the exposure period. The non-visceral tissues were non-toxic. However, milkfish lost their entire body burden of toxin on the first day of transferring to a toxic algae-free environment. The result shows that milkfish concentrate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in digestive organs and did not retain toxins. PMID:12881129

  19. A highly rapid and simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2014-11-01

    Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is simple to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a rapid and simple screening method prior to the MBA.

  20. TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONS (PSPS) USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most significant harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin in terms of public health is commonly known as paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs, "red tides" toxins). PSPs are neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates and some cyanobacteria. PSPs comprise of over 21 natural toxins wi...

  1. Studies in the use of magnetic microspheres for immunoaffinity extraction of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Raymond; Campbell, Katrina; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N) and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20-300 ng/mL), incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.

  2. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Raymond; Campbell, Katrina; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N) and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20-300 ng/mL), incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis. PMID:22069687

  3. Evaluation of mouse bioassay results in an inter-laboratory comparison for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jijuan; Zheng, Jiang; Yu, Bing; Wang, Qiuyan; Xu, Junyi; Li, Aifeng

    2011-07-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison of the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish was carried out among 25 Chinese laboratories to examine the overall performance for PSP testing in China, and to analyze the main factors affecting the performance of this method. The toxic scallop Patinopecten yessoensis collected from coast of Bohai Sea, China, was used as a test sample in the comparison study. The results were reported and evaluated using robust statistical methods. The z scores showed that 80%, 8%, and 12% of laboratories reported satisfactory results, unsatisfactory results, and questionable results, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that the PSP mouse bioassay is an appropriate method for screening and testing PSP toxicity in shellfish. However, it was found that the experience and skill of technicians, as well as the body weight and health status of mice being used significantly affected the accuracy of the method.

  4. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  5. Synthesis of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (+)-Gonyautoxin 2, (+)-Gonyautoxin 3, and (+)-11,11-Dihydroxysaxitoxin.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, John V; Walker, James R; Merit, Jeffrey E; Whitehead, Alan; Du Bois, J

    2016-05-11

    The paralytic shellfish poisons are a collection of guanidine-containing natural products that are biosynthesized by prokaryote and eukaryote marine organisms. These compounds bind and inhibit isoforms of the mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) ion channel at concentrations ranging from 10(-11) to 10(-5) M. Here, we describe the de novo synthesis of three paralytic shellfish poisons, gonyautoxin 2, gonyautoxin 3, and 11,11-dihydroxysaxitoxin. Key steps include a diastereoselective Pictet-Spengler reaction and an intramolecular amination of an N-guanidyl pyrrole by a sulfonyl guanidine. The IC50's of GTX 2, GTX 3, and 11,11-dhSTX have been measured against rat NaV1.4, and are found to be 22 nM, 15 nM, and 2.2 μM, respectively. PMID:27138488

  6. Annual variations of paralytic shellfish poisoning in Maine, USA 1997 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Laurie L.; McGowan, Jay D.; Hurst, John W.

    2005-09-01

    The Maine Department of Marine Resources has monitored the seasonal progression of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins since 1958 to ensure the safety of marine species harvested for human consumption within the State. The monitoring data presented for the years 1997-2001 show the progression of toxicity along the coast. The results show natural variability of PSP occurrences and provide the rationale for the successful detection and warning system now in place.

  7. Formation of a volunteer harmful algal bloom network in British Columbia, Canada, following an outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-10-29

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada's first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas.

  8. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Cassis, David; Haigh, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC) on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas. PMID:24172211

  9. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these

  10. A new simple screening method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jinping; Pi, Shuaishuai; Ye, Shufeng; Gao, Haomin; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhenyi; Song, Yuling; Xi, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The current testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay (MBA). To alleviate animal welfare concerns, we evaluated the utility of using sublethal indicators of toxicity as an alternative to measuring time to death. Live mice were injected with a PSP congener and the changes in neurotransmitter levels were measured 60, 90, and 120 min after injection. Acetylcholine (ACh) was the most sensitive marker for PSP toxicity. The changes in neurotransmitter levels were most pronounced in the blood. Thus, measurement of Ach levels in the blood may serve as a sensitive predictor for PSP that would not require sacrifice of the mice. This method was relatively simple, sensitive (less than 1 μg/kg weight, equivalent to 20 ng/mL), low maintenance, and rapid (less than 60 min).

  11. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties. PMID:27524810

  12. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning due to toxic mussel consumption: the first recorded outbreak in Greece.

    PubMed

    Economou, V; Papadopoulou, C; Brett, M; Kansouzidou, A; Charalabopoulos, K; Filioussis, G; Seferiadis, K

    2007-03-01

    During the week of 14-20 January 2000, 120 people visited the Emergency Departments of hospitals in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, complaining of acute gastrointestinal illness after eating mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The symptoms indicated diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning, and the toxicity of mussels harvested from Thermaikos Gulf in Thessaloniki during the outbreak was investigated using mouse bioassays. The bioassays revealed toxicity to mice by the mussel samples; while high numbers of toxic algae Dinophysis acuminata were identified in water samples from Thermaikos Gulf. The harvesting of mussels was immediately suspended and a monitoring programme for algal blooms was established from then onwards. During a follow-up of the mussels' toxicity from January 2000 to January 2005, two more mussel samples were found positive for diarrheic shellfish poisoning: one harvested in March 2001 from the area of the outbreak (Thermaikos Gulf) and the other harvested in January 2001 from Amvrakikos Gulf in north-western Greece. However, no sporadic cases or outbreaks were reported during this period. PMID:17364933

  13. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Ruth Alma; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of > 1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized. PMID:26306212

  14. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas Chun-Hung; Fong, Fiona Long-Yan; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed. PMID:27669302

  15. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas Chun-Hung; Fong, Fiona Long-Yan; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed. PMID:27669302

  16. Differences in Susceptibility to Okadaic Acid, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, between Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hodaka

    2012-01-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. In the Japanese and EU methods, male mice are designated to be used for MBA. Female mice were described to be less susceptible than male mice. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports on the details of sex differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, female mice are less sensitive to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The mice were observed until 24 hours after injection. Both male and female mice of ICR and ddY strains, which are designated in the Japanese official method, were compared. All the mice were four weeks old and weighed 18–20 g. The experiments were repeated twice. The lethality was 70%–100%. Survival analysis showed no sex differences in susceptibility to OA, but ICR female mice showed significant resistance compared with other groups in one out of two trials. These results indicate that sex differences were not clear but, nonetheless, male mice showed more stable results. PMID:23271638

  17. Susceptibility of different mice strains to okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka

    2012-08-01

    The mouse bioassay is widely used to detect diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports specifically on strain differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of different mice strains to okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins. A lethal dose of OA was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into mice. The mice were observed until 24 h after injection. Five inbred strains (A/J, BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, and DBA/2) and two non-inbred strains (ddY, and ICR) of mice were compared. All the mice were male, weighed 16-20 g, and were 4-5 weeks old. The lethality was 90-100% in the A/J, BALB/c, ddY, and ICR strains, 70-80% in the C3H/He and C57BL/6 strains, and 40% in DBA/2 strain. Survival analysis showed that the BALB/c, C57BL/6, ddY, and ICR strains died earlier and the A/J, C3H/He and DBA/2 strains survived longer. These results indicate that significant differences may exist in the susceptibility of mice strains to OA.

  18. Differences in susceptibility to okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin, between male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka

    2012-12-27

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. In the Japanese and EU methods, male mice are designated to be used for MBA. Female mice were described to be less susceptible than male mice. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports on the details of sex differences in susceptibility to DSP toxins. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, female mice are less sensitive to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid (OA), one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice. The mice were observed until 24 hours after injection. Both male and female mice of ICR and ddY strains, which are designated in the Japanese official method, were compared. All the mice were four weeks old and weighed 18-20 g. The experiments were repeated twice. The lethality was 70%-100%. Survival analysis showed no sex differences in susceptibility to OA, but ICR female mice showed significant resistance compared with other groups in one out of two trials. These results indicate that sex differences were not clear but, nonetheless, male mice showed more stable results.

  19. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas Chun-Hung; Fong, Fiona Long-Yan; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2016-09-22

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed.

  20. Environmental effects of modified clay flocculation on Alexandrium tamarense and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs).

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangyuan; Song, Xiuxian; Yu, Zhiming; Cao, Xihua; Yuan, Yongquan

    2015-05-01

    Among various mitigation strategies for harmful algal blooms (HABs), the flocculation of algal cells by using modified clay (MC) has been widely applied in the field, particularly in Japan, Korea and China. However, to examine the long-term effects and the environmental safety of this method, we investigated alterations in macronutrients and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) induced by the application of MC treatment to a toxic bloom, Alexandrium tamarense. The control, algal cells grew in nature condition (A1), was compared to the only MC flocculation (A2) and the MC-sediment co-matrix systems of A. tamarense (A3). The low-dosage of 0.25 g L(-1) MC could efficiently remove >90% of the A. tamarense cells within 3.5h. The mechanisms underlying the effects elicited by MC flocculation on nutrient cycling, PSTs and Chl-a degradation were also discussed. This study demonstrated that MC treatment was able to significantly remove the macronutrients (43-60% TP removal and 17-30% TN removal) and scavenge most of the PSTs from seawater, thereby speeding up the nutrient settling and the transformation and degradation of PSTs (83% decreasing in A2). Simultaneously, the study firstly demonstrated the potential detoxification of PSTs by using MC treatment, from the high toxicity of gonyautoxin 1 and 4 (GTX1 and GTX4) to the lower toxicity decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX3) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2), particularly within the water-sediment environment during the two month incubation.

  1. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Keith; Johnson, Sarah; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Six different commercial rapid screening assays for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins were assessed with the analysis of shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the current regulatory HPLC method. Samples assessed consisted of a wide variety of shellfish species of importance to the shellfish industry in GB. These had been sourced over a number of years and with a wide variety of geographical origins. One lateral flow immunoassay was found to provide a quick qualitative assessment of PSP toxicity, with a low proportion of false negative results for PSP-positive samples, but with higher numbers of false positives. The performance of the five quantitative ELISA assays varied considerably, with two demonstrating an inappropriate linear range, with others either over-estimating or under-estimating toxicity. One ELISA from R-Biopharm was found to show a good correlation with the HPLC toxicity results. All ELISAs, however, returned some false negative results, most notably for samples containing high proportions of toxins with low cross reactivity to saxitoxin such as GTX1&4. Whilst the lateral flow assays on the market are of particular use to Food Business Operators for end product testing, further work is required in parallel with instrumental testing methods using a larger number of samples to assess the reliability and accuracy of these kits over the long term. PMID:27373993

  2. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  3. Testing and application of a refined rapid detection method for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Tarnovius, Sophie; Johnson, Sarah; Higman, Wendy A; Algoet, Myriam

    2015-06-15

    The Scotia Rapid Test for PSP is designed for qualitative identification of saxitoxins at levels in shellfish equivalent to the limit of detection of the biological reference method. However, issues with the method have been reported, including the low assay cross reactivity for some toxins, high numbers of false positive results and the subjective test interpretation. This study focussed on approaches to improve each of these issues. A refined test was found to improve GTX1&4 test sensitivity in samples containing high proportions of GTX1&4. The subjectivity of the test was successfully eliminated through use of an automated scanner, which enabled both the reliable identification of test results as well as the provision of a numerical result which could be utilised for more refined results interpretation. Finally the high proportion of false positive results in comparison with the LC-FLD was investigated, with a modified approach incorporating an additional extract dilution applied to a range of shellfish samples with different toxicities. Results showed highly variable limits of detection of the method and no significant reduction in false positive results when applying the additional dilution, which may be of concern to laboratories in receipt of high numbers of samples containing low concentrations of toxins.

  4. Assessment of sodium channel mutations in Makah Tribal members of the U.S. Pacific Northwest as a potential mechanism of resistance to paralytic shellfish poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nicolaus G.; Robertson, Alison; Grattan, Lynn M.; Pendleton, Steve; Roberts, Sparkle; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Trainer, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, we aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah Tribal members to saxitoxin is not a function of Nav1.4 modification but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function.

  5. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins accumulation in purple clam Hiatula rostrata and toxic effect on milkfish Chanos chanos larval fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y

    2001-11-01

    In an attempt to feed purple clams (Hiatula rostrata) with dinoglagellate Alexandrium minutum, the maximal accumulation toxicity of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins reached 40.6 MU/g on day 5 of feeding. Subsequently, the toxicity increased no further, although purple clams ingested more toxic algae. Furthermore, when milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae were treated with toxic, nontoxic A. minutum or PSP toxin-containing extract in the water medium, it was found that the mortality of fish increased with the increasing concentrations of toxic algae. PSP toxin-containing extract did not show any toxic effect on milkfish larvae.

  6. Identification of 19-epi-okadaic acid, a new diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin, by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Paz, Beatriz; Daranas, Antonio H; Cruz, Patricia G; Franco, José M; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp. In this paper, we report on the detection and identification of a new DSP toxin, the OA isomer 19-epi-okadaic acid (2) (19-epi-OA), isolated from cultures of Prorocentrum belizeanum, by determining its retention time (RT) and fragmentation pattern using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

  7. Identification of 19-epi-okadaic Acid, a New Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, by Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Beatriz; Daranas, Antonio H.; Cruz, Patricia G.; Franco, José M.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp. In this paper, we report on the detection and identification of a new DSP toxin, the OA isomer 19-epi-okadaic acid (2) (19-epi-OA), isolated from cultures of Prorocentrum belizeanum, by determining its retention time (RT) and fragmentation pattern using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). PMID:19005581

  8. In silico analysis of putative paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins export proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Soto-Liebe, Katia; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Fuentes-Valdes, Juan José; Stucken, Karina; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Vásquez, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt). sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H(+)) or sodium (Na(+)) ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na(+) and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na(+) recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na(+) can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na(+) incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na(+) in toxin export, as well as the

  9. In silico analysis of putative paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins export proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Soto-Liebe, Katia; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Fuentes-Valdes, Juan José; Stucken, Karina; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Vásquez, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt). sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H(+)) or sodium (Na(+)) ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na(+) and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na(+) recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na(+) can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na(+) incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na(+) in toxin export, as well as the

  10. [Modeling the occurrence of shellfish poisoning outbreaks caused by Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) through electromagnetic signal triggering].

    PubMed

    Vale, Pulo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in bivalves attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms at the NW Portuguese coast was previously associated with periods of low solar activity (measured by the radio flux [R]), or low geomagnetic A(a) index. It was also observed that reduction of R preceded the occurrence of toxin accumulation, while A(a) index increase could be related to its absence during periods of low activity. For modeling toxin accumulation, the monthly decrease in R was studied along the decade 2003-2012. A match that helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 was obtained by plotting the formula: ΔR = (R(n-1) - R(n))/(R(n) - 65)2, where 65 represented the lowest radio activity known to date. The complex denominator was required to take into account the sunspot cycle. A 1-2 month lag was observed between maximal relative decline and maximal PSTs accumulation. PSTs in bivalves from the Portuguese south coast were related with natural electromagnetic cycles for the first time, and were not statistically associated with low R. A statistically significant association with low A(a) index also was not achieved, due to the low number of occurrences, although the 25-75 percentile was restricted to low Aa indexes in a similar way to that found for the NW coast. PSTs accumulation outside solar minima could be triggered by a steep decline in the A(a) index (ΔA), but no lag was observed in this case. While ΔR amplitude helped explaining the highly toxic years of 2007 and 2008 at the NW coast, the amplitude of ΔA was not related to the severity of the accumulation. Other kind of local electromagnetic signaling was investigated resorting to the occurrence of seismologic phenomena, because these events can trigger electric activities. No statistical association was found between seism number or magnitude and PSTs at the south coast, located near the boundary between the African and Eurasian plates, and marked by moderate

  11. A feasibility study into the production of a freeze-dried oyster reference material for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Higman, Wendy A; Burrell, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Matrix reference materials are an essential component for the validation and quality control of analytical methodologies for the quantitation of marine biotoxins in shellfish. Given the potential advantages of reference materials in powder form, a study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of a freeze-dried oyster tissue reference material containing a range of important paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. One bulk sample of a wet oyster tissue homogenate was generated following mass culturing of toxic Alexandrium and oyster feeding experiments. The bulk tissue was used to prepare untreated wet frozen aliquots with the remainder being freeze-dried and processed into appropriately-sized powder samples. A pre-column oxidation LC-FLD analysis was used to confirm the absence of any chromatographic artefacts resulting from the processing and to confirm acceptable homogeneity of the tissues. Excellent stability over both the short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) of the freeze-dried material was demonstrated as compared with the stability of the untreated wet tissue. A post-column oxidation LC-FLD method was used to confirm the absence of toxin epimerisation in freeze-dried tissues which were observed in the wet tissues. Overall the work showed the feasibility of an approach to produce a homogenous freeze-dried oyster matrix material with enhanced stability in comparison to the untreated wet tissue. The potential for use of the process for preparation of large scale production batches of a freeze-dried CRM for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins has therefore been demonstrated.

  12. Feasibility studies into the production of gamma-irradiated oyster tissue reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Powell, Andy L; Higman, Wendy A

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of sterile, stable and homogenous shellfish reference materials containing known concentrations of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Pacific oysters were contaminated with toxins following mass culturing of toxic algae and shellfish feeding experiments. Live oysters were shucked and tissues homogenised, before measuring into multiple aliquots, with one batch subjected to gamma irradiation treatment and the other remaining untreated. The homogeneity of both batches of samples was assessed using a pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (Pre-COX LC-FLD) method and shown to be within the limits of normal within-batch repeatability. A twelve-month stability experiment was conducted for both untreated and gamma irradiated batches, specifically examining the effects of long term storage at -20 °C, +4 °C and +40 °C. Results indicated mostly good stability of PSP toxins in both materials when stored frozen at -20 °C, but with the instability of GTX2&3 concentrations in the untreated tissues eliminated in the irradiated tissues. Analysis using a post-column oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD method also showed epimerisation in both GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 epimeric pairs in untreated samples after only 6 months frozen storage. This issue was not present in the tissues irradiated before long term storage. Biological activity testing confirmed the absence of bacteria in the irradiated samples throughout the 12 month study period. With such results there was clear evidence for the potential of increasing the scale of the mass culturing and shellfish feeding for the production of large batches of tissue suitable for the preparation of a certified matrix reference material. Overall results demonstrated the feasibility for production of oyster reference materials for PSTs, with evidence for prolonged stability following gamma irradiation treatment and storage at -20 °C.

  13. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Harrison, Keith; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Four commercial rapid screening methods for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning were applied to the analysis of naturally contaminated shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the reference LC-MS/MS method on a range of both positive and negative bivalve mollusc samples. A quantitative PP2A protein phosphatase assay was the only assay to show the complete absence of false negative results. It showed a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS but with an overall overestimation of sample toxicity together with some indications of interference from sample matrix, most notably within oyster species. A quantitative competitive ELISA also gave a fair correlation with LC-MS/MS, with no evidence of toxicity overestimation and with a good response to samples containing little or no DST's, although one false negative was recorded. The two qualitative lateral flow assays both provided a high percentage agreement with the LC-MS/MS results and there were no indications of false positive results, although both kits also returned one false negative result. The false negative results returned by the three assays were all associated with samples containing high proportions of DTX2, a toxin which occurs commonly in UK shellfish. The scanners provided with both lateral flow assays were easy to use and the provision of numerical results enables a semi-quantitative assessment of toxicities which would significantly benefit the end user. Whilst key differences exist between the proposed assays they are all rapid, do not require expensive equipment and the work here has provided some evidence for suitability for indicative testing for some species of bivalve shellfish from GB. Further work is required however using a larger number of test kit batches on a greater number of samples, particularly for those containing high proportions of DTX2. PMID:26792713

  14. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Crassostrea gigas and Pecten maximus reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Galloway, Angus W; Higman, Wendy A

    2012-11-01

    Matrix reference materials are an important requirement for the assessment of method performance characteristics and for routine quality control. In the field of marine toxin testing where biological assays have been used and where modern analytical testing methods are now becoming available, this requirement has become an urgent one. Various approaches are utilised for preparation of such materials in the absence of available naturally occurring toxic shellfish samples. Toxin-free shellfish may be artificially fortified through the addition of cultured toxic phytoplankton or shellfish may be incurred through natural feeding on toxic algae in a laboratory environment. Both of these approaches may be potentially affected by issues relating to the degradation or transformation of toxin analytes, so studies were conducted to assess these effects within our laboratory. A range of PSP-toxic shellfish tissues were prepared using the two approaches, in both Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and king scallops (Pecten maximus). Additionally, sub-samples of incurred Pacific oyster tissue were further treated, through addition of artificial chemical stabilisers and gamma irradiation. Two separate month-long stability trials were conducted at +4 °C on each material. Results highlighted clear evidence for improved stability of materials following shellfish feeding experiments in comparison with the tissues which had been spiked with plankton. In addition, there were clear differences in stability of toxins between the two shellfish species studied. There was evidence for good stability of C1&2 toxins in both the incurred tissues and improved stability of some toxins in tissues which had been subjected to either gamma irradiation or treatment with chemical additives. The results therefore highlighted the benefits of conducting shellfish feeding if suitable stable reference materials are to be prepared containing a full range of PSP toxin analytes. The study also highlighted

  15. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    PubMed Central

    Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Hickey, J. Michael; Nash, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts. PMID:25076815

  16. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management.

    PubMed

    Kleindinst, Judith L; Anderson, Donald M; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Stumpf, Richard P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Couture, Darcie A; Hickey, J Michael; Nash, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as "significant", "moderately large" or "moderate" to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year's PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined ("Level 1: Limited", "Level 2: Moderate", and "Level 3: Extensive") each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

  17. Categorizing the severity of paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the Gulf of Maine for forecasting and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleindinst, Judith L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Michael Hickey, J.; Nash, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as “significant”, “moderately large” or “moderate” to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks. In this study, historical shellfish harvesting closure data along the coast of the Gulf of Maine were used to derive a series of bloom severity levels that are analogous to those used to define major storms like hurricanes or tornados. Thirty-four years of PSP-related shellfish closure data for Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire were collected and mapped to depict the extent of coastline closure in each year. Due to fractal considerations, different methods were explored for measuring length of coastline closed. Ultimately, a simple procedure was developed using arbitrary straight-line segments to represent specific sections of the coastline. This method was consistently applied to each year’s PSP toxicity closure map to calculate the total length of coastline closed. Maps were then clustered together statistically to yield distinct groups of years with similar characteristics. A series of categories or levels was defined (“Level 1: Limited”, “Level 2: Moderate”, and “Level 3: Extensive”) each with an associated range of expected coastline closed, which can now be used instead of vague descriptors in future forecasts. This will provide scientifically consistent and simply defined information to the public as well as resource managers who make decisions on the basis of the forecasts.

  18. Assessment of sodium channel mutations in Makah Tribal members of the U.S. Pacific Northwest as a potential mechanism of resistance to paralytic shellfish poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nicolaus G.; Robertson, Alison; Grattan, Lynn M.; Pendleton, Steve; Roberts, Sparkle; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Trainer, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, we aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah Tribal members to saxitoxin is not a function of Nav1.4 modification but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function. PMID:27616973

  19. Comparison of toxicity between saxitoxin and decarbamoyl saxitoxin in the mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka; Machii, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins has been used in the AOAC Official Method and the official Japanese method. In the AOAC Official Method, the saxitoxin (STX) standard provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is used, but no standard is used in the official Japanese method. The objective of this study was to compare the toxicity of decarbamoyl STX (dcSTX), one of the derivatives of STX and a candidate standard for the MBA for PSP toxins in Japan, to that of FDA STX in the MBA platform. In this study, the toxicity of dcSTX was 918.0 ± 44.9 mouse units/µmol, and the relative toxicity ratio of dcSTX to FDA STX based on moles was 0.478.

  20. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  1. Simultaneous presence of paralytic and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island, Austral Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Garcá, Carlos; Mardones, Pamela; Sfeir, Andrea; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-01-01

    The study shown here provides the first indisputable evidence that shellfish can be contaminated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins during the summer season in the Southern Chilean fjords. Quantitative analysis of the simultaneous presence of PSP and DSP toxins in Mytilus chilensis samples collected in the Chiloe Island are shown. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis with pre-column derivatization method for DSP toxins and the post-column derivatization methods for PSP toxins, both with fluorescent on-line detections, showed that both type of toxins were concentrated by the filter bivalve Mytilus chilensis in amounts above the international safe limits. The phytoplankton analysis showed the presence of both Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuta in the water column. The data shows stratification of the toxic dinoflagellates in the water column, since the lowest amount of both DSP and PSP toxins were measured in the superficial and deeper levels of the water column. Moreover, the highest toxicities of both types of toxins were shown by the shellfish samples collected at a depth of 6 meters with 190 nanograms of DTX-1 / gram of digestive gland and 709.8 microg of PSP toxins / 100 grams of mussel meat. PMID:15586821

  2. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  3. Hypertension and identification of toxin in human urine and serum following a cluster of mussel-associated paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Gessner, B D; Bell, P; Doucette, G J; Moczydlowski, E; Poli, M A; Van Dolah, F; Hall, S

    1997-05-01

    Following four outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning on Kodiak Island, Alaska, during 1994, medical records of ill persons were reviewed and interviews were conducted. Urine and serum specimens were analyzed at three independent laboratories using four different saxitoxin binding assays. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the presence of specific toxin congeners. Among 11 ill persons, three required mechanical ventilation and one died. Mean peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were 172 (range 128-247) and 102 (range 78-165) mmHg, respectively, and blood pressure measurements corresponded with ingested toxin dose. All four different laboratory methodologies detected toxin in serum at 2.8-47 nM during acute illness and toxin in urine at 65-372 nM after acute symptom resolution. The composition of specific paralytic shellfish poisons differed between mussels and human biological specimens, suggesting that human metabolism of toxins had occurred. The results of this study indicate that saxitoxin analogues may cause severe hypertension. In addition, we demonstrate that saxitoxins can be detected in human biological specimens, that nanomolar serum toxin levels may cause serious illness and that human metabolism of toxin may occur. Clearance of paralytic shellfish poisons from serum was evident within 24 hr and urine was identified as a major route of toxin excretion in humans.

  4. The effect of temperature on growth and production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii C10.

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniela; Vera, Diana; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos; Vásquez, Mónica

    2004-10-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium which produces either cylindrospermopsine or paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. We studied the effect of temperature on growth and production of PSP toxins by C. raciborskii C10, isolated from a freshwater reservoir in Brazil. We analyzed the extracellular and intracellular content of PSP toxins at two different temperatures: 19 and 25 degrees C. C. raciborskii C10 produces STX, GTX2, and GTX3 at both temperatures. dcSTX was also detected at 25 degrees C in the intracellular extracts obtained at the end of the stationary phase. The growth achieved at 25 degrees C and estimated by optical density at 700 nm was three times greater than at 19 degrees C. However, no significant differences were observed in the content of PSP toxins in either the cells or the extracellular media. The kinetics of accumulation of PSP toxins within the cells rather than in the media suggests an active PSP toxins-export process that is not related to cell lysis. The extracellular accumulation of PSP toxins at 19 degrees C suggested a biotransformation of STX to the epimers GTX2 and GTX3. The stability of the PSP toxins produced by C. raciborskii C10 was high enough for them to remain active in the media after 30 days (at 25 degrees C) or after 50 days (at 19 degrees C). PMID:15450922

  5. The sxt Gene and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins as Markers for the Monitoring of Toxic Alexandrium Species Blooms.

    PubMed

    Penna, Antonella; Perini, Federico; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Capellacci, Samuela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Casabianca, Silvia; Fraga, Santiago; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Scardi, Michele

    2015-12-15

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a serious human illness caused by the ingestion of seafood contaminated with saxitoxin and its derivatives (STXs). These toxins are produced by some species of marine dinoflagellates within the genus Alexandrium. In the Mediterranean Sea, toxic Alexandrium spp. blooms, especially of A. minutum, are frequent and intense with negative impact to coastal ecosystem, aquaculture practices and other economic activities. We conducted a large scale study on the sxt gene and toxin distribution and content in toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum of the Mediterranean Sea using both quantitative PCR (qPCR) and HILIC-HRMS techniques. We developed a new qPCR assay for the estimation of the sxtA1 gene copy number in seawater samples during a bloom event in Syracuse Bay (Mediterranean Sea) with an analytical sensitivity of 2.0 × 10° sxtA1 gene copy number per reaction. The linear correlation between sxtA1 gene copy number and microalgal abundance and between the sxtA1 gene and STX content allowed us to rapidly determine the STX-producing cell concentrations of two Alexandrium species in environmental samples. In these samples, the amount of sxtA1 gene was in the range of 1.38 × 10(5) - 2.55 × 10(8) copies/L and the STX concentrations ranged from 41-201 nmol/L. This study described a potential PSP scenario in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26580419

  6. Influence of body weight of mice on the susceptibility to okadaic acid, a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka

    2014-04-01

    The mouse bioassay (MBA) for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been widely used in many countries of the world. However, different body weight ranges of mice are designated to be used in the Japanese official method and European Union procedure. In this study we investigated whether and to what extent the body weights of the mice affect the susceptibility to DSP toxins. A lethal dose of okadaic acid, one of the representative DSP toxins, was injected intraperitoneally into mice of five different body weight range groups, from 14 to 24 g. The mice were observed until 24 h after injection. The lethality was 100% in the 14-15 and 16-17 g groups, 80% in the 19-20 g group, 50% in the 21-22 g group, and 40% in the 23-24 g group, with significant differences. Survival analysis indicated a relationship between body weights of mice and susceptibility to okadaic acid. These results would be quite useful not only for the MBA, but also to improve understanding of the biological responses to DSP toxins.

  7. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin binders for optical biosensor technology: problems and possibilities for the future: a review.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K; Rawn, D F K; Niedzwiadek, B; Elliott, C T

    2011-06-01

    This review examines the developments in optical biosensor technology, which uses the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Optical biosensor technology measures the competitive biomolecular interaction of a specific biological recognition element or binder with a target toxin immobilised onto a sensor chip surface against toxin in a sample. Different binders such as receptors and antibodies previously employed in functional and immunological assays have been assessed. Highlighted are the difficulties in detecting this range of low molecular weight toxins, with analogues differing at four chemical substitution sites, using a single binder. The complications that arise with the toxicity factors of each toxin relative to the parent compound, saxitoxin, for the measurement of total toxicity relative to the mouse bioassay are also considered. For antibodies, the cross-reactivity profile does not always correlate to toxic potency, but rather to the toxin structure to which it was produced. Restrictions and availability of the toxins makes alternative chemical strategies for the synthesis of protein conjugate derivatives for antibody production a difficult task. However, when two antibodies with different cross-reactivity profiles are employed, with a toxin chip surface generic to both antibodies, it was demonstrated that the cross-reactivity profile of each could be combined into a single-assay format. Difficulties with receptors for optical biosensor analysis of low molecular weight compounds are discussed, as are the potential of alternative non-antibody-based binders for future assay development in this area.

  8. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs.

  9. Determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in cultured microalgae by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Zhi; Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2005-11-01

    A novel method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed. The fluorescent derivates of neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), saxitoxin (STX), gonyautoxins 1 and 4 (GTX1+4), and gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2+3) were separated on a muBondapak NH2 column (300 mm x 3.9 mm, 10 microm) using water and acetate buffer (pH 6.5) as the mobile phase (1.00 mL min(-1)) in gradient mode with fluorescence detection at 390 nm (excitation at 330 nm). The linear ranges of neoSTX, STX, GTX1+4 and GTX2+3 were 3.31-331, 0.952-95.2, 3.78-378 and 0.124-12.4 ng mL(-1), respectively. The detection limits of neoSTX, STX, GTX1+4 and GTX2+3 were 1.10, 0.32, 1.26 and 0.041 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PSP toxins in microalgae. The recoveries ranged from 88+/-2% to 107+/-4% and the relative standard deviations were 0.16% to 4.4%. The procedure is also environmentally friendly because no organic solvent is used in the mobile phase.

  10. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared

  11. The Contents and Composition of Tetrodotoxin and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Marine Pufferfish Canthigaster rivulata.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Yamano, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The contents and composition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in skin, muscle, and internal organs of two samples of marine puffer fish Canthigaster rivulata from Wakayama prefecture, Japan, were analyzed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) were used for the analysis of TTX and PSTs, respectively. For both samples, TTX and two analogues of PSTs, saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl STX (dcSTX), were detected at levels over the limit of quantization (LOQ) only in the skin. These toxins in the muscle and internal organs were at trace levels, or not detected (ND). TTX contents were 11,000 and 13,000 ng/g (or 35 and 41 nmol/g), while PSTs contents were 168 and 460 ng/g (or 0.63 and 1.72 nmol/g) in the two skin specimens. The compositions of total toxin content were 98.2 and 96.0 mol% TTX and 1.8 and 4.0 mol% PSTs, respectively. Thus, the main contributor to toxin content in C. rivulata skin was TTX and the levels of PSTs toxicity in C. rivulata were very low. When the PSTs contents were converted into mouse unit score from the LC-FLD results, the resulting values of 1.0 and 2.8 MU/g of PSTs in C. rivulata skin were similar to those in Takifugu poecilonotus and Takifugu vermicularis in Japan, as determined in previous studies. PMID:27211919

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected.

  13. Highly toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strain, isolated from São Paulo-Brazil, produce hepatotoxins and paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Célia L; de Carvalho, Luciana R; Fiore, Marli F; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Lorenzi, Adriana S; Rios, Fernanda R; Konno, Katsuhiro; Garcia, Carlos; Lagos, Nestor

    2011-04-01

    While evaluating several laboratory-cultured cyanobacteria strains for the presence of paralytic shellfish poison neurotoxins, the hydrophilic extract of Microcystis aeruginosa strain SPC777--isolated from Billings's reservoir, São Paulo, Brazil--was found to exhibit lethal neurotoxic effect in mouse bioassay. The in vivo test showed symptoms that unambiguously were those produced by PSP. In order to identify the presence of neurotoxins, cells were lyophilized, and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS. HPLC-FLD analysis revealed four main Gonyautoxins: GTX4(47.6%), GTX2(29.5%), GTX1(21.9%), and GTX3(1.0%). HPLC-MS analysis, on other hand, confirmed both epimers, with positive Zwitterions M(+) 395.9 m/z for GTX3/GTX2 and M(+) 411 m/z for GTX4/GTX1 epimers.The hepatotoxins (Microcystins) were also evaluated by ELISA and HPLC-MS analyses. Positive immunoreaction was observed by ELISA assay. Alongside, the HPLC-MS analyses revealed the presence of [L: -ser(7)] MCYST-RR. The N-methyltransferase (NMT) domain of the microcystin synthetase gene mcyA was chosen as the target sequence to detect the presence of the mcy gene cluster. PCR amplification of the NMT domain, using the genomic DNA of the SPC777 strain and the MSF/MSR primer set, resulted in the expected 1,369 bp product. The phylogenetic analyses grouped the NMT sequence with the NMT sequences of other known Microcystis with high bootstrap support. The taxonomical position of M. aeruginosa SPC777 was confirmed by a detailed morphological description and a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Therefore, co-production of PSP neurotoxins and microcystins by an isolated M. aeruginosa strain is hereby reported for the first time.

  14. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  15. Evolving to the optoelectronic mouse for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Katrina; McNamee, Sara E; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Delahaut, Philippe; Vilarino, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Poli, Mark; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-11-01

    Despite ethical and technical concerns, the in vivo method, or more commonly referred to mouse bioassay (MBA), is employed globally as a reference method for phycotoxin analysis in shellfish. This is particularly the case for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and emerging toxin monitoring. A high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for PSP toxin analysis, but due to difficulties and limitations in the method, this procedure has not been fully implemented as a replacement. Detection of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has moved towards LC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, whereas the analysis of the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid is performed by HPLC. Although alternative methods of detection to the MBA have been described, each procedure is specific for a particular toxin and its analogues, with each group of toxins requiring separate analysis utilising different extraction procedures and analytical equipment. In addition, consideration towards the detection of unregulated and emerging toxins on the replacement of the MBA must be given. The ideal scenario for the monitoring of phycotoxins in shellfish and seafood would be to evolve to multiple toxin detection on a single bioanalytical sensing platform, i.e. 'an artificial mouse'. Immunologically based techniques and in particular surface plasmon resonance technology have been shown as a highly promising bioanalytical tool offering rapid, real-time detection requiring minimal quantities of toxin standards. A Biacore Q and a prototype multiplex SPR biosensor have been evaluated for their ability to be fit for purpose for the simultaneous detection of key regulated phycotoxin groups and the emerging toxin palytoxin. Deemed more applicable due to the separate flow channels, the prototype performance for domoic acid, okadaic acid, saxitoxin, and palytoxin calibration curves in shellfish achieved detection limits (IC20) of 4,000, 36, 144 and 46

  16. Assessment of a semiquantitative liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin levels in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Baker, Clothilde; Algoet, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 2005.06 precolumn oxidation LC-fluorescence detection method has been used for many years for the detection and quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs. After extensive single- and multiple-laboratory validation, the method has been slowly gaining acceptance worldwide as a useful and practical tool for official control testing. In Great Britain, the method has become routine since 2008, with no requirement since then for reverting back to the bioassay reference method. Although the method has been refined to be semiautomated, faster, and more reproducible, the quantitation step can be complex and time-consuming. An alternative approach was developed to utilize the qualitative screening results for generating a semiquantitative results assessment. Data obtained over 5 years enabled the comparison of semiquantitative and fully quantitative PSP results in over 15 000 shellfish samples comprising eight different species showed that the semiquantitative approach resulted in over-estimated paralytic shellfish toxin levels by an average factor close to two in comparison with the fully quantified levels. No temporal trends were observed in the data or relating to species type, with the exception of surf clams. The comparison suggested a semiquantitative threshold of 800 microg saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg should provide a safe limit for the determination of samples to be forwarded to full quantitation. However, the decision was taken to halve this limit to include an additional safety factor of 2, resulting in the use of a semiquantitative threshold of 400 microg STX eq/kg. Implementation of the semiquantitative method into routine testing would result in a significant reduction in the numbers of samples requiring quantitation and have a positive impact on the overall turnaround of reported PSP results. The refined method would be appropriate for any monitoring laboratory faced with high throughput requirements.

  17. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two different types of shellfish allergy are: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) mollusks (like clams, ... of the top eight most common allergens, including crustacean shellfish. The label should list "shellfish" in the ...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish allergy. Shellfish fall into two different groups: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) and mollusks (like ... shellfish on food labels, they are referring to crustacean shellfish. If you are allergic to mollusks, then ...

  19. Molluscan shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the worldwide population. Immediate-type food allergies are mediated by the production of IgE antibodies to specific proteins that occur naturally in allergenic foods. Symptoms are individually variable ranging from mild rashes and hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Seafood allergies are among the most common types of food allergies on a worldwide basis. Allergies to fish and crustacean shellfish are very common. Molluscan shellfish allergies are well known but do not appear to occur as frequently. Molluscan shellfish allergies have been documented to all classes of mollusks including gastropods (e.g., limpet, abalone), bivalves (e.g., clams, oysters, mussels), and cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus). Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in molluscan shellfish. The allergens in oyster (Cra g 1), abalone (Hal m 1), and squid (Tod p 1) have been identified as tropomyosin. Cross-reactivity to tropomyosin from other molluscan shellfish species has been observed with sera from patients allergic to oysters, suggesting that individuals with allergies to molluscan shellfish should avoid eating all species of molluscan shellfish. Cross-reactions with the related tropomyosin allergens in crustacean shellfish may also occur but this is less clearly defined. Occupational allergies have also been described in workers exposed to molluscan shellfish products by the respiratory and/or cutaneous routes. With food allergies, one man's food may truly be another man's poison. Individuals with food allergies react adversely to the ingestion of foods and food ingredients that most consumers can safely ingest (Taylor and Hefle, 2001). The allergens that provoke adverse reactions in susceptible individuals are naturally occurring proteins in the specific foods (Bush and Hefle, 1996). Molluscan shellfish, like virtually all foods that contain protein, can provoke allergic reactions in some

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  1. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst

  2. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... gas heater and any other gas-, oil- or wood-fueled appliances serviced regularly. Be sure these appliances ... on the skin, rinse it off with running water and remove any poisoned clothing. If the poison ...

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  4. Two simple models for accounting mussel contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins at Aveiro lagoon: Control by rainfall and atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    At Aveiro lagoon (Portuguese northwest coast) bivalve contamination with diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins (DSTs), okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), is a recurrent annual phenomenon seriously affecting seafood safety. The influence of meteorological parameters was studied to understand accumulation of DSTs in mussels, related to the blooming of the causative toxic microalgae, belonging to genus Dinophysis. Two simplified models were useful in predicting the accumulation of DSTs in blue mussels from this lagoon. Either the May river drainage or the rainfall accumulated from January through May could adequately predict the severity of OA accumulated from predation upon Dinophysis acuminata during June/July. In both cases a linear relationship was obtained, with correlation coefficients of 0.85 or greater. Winds with a west direction favour coastal concentration of Dinophysis acuta in Aveiro region. Both OA and DTX2 contamination increased exponentially in September/October with the cumulative number of days with W-wind orientation in the preceding August (correlation coefficients greater than 0.92). This relationship was attributed to the quadratic effect of wind stress on surface currents. August is a transitional month, when the continental runoff effect upon Dinophysis acuminata can still be observed and Dinophysis acuta advection may be promoted by westerly winds occurring in July. The frequency of periods with northerly winds in July can halt accumulation of toxins derived from Dinophysis acuta.

  5. Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection.

    PubMed

    Indrasena, W M; Ackman, R G; Gill, T A

    1999-09-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. A combination of hydrogen and air flow-rates of 50 ml/min and 1.5-2.0 l/min respectively, along with a scan time of 40 s/rod and detector current of 3.0 A (ampere) or above were found to yield the best results for the detection of PSP compounds. Increasing the detector current level to as high as 3.3 A gave about 130 times more FTID response than did flame ionization detection (FID), for PSP components. Quantities of standards as small as 1 ng neosaxitoxin (NEO), 5 ng saxitoxin (STX), 5 ng B1-toxins (B1), 2 ng gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3, 6 ng GTX 1/4 and 6 ng C-toxins (C1/C2) could be detected with the FTID. The method detection limits for toxic shellfish tissues using the FTID were 0.4, 2.1, 0.8 and 2.5 micrograms per g tissue for GTX 2/3, STX, NEO and C toxins, respectively. The FTID response increased with increasing detector current and with increasing the scan time. Increasing hydrogen and air flow-rates resulted in decreasing sensitivity within defined limits. Numerous solvent systems were tested, and, solvent consisting of chloroform: methanol-water-acetic acid (30:50:8:2) could separate C toxins from GTX, which eluted ahead of NEO and STX. Accordingly, TLC/FTID with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) seems to be a promising, relatively inexpensive and rapid method of screening plant and animal tissues for PSP toxins.

  6. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of domoic acid and analogues in shellfish: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    López-Rivera, A; Suárez-Isla, B A; Eilers, P P; Beaudry, C G; Hall, S; Fernández Amandi, M; Furey, A; James, K J

    2005-04-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a naturally-occurring amino acid that causes a form of human intoxication called amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) following the consumption of shellfish. A rapid and sensitive HPLC-UV method has been developed for analysis of DA and analogues in shellfish without the need for SPE clean-up. Isocratic chromatographic separation of DA and its isomers from shellfish matrix interferences and from the prevalent amino acid, tryptophan, was achieved by careful control of the mobile phase pH. The optimised pH was found to be 2.5 when using a Luna(2) C18 column. Sample extraction was verified with control extracts from shellfish spiked at 5.0 and 10.0 microg/g of DA and with certified reference material. The average extraction efficiency was 98.5%. The calibration, based on mussel tissue spiked with DA standard, was linear in the range 0.05-5.0 microg/ml (r = 0.9999) and the detection limit (signal:noise 3:1) was better than 25 ng/ml. The DA assay achieved good precision; %RSD = 1.63 (intra-day, n = 6) and %RSD = 3.7 (inter-day, n = 8). This method was successfully applied to a variety of shellfish species, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of samples per day (20-30), without the need for SPE clean-up. Quantitative data were obtained for shellfish samples containing domoic acid in the concentration range 0.25-330 microg/g. Using the same chromatographic conditions, LC-MS3 was used to determine DA and its isomers, isodomoic acid D and epi-domoic acid, in scallop tissues. PMID:15770470

  7. Contrasting physiological responses of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jorge M; González, Katerina; Cisternas, Barbara; López, Jorge A; Chaparro, Oscar R; Segura, Cristian J; Córdova, Marco; Suárez-Isla, Benjamín; Fernandez-Reiriz, María J; Labarta, Uxio

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG). Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves. PMID:25153329

  8. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment.

  9. Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and pectenotoxin-2 in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihong; Broadwater, Margaret H; Ramsdell, John S

    2015-10-16

    Toxins produced by harmful algae are associated with detrimental health effects and mass mortalities of marine mammals. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is generally used to confirm the presence of algal toxins in marine mammals. Sample preparation and LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of three diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins (okadaic acid, OA; dinophysistoxin-1, DTX1; dinophysistoxin-2, DTX2) and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) urine and tissue samples were evaluated using spike-and-recovery tests. Sample clean-up with either reversed-phase silica or polymeric solid-phase extraction (SPE) reduced interference of sample matrices and improved toxin recoveries, with polymeric SPE showing higher sample loading capacity. LC separation on Xbridge C18 columns using acetonitrile/water gradient elutions with ammonia as the additive was chosen for its high detectivity and sensitivity in the MS detection of DSP toxins in negative ion mode. The retention times of OA, DTX1, and DTX2, separated as negative ions, increased with LC column temperature while the retention time of PTX2, separated as the neutral molecule, was weakly affected. At the same column temperature, retention times of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 gradually increased as the mobile phases aged while the retention time of PTX2 remained unchanged; higher column temperatures resulted in a greater increase in the retention time of each DSP toxin with mobile phase aging. Average recoveries of the 4 toxins in bottlenose dolphin samples ranged from 80% to 130% with relative standard deviations of less than 15% using the LC mobile phases prepared within one week at a column temperature of 30°C or 40°C. The preferred column temperature was 30°C, as the retention times of DSP toxins were less affected by mobile phase aging at this temperature. The limit of detection of each toxin analyzed in bottlenose dolphin samples was 2.8 ng/g or less in tissue

  10. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific shellfish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... and may not be fully disclosed on a product label. Your doctor may advise you to avoid mollusks ...

  11. Risk assessment of shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

    2013-11-01

    Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

  12. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

    2013-01-01

    Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

  13. Shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Lopata, A L; O'Hehir, R E; Lehrer, S B

    2010-06-01

    Seafood plays an important role in human nutrition and health. The growing international trade in seafood species and products has added to the popularity and frequency of consumption of a variety of seafood products across many countries. This increased production and consumption of seafood has been accompanied by more frequent reports of adverse health problems among consumers as well as processors of seafood. Adverse reactions to seafood are often generated by contaminants but can also be mediated by the immune system and cause allergies. These reactions can result from exposure to the seafood itself or various non-seafood components in the product. Non-immunological reactions to seafood can be triggered by contaminants such as parasites, bacteria, viruses, marine toxins and biogenic amines. Ingredients added during processing and canning of seafood can also cause adverse reactions. Importantly all these substances are able to trigger symptoms which are similar to true allergic reactions, which are mediated by antibodies produced by the immune system against specific allergens. Allergic reactions to 'shellfish', which comprises the groups of crustaceans and molluscs, can generate clinical symptoms ranging from mild urticaria and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. The prevalence of crustacean allergy seems to vary largely between geographical locations, most probably as a result of the availability of seafood. The major shellfish allergen is tropomyosin, although other allergens may play an important part in allergenicity such as arginine kinase and myosin light chain. Current observations regard tropomyosin to be the major allergen responsible for molecular and clinical cross-reactivity between crustaceans and molluscs, but also to other inhaled invertebrates such as house dust mites and insects. Future research on the molecular structure of tropomyosins with a focus on the immunological and particularly clinical cross

  14. Shellfish contamination and spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molluscan shellfish are prone to contamination by fecal and vibrio bacteria, fecal viruses, biotoxins, and chemical pollutants. In this book chapter, the problems and challenges for the shellfish industry are described and discussed. Basic regulatory frameworks, management strategies, critical cont...

  15. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... Symptoms of lanolin poisoning include: Diarrhea Rash Swelling and redness of skin Vomiting

  16. Radioimmunoassay of paralytic shellfish toxins in clams and mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.C.; Imagire, S.J.; Yasaei, P.; Ragelis, E.P.; Park, D.L.; Page, S.W.; Carlson, R.E.; Guire, P.E.

    1987-08-01

    Shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) compromise human health. The threat of this contamination results in enormous economic losses in the recreational and commercial exploitation of shellfish resources in the affected areas. Most states deal with the PSP problem either by prohibiting the collection of shellfish during certain time periods or by instituting monitoring programs. The only recognized method of analysis for PSP that is currently and routinely used in monitoring programs is the time-of-death mouse bioassay. Several attempts to develop simple and highly specific biochemical assays for the detection and quantitation of the PSP toxins have been reported. More recently, much improved immunoassays have been developed. To evaluate the validity and usefulness of the immunoassay for the determination of PSP toxins, the authors have used extracts of shellfish gathered from Maine and Connecticut to compare the results of the mouse bioassay and HPLC methods with the radioimmunoassay developed previously.

  17. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xunxun; Li, Tingting; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management. PMID:24287955

  18. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  19. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  20. Is shellfish consumption safe?

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Louisiana provides nearly 40% of domestic seafood production. America's commercial fisheries, especially coastal shellfish fisheries, now face crippling economic and environmental pressures from seafood imports, over-fishing, urban and agricultural wastewater runoff, harmful algal blooms, and coastal wetlands loss. As a result of these ecosystem stresses, seafood-borne disease now causes 37% of all foodborne illness in the United States. Louisiana and other coastal-state physicians can effectively curtail the rising threat of local shellfish-borne disease outbreaks by supporting responsible coastal restoration and regulation of commercial shell-fishing, especially oyster fishing, and by recommending careful selection and preparation of all shellfish and crustaceans.

  1. Is shellfish consumption safe?

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2004-01-01

    Louisiana provides nearly 40% of domestic seafood production. America's commercial fisheries, especially coastal shellfish fisheries, now face crippling economic and environmental pressures from seafood imports, over-fishing, urban and agricultural wastewater runoff, harmful algal blooms, and coastal wetlands loss. As a result of these ecosystem stresses, seafood-borne disease now causes 37% of all foodborne illness in the United States. Louisiana and other coastal-state physicians can effectively curtail the rising threat of local shellfish-borne disease outbreaks by supporting responsible coastal restoration and regulation of commercial shell-fishing, especially oyster fishing, and by recommending careful selection and preparation of all shellfish and crustaceans. PMID:15366346

  2. Preserved semantic learning in an amnesic patient.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Pat; Gerhand, Simon

    2002-02-01

    A case study is reported of an amnesic patient (KN), who displayed an ability to learn a substantial body of new visual and verbal semantic concepts, despite having a severe deficit in episodic memory. In two experiments, using an errorless learning paradigm, he was able to perform at a level close to that of his wife, who served as a control subject. When recall of material was retested after a delay of several months, during which time there were no further learning sessions, his retention was at least as good as, if not better, than that of his wife. This is taken as further evidence for the dissociation of semantic and episodic processes in amnesia. It also provides further evidence for the role of "errorless learning" in efficient acquisition of new facts in amnesia. PMID:11999333

  3. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  4. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  5. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bazinon poisoning; Diazol poisoning; Gardentox poisoning; Knox-Out poisoning; Spectracide poisoning ... Below are symptoms of diazinon poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys: Increased urination Eyes, ...

  6. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Carbofos poisoning; Compound 4049 poisoning; Cythion poisoning; Fosfothion poisoning; Mercaptothion poisoning ... Below are symptoms of malathion poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys Increased urination Eyes, ...

  7. Word memory test performance in amnesic patients with hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Hopkins, Ramona O

    2009-07-01

    Many symptom validity tests (SVTs) assess performance validity via declarative memory paradigms. One widely used SVT, the Word Memory Test (WMT), uses a variety of memory tests to assess performance. It is well known that declarative memory requires the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe structures. In the present study, WMT performance was examined in nonlitigating amnesic subjects (n = 3) with well-documented focal bilateral hippocampal atrophy who were nondemented and otherwise cognitively unimpaired compared with matched controls. The amnesic subjects had no external incentives. Amnesic subjects performed significantly below the level of matched comparison subjects but above established cutoff scores on the immediate recognition and delay recognition subtests and consistency component. In contrast, the amnesic subjects were impaired relative to our comparison subjects on the multiple-choice, paired associate, free-recall, and long delay free-recall subtests and had extremely low performance on these measures. Thus, there was a differential effect of hippocampal damage on WMT performance where the recognition subtests were performed within the normal range, yet the free recall was profoundly impaired in amnesic subjects. Such an approach where SVT performance is assessed in populations with well-known cognitive impairments adds breadth to SVT clinical interpretations.

  8. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy.

  9. [Paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish from the coast of high frequent harmful algae blooms occurrence areas in East China Sea and South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjiu; Chen, Jufeng; Zou, Yinlin; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong

    2003-07-01

    The paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity levels of shellfish collected from shellfish growing zones in Zhoushan areas of East China Sea and Shenzhen areas of South China Sea during January-November 2002 were determined with AOAC bioassay method. The results showed that the toxicity levels of shellfish from Zhoushan were very low, and few shellfish samples could be detected the PSP toxicities. The same levels appeared in the shellfish from Shenzhen, but the percentage of shellfish samples contaminated PSP was up to 30%, and the scallop Chalmys nobilis was dominated in the contaminated shellfish species. Analyses on the toxic profiles of digest gland and edible tissue extraction of scallop from Shenzhen showed that a similar suite of toxins presented in the gland and edible tissues. The high potency neoSTX and low potency GTX5 had a high proportions, up to 60.8% and 11.4%, respectively in the tissue, and the high potency GTX1 + 2 and GTX5 were the dominant toxins, up to 38.9% and 20%, respectively in the gland. Most of the toxin were accumulated in ingested gland of scallop, and the toxic content in gland was about 8 folds more than that in the edible tissues.

  10. [Paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish from the coast of high frequent harmful algae blooms occurrence areas in East China Sea and South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjiu; Chen, Jufeng; Zou, Yinlin; Liu, Jiesheng; Yang, Weidong

    2003-07-01

    The paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity levels of shellfish collected from shellfish growing zones in Zhoushan areas of East China Sea and Shenzhen areas of South China Sea during January-November 2002 were determined with AOAC bioassay method. The results showed that the toxicity levels of shellfish from Zhoushan were very low, and few shellfish samples could be detected the PSP toxicities. The same levels appeared in the shellfish from Shenzhen, but the percentage of shellfish samples contaminated PSP was up to 30%, and the scallop Chalmys nobilis was dominated in the contaminated shellfish species. Analyses on the toxic profiles of digest gland and edible tissue extraction of scallop from Shenzhen showed that a similar suite of toxins presented in the gland and edible tissues. The high potency neoSTX and low potency GTX5 had a high proportions, up to 60.8% and 11.4%, respectively in the tissue, and the high potency GTX1 + 2 and GTX5 were the dominant toxins, up to 38.9% and 20%, respectively in the gland. Most of the toxin were accumulated in ingested gland of scallop, and the toxic content in gland was about 8 folds more than that in the edible tissues. PMID:14587342

  11. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  12. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wood alcohol poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. You can call 24 hours ...

  13. Parallel Analyses of Alexandrium catenella Cell Concentrations and Shellfish Toxicity in the Puget Sound▿

    PubMed Central

    Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Haley, Sheean T.; Borchert, Jerry A.; Lona, Bob; Kollars, Nicole; Erdner, Deana L.

    2010-01-01

    Alexandrium catenella is widespread in western North America and produces a suite of potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans and have deleterious impacts on public health and economic resources. There are seasonal PSP-related closures of recreational and commercial shellfisheries in the Puget Sound, but the factors that influence cell distribution, abundance, and relationship to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in this system are poorly described. Here, a quantitative PCR assay was used to detect A. catenella cells in parallel with state shellfish toxicity testing during the 2006 bloom season at 41 sites from April through October. Over 500,000 A. catenella cells liter−1 were detected at several stations, with two main pulses of cells driving cell distribution, one in June and the other in August. PSTs over the closure limit of 80 μg of PST 100 per g of shellfish tissue were detected at 26 of the 41 sites. Comparison of cell numbers and PST data shows that shellfish toxicity is preceded by an increase in A. catenella cells in 71% of cases. However, cells were also observed in the absence of PSTs in shellfish, highlighting the complex relationship between A. catenella and the resulting shellfish toxicity. These data provide important information on the dynamics of A. catenella cells in the Puget Sound and are a first step toward assessing the utility of plankton monitoring to augment shellfish toxicity testing in this system. PMID:20495054

  14. [The concept of amnesia and quantitative assessment of amnesic disorders].

    PubMed

    Metzler, P; Rudolph, M; Voshage, J; Nickel, B

    1991-06-01

    This article presents first a short historical overview of the different viewpoints concerning psychiatric approaches to define the concept "amnesia" (Ribot, Korsakow, K. Schneider, Bleuler, Bonhoeffer et al.). A generally accepted result is the differentiation between retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Research work of the last two decades has focussed on the experimental investigation of anterograde amnesia, the so-called amnesic syndrome. In this context four main factors responsible for memory performance are distinguished: encoding, retrieval, forgetting and interference. One of the main results of neuropsychological research in amnesia consists in having discovered a set of symptoms or features common to most if not all forms of amnesia. These features appear regardless of etiology and locus of lesion. This set or features is described in detail in the paper. On the basis of these amnesic features a clinical test was developed, the Berliner Amnesie Test (BAT). This standardized test can be used for the assessment from mild up to severe memory disorders.

  15. What's new with the amnesic patient H.M.?

    PubMed

    Corkin, Suzanne

    2002-02-01

    H.M. became amnesic in 1953. Since that time, nearly 100 investigators, first at the Montreal Neurological Institute and since 1966 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have participated in studying him. We all understand the rare opportunity we have had to work with him, and we are grateful for his dedication to research. He has taught us a great deal about the cognitive and neural organization of memory. We are in his debt. PMID:11836523

  16. Replaying the game: hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics.

    PubMed

    Stickgold, R; Malia, A; Maguire, D; Roddenberry, D; O'Connor, M

    2000-10-13

    Participants playing the computer game Tetris reported intrusive, stereotypical, visual images of the game at sleep onset. Three amnesic patients with extensive bilateral medial temporal lobe damage produced similar hypnagogic reports despite being unable to recall playing the game, suggesting that such imagery may arise without important contribution from the declarative memory system. In addition, control participants reported images from previously played versions of the game, demonstrating that remote memories can influence the images from recent waking experience. PMID:11030656

  17. Enhancement of word completion priming in amnesics by cueing with previously novel associates.

    PubMed

    Mayes, A R; Gooding, P

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen amnesics of mixed aetiology were given a new association word completion task to determine what factors cause variation among amnesics in the extent of such priming. As a group, the patients failed to show new association word completion although several individual amnesics had scores in the normal range. The extent of new association word completion correlated with word fluency as measured by the FAS test and with cued recall in the priming task. It correlated weakly with some measures of amnesic severity, but not with intelligence. Word completion unassisted by new associations did not correlate with any other variable.

  18. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  20. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Dimethyl formaldehyde poisoning; Dimethyl ketone poisoning; Nail polish remover poisoning ... Acetone can be found in: Nail polish remover Some cleaning solutions Some glues, including rubber cement Some lacquers Other products may also contain acetone.

  1. Imprudent fishing harvests and consequent trophic cascades on the West Florida shelf over the last half century: A harbinger of increased human deaths from paralytic shellfish poisoning along the southeastern United States, in response to oligotrophication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. J.; Tomas, C. R.; Steidinger, K. A.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.; Landsberg, J. H.; Vargo, G. A.; Heil, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Within the context of ubiquitous overfishing of piscivores, recent consequent increments of jellyfish and clupeids have occurred at the zooplanktivore trophic level in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), after overfishing of one of their predators, i.e. red snapper. Initiation of a local trophic cascade thence led to declines of herbivore stocks, documented here on the West Florida shelf. These exacerbating world-wide trophic cascades have resulted in larger harmful algal blooms (HABs), already present at the base of most coastal food webs. Impacts on human health have thus far been minimal within nutrient-rich coastal regions. To provide a setting for past morbidities, consideration is given to chronologies of other trophic cascades within eutrophic, cold water marine ecosystems of the Scotian Sea, in the Gulf of Alaska, off Southwest Africa, within the Barents, White, and Black Seas, in the Gulf of Maine, and finally in the North Sea. Next, comparison is now made here of recent ten-fold increments within Florida waters of both relatively benign and saxitoxic HABs, some of which are fatal to humans. These events are placed in a perspective of other warm shelf systems of the South China and Caribbean Seas to assess prior and possible future poison toxicities of oligotrophic coastal habitats. Past wide-spread kills of fishes and sea urchins over the Caribbean Sea and the downstream GOM are examined in relation to the potential transmission of dinoflagellate saxitoxin and other epizootic poison vectors by western boundary currents over larger "commons" than local embayments. Furthermore, since some HABs produce more potent saxitoxins upon nutrient depletion, recent decisions to ban seasonal fertilizer applications to Florida lawns may have unintended consequences. In the future, human-killing phytoplankton, rather than relatively benign fish-killing HABs of the past, may be dispersed along the southeastern United States seaboard.

  2. Dinophysis toxins: causative organisms, distribution and fate in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L⁻¹). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  3. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  4. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

  5. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  6. Shellfish Allergy: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, María; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; García-Ara, Carmen; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Shellfish allergy is of increasing concern, as its prevalence has risen in recent years. Many advances have been made in allergen characterization. B cell epitopes in the major allergen tropomyosin have been characterized. In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, and myosin light chain have recently been reported in shellfish. All are proteins that play a role in muscular contraction. Additional allergens such as hemocyanin have also been described. The effect of processing methods on these allergens has been studied, revealing thermal stability and resistance to peptic digestion in some cases. Modifications after Maillard reactions have also been addressed, although in some cases with conflicting results. In recent years, new hypoallergenic molecules have been developed, which constitute a new therapeutic approach to allergic disorders. A recombinant hypoallergenic tropomyosin has been developed, which opens a new avenue in the treatment of shellfish allergy. Cross-reactivity with species that are not closely related is common in shellfish-allergic patients, as many of shellfish allergens are widely distributed panallergens in invertebrates. Cross-reactivity with house dust mites is well known, but other species can also be involved in this phenomenon.

  7. Remembering and Voting: Theory and Evidence from Amnesic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, Jason C.; Duff, Melissa C.; Warren, David E.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Gonsalves, Brian D.; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most prominent claims to emerge from the field of public opinion is that citizens can vote for candidates whose issue positions best reflect their own beliefs even when they cannot remember previously learned stances associated with the candidates. The current experiment provides a unique and powerful examination of this claim by determining whether individuals with profound amnesia, whose severe memory impairments prevent them from remembering specific issue information associated with any particular candidate, can vote for candidates whose issue positions come closest to their own political views. We report here that amnesic patients, despite not being able to remember any issue information, consistently voted for candidates with favored political positions. Thus, sound voting decisions do not require recall or recognition of previously learned associations between candidates and their issue positions. This result supports a multiple memory systems model of political decision making. PMID:24511170

  8. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant Heart medicine (digitalis glycoside)

  9. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  10. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  11. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  12. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  13. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  14. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  15. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nightshade poisoning; Morelle noire poisoning; Wonderberry poisoning ... Black nightshade poisoning can affect many areas of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Dry mouth Enlarged (dilated) pupils ...

  16. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bittersweet poisoning; Bitter nightshade poisoning; Scarlet berry poisoning; Weedy nightshade poisoning ... slow Shock LUNGS Slow breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Delirium Fever Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Paralysis WHOLE BODY ...

  17. Strength and duration of priming effects in normal subjects and amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Shimamura, A P; Graf, P

    1987-01-01

    In three separate experiments, we assessed the strength and duration of word completion effects in amnesic patients and two control groups. In Experiment 1 subjects studied words under a semantic orienting condition and were given tests of word completion and recognition memory after an immediate, 2-hr or 4-day delay. In the word completion test for Experiment 1, we presented three-letter word stems that could be completed to form several common words, one of which had been presented previously (e.g. MOT for MOTEL), and subjects completed each stem with the first word that came to mind. Priming effects were equivalent in amnesic patients and control subjects and they reached baseline levels within 2 hr. In Experiments 2 and 3, subjects studied words under either a semantic or a nonsemantic orienting condition, and word completion was tested at the same three delays using cues that uniquely specified the study words (e.g. JUI for JUICE; or A--A--In for ASSASSIN). In these experiments, amnesic patients exhibited both smaller and shorter lasting word completion effects than control subjects. Specifically, amnesic patients exhibited word completion effects that seldom lasted as long as 2 hr, whereas control subjects usually exhibited completion effects lasting 4 days. An important additional finding was that control subjects exhibited larger and longer-lasting word completion effects when tested under the semantic orienting condition than when tested under the nonsemantic orienting condition. Amnesic patients were not affected by this manipulation. Moreover, under the nonsemantic orienting condition, control subjects and amnesic patients performed similarly. The results show that word completion performance is not always fully intact in amnesic patients. Long-lasting word completion effects found in normal subjects may be mediated by declarative or elaborative retrieval processes, which are impaired in amnesic patients. If so, priming as measured by word completion

  18. Failure to elicit conditioned taste aversion by severe poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Buresová, O

    1977-03-01

    In an attempt to assess the universal validity of the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, various types of poisoning (UC) were associated with the gustatory CS. Water deprived rats were habituated for two days to the drinking box, where water was available for 15 min. On Day 3, access to the CS (0.1% saccharin 15 min) was followed after 30 min by a sublethal dose of the poison (0.15 M LiCl, 4% body weight; 0.1 M sodium malonate, 1% body weight; pyrrolopyrimidine drug BW 58-271, 15 mg/kg; sodium cyanide 4 mg/kg; sodium iodoacetate 40 mg/kg; sodium fluoride 30 mg/kg; gallamine triethiodide 40 mg/kg). Rats injected with the last drug were maintained under artificial respiration until muscular paralysis disappeared. After 4 days of recovery, water deprivation schedule was resumed on Days 8 and 9. During the retention test on Day 10 saccharin consumption dropped by 60% in the LiCl poisoned rats, but not CTA developed in animals poisoned by pyrrolopyrimidine, gallamine, malonate and cyanide. CTA of intermediate intensity was evoked by iodoacetate and fluoride. The absence of CTA was not due to the amnesic effect of poisoning, since LiCl administration to NaCN poisoned rats produced CTA of usual intensity. It is concluded that CTA is not related to the overall severity of poisoning but rather to the effect of the poison on specific interoceptors.

  19. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  20. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Truan, Dominique; Lattes, Karinna; Véjar, Omar; Chamorro, Beatriz; Iglesias, Verónica; Andrinolo, Darío; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the data recorded from four patients intoxicated with shellfish during the summer 2002, after consuming ribbed mussels (Aulacomya ater) with paralytic shellfish toxin contents of 8,066 +/- 61.37 microg/100 gr of tissue. Data associated with clinical variables and paralytic shellfish toxins analysis in plasma and urine of the intoxicated patients are shown. For this purpose, the evolution of respiratory frequency, arterial blood pressure and heart rate of the poisoned patients were followed and recorded. The clinical treatment to reach a clinically stable condition and return to normal physiological parameters was a combination of hydration with saline solution supplemented with Dobutamine (vasoactive drug), Furosemide (diuretic) and Ranitidine (inhibitor of acid secretion). The physiological condition of patients began to improve after four hours of clinical treatment, and a stable condition was reached between 12 to 24 hours. The HPLC-FLD analysis showed only the GTX3/GTX2 epimers in the blood and urine samples. Also, these epimers were the only paralytic shellfish toxins found in the shellfish extract sample. PMID:16238098

  1. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  2. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  3. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  4. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  5. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  6. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  7. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas cherry poisoning; Winter cherry poisoning; Ground cherry poisoning ... The effects of Jerusalem cherry poisoning mostly affect the primarily gastrointestinal (often delayed 8 to10 hours), and central nervous system. This type of poisoning can be very ...

  8. Should I Be Concerned about Eating Fish and Shellfish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercury in Fish and Shellfish The Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) was formed in 1982 to foster and promote shellfish sanitation through the cooperation of state and federal control ...

  9. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  10. Dissociating basal forebrain and medial temporal amnesic syndromes: insights from classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Myer, Catherine E; Bryant, Deborah; DeLuca, John; Gluck, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    In humans, anterograde amnesia can result from damage to the medial temporal (MT) lobes (including hippocampus), as well as to other brain areas such as basal forebrain. Results from animal classical conditioning studies suggest that there may be qualitative differences in the memory impairment following MT vs. basal forebrain damage. Specifically, delay eyeblink conditioning is spared after MT damage in animals and humans, but impaired in animals with basal forebrain damage. Recently, we have likewise shown delay eyeblink conditioning impairment in humans with amnesia following anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm rupture, which damages the basal forebrain. Another associative learning task, a computer-based concurrent visual discrimination, also appears to be spared in MT amnesia while ACoA amnesics are slower to learn the discriminations. Conversely, animal and computational models suggest that, even though MT amnesics may learn quickly, they may learn qualitatively differently from controls, and these differences may result in impaired transfer when familiar information is presented in novel combinations. Our initial data suggests such a two-phase learning and transfer task may provide a double dissociation between MT amnesics (spared initial learning but impaired transfer) and ACoA amnesics (slow initial learning but spared transfer). Together, these emerging data suggest that there are subtle but dissociable differences in the amnesic syndrome following damage to the MT lobes vs. basal forebrain, and that these differences may be most visible in non-declarative tasks such as eyeblink classical conditioning and simple associative learning.

  11. Sequences assessed by declarative and procedural tests of memory in amnesic patients with hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Waldram, Kellie; Kesner, Raymond P

    2004-01-01

    Previous research indicates that amnesic subjects tested on sequential learning or serial reaction time tasks can learn a repeated procedural sequence but are unable to explicitly recall the correct sequence when asked to generate the sequence. Rats with hippocampal lesions are also able to learn and remember procedural or implicit sequences but were impaired for declarative sequences. We used analogous procedures used in rats to assess the role of the hippocampus in the acquisition of declarative and procedural sequences in amnesic and control participants. Amnesic participants with damage restricted to the hippocampus and control participants were administered analogous tasks of declarative and procedural sequential learning using a computer version of the radial arm maze. The amnesic participants had slower response times during the acquisition of procedural sequences, but were not impaired compared to controls when switched to a random sequence, suggesting that both groups learned the sequence. Alternatively, the amnesic but not control participants were significantly impaired in the declarative sequence task. Our findings provide support for evolutionary continuity in cognitive function of the hippocampus in rats and humans and the dissociation between the declarative and procedural sequential learning. The performance differences on the two sequence learning tasks are likely due to the use of different strategies associated with learning sequences based on procedural versus declarative knowledge.

  12. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, Rosalía

    2011-08-01

    Shellfish allergy is a frequent, long-lasting, life-threatening disorder. As shellfish consumption increases, the number of allergic reactions to shellfish is expected to continue to rise as well. During the past decade, much has been learned about the allergens involved in shellfish allergy. Potential cross-reacting allergens between shellfish and other arthropods have been identified. As our knowledge of shellfish allergen improves, we will be able to develop more accurate methods of diagnosing shellfish allergy. In addition, extensive research is currently under way for the development of safer, more effective methods of managing shellfish hypersensitivity.

  13. Detection of enteric viruses in shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus and hepatitis A virus contamination are significant threats to the safety of shellfish and other foods. Methods for the extraction and assay of these viruses from shellfish are complex, time consuming, and technically challenging. Here, we itemize some of the salient points in extracting...

  14. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Moore, Leslie; Bill, Brian D.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Harrington, Neil; Borchert, Jerry; da Silva, Denis A. M.; Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxin (YTX) with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2) also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3) were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound. PMID:23760013

  16. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  17. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  18. Pokeweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest amounts of poison are found in the roots, leaves, and stems. Small amounts are in the ... is no guarantee that they are safe. The roots should never be eaten. Symptoms most often appear ...

  19. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  20. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  1. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  3. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get into the food, it is ... an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating ...

  4. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002883.htm Mistletoe poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe ...

  5. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... once widely used as germ-killer and a preservative in many different products, including vaccines. Merthiolate poisoning ... the throat (endoscopy) to see burns in the food pipe (esophagus) and stomach Chest x-ray EKG ( ...

  6. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Shaving lotion poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  7. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chapstick poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  8. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  9. Memory for the temporal order of events in patients with frontal lobe lesions and amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, A P; Janowsky, J S; Squire, L R

    1990-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe lesions, amnesic patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, other (non-Korsakoff) amnesic patients, and control subjects were given tests of memory for temporal order. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with a list of 15 words and then asked to reproduce the list order from a random array of the words. In the second experiment, they were asked to arrange in chronological order a random display of 15 factual events that occurred between 1941 and 1985. In both experiments, patients with frontal lobe lesions were impaired in placing the items in the correct temporal order, despite normal item memory (i.e. normal recall and recognition memory for the words and facts). The two groups of amnesic patients exhibited impaired memory for temporal order as well as impaired item memory. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome exhibited poorer temporal order memory than the other amnesic patients, despite similar levels of item memory. These findings demonstrate that patients with frontal lobe lesions have difficulty organizing information temporally. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, who have both diencephalic and frontal damage, have memory impairment together with a disproportionate deficit in memory for temporal order.

  10. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity.

  11. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity. PMID:21660552

  12. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  13. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  14. Relevant shellfish consumption data for dietary exposure assessment among high shellfish consumers, Western Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Picot, Cyndie; Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Parent-Massin, Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Shellfish consumption can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants for humans. It is fundamental to know if people eat enough shellfish to cause health problems, firstly in high consumers as recreational shellfish harvesters. The objectives of this study were to investigate the types of shellfish eaten, number of meals, portion size, sources of shellfish and shellfish consumption rates among French recreational shellfish harvesters; to determine factors affecting consumption patterns and to examine the reliability of the two methods used: a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a one-month food diary. The mean consumption rates were 11.63 and 26.21 g/person/day for shellfish derived from a self-harvested source only and from all sources, respectively. Harvester consumption rates were between 6- and 15-fold higher than the general French population. The comparison between the FFQ and the food diary showed that results were reliable. Thereby, our results are relevant to assess risk due to shellfish consumption.

  15. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... harvester by the shellfish control authority, where applicable or, if such identification numbers are not assigned, the name of the harvester or the name or registration number of the harvester's vessel). In...

  16. Molecular and immunological characterization of shellfish allergens.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Chu, K H

    1998-03-15

    Shellfish (crustaceans and mollusks) have long been known as a common cause of allergic reactions to food. Like other food allergies, the allergic reactions to shellfish involve IgE-mediated Type I hypersensitivity. Biochemical and molecular studies have documented the major shrimp allergen is the muscle protein tropomyosin. Subsequent molecular cloning studies on lobsters and crabs have characterized this protein as the common allergen in crustaceans. There has also been strong immunological evidence that tropomyosin is a cross-reactive allergen among crustaceans and mollusks. This is further confirmed by recent studies on the identification of allergens in squid and abalone. The advances in the characterization of shellfish allergens will not only enhance our understanding on the physiological basis of shellfish allergy but also lay the groundwork for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic design in food allergies.

  17. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  18. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... level of alertness). Before Calling Emergency Have this information ready: Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?) Name of the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed However, DO NOT delay calling ... Poison Control Your local ...

  19. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  20. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing machine Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced brain imaging) EKG (electrocardiogram or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison Tube placed ... Sometimes the person will need it for the rest of their life.

  1. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  2. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ground. It is usually found in groups of many plants and looks like weeds growing from 6 inches ... or anything else that may have touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If you develop a poison ivy rash, it will go away on its own in 1 to 3 ...

  3. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  4. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  5. Antioxidant Property of Jobelyn as the Possible Mechanism Underlying its Anti-amnesic Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Umukoro, Solomon; Ugbomah, Adaeze; Aderibigbe, Adegbuyi; Omogbiya, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Amnesia or loss of memory is the cardinal hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with ageing process. Although, AD had been discovered over a century ago, drugs which could cure or halt the progression of the disease are yet to see the light of the day. However, there has been a growing interest in the use of phytomedicines with multipronged mechanisms of action that could target various aspects of the pathologies of AD. Jobelyn (JB) is a potent antioxidant African polyherbal formulation with active components that have been acclaimed to show neuroprotection. This investigation was carried out to evaluate whether JB has anti-amnesic and antioxidant activities. Methods The alteration of alternation behavior in the Y-maze paradigm was utilized as the test for memory function in mice. The effect of JB on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were assessed in rats as means of providing insight into the mechanism underlying its anti-amnesic activity. The animals were given JB (1, 2.5 or 5mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 7 days before the biochemical assays or test for memory functions were carried out. Results JB was found to produce a significant increase in the level of alternation behavior compared with the control, suggesting anti-amnesic activity. Also, JB reversed the memory impairment induced by scopolamine, which further indicates anti-amnesic property. Furthermore, JB demonstrated a significant inhibition of MDA formation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats, indicating antioxidant property. In addition, it increased the defense armory of the brain tissues, as it significantly increased the concentrations of GSH in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. However, JB did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect against AChE activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats in comparison

  6. Metabolic transformation of dinophysistoxin-3 into dinophysistoxin-1 causes human intoxication by consumption of O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxins contaminated shellfish.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Truan, Dominique; Lagos, Marcelo; Santelices, Juan Pablo; Díaz, Juan Carlos; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes for the first time a massive intoxication episode due to consumption of shellfish contaminated with 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1, named Dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3). 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1, a compound recently described in the literature, was found in shellfish samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia fjords. This compound does not inhibit Protein Phosphatases and also does not elicit the symptoms described for Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP). The data showed here, give evidence of metabolic transformation of 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-3) into Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Methyl-Okadaic acid) in intoxicated patients. This metabolic transformation is responsible for the diarrheic symptoms and the intoxication syndrome showed by patients that consumed contaminated shellfish, which showed only the presence of 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1. Patients fecal bacterial analysis for the presence of enteropathogens was negative and the mouse bioassay for DSP, performed as described for regulatory testing, was also negative. The HPLC-FLD and HPLC-MS analysis showed only the presence of DTX-3 as the only compound associated to DSP toxins in the contaminated shellfish samples. No other DSP toxins were found in the shellfish sample extracts. However, the patient fecal samples showed DTX-1 as the only DSP toxins detected in fecal. Moreover, the patient fecal samples did not show DTX-3. Since 7-O-acyl-derivative dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-3) was the only compound associated to DSP toxins detected in the shellfish samples, an explanation for the diarrheic symptoms in the intoxicated patients would be the metabolic transformation of DTX-3 into DTX-1. This transformation should occur in the stomach of the poisoned patients after consuming 7-O-acyl-derivatives dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-3) contaminated bivalves. PMID:16404137

  7. Ameliorative effect of betulin from Betula platyphylla bark on scopolamine-induced amnesic mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Namki; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Jeon, Byung Ju; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease induced by cholinergic neuron damage or amyloid-beta aggregation in the basal forebrain region and resulting in cognitive disorder. We previously reported on the neuroprotective effects of Betula platyphylla bark (BPB) in an amyloid-beta-induced amnesic mouse model. In this study, we obtained a cognitive-enhancing compound by assessing results using a scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse model. Our results show that oral treatment of mice with BPB and betulin significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits in both passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. In the Morris water maze test, administration of BPB and betulin significantly improved memory and cognitive function indicating the formation of working and reference memories in treated mice. Moreover, betulin significantly increased glutathione content in mouse hippocampus, and the increase was greater than that from betulinic acid treatment. We conclude that BPB and its active component betulin have potential as therapeutic, cognitive enhancer in AD.

  8. Acquisition of a new color name in amnesics and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Dopkins, S; Kovner, R; Goldmeier, E

    1990-06-01

    Six Korsakoffs amnesics, three mixed amnesics, and eight normal controls were taught the meaning of "bice", the word for a particular shade of blue-green. The conceptual interpretation that the Korsakoffs developed for "bice" differed in three respects from the one that the controls developed. (1) Although both Korsakoffs and controls applied the term more liberally to pens than to other objects, two of the Korsakoffs showed an extreme form of this tendency. (2) The Korsakoffs tended to generalize more broadly along the spectral dimension in using the term. (3) Whereas there was a positive relationship, in the data for the controls, between measures of syntactic and semantic awareness concerning "bice", there was no such relationship in the Korsakoffs data. It was concluded that the Korsakoffs had difficulty mastering the new word, and difficulty specifically in integrating their representation for the word with the rest of their lexical knowledge. PMID:2387156

  9. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  10. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response. PMID:26421794

  11. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  12. [Drug poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gainza, I; Nogué, S; Martínez Velasco, C; Hoffman, R S; Burillo-Putze, G; Dueñas, A; Gómez, J; Pinillos, M A

    2003-01-01

    A review is made of acute poisoning by opiates and its treatment in the emergency services, bearing in mind the progressive decline in the number of cases presented with the arrival of new forms of their administration, as well as the presence of new addictive drugs that have resulted in a shift in consumption habits. Reference is also made to the way in which the different types of existing substances originated, with the aim of achieving a better understanding of their use and in order to administer the most suitable treatment when poisoning occurs. Cocaine poisoning is discussed, with reference to its clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. The consumption of illegal drugs in our country has undergone a notable change in recent years, with heroin being relegated and the incorporation of cocaine, amphetamine derivatives such as "ecstasy" (MDMA), "liquid ecstasy" (GHB) and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. A review is made of cannabis and its derivates, from the history of its consumption and the preparations employed to the effects produced in the different bodily systems. A brief explanation is also given of its metabolites and its principal mechanisms of action. Finally, we comment on the effects of LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  13. Shellfish hypersensitivity: clinical and immunological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R; Carrilo, T; Blanco, C; Quiralte, J; Cuevas, M

    1994-01-01

    Shellfish is one of the most frequent causes of food allergy. We studied 48 patients (25 male and 23 female) with a mean age of 24.2 +/- 1.8 with shellfish hypersensitivity. A clinical questionnaire was carried out and prick tests were performed using a series of aeroallergens and a battery of extracts of squid, shrimp, lobster, crab, mussel and clam. Prick tests were also performed using raw and boiled extracts from fresh squid, octopus and limpet. Total and specific IgE to these allergens were determined. The most frequent causes of symptoms were shrimp (33 cases) and squid (24 cases). The most frequently found symptoms were Urticaria/angioedema (39 patients), asthma (18 patients) and rhinitis (14 patients). Clinical association was found between Cephalopoedae and Lamelibranquiae (p < 0.05 for clam and p < 0.01 for mussel), but not among both groups and Crustaceans. Association between history and Prick was statistically significant for Crustaceae and Cephalopoedae (p < 0.01) but not for Lamalibranquiae. Association between history and CAP was not found for shellfish. Significant differences among prick-tests with raw and boiled extracts were not found. These results suggest that prick test yields better results than CAP does it, in shellfish hypersensitivity, that clinical association among shellfish hypersensitivity can occurs within the same and different Phylum reflecting common epitopes and that squid, octopus and limpet extracts contain a large amount of heat-stable allergens. PMID:8059680

  14. Shellfish hypersensitivity: clinical and immunological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R; Carrilo, T; Blanco, C; Quiralte, J; Cuevas, M

    1994-01-01

    Shellfish is one of the most frequent causes of food allergy. We studied 48 patients (25 male and 23 female) with a mean age of 24.2 +/- 1.8 with shellfish hypersensitivity. A clinical questionnaire was carried out and prick tests were performed using a series of aeroallergens and a battery of extracts of squid, shrimp, lobster, crab, mussel and clam. Prick tests were also performed using raw and boiled extracts from fresh squid, octopus and limpet. Total and specific IgE to these allergens were determined. The most frequent causes of symptoms were shrimp (33 cases) and squid (24 cases). The most frequently found symptoms were Urticaria/angioedema (39 patients), asthma (18 patients) and rhinitis (14 patients). Clinical association was found between Cephalopoedae and Lamelibranquiae (p < 0.05 for clam and p < 0.01 for mussel), but not among both groups and Crustaceans. Association between history and Prick was statistically significant for Crustaceae and Cephalopoedae (p < 0.01) but not for Lamalibranquiae. Association between history and CAP was not found for shellfish. Significant differences among prick-tests with raw and boiled extracts were not found. These results suggest that prick test yields better results than CAP does it, in shellfish hypersensitivity, that clinical association among shellfish hypersensitivity can occurs within the same and different Phylum reflecting common epitopes and that squid, octopus and limpet extracts contain a large amount of heat-stable allergens.

  15. Clinitest tablets poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar reagent poisoning; Anhydrous Benedict's reagent poisoning ... Symptoms of poisoning from Clinitest tablets are: Blood in urine Burns and burning pain in the mouth and throat Collapse Convulsions ...

  16. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  17. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  18. The distribution and impacts of harmful algal bloom species in eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainer, V. L.; Pitcher, G. C.; Reguera, B.; Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    Comparison of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in eastern boundary upwelling systems, specifically species composition, bloom densities, toxin concentrations and impacts are likely to contribute to understanding these phenomena. We identify and describe HABs in the California, Canary, Benguela and Humboldt Current systems, including those that can cause the poisoning syndromes in humans called paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), as well as yessotoxins, ichthyotoxins, and high-biomass blooms resulting in hypoxia and anoxia. Such comparisons will allow identification of parameters, some unique to upwelling systems and others not, that contribute to the development of these harmful blooms.

  19. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  20. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  1. New insights into the causes of human illness due to consumption of azaspiracid contaminated shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, O. P.; Graham, S. F.; Alonso, E.; Duffy, C.; Silke, J.; Campbell, K.; Botana, L. M.; Elliott, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning was unknown until 1995 when shellfish harvested in Ireland caused illness manifesting by vomiting and diarrhoea. Further in vivo/vitro studies showed neurotoxicity linked with AZA exposure. However, the biological target of the toxin which will help explain such potent neurological activity is still unknown. A region of Irish coastline was selected and shellfish were sampled and tested for AZA using mass spectrometry. An outbreak was identified in 2010 and samples collected before and after the contamination episode were compared for their metabolite profile using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty eight ions were identified at higher concentration in the contaminated samples. Stringent bioinformatic analysis revealed putative identifications for seven compounds including, glutarylcarnitine, a glutaric acid metabolite. Glutaric acid, the parent compound linked with human neurological manifestations was subjected to toxicological investigations but was found to have no specific effect on the sodium channel (as was the case with AZA). However in combination, glutaric acid (1mM) and azaspiracid (50nM) inhibited the activity of the sodium channel by over 50%. Glutaric acid was subsequently detected in all shellfish employed in the study. For the first time a viable mechanism for how AZA manifests itself as a toxin is presented. PMID:25928256

  2. First evidence of spirolides in Spanish shellfish.

    PubMed

    Villar González, A; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Ben-Gigirey, B; Botana, L M

    2006-12-15

    During the months of November and December 2005, a harmful algal bloom in the northwestern region of Spain caused the accumulation of different algal toxins in several types of shellfish. Many of the shellfish were contaminated at levels above European regulatory limit, presenting serious risks for human health. The analysis of mussels sampled in the affected areas to search for lipophilic toxins, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), showed the presence of free okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) as well as esters of these toxins. The results also revealed the presence of minor amounts of 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in the analysed samples, although this toxin has never been reported before in Spain. The combination of different MS modes of operation, just as enhanced MS (EMS) and MS(3) experiments, allowed to confirm the first occurrence of spirolides in Spanish shellfish.

  3. 48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of shellfish. 852.270-3 Section 852.270-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES... Purchase of shellfish. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish...

  4. A Potential Mechanism of Virus Persistence within Bivalve Shellfish.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of enteric virus bioaccumulation by molluscan shellfish has been widely studied and documented. However, it is not understood why some human enteric viruses, which cannot replicate within shellfish, are selectively retained and remain viable within shellfish tissues for extended periods...

  5. 48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of shellfish. 852.270-3 Section 852.270-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES... Purchase of shellfish. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Purchase of Shellfish...

  6. Depuration dynamics of viruses in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Muniain-Mujika, I; Girones, R; Tofiño-Quesada, G; Calvo, M; Lucena, F

    2002-07-25

    The consumption of shellfish has been associated with viral infections even in cases where shellfish complied with the current regulation, which is based on bacterial analysis. In this study, depuration rates of potential indicators and human viruses have been analysed in order to study the use of complementary parameters for evaluating the microbiological quality of depurated shellfish. Depuration of naturally highly polluted mussels has been evaluated and analyses for Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, somatic coliphages, F-RNA phages and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis RYC2056 and HSP40, human adenovirus, enterovirus have been done. Seawater of the depuration tank was disinfected by UV irradiation, ozone and passed through a skimmer and a biological filter. The correct functioning of the depuration tank was monitored by the quantification of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+ and total aerobic bacteria in the seawater. To study the relation between the bacteriophages and the human viruses analysed, a logistic regression model was applied. F-RNA phages are significantly related to human adenoviruses and enteroviruses. Thus, they can be used as a complementary parameter for evaluating the efficiency of the depuration treatment. Somatic coliphages are also significantly associated with enteroviruses. Bacteriophages infecting B. fragilis HSP40 were analysed by the double-agar-layer (DAL) method, which quantifies infectious viruses, and by nested PCR, which detects the presence of the genome of these phages. The highest sensitivity of the molecular techniques was demonstrated and the results obtained are an indicator of a close relation between positive results by PCR and the presence of infectious viral particles in shellfish. All shellfish samples were negative for human viruses by PCR after 5 days of depuration treatment and the results obtained applying a regression model also showed negative results or nearly for F-RNA phages and

  7. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  8. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  9. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  10. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  11. Poisons information in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C; Tay, M K; Bloodworth, B C; Lim, K H

    1993-03-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) provides viral and timely information to prevent and manage poisoning episodes. Comprehensive information on household, agricultural and industrial chemicals, natural toxins, pharmaceuticals, local antidote stocks and local poisons experts is retrieved from the Centre's computerised information system and printed literature. Public subscribers can obtain poisons information through Teleview.

  12. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.60 Molluscan shellfish. (a... the spread of communicable disease from one State or possession to another. (b) All shellstock...

  13. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  14. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  15. 21 CFR 1240.60 - Molluscan shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molluscan shellfish. 1240.60 Section 1240.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) A person shall not offer for transportation, or transport, in interstate traffic any...

  16. Use of amiodarone in a patient with a shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Beall, Jennifer W; Mahan, Edward F; Blau, Andrea B

    2007-04-01

    A 65-year-old Caucasian male with a shellfish allergy developed atrial fibrillation and hypotension after coronary artery bypass and duodenal ulcer surgery. Following electrical cardioversion, oral amiodarone was continued chronically without an allergic reaction. There is a common misconception that a shellfish allergy correlates to an iodine allergy. There is little documentation of the association between an allergy to shellfish and an allergy to iodine. Food allergies can be subcategorized based on the involvement of IgE. Upon further investigation, it was discovered that shellfish allergies are not due to the iodine component, but rather, to a protein found in the shellfish. Amiodarone can be safely used in patients with shellfish allergies. A shellfish allergy does not necessarily imply an iodine allergy.

  17. Do amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction? The role of explicit memory and attention in attitude change.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, M D; Ochsner, K N; Gilbert, D T; Schacter, D L

    2001-03-01

    In two studies, we investigated the roles of explicit memory and attentional resources in the process of behavior-induced attitude change. Although most theories of attitude change (cognitive dissonance and self-perception theories) assume an important role for both mechanisms, we propose that behavior-induced attitude change can be a relatively automatic process that does not require explicit memory for, or consciously controlled processing of, the discrepancy between attitude and behavior. Using a free-choice paradigm, we found that both amnesics and normal participants under cognitive load showed as much attitude change as did control participants.

  18. Parent report of childhood shellfish allergy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lau, Claudia H; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Holl, Jane L; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-01-01

    Although shellfish allergy frequently results in emergency department visits, national prevalence studies focusing on shellfish allergy in children are scarce. This study describes parent reports of shellfish allergy among children in the United States. Data from shellfish-allergic children were identified for analysis from a randomized, cross-sectional survey administered in US households with children from June 2009 to February 2010. Child characteristics, parent-reported prevalence, severity, symptoms, diagnostic methods, and reaction history were analyzed as weighted proportions. Adjusted models were estimated to examine the association of child characteristics, reaction history, and diagnosis methods with odds of shellfish allergy and severe shellfish allergy. Among the 38,480 children included in this study, 499 were reported to have a shellfish allergy, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.3%. The mean age for first reaction to shellfish allergy was 5.8 years. Nearly one-half of all children with shellfish allergy had a history of severe life-threatening reactions (47.1%). Shellfish allergy was diagnosed by a physician at a rate of 58.5% (35.0% confirmed with testing), significantly lower than the rate of diagnosis for other common childhood food allergies (72.7%). Children with a shellfish allergy had lower odds (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.54) of developing tolerance compared with children with other common food allergies. Childhood shellfish allergy is a serious and underdiagnosed problem in the United States. Findings suggest that the impact of disease may be greater than previously reported. Accordingly, efforts are needed to improve awareness and management of shellfish allergy among children in the United States.

  19. Memory deficits in early infantile autism: some similarities to the amnesic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boucher, J; Warrington, E K

    1976-02-01

    Autistic children were compared with control children on tasks in which retention was tested by different methods. In three tests of recall, using named pictures, written words and spoken words as test stimuli, autistic children were impaired in comparison with age-matched normal children and with controls matched for verbal ability. In one test of forced-choice recognition of pictures, autistic children were impaired in comparison with ability-matched controls. In three tests of cued recall, using named pictures, written words and spoken words as test stimuli, and acoustic, graphemic and semantic cues, autistic children were not impaired in comparison with normal age-matched controls. In one test of paired-associate learning using non-related word pairs as test stimuli autistic children were not impaired in comparison with normal age-matched controls. These experimental paradigms were similar to some that have been used to investigate the amnesic syndrome in man. Thus findings on paired-associate learning differ in autistic and amnesic subjects, but findings on recall, recognition and cued recall are comparable. A possible parallel between autism and amnesia is discussed.

  20. Malingering and retrograde amnesia: the historic case of the Collegno amnesic.

    PubMed

    Zago, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Scarlato, Guglielmo

    2004-06-01

    Assessment of feigned cognitive disorders is an important field of neuropsychology because of its applications to forensic settings. Strategies for detecting malingering in amnesia are available for anterograde amnesia. Less attention has been given to malingering in retrograde amnesia. The case of the 'Smemorato di Collegno' (The Collegno Amnesic) is probably the most famous case of malingered retrograde amnesia ever known in Italy. In 1926, a man who appeared to have lost all his autobiographical memories and identity spent nearly a year in the Collegno asylum of Turin without a name. He was later initially identified as Giulio Canella, Director of the 'Scuola Normale di Verona' who had disappeared during the war in 1916. He was suspected of later identified as being Mario Bruneri, a petty crook from Turin who played the part of an amnesic whose retrograde memory gradually returned. A lengthy investigation was required before this conclusion was reached. Several clinicians and renowned academics evaluated the case, but only Alfredo Coppola, diagnosed "malingered retrograde amnesia" using a method that was extremely innovative for the times. The aim of the present paper is to review the original cognitive evaluation and the strategies used for malingering detection in the "Collegno case". The outcome of the case is then discussed in the light of present-day forensic neuropsychology and the level of advancement of mental examination achieved in the 1920s in Europe is highlighted. PMID:15259331

  1. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  2. Irradiated Shellfish: Identification by Photostimulated Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Di Schiavi, Maria Teresa; Falconi, Grazia; Verità, Francesca Della; Cavallina, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation of food is a technology used in the industry to prevent the deterioration of foodstuff in some countries. The European Community legislation states that each Member State must carry out annual checks on the products during commercialisation. The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle regioni Lazio e Toscana (Rome, Italy) has developed and validated the screening method of photostimulated luminescence UNI EN 13751:2009 to identify irradiated shellfish. A total of 30 tests of shellfish samples, consisting of 22 certified as irradiated and 8 not-irradiated samples, were performed. The validation procedure was based on sensitivity and specificity; the compatibility between the screening method and the reference standard EN 13751:2009 was evaluated. Data were processed: 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity were obtained. Results obtained in our laboratory were perfectly compatible with the reference standard. For this reason, the method has been validated and proved to be suitable for its intended use. PMID:27800335

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  5. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  6. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy.

  7. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2016-01-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  8. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  9. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  10. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Zosel AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ...

  11. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  12. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  13. Furniture polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, or ears Severe stomach pain Throat swelling Vomiting, possibly bloody Blood in your stools If the poison touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ...

  14. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  15. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Blurred vision Burning pain Hearing loss STOMACH AND INTESTINES Bloody stools Abdominal ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... them in. The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are Headache Dizziness Weakness Nausea Vomiting Chest pain ... often hard to tell if someone has CO poisoning, because the symptoms may be like those of ...

  17. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... Below are symptoms of cold wave lotion poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Mouth irritation Burning and redness of the eyes Possibly serious damage to ...

  18. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  19. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  20. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  1. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  3. Amnesic H.M. Exhibits Parallel Deficits and Sparing in Language and Memory: Systems versus Binding Theory Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Donald G.; James, Lori E.; Taylor, Jennifer K.; Marian, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines sentence-level language abilities of amnesic H.M. to test competing theoretical conceptions of relations between language and memory. We present 11 new sources of experimental evidence indicating deficits in H.M's comprehension and production of non-cliche sentences. Contrary to recent claims that H.M.'s comprehension is…

  4. Amnesic effects of the anticholinergic drugs, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden: differences in binding properties to the brain muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ohue, M; Kitaura, T; Kihira, K

    1999-07-10

    An amnesic effect of anticholinergic drugs was previously described from several behavioral studies. We examined this effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden, clinically used in the parkinsonism and schizophrenic patients, by using passive avoidance tasks. Both of these drugs (0.1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) showed dose-dependent amnesic effects in the acquisition and retrieval phases. However, the effect induced by trihexyphenidyl was transient, whereas that of biperiden was long-lasting. To clarify the reason for the different duration of the amnesic activity, binding to the muscarinic receptor was examined. In the Scatchard analysis, trihexyphenidyl competed with [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H]QNB) on the muscarinic receptor (showed increased K(d) and unchanged B(max) value), while biperiden decreased [(3)H]QNB binding (B(max) value) significantly. Furthermore, in an exchange assay for receptor inactivation, trihexyphenidyl binding to muscarinic receptors was exchanged by [(3)H]QNB completely, but biperiden decreased the exchangeable binding of [(3)H]QNB in a dose dependent manner (0.1-100 nM). These results suggested that the binding of trihexyphenidyl and biperiden to muscarinic receptor might be completely reversible and partially irreversible, respectively, whereas the K(i) values of these two drugs were similar. In conclusion, this difference in binding property may explain the difference in the time-course of the amnesic effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden.

  5. National shellfish register of classified estuarine waters, 1990. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The 1990 Register summarized data on 3,172 of the Nation's classified shellfish-growing areas. However, State and Federal shellfish officials often need area-specific data to manage their daily operations. The Data Supplement, therefore, provides detailed information about local classified shellfish-growing areas for both the 1985 and 1990 Registers. It also updates relevant information that has become available since the publication of the 1990 Register, specifically in the areas of classifications, pollution sources affecting shellfish-growing waters, harvests, and evolving issues.

  6. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  8. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  10. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  11. Poison centers, poison prevention, and the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, F H; Robertson, W O; Woolf, A D

    1994-08-01

    The first poison centers were established in the United States in the early 1950s, stimulated by an American Academy of Pediatrics' survey of office-based pediatric practices which ascertained that its members had no place to turn for ingredient information on medications and household products. With the help of the Academy, pediatrician Dr. Edward Press, the Illinois Department of Health, and several community hospitals, the first poison center emerged. Over the subsequent 40 years, remarkable progress has occurred in the fields of clinical toxicology, poison control, and poison prevention. Yet despite these accomplishments, challenging clouds are appearing on the horizon which threaten these gains. This commentary, by the authors who have viewed and participated in a large part of the history of this progress, will focus on these major accomplishments with an emphasis on (a) poison prevention utilizing the pre-event (primary prevention), (b) the event (secondary prevention), and (c) the postevent (tertiary prevention) model.

  12. 77 FR 36260 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Puget Sound Recreational Shellfish Harvesting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... an economics research project to assess the behavior of individual shellfish harvesters in response... recreational shellfish harvesting through statistical estimation of models; and (3) the potential changes...

  13. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance. PMID:25232312

  14. New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ's rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece's musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ's complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  15. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  16. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  17. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  18. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  19. Scombroid poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2010-08-15

    Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used in regulation until more is known about the mechanism of scombroid poisoning. Scombroid poisoning and histamine are correlated but complicated. Victims of scombroid poisoning respond well to antihistamines, and chemical analyses of fish implicated in scombroid poisoning generally reveal elevated levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is unique among the seafood toxins since it results from product mishandling rather than contamination from other trophic levels. Inadequate cooling following harvest promotes bacterial histamine production, and can result in outbreaks of scombroid poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Laboratory methods and screening methods for detecting histamine are available in abundance, but need to be compared and validated to harmonize testing. Successful field testing, including dockside or on-board testing needed to augment HACCP efforts will have to integrate rapid and simplified detection methods with simplified and rapid sampling and extraction. Otherwise, time-consuming sample preparation reduces the impact of gains in detection speed on the overall analysis time.

  20. Complete genome sequence for the shellfish pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 isolated from a shellfish hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp), and two...

  1. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance.

  2. Evaluation of Passive Samplers as a Monitoring Tool for Early Warning of Dinophysis Toxins in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Gemita; Moroño, Ángeles; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Pazos, Yolanda; Reguera, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    From June 2006 to January 2007 passive samplers (solid phase adsorbing toxin tracking, SPATT) were tested as a monitoring tool with weekly monitoring of phytoplankton and toxin content (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, LC-MS) in picked cells of Dinophysis and plankton concentrates. Successive blooms of Dinophysis acuminata, D. acuta and D. caudata in 2006 caused a long mussel harvesting closure (4.5 months) in the Galician Rías (NW Spain) and a record (up to 9246 ng·g resin-week−1) accumulation of toxins in SPATT discs. Best fit of a toxin accumulation model was between toxin accumulation in SPATT and the product of cell densities by a constant value, for each species of Dinophysis, of toxin content (average) in picked cells. Detection of Dinophysis populations provided earlier warning of oncoming diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) outbreaks than the SPATT, which at times overestimated the expected toxin levels in shellfish because: (i) SPATT accumulated toxins did not include biotransformation and depuration loss terms and (ii) accumulation of toxins not available to mussels continued for weeks after Dinophysis cells were undetectable and mussels were toxin-free. SPATT may be a valuable environmental monitoring and research tool for toxin dynamics, in particular in areas with no aquaculture, but does not provide a practical gain for early warning of DSP outbreaks. PMID:24152559

  3. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance. PMID:25086341

  4. [Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay and effect on quality safety of shellfish].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiang-Ying; Chen, Bi-Juan; Zhou, Ming-Ying; Cui, Zheng-Guo

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater, surface sediments and culture shellfish were investigated in shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay from Jan. to Nov. in 2008. Investigation was conducted on the distribution and variation of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and sediments in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay, as well as on the levels and the differences in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations among the shellfish species. In addition, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in the three media was evaluated and the effects of accumulated petroleum hydrocarbon in shellfish on the food safety risk were discussed. The results indicated: 1) Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater in the shellfish culture area of Sanggou Bay were in the range of 3.61 - 98.21 microg/L; the mean values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were in the range of 6.75-25.95 mg/kg; petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in culture shellfish were in the range of 2.14- 42.87 mg/kg; and petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish varied largely among different species, with the mean values in the sequence of clam Venerupis variegata > oyster > scallop; 2) Monthly petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater and surface sediments varied significantly in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area, with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in seawater that occurred in July and in August, respectively, and with the highest and the lowest values of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in surface sediments that occurred in September and in March, respectively; 3) According to the corresponding evaluation criteria, the petroleum hydrocarbon pollution status in surface sediments in Sanggou Bay shellfish culture area was unpolluted but the status in surface seawater was polluted. The culture shellfish was also polluted by petroleum hydrocarbon with different degrees among three species, namely, the

  5. Kounis syndrome secondary to allergic reaction following shellfish ingestion.

    PubMed

    Zavras, G M; Papadaki, P J; Kokkinis, C E; Kalokairinov, K; Kouni, S N; Batsolaki, M; Gouvelou-Deligianni, G V; Koutsojannis, C

    2003-09-01

    Two cases of allergic angina and allergic myocardial infarction (Kounis syndrome) secondary to shellfish ingestion are described. The patients had pre-existing quiescent coronary artery disease (type II variant of the syndrome) and the allergic reaction following eating shellfish seemed to have triggered the development of an acute myocardial infarction. The clinical implications are also discussed.

  6. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease. PMID:27404324

  7. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic arcobacters in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Figueras, Maria José; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Marchetti, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Considering that several recent cases of human gastroenteritis have been associated with species from the Arcobacter genus, and that few data are currently available about the occurrence of this genus in Italian shellfish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and the presence of virulence-associated genes. The approach consisted of cultural and biomolecular (multiplex-PCR and 16S-RFLP) methods identifying isolates, followed by PCR assays aimed at the cadF, ciaB, cjl349, irgA, hecA putative virulence genes. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 16/70 (22.8%) shellfish samples. Specifically, Arcobacter spp. was highlighted in 10/42 (23.8%) mussel and in 6/28 (21.4%) clam samples. Subsequently, biomolecular assays revealed Arcobacter butzleri in 12/16 (75%) and Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B in 4/16 (25%) isolates. PCRs aimed at the five putative virulence genes demonstrated widespread distribution of these genes among Arcobacter isolates and some differences from the results published by other authors. Our research provides more information regarding the health risks associated with the consumption of raw bivalve molluscs and underlines the need to implement an adequate control plan by performing intensive and continuous monitoring in order to guarantee human health. PMID:27052698

  8. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis.

  9. Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

  10. 75 FR 13211 - Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office... information needed to ensure that shellfish purchased by VA are from a State- and Federal-approved and...-3, Purchase of Shellfish, requires a firm furnishing shellfish must ensure the item are packaged...

  11. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  12. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Weedoff poisoning; Roundup poisoning ... Glyphosate is the poisonous ingredient in some weed killers. ... Glyphosate is in weed killers with these brand names: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up Rodeo Weedoff Other ...

  13. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  14. Environmental Transmission of Human Noroviruses in Shellfish Waters

    PubMed Central

    Lees, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis following consumption of bivalve shellfish contaminated with fecal matter. NoV levels can be effectively reduced by some sewage treatment processes such as activated sludge and membrane bioreactors. However, tertiary sewage treatment and substantial sewage dilution are usually required to achieve low concentrations of virus in shellfish. Most outbreaks have been associated with shellfish harvested from waters affected by untreated sewage from, for example, storm overflows or overboard disposal of feces from boats. In coastal waters, NoV can remain in suspension or associate with organic and inorganic matter and be accumulated by shellfish. Shellfish take considerably longer to purge NoV than fecal indicator bacteria when transferred from sewage-polluted estuarine waters to uncontaminated waters. The abundance and distribution of NoV in shellfish waters are influenced by the levels of sewage treatment, proximity of shellfish beds to sewage sources, rainfall, river flows, salinity, and water temperature. Detailed site-specific information on these factors is required to design measures to control the viral risk. PMID:24705321

  15. Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish by receptor binding assay: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Van Dolah, Frances M; Fire, Spencer E; Leighfield, Tod A; Mikulski, Christina M; Doucette, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a microplate format receptor binding assay (RBA) for paralytic e shellfish toxins (PST). The assay quantifies the composite PST toxicity in shellfish samples based on the ability of sample extracts to compete with (3)H saxitoxin (STX) diHCl for binding to voltage-gated sodium channels in a rat brain membrane preparation. Quantification of binding can be carried out using either a microplate or traditional scintillation counter; both end points were included in this study. Nine laboratories from six countries completed the study. One laboratory analyzed the samples using the precolumn oxidation HPLC method (AOAC Method 2005.06) to determine the STX congener composition. Three laboratories performed the mouse bioassay (AOAC Method 959.08). The study focused on the ability of the assay to measure the PST toxicity of samples below, near, or slightly above the regulatory limit of 800 (microg STX diHCl equiv./kg). A total of 21 shellfish homogenates were extracted in 0.1 M HCl, and the extracts were analyzed by RBA in three assays on separate days. Samples included naturally contaminated shellfish samples of different species collected from several geographic regions, which contained varying STX congener profiles due to their exposure to different PST-producing dinoflagellate species or differences in toxin metabolism: blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the U.S. east and west coasts, California mussel (Mytilus californianus) from the U.S. west coast, chorito mussel (Mytilus chiliensis) from Chile, green mussel (Perna canaliculus) from New Zealand, Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima) from the U.S. east coast, butter clam (Saxidomus gigantea) from the west coast of the United States, almeja clam (Venus antiqua) from Chile, and Atlantic sea scallop (Plactopecten magellanicus) from the U.S. east coast. All samples were provided as whole animal homogenates, except Atlantic sea scallop and green mussel, from which only the

  16. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Burkholder, Joann M; Cochlan, William P; Glibert, Patricia M; Gobler, Christopher J; Heil, Cynthia A; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L; Rensel, J E Jack; Townsend, David W; Trainer, Vera L; Vargo, Gabriel A

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research.

  17. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Burkholder, Joann M; Cochlan, William P; Glibert, Patricia M; Gobler, Christopher J; Heil, Cynthia A; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L; Rensel, J E Jack; Townsend, David W; Trainer, Vera L; Vargo, Gabriel A

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  18. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  19. Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Bono, James L; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp).

  20. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems.

  1. Parietal Fast Sleep Spindle Density Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gorgoni, Maurizio; Lauri, Giulia; Truglia, Ilaria; Cordone, Susanna; Sarasso, Simone; Scarpelli, Serena; Mangiaruga, Anastasia; D'Atri, Aurora; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferrara, Michele; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have identified two types of sleep spindles: fast (13–15 Hz) centroparietal and slow (11–13 Hz) frontal spindles. Alterations in spindle activity have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Only few studies have separately assessed fast and slow spindles in these patients showing a reduction of fast spindle count, but the possible local specificity of this phenomenon and its relation to cognitive decline severity are not clear. Moreover, fast and slow spindle density have never been assessed in AD/MCI. We have assessed fast and slow spindles in 15 AD patients, 15 amnesic MCI patients, and 15 healthy elderly controls (HC). Participants underwent baseline polysomnographic recording (19 cortical derivations). Spindles during nonrapid eye movements sleep were automatically detected, and spindle densities of the three groups were compared in the derivations where fast and slow spindles exhibited their maximum expression (parietal and frontal, resp.). AD and MCI patients showed a significant parietal fast spindle density decrease, positively correlated with Minimental State Examination scores. Our results suggest that AD-related changes in spindle density are specific for frequency and location, are related to cognitive decline severity, and may have an early onset in the pathology development. PMID:27066274

  2. Neocortical catastrophic interference in healthy and amnesic adults: a paradoxical matter of time.

    PubMed

    Merhav, Maayan; Karni, Avi; Gilboa, Asaf

    2014-12-01

    The human cortex can accommodate overlapping semantic information, such as synonyms, homonyms, or overlapping concepts. However, neuronal models of cortical networks predict Catastrophic Interference in conditions of overlapping information, obliterating old associations and sometimes preventing formation of new ones. It has been proposed that Catastrophic Interference in declarative memory is never observed in biological systems because of hippocampal pattern separation of competing associations. Here, we tested neocortical Catastrophic Interference during acquisition of overlapping associations through Fast Mapping; an incidental, exclusion based learning mechanism, that can support hippocampal-independent learning. Young adults acquired picture-label associations, either through explicit encoding or through Fast Mapping and were tested after 24 h. Overlapping/competing associations were presented either minutes (Early), or 22 h (Delayed) after learning. Catastrophic Interference was evident only following Fast Mapping, and only in the Delayed competition. In a follow-up experiment, Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) amnesic patients demonstrated retroactive Catastrophic Interference after the Early competition, despite normal memory for noninterfered Fast Mapping associations. Thus, following Fast Mapping, a biological system demonstrated susceptibility to Catastrophic Interference, as predicted by the neuronal-model. Early retroactive Interference, however, can be prevented by MTL integrity.

  3. [Remembering an amnesic patient (and half a century of memory research)].

    PubMed

    Preilowski, B

    2009-10-01

    The development of memory research is inextricably bound to the fate of patient HM. On the occasion of his death, the circumstances are remembered, which lead to the bilateral removal of parts of his medio-temporal cortex in 1953. And the importance of the subsequent more than a half-century of research about his postoperative amnesic deficits as well as remaining learning and memory functions are outlined. The early reports triggered improved animal research which together with parallel investigations on HM and patients with similar deficits eventually lead to the downfall of the up until then dominating antilocalisationist view of brain functions. This was the result of having convincingly shown that memory could be severely impaired without major changes in other cognitive functions. Later investigations lead to question the unity of memory itself and forced a more and more differentiated description of different kinds of memory and their associations with separate neuroanatomical structures. A simplified summary of the resulting recent ideas of declarative memory systems is presented together with an outline of connections to their supporting medio-temporal, diencephalic and frontal-cortical structures. Finally, an attempt is made to address the question about the impact on the person HM of not having been able to form consciously retrievable memories from age 27 until his death at age of 82, thus having to rely for a reconstruction of his life on memories from child- and young adulthood as well as single momentary short-lived experiences.

  4. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: evidence from an amnesic artist

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports) and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings). Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events) may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia. PMID:24834048

  5. Assessment of Cholinergic Properties of Ashwagandha Leaf-Extract in the Amnesic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Akash; Wadhwa, Renu; Thakur, Mahendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In our earlier study, we have shown the memory enhancing and scopolamine-induced amnesia recovery properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract using behavioral paradigm and expression analysis of synaptic plasticity genes. Purpose However, the exact mechanism through which Ashwagandha demonstrates these effects is still unknown. Methods In the present study, we hypothesized that the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract) possesses cholinergic properties, which in turn inhibit the anti-cholinergic nature of scopolamine. Therefore, the potential of i-Extract to recover from the scopolamine-induced cholinergic deficits was assessed by measuring acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and Arc (synaptic activity-related gene) expression level in the mouse brain. Results The enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase was assessed through colorimetric assays, and expression level of Arc protein was examined by Western blotting. Furthermore, mRNA level of these genes was examined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. We observed that the treatment of i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse attenuates scopolamine-induced detrimental alterations in the cholinergic system. Conclusion Thus, our study provided biochemical and molecular evidence of cholinergic properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract during brain disorders associated with cholinergic dysfunction. PMID:27647956

  6. Assessment of Cholinergic Properties of Ashwagandha Leaf-Extract in the Amnesic Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Akash; Wadhwa, Renu; Thakur, Mahendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background In our earlier study, we have shown the memory enhancing and scopolamine-induced amnesia recovery properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract using behavioral paradigm and expression analysis of synaptic plasticity genes. Purpose However, the exact mechanism through which Ashwagandha demonstrates these effects is still unknown. Methods In the present study, we hypothesized that the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves (i-Extract) possesses cholinergic properties, which in turn inhibit the anti-cholinergic nature of scopolamine. Therefore, the potential of i-Extract to recover from the scopolamine-induced cholinergic deficits was assessed by measuring acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and Arc (synaptic activity-related gene) expression level in the mouse brain. Results The enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase was assessed through colorimetric assays, and expression level of Arc protein was examined by Western blotting. Furthermore, mRNA level of these genes was examined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. We observed that the treatment of i-Extract in scopolamine-induced amnesic mouse attenuates scopolamine-induced detrimental alterations in the cholinergic system. Conclusion Thus, our study provided biochemical and molecular evidence of cholinergic properties of Ashwagandha leaf extract during brain disorders associated with cholinergic dysfunction.

  7. Disturbance of time orientation, attention, and verbal memory in amnesic patients with confabulation.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Honoka; Park, Paeksoon; Ueda, Keita; Murai, Toshiya; Tsukiura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Confabulation is often observed in amnesic patients after brain damage. However, evidence regarding the relationship between confabulation and other neuropsychological functions is scarce. In addition, previous studies have proposed two possibilities of the relationship between confabulation and false memory, in which patients with confabulation are likely to retrieve false memories, or confabulations are relatively independent of false memories. The present study investigated how confabulation is related to various cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, frontal lobe function, memory, and mental status, and to false memories, as assessed by the Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott (DRM) paradigm. Patients with organic amnesia participated, and confabulations were evaluated using the Confabulation Battery. Amnestic patients were classified into two groups: confabulating (CP) and nonconfabulating patients (NCP). The CP group was significantly impaired in time orientation, attention, and verbal memory, compared to the NCP group and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Results of the DRM paradigm revealed no significant difference in false memory retrieval induced by critical lures across CP, NCP, and HC groups. Confabulating responses in organic amnesia could be in part induced by disturbance of time consciousness and attention control in severe impairment of verbal memories, and confabulation and false memory could be modulated by different cognitive systems. PMID:26588602

  8. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  9. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  10. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

  11. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  12. Expanding shellfish aquaculture: A review of the ecological services provided by and impacts of native and cultured bivalves in shellfish dominated ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is making an increasing contribution to world-wide demand for bivalve shellfish at the same time that substantial efforts are being made to restore wild shellfish populations because they are declining. Impacts of shellfish culture to natural systems have been evaluated, but both native...

  13. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Corinne; de Haro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. PMID:23917333

  14. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  15. Description of brain injury in the amnesic patient N.A. based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Squire, L R; Amaral, D G; Zola-Morgan, S; Kritchevsky, M; Press, G

    1989-07-01

    N.A. has been amnesic since 1960 when at the age of 22 years he sustained a penetrating brain injury with a miniature fencing foil. The amnesia primarily affects verbal material and occurs in the absence of other detectable cognitive deficits. Previous CT scans demonstrated a lucency in the region of the left mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, but no additional damage was revealed. Beginning in 1986 when he was 48 years old, N.A. was evaluated with a series of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies. Three major areas of damage were identified. In the left thalamus there is a prominent 3- to 4-mm-wide linear lesion that approximates the position and orientation of the internal medullary lamina. The defect extends for approximately 20 mm anteroposteriorly and likely involves the rostral group of intralaminar nuclei (central medial, paracentral, central lateral, rhomboid, and reuniens nuclei), the caudal group of intralaminar nuclei (centrum medianum and parafascicular nuclei), the ventral aspect of the mediodorsal nucleus, and the ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei. It also likely interrupts the trajectories of the mammillothalamic tract and postcommissural fornix. The posterior hypothalamus is markedly disrupted and the mammillary nuclei appear to be missing bilaterally. Finally, the right anterior temporal lobe is damaged for a distance of about 3.5 cm from the pole to midway through the amygdaloid complex. This damage probably occurred during exploratory neurosurgery done at the time of N.A.'s injury. The hippocampal formation appears intact on both sides. A comparison of these findings with those from other patients with diencephalic amnesia suggests that amnesia can result when several diencephalic structures are damaged conjointly, including the internal medullary lamina, the intralaminar nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, and the mammillothalamic tract. Whether amnesia as severe as N.A.'s would result from selective damage to any one of these structures

  16. The human hippocampus beyond the cognitive map: evidence from a densely amnesic patient

    PubMed Central

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela A.; Colombo, Françoise; Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We tested a densely amnesic patient (P9), with bilateral hippocampal damage resulting from an autoimmune disorder, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls on a series of memory tasks designed to characterize allocentric spatial learning and memory abilities. We compared P9's ability to perform spatial memory tasks with her ability to perform non-spatial, color memory tasks. First, P9's performance was impaired as compared to controls even in the simplest versions of an allocentric spatial memory task, in which she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same location(s) of one, two or three illuminating foot pad(s) among 23 pads distributed in an open-field arena. In contrast, she performed as well as controls when she had to find repeatedly over 10 trials the same one, two or three pad(s) marked by color cue(s), whose locations varied between trials. Second, P9's performance was severely impaired in working memory tasks, when she had to learn on a trial-unique basis and remember the location(s) or the color(s) of one, two or three pad(s), while performing an interfering task during the 1-min interval separating encoding and retrieval. Without interference during the retention interval of the trial-unique tasks, P9's performance was partially preserved in the color tasks, whereas it remained severely impaired in the allocentric spatial tasks. Detailed behavioral analyses indicate that P9's memory representations are more limited than those of controls both in their precision (metric coding) and in the number of items that can be maintained in memory (capacity). These findings are consistent with the theory that the hippocampus contributes to the integration or binding of multiple items, in order to produce high-resolution/high-capacity representations of spatial and non-spatial information in the service of short-term/working and long-term memory. PMID:25309387

  17. [Cross reactivity between fish and shellfish].

    PubMed

    Torres Borrego, J; Martínez Cuevas, J F; Tejero García, J

    2003-01-01

    In Spain, fish allergy represents 18 % of all cases of food allergy in children while reactions caused by crustacea and mollusks account for 3.8 % and 1.6 % respectively. Cross-reactivity is defined as the recognition of distinct antigens by the same IgE antibody, demonstrable by in vivo and in vitro tests, which clinically manifests as reactions caused by antigens homologous to different species. Subclinical sensitization can also occur, giving rise to patients sensitized to particular fish or shellfish but who do not present symptoms on consumption.Cod and shrimp have been the models used to study allergy to fish and crustacea respectively. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are proteins that control calcium flow in the muscular sarcoplasm of these animals, called parvalbumins, with a molecular weight of approximately 12 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.75, resistant to the action of heat and enzymatic digestion. Recently, recombinant carp parvalbumin has been reproduced, confirming that this allergen contains 70 % of the IgE epitopes present in natural extract of cod, tuna and salmon, which makes it a valid tool in the diagnosis of patients with fish allergy. Moreover, this recombinant allergen could constitute the basis for the development of immunotherapy against food allergy. In the case of shellfish, a non-taxonomic group that includes crustacea and mollusks, the major allergen is tropomyosin, an essential protein in muscle contraction both in invertebrates and vertebrates. In invertebrates, tropomyosins, which have a molecular weight of between 38 and 41 kD, show great homology in their amino acid sequence and are the panallergens responsible for cross-reactions between crustacea, insects, mites, nematodes, and different classes of mollusks. It is estimated that 50 % of individuals allergic to some type of fish are at risk for reacting to a second species, while those allergic to some type of

  18. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids.

  19. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  1. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisonous ingredient in most household cloth dyes. Most common household cloth dyes are made from nonpoisonous substances, such as: Mild soaps Pigments Salts Although these substances are generally considered not dangerous, ...

  2. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to Poison ivy, but if exposed enough most ... sensitized at some time and remain allergic. A sensitivity can change at any time. There's no way ...

  3. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  4. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... local take back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

  5. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  7. Poison plants (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called urushiol, produces an ...

  8. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  9. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  10. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  11. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other harmful ... bleeding and infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ...

  13. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-11-21

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

  14. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  16. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  17. Speech errors of amnesic H.M.: unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E; Hadley, Christopher B; Fogler, Kethera A

    2011-03-01

    Three language production studies indicate that amnesic H.M. produces speech errors unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue. Study 1 was a naturalistic task: H.M. and six controls closely matched for age, education, background and IQ described what makes captioned cartoons funny. Nine judges rated the descriptions blind to speaker identity and gave reliably more negative ratings for coherence, vagueness, comprehensibility, grammaticality, and adequacy of humor-description for H.M. than the controls. Study 2 examined "major errors", a novel type of speech error that is uncorrected and reduces the coherence, grammaticality, accuracy and/or comprehensibility of an utterance. The results indicated that H.M. produced seven types of major errors reliably more often than controls: substitutions, omissions, additions, transpositions, reading errors, free associations, and accuracy errors. These results contradict recent claims that H.M. retains unconscious or implicit language abilities and produces spoken discourse that is "sophisticated," "intact" and "without major errors." Study 3 examined whether three classical types of errors (omissions, additions, and substitutions of words and phrases) differed for H.M. versus controls in basic nature and relative frequency by error type. The results indicated that omissions, and especially multi-word omissions, were relatively more common for H.M. than the controls; and substitutions violated the syntactic class regularity (whereby, e.g., nouns substitute with nouns but not verbs) relatively more often for H.M. than the controls. These results suggest that H.M.'s medial temporal lobe damage impaired his ability to rapidly form new connections between units in the cortex, a process necessary to form complete and coherent internal representations for novel sentence-level plans. In short, different brain mechanisms underlie H.M.'s major errors (which reflect incomplete and incoherent sentence-level plans) versus everyday slips

  18. Speech errors of amnesic H.M.: unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; James, Lori E; Hadley, Christopher B; Fogler, Kethera A

    2011-03-01

    Three language production studies indicate that amnesic H.M. produces speech errors unlike everyday slips-of-the-tongue. Study 1 was a naturalistic task: H.M. and six controls closely matched for age, education, background and IQ described what makes captioned cartoons funny. Nine judges rated the descriptions blind to speaker identity and gave reliably more negative ratings for coherence, vagueness, comprehensibility, grammaticality, and adequacy of humor-description for H.M. than the controls. Study 2 examined "major errors", a novel type of speech error that is uncorrected and reduces the coherence, grammaticality, accuracy and/or comprehensibility of an utterance. The results indicated that H.M. produced seven types of major errors reliably more often than controls: substitutions, omissions, additions, transpositions, reading errors, free associations, and accuracy errors. These results contradict recent claims that H.M. retains unconscious or implicit language abilities and produces spoken discourse that is "sophisticated," "intact" and "without major errors." Study 3 examined whether three classical types of errors (omissions, additions, and substitutions of words and phrases) differed for H.M. versus controls in basic nature and relative frequency by error type. The results indicated that omissions, and especially multi-word omissions, were relatively more common for H.M. than the controls; and substitutions violated the syntactic class regularity (whereby, e.g., nouns substitute with nouns but not verbs) relatively more often for H.M. than the controls. These results suggest that H.M.'s medial temporal lobe damage impaired his ability to rapidly form new connections between units in the cortex, a process necessary to form complete and coherent internal representations for novel sentence-level plans. In short, different brain mechanisms underlie H.M.'s major errors (which reflect incomplete and incoherent sentence-level plans) versus everyday slips

  19. Spatial distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic microalgae in shellfish farms along the Sardinian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Bazzoni, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Tiziana; Pulina, Silvia; Padedda, Bachisio M; Satta, Cecilia T; Sechi, Nicola; Lugliè, Antonella

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the geographical distribution and multiannual trends of potentially toxic harmful algal species (HAS) were analysed at 18 mussel farms in Sardinia (Italy, North-Western Mediterranean Sea) using data derived from the Sardinian Regional Monitoring Programme (1988-2012). The results showed an increasing number of potentially toxic microalgae over the study period. Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum were the most harmful species detected. From 2002 to 2009, these species caused eight paralytic shellfish poisoning-positive events which temporarily stopped commercial trade of mussels. The statistical analysis indicated that some taxa exhibited temporal increasing trends in their abundance (e.g. Pseudo-nitzschia spp.), significant decrements (e.g. Dinophysis sp.), or both increasing and decreasing significant trends (e.g. A. minutum) at different sites, indicating the necessity of further in-depth studies, especially on certain taxa. Overall, the statistical elaboration of the long-term data provided useful signals for early detection of shellfish contamination by different potentially toxic HAS in defined sites. These signals can be used to develop best management practices.

  20. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... View all alerts right left National Poison Prevention Week is March 20-26! Be a part of ... is poison-proof. Read more › National Poison Prevention Week Congress established National Poison Prevention Week (NPPW) on ...

  1. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ induces simultaneously anxiolytic and amnesic effects in the mouse elevated T-maze task.

    PubMed

    Asth, Laila; Correia, Nataly; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; De Lima, Thereza C Monteiro; Guerrini, Remo; Calo', Girolamo; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa P; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown a close relationship between anxiety and aversive memory processing, but few animal models are suitable for investigating the effects of a given compound on anxiety and memory simultaneously. A growing body of evidence suggests anxiolytic and amnesic effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ). The mouse elevated T-maze (ETM) has been shown to detect the effects of drugs on anxiety and memory at the same time. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular N/OFQ injected before or immediately after training session were assessed in the ETM task. When pretraining injected, N/OFQ 0.1 nmol significantly decreased the latency to enter an open arm in the training session compared to control, which is suggestive of anxiolysis. In addition, N/OFQ (0.1 and 1 nmol) significantly reduced the latency to enter an open arm during the test session compared to control, thus suggesting memory impairments. However, when N/OFQ was administered posttraining, it did not affect memory retrieval. No alterations in locomotion were detected in N/OFQ-treated mice in the open field test. In conclusion, these findings are discussed considering the simultaneous anxiolytic and amnesic effects of N/OFQ.

  2. Increased binding of 5-HT1A receptors in a dissociative amnesic patient after the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Soichiro; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Inoue, Makoto; Kosaka, Jun; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2014-10-30

    Dissociative amnesia is characterized by an inability to retrieve information already saved in memories. 5-HT has some role in neural regulatory control and may be related to the recovery from dissociative amnesia. To examine the role of 5-HT1A receptors in the recovery from dissociative amnesia, we performed two positron emission tomography (PET) scans on a 30-year-old patient of dissociative amnesia using [(11)C]WAY-100635, the first at amnesic state, and the second at the time he had recovered. Exploratory voxel-based analysis (VBA) was performed using SPM software. 5-HT1A BPND images were compared between the patient at amnesic and recovery states and healthy subjects (14 males, mean age 29.8 ± 6.45) with Jack-knife analysis. 5-HT1A receptor bindings of the patient at the recovery state were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects in the right superior and middle frontal cortex, left inferior frontal and orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral inferior temporal cortex. The increase in BPND values of recovery state was beyond 10% of those of amnesia state in these regions except in the right superior frontal cortex. We considered that neural regulatory control by the increase of 5-HT1A receptors in cortical regions played a role in the recovery from dissociative amnesia.

  3. Shellfish conflict in Baynes Sound: a strategic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Luai; Hipel, Keith W; Kilgour, D Marc

    2004-10-01

    The shellfish aquaculture industry (SAI) has operated in Baynes Sound, British Columbia (BC) since the early 1900s. Recognizing the economic potential of the area, the industry has requested additional farming opportunities. However, Baynes Sound upland residents and many other stakeholders have expressed concerns that SAI activities are having a negative impact on the environment, quality of life, and other nonaquaculture resource uses in the area. In order to address these issues, the Action Plan was initiated by a BC government interagency project team in November 2001. To assist in assessing the strategic aspects of this conflict, the decision support system GMCR II is employed here to apply a new methodology, the graph model for conflict resolution, to systematically analyze the ongoing conflict over shellfish aquaculture development in Baynes Sound within a social, economic, and environmental framework. Valuable insights are procured to guide decision-makers toward sustainability of the shellfish industry.

  4. 78 FR 22366 - Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office... information needed to ensure that shellfish purchased by VA are from a State- and Federal-approved and... a currently approved collection. Abstract: VAAR clause 852.270-3, Purchase of Shellfish, requires...

  5. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  6. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  7. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  8. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  9. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  11. Bilateral lesions of CA1 and CA2 fields of the hippocampus are sufficient to cause a severe amnesic syndrome in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Kartsounis, L D; Rudge, P; Stevens, J M

    1995-01-01

    A patient is reported in whom a classic amnesic syndrome developed as a result of repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia, accompanied by seizures. The amnesia was very severe for both old and newly acquired memories and the critical lesions defined by MRI were circumscribed areas confined to CA1 and CA2 fields of both hippocampi. Images PMID:7608720

  12. Chunking and Consolidation: A Theoretical Synthesis of Semantic Networks, Configuring in Conditioning, S--R Versus Cognitive Learning, Normal Forgetting, the Amnesic Syndrome, and the Hippocampal Arousal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickelgren, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between current information processing and prior associative theories of human and animal learning, memory, and amnesia are discussed. The paper focuses on the two components of the amnesic syndrome, retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. A neural theory of chunking and consolidation is proposed. (Author/RD)

  13. Influence of upwelling relaxation on dinoflagellates and shellfish toxicity in Ria de Vigo, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Santiago; Anderson, Donald M.; Bravo, Isabel; Reguera, Beatriz; Steidinger, Karen A.; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1988-10-01

    Outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) along the north-west coast of Spain have become a serious threat to the extensive mussel farming industry in that region over the last decade. During the summer, high phytoplankton productivity is supported by the sustained upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water into the rias. An episode of PSP in the autumn of 1985 in Ria de Vigo coincided with the sudden appearance, rapid numerical increase, and dominance of two chain-forming dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium catenatum and Protogonyaulax affinis. Field data suggest that warm offshore surface water was transported into the ria as the summer upwelling ceased. This occurred when winds changed from northerly (upwelling favourable) to southerly or westerly (upwelling unfavourable); the injected water contained established populations of oceanic and neritic dinoflagellates. The simultaneous appearance and dominance of two dinoflagellates that form long chains leads us to speculate that the small-scale downwelling of water within the ria favoured efficient swimmers among the phytoplankton. These data not only implicate these two species as possible sources of the PSP toxins in local mussels, but they also suggest the feasibility of developing a bloom prediction capability for some dinoflagellate species based in part on an upwelling index that can indicate when offshore surface waters might be forced into the rias.

  14. Presence of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I G; Moore, J E

    1996-04-01

    Bivalve molluscs, (cockles, mussels, scallops and oysters) were examined according to EC shellfish bed classification regulations for faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and salmonella, and for coliforms and campylobacter which are not specified by these regulations. Salmonella serotypes were detected in 8% of 433 molluscs. Seven salmonella isolations (2%) were made from category A beds, nominally suitable for immediate consumption according to E. coli counts. A higher percentage of salmonella isolates (6%) was detected in shellfish which require relaying or depuration prior to eating. In another survey, thermophilic Campylobacter spp. were found in 42% of 380 shellfish. These findings show bed classification on the basis of indicator organisms alone is not sufficient to assure the absence of bacterial, and no doubt viral, pathogens. Depuration and end product specifications which require the absence of salmonellae are an essential part of these regulations. Microbiologists may wish to consider whether tests for pathogens such as salmonella and campylobacter should be included when determining the suitability of shellfish for human consumption. PMID:8620905

  15. 36 CFR 242.28 - Subsistence taking of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... taking of Dungeness crab, king crab, Tanner crab, shrimp, clams, abalone, and other shellfish or their... which is commercially licensed and registered for shrimp pot, shrimp trawl, king crab, Tanner crab, or..., or shrimp for subsistence purposes. (iii) In the subsistence taking of Tanner crab: (A) Male...

  16. 48 CFR 852.270-3 - Purchase of shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of shellfish. 852.270-3 Section 852.270-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  17. AN RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL FOR SHELLFISH-BORNE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GPTT virus RNA extraction method, originally developed for extraction of human norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNAs from contaminated shellfish, was evaluated for extraction of RNA from Aichi virus strain A846/88 (AiV), coxsackievirus strains A9 (CAV9) and B5 (CBV5), murine norovirus (strain MNV...

  18. Accumulation of sediment-associated viruses in shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, E.F.; Vaughn, J.M.; Vicale, T.J.; Mann, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present study focused on the importance of contaminated sediments in shellfish accumulation of human viruses. Epifaunal (Crassostrea virginica) and infanual (Mercenaria mercenaria) shellfish, placed on or in cores, were exposed to either resuspended or undisturbed sediments containing bound poliovirus type 1 (LSc 2ab). Consistent bioaccumulation by oysters (four of five trials) was only noted when sediment-bound viruses occurred in the water column. Virus accumulation was observed in a single instance where sediments remained in an undisturbed state. While the incidence of bioaccumulation was higher with resuspended rather than undisturbed contaminated sediment, the actual concentration of accumulated viruses was not significantly different from the accumulation of viruses from oysters residing on uninoculated sediments. When clams were exposed to undisturbed, virus-contaminated sediments, two of five shellfish pools yielded viral isolates. Bioaccumulation of undisturbed sediments by these bivalves was considered marginal when related to the concentration of virus in contaminated sediments; they would only represent a significant threat when suspended in the water column. Arguments were advanced for water-column sampling in the region of the water-sediment interface to provide an accurate determination of the virological quality of shellfish harvesting waters.

  19. Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are ...

  20. 50 CFR 14.21 - Shellfish and fishery products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shellfish and fishery products. 14.21 Section 14.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION,...

  1. Potential virus detection and intervention methods for molluscan shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norovirus is the number one cause of foodborne illness in the Unites States, causing an estimated 9 million cases/yr. Hepatitis A is uncommon in the US but can result in serious illness. Bivalve shellfish are efficient bioconcentrators of these viruses from contaminated growing waters. Consequentl...

  2. Natural modulators of Vibrios in seawater and shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally occurring marine bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, are major threats to the safety of molluscan shellfish in the US and elsewhere. Illnesses range from mild gastrointestinal upset to septicemia and death. In studies on the uptake and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus ...

  3. Clinical characteristics and pattern of skin test reactivities in shellfish allergy patients in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wu, Adrian Y; Williams, Gray A

    2004-01-01

    Allergens from crustaceans and mollusks exhibit extensive cross-reactivity in vitro. However, the degree and pattern of cross-reactivity between different shellfish species in vivo is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of shellfish allergic patients in Hong Kong and the pattern of skin test reactivities to the different species. This cohort study involves patients attending the allergy clinic of a large teaching hospital for suspected shellfish allergy. Each subject underwent skin-prick tests to eight species of shellfish and house-dust mites. Eighty-four consecutive patients were tested. Twenty-eight patients reported a history of severe anaphylaxis. Fourteen patients had no positive shellfish skin test and were excluded. There were 183 positive shellfish skin tests, with an average of 2.61 positive tests per subject. Ninety percent of subjects also had positive skin tests to house-dust mites. Overall, 65. 7% of subjects had more than one positive skin test to shellfish. There were strong statistical associations between species belonging to the same order but also between some mollusks and crustaceans. We found a high degree of skin test cross-reactivity between different species of shellfish and between shellfish and house-dust mites. Therefore, patients with a history of shellfish allergy should be cautious with all types of shellfish.

  4. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  5. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  6. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  7. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  8. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  10. [Amitriptyline and imipramine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Paul, H; Ehrenthal, W; Wahlen, W

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of severe poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptylin, Imipramin) are reported. Both patients 3 and 11 years old children, developed a typical clinical picture with cardiovascular, neurological and atropine features. Beside a general supportive management, in one case physostigmin was used as antidote. Alternative treatments of enuresis in childhood are recommended.

  11. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  12. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  13. New approaches to the study of amnesic patients: what can a neurofunctional philosophy and neural network methods offer?

    PubMed

    Pickering, A D

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I first consider a neurofunctional approach to the study of amnesic patients. This approach stresses the need for theorising about the processing operations of brain regions and circuits rather than for theorising about neuropsychological syndromes. A syndrome such as amnesia-may not exist, in any meaningful sense, if there is marked heterogeneity within the patients grouped together in this way. Powerful neuroimaging techniques may now allow a more useful basis for grouping patients in terms of lesion location rather than aetiology. In turn this will allow an evaluation of the information processing functions subserved by the lesioned structures. The second strand to the present paper stresses the weakness in the specification of current theories. This has made it difficult to select experimental tasks that decisively measure the key components of those theories. The paper makes the case that explicit neural network models are a useful way to try to overcome this problem. In line with these ideas, the paper begins to build a model of how the brain may achieve useful kinds of stimulus representations. Considerations of human behaviour in category learning tasks have emphasised parallel and interacting roles for both exemplar- and element-based stimulus representations. It is suggested that the hippocampus itself may encode exemplar representations, and these may provide a basis for episodic memory as well as some types of category learning. It is further suggested that the ventral striatum may encode the element-based representations. The model allows some new and detailed predictions for the performance of amnesic subjects related to lesion location.

  14. Contribution of Shellfish Consumption to Lower Mercury Health Risk for Residents in Northern Jiaozhou Bay, China

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fish and marine mammal consumption are an important pathway for human exposure to mercury. The low mercury content in shellfish poses a low mercury health risk to people who consume shellfish. The objectives of this study are to detect mercury concentrations in different species of shellfish and to calculate the mercury health risk from shellfish consumption among traditional residents near northern Jiaozhou Bay. A total of 356 shellfish samples, which comprised 7 species from 5 different places in northern Jiaozhou Bay, were collected from April to June in 2012. The average mercury content in the collected shellfish ranged from 0.024 mg·kg−1 to 0.452 mg·kg−1. A total of 44 shellfish samples (12.36%) had mercury levels exceeding the national pollution-free aquatic products limit (0.3 mg·kg−1). Generally, the viscus had the highest mercury content among all parts of the shellfish. A positive correlation between mercury content and total weight/edible part weight was found in most species of the collected shellfish. The results showed that shellfish consumption resulted in the lower risk of mercury exposure to residents based on the calculation of daily intake (DI) and target hazard quotient (THQ). PMID:26101470

  15. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bardin, P G; van Eeden, S F; Moolman, J A; Foden, A P; Joubert, J R

    1994-07-11

    Organophosphate insecticides may cause serious poisoning either accidentally or by deliberate ingestion. Toxic symptoms are produced by acetylcholine accumulation at cholinergic receptors. Diagnosis is based on history of exposure or ingestion, symptoms and signs of cholinergic overactivity and a decrease in serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Following diagnosis, grading of disease severity may identify patients with serious poisoning who should receive treatment in intensive care using adequate doses of anticholinergic drugs. Complications, particularly ventricular arrhythmias, central nervous system depression or seizures, and respiratory failure, should be anticipated and treated. Relapse may occur after seemingly successful treatment. Public education with regard to symptoms of toxicity must be encouraged, and physicians must provide skilled treatment for a potentially lethal condition.

  16. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  17. Lead poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  18. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  1. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales. PMID:7761363

  2. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  3. Sensitivity of lateral flow tests to mixtures of saxitoxins and applications to shellfish and phytoplankton monitoring.

    PubMed

    Laycock, Maurice V; Donovan, Mary Anne; Easy, Dorothy J

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated some characteristics of antibodies in the lateral flow format for detecting paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and compared them with the mouse bioassay (MBA). The MBA is still the most reliable test for toxicity in shellfish because it provides an estimate of toxicity directly and can include more than one contaminant. Most other methods, including those involving antibodies, provide estimates of toxin concentration from which toxicity is implied or calculated using conversion factors. Antibody methods suffer from an additional deficiency as sensitivities to the different PSP analogues are unequal. Furthermore, these differences in cross-reactivity are unrelated to differences in specific toxicities. We have addressed the question of what is the toxicity of a sample at the limit of detection (LOD) of the Jellett Rapid Testing Ltd (JRT) lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFI) test. A way to calculate sensitivity to toxicity from toxin profiles is presented and used to examine a variety of PSP toxin mixtures. The calculated values for the sensitivity of the JRT (toxicity at the LOD) for separate PSP toxin analogues may vary over a wide range, but for complex mixtures, typical of natural samples, the range is much narrower. An analysis of PSP toxin profiles of 339 samples from Alaska, Britain, Canada (BC), and USA (Maine) shows the distribution of calculated toxicities at the LOD. The majority (76%) falls within the range 20-50 microg STX eq/100g with a mean at 32 microgSTXeq/100g which is similar to that of the MBA. Observed data from independent parallel studies with the JRT and MBA with a total of 3492 samples from regulatory laboratories in different countries in the period 2003-2007 show close agreement between the two methods. All samples that were found to be positive with the MBA were also positive with the JRT except for one which indicated a false negative rate of less than 0.03% of all samples tested. The JRT for PSP was

  4. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  5. Endrin-food-poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

  6. OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Binger, C A; Faulkner, J M; Moore, R L

    1927-04-30

    1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

  7. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  8. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  9. The affliction of Job: poisoned!

    PubMed

    Gorman, S; Kaplan, D L

    1999-01-01

    The story of Job has been an inspiration for centuries to those familiar with the story. It has also been a source of curiosity as to what affliction he suffered. A critical reappraisal of the clinical manifestations of his illness support the contention that he was a victim of poisoning. There is historical evidence to support that the poison was available in his time and already in use for poisoning. Finally, there is even documentation in the story of Job as to the identity of his poisoner. PMID:9922031

  10. Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2012-05-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

  11. Pseudoalteromonas bacteria are capable of degrading paralytic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Carrie J; Garduño, Rafael A; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ku, John C; Quilliam, Michael A; Gill, Tom A

    2009-11-01

    Marine bacterial isolates cultured from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture. Seven isolates reduced the overall toxicity of the algal extract by > or = 90% within 3 days. These isolates shared at least 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with five Pseudoalteromonas spp. Phenotypic tests suggested that all are novel strains of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. PMID:19717625

  12. Aquaculture and environmental stewardship: Milford shellfish biology seminar—1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blogoslawski, Walter J.

    1992-07-01

    For the past 11 years the annual Shellfish Biology Seminar at Milford CT has provided a unique forum for aquaculture scientists and industry officials to exchange information about estuaries facing increased pollution problems, especially Long Island Sound and the Great South Bay. Because these two areas are so rich in productivity and diversity, fish and shellfish farmers utilize their waters, shellfish beds, and shore land for hatcheries and grow-out facilities. These individuals seek better management of the coastal estuarine environment and its resources, providing a working example of environmental stewardship. In aquaculture, good science is required to understand the complex variables and interaction of estuarine currents, tides, temperature, and cycles of reproduction. Aquaculturists are beginning to understand the need for specific nutrients and how the wastes of one species can be utilized for enhanced production of another species. Over the years, this meeting has formed an amalgam of both the aquaculture industry and research scientists where both groups foster mutual environmental concern. Science is able to focus on the theoretical aspects of pollutant damage. while the aquaculture industry is able to define the problem and need for assistance to eliminate pollutants from their crops—shellfish and finfish. Overfishing is not an issue at these meetings, as the group accepts the damage already done to wild resources and seeks new technologies to grow food sources under controlled and stable market conditions. Therefore, it could be said that the seminar serves as a meeting ground where the theoretical knowledge of scientific study finds practical application in the industry and is fueled by the needs of that industry. This ideal blend of the two groups produces better management of the resource and a safer environment—the goal of stewardship.

  13. Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2012-05-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus.

  14. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  15. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  16. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  17. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  18. Aquatic pollution: effects on the health of fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Bucke, D

    1993-01-01

    As there is little evidence of pollution affecting the health of fish and shellfish on a global scale, this paper attempts to put into perspective the pollution/fish disease relationship by reviewing examples of studies and reports in the historic and current literature. Although there is no dispute that pollution can affect the aquatic organisms under laboratory conditions and may be responsible for the decline of populations of such animals in some inland waters and some estuaries, most of the evidence for pollution causing or increasing disease in fish in open waters is circumstantial. Historical data proves that almost all fish and shellfish diseases known today have been described since the end of the last century. However, it is also known that water pollution, especially in inland waters, has for the past 400-500 years been the result of urbanization and industrialization. This has resulted in some major rivers becoming devoid of or deficient in fish stocks. The concern that pollution may influence the health status of fish and shellfish stocks has increased over the past 20 years. Initial attention was paid to epidermal diseases, including fin-rot in demersal fish, and protozoan diseases in molluscs in the heavily polluted bays and estuaries in North America. As the interest in this subject spread, it became political, and often controversial, especially amongst the North Sea countries. The disagreements have largely been settled amongst scientists because international bodies, such as the International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES), established workshops to investigate sampling methods and disease-reporting techniques. Recommendations from those workshops have contributed to some form of standardization for field work and the subject, although largely subjective, has some objective approaches which are described. As there are variable, interacting biological and physical influences in the aquatic environment, it is difficult to establish the

  19. Validation of a confirmatory method for lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish using UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Gabriel; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Janssen, Colin; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    Lipophilic marine toxins are produced by harmful microalgae and can accumulate in edible filter feeders such as shellfish, leading to an introduction of toxins into the human food chain, causing different poisoning effects. During the last years, analytical methods, based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), have been consolidated by interlaboratory validations. However, the main drawback of LC-MS/MS methods remains the limited number of compounds that can be analyzed in a single run. Due to the targeted nature of these methods, only known toxins, previously considered during method optimization, will be detected. Therefore in this study, a method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS) was developed. Its quantitative performance was evaluated for confirmatory analysis of regulated lipophilic marine toxins in shellfish flesh according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), yessotoxin (YTX), and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) were quantified using matrix-matched calibration curves (MMS). For all compounds, the reproducibility ranged from 2.9 to 4.9 %, repeatability from 2.9 to 4.9 %, and recoveries from 82.9 to 113 % at the three different spiked levels. In addition, confirmatory identification of the compounds was effectively performed by the presence of a second diagnostic ion ((13)C). In conclusion, UHPLC-HR-Orbitrap MS permitted more accurate and faster detection of the target toxins than previously described LC-MS/MS methods. Furthermore, HRMS allows to retrospectively screen for many analogues and metabolites using its full-scan capabilities but also untargeted screening through the use of metabolomics software. PMID:24939136

  20. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. PMID:8553638

  1. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  2. Complications of quinine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Boland, M E; Roper, S M; Henry, J A

    1985-02-16

    Of 165 patients admitted to hospital with acute quinine poisoning 70 (42%) had visual symptoms. 19 were left with a permanent visual deficit, though none was left completely blind. 5 patients died. Bilateral stellate ganglion block was carried out on 34 patients with impaired visual acuity or blindness, but an improvement of symptoms was reported in only 4 cases. It is concluded that stellate ganglion blockade is not effective enough to justify its regular use in quinine-induced amblyopia. Quinine overdose can have serious consequences, and the drug should not be prescribed indiscriminately. PMID:2857431

  3. [Bromadiolone poisoning in foxes].

    PubMed

    Kupper, J; Grobosch, T; Kistler, R; Sydler, T; Naegeli, H

    2006-08-01

    Bromadiolone is an anticoagulant rodenticide that inhibits the reactivation of vitamin K1 by the enzyme vitamin K1-epoxide reductase. The present case report originated from the application of bromadiolone against water voles (Arvicola terrestris) in northeastern Switzerland. At least 40 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were found dead after the inappropriate use of a bait that contained 0.02 % bromadiolone. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of the postmortem examination and subsequently confirmed by the detection ofbromadiolone both in the blood and in samples from thoracic and abdominal fluids. PMID:16933704

  4. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  5. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists.

  6. Phylogeography of cylindrospermopsin and paralytic shellfish toxin-producing nostocales cyanobacteria from mediterranean europe (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Wörmer, Lars; Ballot, Andreas; Agha, Ramsy; Wiedner, Claudia; Velázquez, David; Casero, María Cristina; Quesada, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Planktonic Nostocales cyanobacteria represent a challenge for microbiological research because of the wide range of cyanotoxins that they synthesize and their invasive behavior, which is presumably enhanced by global warming. To gain insight into the phylogeography of potentially toxic Nostocales from Mediterranean Europe, 31 strains of Anabaena (Anabaena crassa, A. lemmermannii, A. mendotae, and A. planctonica), Aphanizomenon (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. ovalisporum), and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were isolated from 14 freshwater bodies in Spain and polyphasically analyzed for their phylogeography, cyanotoxin production, and the presence of cyanotoxin biosynthesis genes. The potent cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) was produced by all 6 Aphanizomenon ovalisporum strains at high levels (5.7 to 9.1 μg CYN mg(-1) [dry weight]) with low variation between strains (1.5 to 3.9-fold) and a marked extracellular release (19 to 41% dissolved CYN) during exponential growth. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) neurotoxins (saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and decarbamoylsaxitoxin) were detected in 2 Aphanizomenon gracile strains, both containing the sxtA gene. This gene was also amplified in non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon gracile and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. Phylogenetic analyses supported the species identification and confirmed the high similarity of Spanish Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains with other European strains. In contrast, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from Spain grouped together with American strains and was clearly separate from the rest of the European strains, raising questions about the current assumptions of the phylogeography and spreading routes of C. raciborskii. The present study confirms that the nostocalean genus Aphanizomenon is a major source of CYN and PSP toxins in Europe and demonstrates the presence of the sxtA gene in CYN-producing Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

  7. Kinetics of accumulation and transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins in the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Reyero, Ma Isabel; Franco, José

    2003-12-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were fed cultures of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning agent Alexandrium minutum (Strain AL1V) for a 15-day period and, for the next 12 days, they were fed the non-toxic species Tetraselmis suecica, in order to monitor the intoxication/detoxification process. The toxin content in the bivalve was checked daily throughout the experiment. During the time-course of the experiment, the toxin profile of the bivalves changed substantially, showing increasingly greater differences from the proportions found in the toxigenic dinoflagellate used as food. The main processes involved in the accumulation of toxins and in the variation of the toxic profiles were implemented in a series of numerical models and the usefulness of those models to describe the actual intoxication/detoxification kinetics was assessed. Models that did not include transformations between toxins were unable to describe the kinetics, even when different detoxification rates were allowed for the toxins involved. The models including epimerization and reduction provided a good description of the kinetics whether or not differential detoxification was allowed for the different toxins, suggesting that the differences in detoxification rates between the toxins are not an important factor in regulating the change of the toxic profile. The implementation of Michaelis-Menten kinetics to describe the two reductive transformations produced a model that had a poorer fit to the data observed than the model that included only a first order kinetics. This suggests that, it is very unlikely that any enzymatic reaction is involved in the reduction of the hydroxycarbamate (OH-GTXs) to carbamate (H-GTXs) gonyautoxins. PMID:14757209

  8. Anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mackey, C L

    1982-01-01

    Anticholinesterase insecticides can be lethal, especially to small children. Prevention, not treatment, is the key to lowering the mortality rate. However, treatment, when necessary, can be effective if the poisoning agent is identified quickly as an anticholinesterase insecticide and therapy is begun immediately and aggressively. Large doses (up to 5 gm) of atropine, which block the parasympathetic effects of the poison, in conjunction with pralidoxime, a cholinesterase regenerator, need to be administered, second only in priority to establishing an airway. The second line of attack after adequate atropinization is supportive. Assistance with ventilation is individualized according to the degree of patient need. Intake with cautiously vigorous fluid therapy and output via Foley catheter are essential. Gastric lavage, seizure precautions and control as necessary, good body hygiene, and frequent turning are also part of necessary nursing intervention. Prognosis is fairly good if improvement is shown after therapy is begun. Maintaining adequate atropinization seems to be difficult yet essential to the success of the treatment and a good prognosis for the patient. PMID:6921196

  9. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  10. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  11. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  12. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes. PMID:23899504

  13. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes.

  14. Does traditional shellfishing affect foraging by waders? The case of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria P.; Peste, Filipa; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-03-01

    Estuarine intertidal flats are often exploited by humans and waders since they provide food, particularly shellfish. This raises important conservation issues. Waders can be affected by shellfishing activities in multiple ways, such as a reduction of the available shellfish, disturbance by the presence of shellfishers on their feeding areas, and changes in micro-habitat, due to sediment reworking. In this study we quantified the impact of traditional shellfishing on waders in the Tagus estuary. Particular attention was given to hand-raking of clams Scrobicularia plana, which constitutes most of the consumed food by waders. Shellfishers did not cause a relevant depletion of clams for waders; they removed less than 0.3% of its total production and focused on size classes that were usually not taken by birds. Hand-raking caused temporary changes in the vertical distribution and availability of invertebrate prey in the sediment. However, this did not affect the bird's feeding rates, presumably because prey availability remained above the threshold at which intake rates are expected to decline. The presence of shellfishers in the birds foraging areas potentially affects waders by keeping them away from foraging areas, but even the most affected species lost less than 10% of their foraging grounds due to this factor. Overall, we conclude that the current low harvesting levels of shellfishing are compatible with the preservation of the estuary as a key site for waders. Nevertheless, simulations showed that traditional shellfishing could have much greater potential to affect waders through disturbance than through prey removal. The results for the Tagus show that even small harvest rates, representing a negligible loss of food for waders and potentially considered sustainable by shellfish managers, could have a great impact on waders due to increased disturbance. This effect of disturbance likely occurs in most estuaries and should be taken into consideration when planning

  15. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Screening of Okadaic Acid and All Dinophysis Toxins from Shellfish Extracts.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Waqass; Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-09-30

    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay was developed and validated to detect okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysis toxins (DTXs), which cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The performance characteristics of the test were investigated, in comparison to reference methods (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and/or bioassay), using both spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish. A portable reader was used to generate a qualitative result, indicating the absence or presence of OA-group toxins, at concentrations relevant to the maximum permitted level (MPL). Sample homogenates could be screened in 20 min (including extraction and assay time) for the presence of free toxins (OA, DTX1, DTX2). DTX3 detection could be included with the addition of a hydrolysis procedure. No matrix effects were observed from the species evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, and clams). Results from naturally contaminated samples (n = 72) indicated no false compliant results and no false noncompliant results at <50% MPL. Thus, the development of a new low-cost but highly effective tool for monitoring a range of important phycotoxins has been demonstrated.

  16. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.; Vicale, T.J.; Dahl, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of bacterial standards as indices of the overall sanitary quality of water and shellfish.

  17. Fish- and shellfish--borne trematode infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B R; Flohr, R B

    1997-01-01

    Food-borne trematode infections are endemic in various parts of the world, particularly Southeast Asia. Despite the high prevalence, morbidity and total costs of these infections, they remain poorly recognized by public health authorities and consumers. Factors such as poor sanitation and traditional methods of food preparation hasten the spread of food-borne trematode infections in endemic regions and must be carefully examined in order to develop effective control strategies. There is also a growing risk to consumers in non-endemic countries as a result of international trade. A considerable quantity of freshwater fish and shellfish is imported into Canada from endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Some of these products are imported fresh or processed in such a way that the infective metacercariae may not be destroyed. Further, current inspection procedures in Canada may not detect the presence of all parasites in imported fish products. Therefore, there may be a risk of infection if the fish or shellfish is consumed raw or lightly cooked. Many of the cases of infection in Canada involve recent immigrants from endemic regions who have become infected either before arriving or through the consumption of traditional or ethnic dishes prepared from imported products. International travel and the increasing availability and interest in ethnic foods also contribute to the risk of infection in all Canadians. In addition to these imported trematodes, a number of species are found in freshwater fishes and shellfish in North America and have also caused illness in humans. Although the prevalence of infection remains relatively low in Canada, the need for an increased general awareness of food-borne trematode infections and their causes is indicated. PMID:9656351

  18. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  19. [Subacute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ghariani, M; Adrien, M L; Raucoules, M; Bayle, J; Jacomet, Y; Grimaud, D

    1991-01-01

    A cas is reported of a 23-year-old man who voluntarily took a massive dose of arsenic (at least 8 g). In spite of the ingested amount and the acute nature of the poisoning, the patient survived 8 days. Gastrointestinal, neurologic and cardiac features were predominant including nausea, vomiting, choleroid diarrhoea, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and finally a fatal toxic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic acidosis, moderate cytolysis and an anticoagulant effect were also observed. This unique characteristic was partly due to a circulating anticoagulant with prothrombinase activity, as well as direct antivitamin K activity. Postmortem examination revealed: a congestive oesophagitis; a necrosing gastritis involving all the stomach wall; diffuse hepatic steatosis; skin lesions with vascular congestion and dermoepidermal detachment; discrete subepicardial congestive lesions. Arsenic was found in all tissues.

  20. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  1. Seasonal variation of bacterial communities in shellfish harvesting waters: preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Santos, L; Silva, A P; Silva, Y J; Cunha, A; Romalde, J L; Nunes, M L; Almeida, A

    2015-01-15

    The recurrent emergence of infections outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption is an important health problem, which results in substantial economic losses to the seafood industry. Even after depuration, shellfish is still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new efficient strategies to control the shellfish infection transmission. Phage therapy during the shellfish depuration is a promising approach, but its success depends on a detailed understanding of the dynamics of bacterial communities in the harvesting waters. This study intends to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, disease-causing bacterial populations and bacterial sanitary quality indicators in two authorized harvesting-zones at Ria de Aveiro. During the hot season, the total bacterial community presented high complexity and new prevalent populations of the main shellfish pathogenic bacteria emerged. These results indicate that the spring/summer season is a critical period during which phage therapy should be applied. PMID:25484114

  2. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

  3. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  4. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  5. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  7. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  8. Visual imagery deficits, impaired strategic retrieval, or memory loss: disentangling the nature of an amnesic person's autobiographical memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions about the duration of hippocampal contributions to our autobiographical record of personal episodes have come under intense scrutiny in recent years. Interpretation is complicated by such factors as extent and site of lesions as well as test sensitivity. We describe the case of an amnesic person, K.C., with large, bilateral hippocampal lesions who figured prominently in the development of theories of remote memory due to his severely impoverished autobiographical memory extending across his entire lifetime. However, the presence of lesions in higher-order visual cortex raises the possibility that K.C.'s retrograde autobiographical amnesia is mediated by loss of long-term visual images, whereas widespread frontal lesions suggest that his impairment may relate to deficits in strategic retrieval rather than storage. Normal performance on an extensive battery of visual imagery tests refutes the imagery loss interpretation. To test for deficits in strategic retrieval, we used a more formal autobiographical memory test requiring generation of personal events under varying levels of retrieval support. However, even with rigorous contextual prompting, K.C. produced few pre-injury recollections; all were schematic, lacking the richness of detail produced by control participants, raising doubt that his deficit is one of retrieval. Findings are discussed in the context of theories concerning the duration of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in supporting autobiographical re-experiencing. The approach we used to investigate the effects of different lesions on memory provides a framework for dealing with other patients who present with an interesting functional deficit whose neuroanatomical source is difficult to specify due to widespread lesions.

  9. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  10. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    PubMed

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  11. Accidental poisoning in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

    1982-01-01

    Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

  12. Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  13. Paralytic shellfish toxin content is related to genomic sxtA4 copy number in Alexandrium minutum strains.

    PubMed

    Stüken, Anke; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Guillou, Laure; Figueroa, Rosa I

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) synthesis. PSTs are small neurotoxic compounds that can accumulate in the food chain and cause serious poisoning incidences when ingested. They are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodium, and Pyrodinium. Here we investigated if the genomic CPN of sxtA4 is related to PST content in Alexandrium minutum cells. SxtA4 is the 4th domain of the sxtA gene and its presence is essential for PST synthesis in dinoflagellates. We used PST and genome size measurements as well as quantitative PCR to analyze sxtA4 CPN and toxin content in 15 A. minutum strains. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the sxtA4 CPN and the total amount of PST produced in actively growing A. minutum cells. This correlation was independent of the toxin profile produced, as long as the strain contained the genomic domains sxtA1 and sxtA4.

  14. Paralytic shellfish toxin content is related to genomic sxtA4 copy number in Alexandrium minutum strains

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Guillou, Laure; Figueroa, Rosa I.

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) synthesis. PSTs are small neurotoxic compounds that can accumulate in the food chain and cause serious poisoning incidences when ingested. They are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodium, and Pyrodinium. Here we investigated if the genomic CPN of sxtA4 is related to PST content in Alexandrium minutum cells. SxtA4 is the 4th domain of the sxtA gene and its presence is essential for PST synthesis in dinoflagellates. We used PST and genome size measurements as well as quantitative PCR to analyze sxtA4 CPN and toxin content in 15 A. minutum strains. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the sxtA4 CPN and the total amount of PST produced in actively growing A. minutum cells. This correlation was independent of the toxin profile produced, as long as the strain contained the genomic domains sxtA1 and sxtA4. PMID:25983733

  15. Paralytic shellfish toxin content is related to genomic sxtA4 copy number in Alexandrium minutum strains.

    PubMed

    Stüken, Anke; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Guillou, Laure; Figueroa, Rosa I

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic aquatic eukaryotes with huge genomes and an unusual cell regulation. For example, most genes are present in numerous copies and all copies seem to be obligatorily transcribed. The consequence of the gene copy number (CPN) for final protein synthesis is, however, not clear. One such gene is sxtA, the starting gene of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) synthesis. PSTs are small neurotoxic compounds that can accumulate in the food chain and cause serious poisoning incidences when ingested. They are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodium, and Pyrodinium. Here we investigated if the genomic CPN of sxtA4 is related to PST content in Alexandrium minutum cells. SxtA4 is the 4th domain of the sxtA gene and its presence is essential for PST synthesis in dinoflagellates. We used PST and genome size measurements as well as quantitative PCR to analyze sxtA4 CPN and toxin content in 15 A. minutum strains. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the sxtA4 CPN and the total amount of PST produced in actively growing A. minutum cells. This correlation was independent of the toxin profile produced, as long as the strain contained the genomic domains sxtA1 and sxtA4. PMID:25983733

  16. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  17. Fatal poisoning by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Boulassel, Brahim; Sadeg, Nouredine; Roussel, Olivier; Perrin, Martine; Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid

    2011-03-20

    We report here a fatal intoxication case involving ammonium vanadate. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, multiple daily diarrheas, hypoglycaemia (0.2g/L) and severe acute renal failure with glomerular filtration rate estimated at 21 ml/min. This patient had taken an undetermined amount of ammonium vanadate 12h after ingesting. She died next morning in the context of respiratory distress despite intensive care and oxygen therapy. The autopsy revealed widespread asphyxia syndrome and erosive gastritis. Determination of vanadium concentration in blood was carried out by means of mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using rhodium ((103)Rh) as the internal standard. The vanadium concentration was 6.22 mg/L, corresponding to 6000 times higher than normal concentration in the general population. The latency and the brutality of clinical picture degradation seem to be in consideration of systemic poisoning by vanadium leading to inhibition of the cellular respiratory process.

  18. [Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

    1993-04-30

    Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water.

  19. Serial cholinesterase estimation in carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pinakini, K S; Kumar, T S Mohan

    2006-07-01

    Poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Anticholinesterase compounds like organophosphates (OP) and carbamates account for the majority of these poisoning cases because of their easy availability and agricultural use. Carbamates are as popular as OPs as insecticides that often go undiagnosed. A fatal case of carbofuran poisoning is presented where serial cholinesterase estimation played a major role in the diagnosis of the same. The pertinent medical literature on carbofuran poisoning is reviewed. The establishment of poison information center in each state is needed for proper diagnosis and management of poisoning cases.

  20. Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969-90.

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, A. A.; Roberts, D.; Gilbert, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1990 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from 359 outbreaks and sporadic cases of staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom were examined in the PHLS Food Hygiene Laboratory for the production of enterotoxin. In a number of instances the incriminated foods were also examined for the presence of enterotoxin. Strains from 79% of incidents produced enterotoxin A alone or together with another enterotoxin. The level of S. aureus present in the foods ranged from no viable S. aureus detected to 1.5 x 10(10) c.f.u./g with a median of 3.0 x 10(7) c.f.u./g. Enterotoxin was detected in foods in the absence of viable S. aureus in only two outbreaks and in both cheese was the implicated food. Meat, poultry or their products were the vehicle in 75% of incidents with ham and chicken most frequently implicated. Other foods included fish and shellfish (7%) and milk and milk products (8%). Most contamination took place in the home followed by restaurants and shops. Seventy-one percent of the incident strains were lysed by phages of group III or I/III. PMID:8519317

  1. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    PubMed

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  2. Histamine poisoning (scombroid fish poisoning): an allergy-like intoxication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Stratton, J E; Nordlee, J A

    1989-01-01

    Histamine poisoning results from the consumption of foods, typically certain types of fish and cheeses, that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Spoiled fish of the families, Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (e.g. tuna, mackerel, bonito), are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term, "scombroid fish poisoning", to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, bluefish, and sardines, when spoiled are also commonly implicated in histamine poisoning. Also, on rare occasions, cheeses especially Swiss cheese, can be implicated in histamine poisoning. The symptoms of histamine poisoning generally resemble the symptoms encountered with IgE-mediated food allergies. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, an oral burning sensation or peppery taste, hives, itching, red rash, and hypotension. The onset of the symptoms usually occurs within a few minutes after ingestion of the implicated food, and the duration of symptoms ranges from a few hours to 24 h. Antihistamines can be used effectively to treat this intoxication. Histamine is formed in foods by certain bacteria that are able to decarboxylate the amino acid, histidine. However, foods containing unusually high levels of histamine may not appear to be outwardly spoiled. Foods with histamine concentrations exceeding 50 mg per 100 g of food are generally considered to be hazardous. Histamine formation in fish can be prevented by proper handling and refrigerated storage while the control of histamine formation in cheese seems dependent on insuring that histamine-producing bacteria are not present in significant numbers in the raw milk.

  3. Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings.

  4. Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08) Upregulates the Expression of Neuronal and Glial Plasticity Markers in the Brain of Scopolamine Induced Amnesic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Arpita; Gautam, Akash; Thakur, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies on animal models have discerned the antiamnesic and memory-enhancing potential of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) crude extract and standardized extracts. These studies primarily focus on behavioral consequences. However, lack of information on molecular underpinnings has limited the clinical trials of the potent herb in human subjects. In recent years, researchers highlight plasticity markers as molecular correlates of amnesia and being crucial to design therapeutic targets. In the present report, we have investigated the effect of a special extract of B. monniera (CDRI-08) on the expression of key neuronal (BDNF and Arc) and glial (GFAP) plasticity markers in the cerebrum of scopolamine induced amnesic mice. Pre- and postadministration of CDRI-08 ameliorated amnesic effect of scopolamine by decreasing acetyl cholinesterase activity and drastically upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of BDNF, Arc, and GFAP in mouse cerebrum. Interestingly, the plant extract per se elevated BDNF and Arc expression as compared to control but GFAP was unaltered. In conclusion, our findings provide the first molecular evidence for antiamnesic potential of CDRI-08 via enhancement of both neuronal and glial plasticity markers. Further investigations on detailed molecular pathways would encourage therapeutic application of the extract in memory disorders. PMID:26413129

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  6. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  7. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint remover poisoning ... Paint lacquer and varnish remover poisoning can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. AIRWAYS AND LUNGS Breathing difficulty (from inhalation) Throat swelling (may also cause ...

  9. Food poisoning due to the consumption of red whelks (Neptunea antiqua).

    PubMed Central

    Reid, T. M.; Gould, I. M.; Mackie, I. M.; Ritchie, A. H.; Hobbs, G.

    1988-01-01

    Two incidents of toxin-type food poisoning in N.E. Scotland associated with the consumption of red whelks (Neptunea antiqua) are described. Four patients developed symptoms within 1 h of consuming whole whelks. These included visual disturbances--double vision and difficulty in focusing--tingling of the fingers, prostration and in one subject nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and ataxia. In all cases recovery was complete in 24 h. Using a newly developed analytical technique the concentration of the causative toxin, tetramine, in the salivary glands of the whelks consumed was estimated at 0.07%, equivalent to a content of 3.75 mg/100 g of the shellfish. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3181322

  10. Antibody to prevent the effects of brevetoxin poisoning in conscious rats. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, C.B.; Poli, M.A.; LeClaire, R.D.

    1988-03-09

    The marine dinoflagellate, Ptychodiscus brevis, primarily responsible for Florida red tides, produces toxins that cause massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Florida coast. In humans, these toxins (brevetoxins) also cause a respiratory tract irritation from contact with seaspray and an intoxication known as neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. These toxins may be considered as potential biological warfare threat agents; therefore, finding a method of prophylaxis and therapy is imperative. The purpose of this study was to determine if an anti-brevetoxin (PbTx-2) antibody could prevent the effects seen in rats in previous brevetoxin studies, namely, reduced respiratory rates, reduced core and peripheral body temperatures, and ECG abnormalities.

  11. Non-accidental salt poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features of 12 children who incurred non-accidental salt poisoning are reported. The children usually presented to hospital in the first six months of life with unexplained hypernatraemia and associated illness. Most of the children suffered repetitive poisoning before detection. The perpetrator was believed to the mother for 10 children, the father for one, and either parent for one. Four children had serum sodium concentrations above 200 mmol/l. Seven children had incurred other fabricated illness, drug ingestion, physical abuse, or failure to thrive/neglect. Two children died; the other 10 remained healthy in alternative care. Features are described that should lead to earlier detection of salt poisoning; the importance of checking urine sodium excretion, whenever hypernatraemia occurs, is stressed. PMID:8503665

  12. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  13. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  14. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident.

  15. Cultivation of the benthic microalga Prorocentrum lima for the production of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in a vertical flat photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Chen, Junhui; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Yanlong; Fu, Boqiang; Han, Xiaotian; Zheng, Li

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the cultivation conditions of Prorocentrum lima, including temperature, nutrient concentration, photoperiod, and salinity were observed, and then an effective method for the large-volume cultivation of P. lima using a vertical flat photobioreactor was developed for the first time. The maximum cell concentrations and toxin contents of P. lima cultured in the photobioreactor were reached after a 35 days cultivation. Moreover, a step-wise double-sedimentation centrifugation method was used to harvest the microalgae cells, with the harvest rate of 89%. Toxin analysis of dry microalgal powder indicated that OA and DTX1 contents were 15.2 and 21.6 mg g(-1), respectively. These results verify that the culture method using the proposed photobioreactor is effective to massively produce DSP toxin-containing P. lima. This study may serve as a guide for the large-scale production of toxin-producing red-tide benthic microalgae.

  16. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. PMID:26806209

  17. Temperature effects on kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxin elimination in Atlantic surfclams, Spisula solidissima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monica Bricelj, V.; Cembella, Allan D.; Laby, David

    2014-05-01

    Surfclams, Spisula solidissima, pose a particular health risk for human consumption as they are characterized by accumulation of extremely high levels of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), slow toxin elimination and an extremely high post-ingestive capacity for toxin bioconversion. Surfclam populations experience a wide range of temperatures along the NW Atlantic continental shelf, and are undergoing range contraction that has been attributed to global warming. In this study the influence of temperature (5, 12 and 21 °C) on detoxification kinetics of individual PSP toxins in two tissue compartments of juvenile surfclams (∼35 mm shell length) was determined under controlled laboratory conditions, over prolonged (2.4 months) depuration. Clams were toxified with a representative regional Gulf of Maine isolate of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense of known toxin profile, allowing tracking of changes in toxin composition and calculated toxicity in surfclam tissues. The visceral mass detoxified at all temperatures, although toxin loss rate increased with increasing temperature. In contrast, total toxin content and calculated toxicities in other tissues remained constant or even increased during depuration, suggesting a physiological or biochemical toxin-retention mechanism in this tissue pool and temperature-independent detoxification. In vivo toxin compositional changes in surfclam tissues found in this study provide evidence of specific toxin conversion pathways, involving both reductive and decarbamoylation pathways. We conclude that such toxin biotransformations, especially in non-visceral tissues, may introduce a discrepancy in describing kinetics of total toxicity (in saxitoxin equivalents [STXeq]) of S. solidissima over prolonged detoxification. Nevertheless, use of total toxicity values generated by routine regulatory monitoring based upon mouse bioassays or calculated from chemical analytical determination of molar toxin

  18. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  19. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  3. Processing Strategies to Inactivate Enteric Viruses in Shellfish: Limitations of Surrogate Viruses and Molecular Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses, hepatitis A and E viruses, sapovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, Aichi virus, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus, and other enteroviruses enter shellfish through contaminated seawater or by contamination during handling and processing, resulting in outbreaks ranging from isolated to epidemic....

  4. Discover the Atlantic Ocean: An Exciting Coloring Book of Fish and Shellfish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, George J.

    This coloring book contains pictures of more than 79 fish and shellfish found on the Atlantic Coast. Captions give information on habitats, behavior, or commercial uses of the species pictured. Indexes of both common and scientific names are given. (BB)

  5. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  6. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  7. Transmission of viruses through shellfish : when specific ligands come into play

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish are known as vectors for human pathogens and despite regulation based on enteric bacteria they are still implicated in viral outbreaks. Among shellfish, oysters are the most common vector of contamination and the pathogens most frequently involved in these outbreaks are noroviruses, responsible for acute gastroenteritis in humans. Analysis of shellfish related outbreak data worldwide show an unexpected high proportion of NoV GI strains. Recent studies performed in vitro, in vivo and in the environment indicate that oysters are not just passive filter, but can selectively accumulate norovirus strains based on virus carbohydrate ligands shared with humans. These observations contribute to explain the GI/GII bias observed in shellfish-related outbreaks compared to other outbreaks. PMID:22440973

  8. PECONIC ESTUARY: AN ASSESSMENT OF SHELLFISH RESOURCES IN THE TRIBUTARIES AND EMBAYMENTS OF THE PECONIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Executive Summary Historically, the Peconic Estuary's shellfish resources have supported significant fisheries for a number of species including hard clams, oysters and bay scallops. However, distribution and abundance data for the tributaries and embayments within the Peconic Es...

  9. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

  10. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  11. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  13. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  14. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and...

  15. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  16. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  20. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. Trends in the levels of Escherichia coli in commercially harvested bivalve shellfish from England and Wales, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos J A; Acornley, Richard; Morgan, Owen C; Kershaw, Simon

    2013-02-15

    Temporal trends in Escherichia coli concentrations in bivalve shellfish were examined using data collected from 57 production areas around the coast of England and Wales during 1999-2008. Downward trends were detected in annual geometric means of E. coli in shellfish from 12% of the sampling points. The percentage of class B areas (E. coli ≤ 4600/100 g shellfish in 90% of samples) increased from 69% to 86% during the 10-year period. The improvement in the microbial quality of shellfish is associated with sewerage improvement schemes largely implemented during 2000-2005. Upward trends were detected in 9% of the points. The causes of these increases are not known. It is recommended that quantitative sanitary profiling of shellfish waters and cost-benefit appraisal over long-term planning horizons are considered as part of sewerage investment programmes under the Water Framework Directive. This would allow greater scope to secure protection and improvement of shellfish water quality.

  3. Acute arsenical poisoning in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A J; Taylor, A J

    1979-05-23

    Four cases of acute poisoning with arsenic are described. Although no new approach to therapy is proposed it is suggested from the data of arsenic recovery from the dialysate of one of the patients studied, that peritoneal dialysis is unlikely to be satisfactory.

  4. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  5. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    PubMed

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  6. [Arsenic poisoning: a special gastroenteritis...].

    PubMed

    Ganster, F; Kuteifan, K; Mootien, Y; Harry, P; Guiot, P

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic (As) intoxication is nowadays extremely rare. Two cases of acute and chronic As criminal poisoning leading to death of a couple of retired people, are reported. Clinical presentation was simulating a gastro-enteritidis with fast evolution to refractory shock. Toxicological analysis confirmed this diagnostic, with respectively blood As concentrations at 579 and 21 765 microg/l for our two patients.

  7. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  8. Lead Poisoning in Jewellery Enamellers

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, R.; Kipling, M. D.; Weber, A. B.

    1967-01-01

    Lead poisoning in jewellery enamellers in Birmingham has been described both at the beginning of this century and again in recent years. The condition arises from the habit of some workers of placing the enamel applicator in the mouth. The history of the hazard is reviewed and an investigation described. PMID:6073093

  9. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  10. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  11. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  12. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08) Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rakesh; Singh, Hemant K.; Prasad, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication, we have investigated effects of the CDRI-08, a well characterized extract of Bacopa monnieri, on expression of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in various brain regions of the scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Our behavioral data reveal that scopolamine-treated amnesic mice exhibit significant decline in the spatial memory compared to the normal control mice. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting data revealed that the scopolamine treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our enzyme assay data revealed that scopolamine caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity in both the brain regions. Further, oral administration of the CDRI-08 to scopolamine-treated amnesic mice restored the spatial memory which was found to be associated with significant upregulation of the GluN2B subunit expression and decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus towards their levels in the normal control mice. Our study provides the evidence for the mechanism underlying role of the Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08) in restoring spatial memory in amnesic mice, which may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26413117

  13. Derivation of shellfish harvest reopening criteria following the New Carissa oil spill in Coos Bay, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, D J

    2000-07-14

    Oil spills in Alaska, California, Maine, and other states have raised concerns regarding potential contamination of fish and shellfish, and have led to temporary closures of seafood harvests while health risks are assessed. Lacking standardized protocols, these assessments are generally ad hoc, site-specific efforts, with significant differences in risk evaluation criteria. This article describes the response of a state health agency to shellfish contamination following an oil spill on the Oregon coast, and discusses some of the factors that can complicate the evaluation of potential health risks from consumption of oil-contaminated shellfish. On 4 February 1999, the Japanese-owned cargo ship M/V New Carissa, carrying an estimated 400,000 gallons of light diesel and heavy fuel oil, ran aground 2 miles north of Coos Bay, Oregon. Damage to the ship's hull from the grounding and pounding surf caused the release of an estimated 25,000 to 70,000 gallons of oil. Concern for potential contamination of local recreational shellfish and commercial oyster beds prompted the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) to close shellfish harvesting in Coos and Douglas counties. ODA requested assistance from the Oregon Health Division in the derivation of risk-based criteria for reopening the shellfish harvest. Criteria were developed for the primary contaminants of concern, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) expressed as total benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) equivalents. "Safe" (<10 microg/kg) and "unsafe" (>45 microg/kg) BaP equivalent levels were derived based on upper end (32.5 g/d) and average (7.5 g/d) estimates of shellfish consumption, respectively. Composite samples of oysters, clams, and mussels (15-20 per composite) were collected from target areas and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Carcinogenic PAHs were converted to total BaP equivalents (wet weight) and compared with criteria. Two oyster samples, collected from a slough off of Coos Bay

  14. Derivation of shellfish harvest reopening criteria following the New Carissa oil spill in Coos Bay, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, D J

    2000-07-14

    Oil spills in Alaska, California, Maine, and other states have raised concerns regarding potential contamination of fish and shellfish, and have led to temporary closures of seafood harvests while health risks are assessed. Lacking standardized protocols, these assessments are generally ad hoc, site-specific efforts, with significant differences in risk evaluation criteria. This article describes the response of a state health agency to shellfish contamination following an oil spill on the Oregon coast, and discusses some of the factors that can complicate the evaluation of potential health risks from consumption of oil-contaminated shellfish. On 4 February 1999, the Japanese-owned cargo ship M/V New Carissa, carrying an estimated 400,000 gallons of light diesel and heavy fuel oil, ran aground 2 miles north of Coos Bay, Oregon. Damage to the ship's hull from the grounding and pounding surf caused the release of an estimated 25,000 to 70,000 gallons of oil. Concern for potential contamination of local recreational shellfish and commercial oyster beds prompted the Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) to close shellfish harvesting in Coos and Douglas counties. ODA requested assistance from the Oregon Health Division in the derivation of risk-based criteria for reopening the shellfish harvest. Criteria were developed for the primary contaminants of concern, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) expressed as total benzo[a]-pyrene (BaP) equivalents. "Safe" (<10 microg/kg) and "unsafe" (>45 microg/kg) BaP equivalent levels were derived based on upper end (32.5 g/d) and average (7.5 g/d) estimates of shellfish consumption, respectively. Composite samples of oysters, clams, and mussels (15-20 per composite) were collected from target areas and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Carcinogenic PAHs were converted to total BaP equivalents (wet weight) and compared with criteria. Two oyster samples, collected from a slough off of Coos Bay

  15. Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:16749546

  16. Interlaboratory comparison of two AOAC liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis through characterization of an oyster reference material.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Rourke, Wade A; Higman, Wendy A

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory ring trial was designed and conducted by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science to investigate a range of issues affecting the analysis of a candidate Pacific oyster paralytic shellfish toxin reference material. A total of 21 laboratories participated in the study and supplied results using one or more of three instrumental methods, specifically precolumn oxidation (Pre-COX) LC with fluorescence detection (FLD; AOAC Official Method 2005.06), postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD (AOAC Official Method 2011.02), and hydrophilic interaction LC/MS/MS. Each participant analyzed nine replicate samples of the oyster tissue in three separate batches of three samples over a period of time longer than 1 week. Results were reported in a standardized format, reporting both individual toxin concentrations and total sample toxicity. Data were assessed to determine the equivalency of the two AOAC LC methods and the LC/MS/MS method as well as an assessment of intrabatch and interbatch repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility of each method. Differences among the results reported using the three methods were shown to be statistically significant, although visual comparisons showed an overlap between results generated by the majority of tests, the exception being the Pre-COX quantitation of N-hydroxylated toxins in post ion-exchange fractions. Intralaboratory repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility were acceptable for most of the results, with the exception of results generated from fractions. The results provided good evidence for the acceptable performance of the PCOX method for the quantitation of C toxins. Overall the study showed the usefulness of interlaboratory analysis for the characterization of paralytic shellfish poisoning matrix reference materials, highlighting some issues that may need to be addressed with further method assessment at individual participant laboratories.

  17. Studies on Freezint of Shell-Fish -II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae Jin; Konagaya, Shiro; Nakamura, Koji; Iida, Haruka; Tanaka, Takeo

    Changes in free amino acid content and compostion, and formation of odor components in ark shell Anadara broughtonii(Shrenk) during frozen storgae were studied in connection with storage temperature. The shucked shell-fish were frozen -40°C and stored at -10, -20 and -40°C, respectively for three months, and the shell flesh were subjected to anyalyses for free amino acids and odor components. The amount of total free amino acids in the shell flesh storedat -10°C was not as large as those in the flesh stored at -20 and -40°C. This finding implies that free amino acids in the shell flesh, when frozen-stored at a relatively high temperature, decrease in amount during storage and/or become liable to be lost along with drip during the course of thawing. As for respective amino acids, a mounts of Tau, β-Ala, and Gly decreased markedly, while those of Met, Leu and Ile increased to some extent. In addition, it is of particular interest that β-Ala is likely to be present in the free state. Amounts of volatile compounds such as carbonyl, nitrogenous, and sulfurous compounds have never attained the level where unpleasant or fishy odor could be percieved. However, there was a clear tendency that the higher the storage temperature, the larger amount of these compounds were presen.

  18. Removal of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vasama, Mari; Kumar, Himanshu; Salminen, Seppo; Haskard, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are non-protein neurotoxins produced by saltwater dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria. The ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG and LC-705 (in viable and non-viable forms) to remove PSTs (saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2/3), C-toxins 1 and 2 (C1/2)) from neutral and acidic solution (pH 7.3 and 2) was examined using HPLC. Binding decreased in the order of STX ~ neoSTX > C2 > GTX3 > GTX2 > C1. Removal of STX and neoSTX (77%–97.2%) was significantly greater than removal of GTX3 and C2 (33.3%–49.7%). There were no significant differences in toxin removal capacity between viable and non-viable forms of lactobacilli, which suggested that binding rather than metabolism is the mechanism of the removal of toxins. In general, binding was not affected by the presence of other organic molecules in solution. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate the ability of specific probiotic lactic bacteria to remove PSTs, particularly the most toxic PST-STX, from solution. Further, these results warrant thorough screening and assessment of safe and beneficial microbes for their usefulness in the seafood and water industries and their effectiveness in vivo. PMID:25046082

  19. [Accumulation and degradation of organochorine pesticides in shellfish culture environment in Xiamen sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuo-liang; Dong, Li-ming

    2011-09-01

    By using GC-ECD, the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the shellfish culture environment (sea water, sediments, and culture-shellfishes) in Xiamen sea area were analyzed, and the accumulation and degradation patterns of the HCH and DDT were preliminarily approached. In the sea area, there existed remarkable differences in the accumulation and degradation of HCH and DDT among different shellfish culture environments, being mostly associated with the habitation environment and physiological life habits of shellfish. The accumulated HCH isomers (Rx > 1) were mainly beta-HCH, delta-HCH, and gamma-HCH, whereas the degraded HCH isomers (Rx < 1) were mainly alpha-HCH. The ratio of alpha-HCH to gamma-HCH was less than or equal to 1.0, suggesting that the HCH was come from industrial HCH and lindane, most of the HCH had remained in the culture environment for a longer time, and a small amount of lindane was imported. The DDT in the sea water was aerobically degraded, its main degradation product was DDE, and the ratios of (DDD+DDE) to DDTs (p,p-DDE+p,p-DDD+o,p-DDT+p,p-DDT) was less than 0.5, whereas the DDT in sediments and shellfishes was anaerobically degraded, its main degradation product was DDD, and the ratios of (DDD+DDE) to DDTs was greater than 0.5, suggesting that there was a small amount of DDT newly imported in the sea water, and most DDT in sediments and shellfishes were already degraded and transformed into DDD and DDE. There were definite differences in the degradation rates of HCH isomers in the culture environment, suggesting the conformational change of HCH in its transformation processes in the shellfish culture ecosystem.

  20. Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C.; Borsuk, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985–2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our

  1. Interannual variability in the timing of New England shellfish toxicity and relationships to environmental forcing.

    PubMed

    Nair, Apurva; Thomas, Andrew C; Borsuk, Mark E

    2013-03-01

    Routine monitoring along the coast of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) reveals shellfish toxicity nearly every summer, but at varying times, locations, and magnitudes. The responsible toxin is known to be produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, yet there is little apparent association between Alexandrium abundance and shellfish toxicity. One possibility is that toxic cells are persistent in offshore areas and variability in shellfish toxicity is caused not by changes in overall abundance, but rather by variability in transport processes. Measurements of offshore Alexandrium biomass are scarce, so we bypass cell abundance as an explanatory variable and focus instead on the relations between shellfish toxicity and concurrent metrics of GoM meteorology, hydrology, and oceanography. While this yields over two decades (1985-2005) of data representing a variety of interannual conditions, the toxicity data are gappy in spatial and temporal coverage. We address this through a combination of parametric curve fitting and hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal eight archetypical modes of seasonal toxicity timing. Groups of locations are then formed that have similar interannual patterns in these archetypes. Finally, the interannual patterns within each group are related to available environmental metrics using classification trees. Results indicate that a weak cross-shore sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the summer is the strongest correlate of shellfish toxicity, likely by signifying a hydrological connection between offshore Alexandrium populations and near-shore shellfish beds. High cumulative downwelling wind strength early in the season is revealed as a precursor consistent with this mechanism. Although previous studies suggest that alongshore transport is important in moving Alexandrium from the eastern to western GoM, alongshore SST gradient is not an important correlate of toxicity in our study. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results

  2. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection.

  3. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    PubMed

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection. PMID:27002718

  4. Toxic and harmful marine phytoplankton and microalgae (HABs) in Mexican Coasts.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, David U; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba; Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Barón-Campis, Sofia A; Ceballos-Corona, Gerardo; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge; Meave Del Castillo, María E; Juárez-Ruíz, Norma; Merino-Virgilio, Fanny; Morales-Blake, Alejandro; Ochoa, José L; Orellana-Cepeda, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Camarena, Casimiro; Rodríguez-Salvador, Raciel

    2007-08-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are becoming an increasing problem to human health and environment (including effects on natural and cultured resources, tourism and ecosystems) all over the world. In Mexico a number of human fatalities and important economic losses have occurred in the last 30 years because of these events. There are about 70 species of planktonic and non-planktonic microalgae considered harmful in Mexican coasts. The most important toxin-producing species are the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, in the Mexican Pacific, and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico, and consequently the poisonings documented in Mexico are Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP). Although there is evidence that Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP), Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) and Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) also occur in Mexico, these problems are reported less frequently. The type of phytoplankton and epiphytic microalgae, their toxins and harmful effects as well as current methodology used to study these phenomena are presented in this paper. As an experienced group of workers, we include descriptions of monitoring and mitigation programs, our proposals for collaborative projects and perspectives on future research. PMID:17680474

  5. Uptake, distribution and depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins from Alexandrium minutum in Australian greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Natalie; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; van Ruth, Paul; van Ginkel, Roel; McNabb, Paul; Hay, Brenda; O'Connor, Wayne; Kiermeier, Andreas; Deveney, Marty; McLeod, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10⁵ Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g⁻¹ (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹, which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or survival but saw accumulation of up to 1.6 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ in the abalone foot tissue (muscle, mouth without oesophagus and epipodial fringe), which is ∼50 times lower than the maximum permissible limit (80 μg 100 g⁻¹ tissue) for PSTs in molluscan shellfish. The PST levels in the foot were reduced to 0.48 μg STX-equivalent 100 g⁻¹ after scrubbing and removal of the pigment surrounding the epithelium of the epipodial fringe (confirmed by both HPLC and LC-MS/MS). Thus, scrubbing the epipodial fringe, a common procedure during commercial abalone canning, reduced PST levels by ∼70%. Only trace levels of PSTs were detected in the viscera (stomach, gut, heart, gonad, gills and mantle) of the abalone. A toxin reduction of approximately 73% was observed in STX-contaminated abalone held in clean water and fed uncontaminated food over 50 days. The low level of PST uptake when abalone were exposed to high numbers of A. minutum cells over a prolonged period may indicate a low risk of PSP poisoning to humans from the consumption of H. laevigata that has been exposed to a bloom of potentially toxic A. minutum in Australia. Further research is required to establish if non-dietary accumulation can result in significant levels of PSTs in abalone.

  6. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, Vera L.; Hardy, F. Joan

    2015-01-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  7. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-09

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  8. Integrative monitoring of marine and freshwater harmful algae in Washington State for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Hardy, F Joan

    2015-04-01

    The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB) partnership and the state's freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic) surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans. PMID:25860160

  9. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  10. Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

  11. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  12. PSP toxins profile in ascidian Microcosmus vulgaris (Heller, 1877) after human poisoning in Croatia (Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Roje-Busatto, Romana; Ujević, Ivana

    2014-03-01

    Toxins known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) syndrome in humans that can have serious economic consequences for aquaculture were determined in ascidians of the genus Microcosmus. Significant concentrations of toxins were confirmed in all tested samples collected from the western coast of Istria Peninsula (Adriatic Sea, Croatia) when six people were poisoned following the consumption of fresh ascidians. Several species of bivalves that were under continuous monitoring had not accumulated PSP toxins although they were exposed to the same environmental conditions over the survey period. In the present study, HPLC-FLD with pre-column oxidation of PSP toxins has been carried out to provide evidence for the first human intoxication due to consumption of PSP toxic ascidians (Microcosmus vulgaris, Heller, 1877) harvested from the Adriatic Sea. Qualitative analysis established the presence of six PSP toxins: saxitoxin (STX), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (GTX2,3), decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2 and 3 (dcGTX2,3), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins 1 and 2 (C1,2), while quantitative analysis suggested STX and GTX2,3 as dominant toxin types and the ones that contribute the most to the overall toxicity of these samples with concentrations near the regulatory limit.

  13. Investigation of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Lingshan Bay, Yellow Sea, China, using solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Ling; Li, Zhao-Xin; Guo, Meng-Meng; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Song, Cai-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Early detection of toxin contamination in shellfish (i.e., prior to harvest) would be of considerable advantage to fish farmers, researchers and food safety administrators. In 2004, a solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technique was developed to study algal toxins in New Zealand shellfish harvesting areas. In subsequent years, the basic idea have been further developed. Using a SPATT method, an investigation into diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) was conducted over a 10.5-month period in 2012 in shellfish farming areas in Lingshan Bay (Yellow Sea, China). This paper discusses the relationship among DSTs in toxic algae, seawater and contaminated shellfish. OA, DTX1 and PTX2 toxins were found in this shellfish farming area from summer to autumn. In shellfish the maximum concentrations of OA and DTX1 were 81 and 41 ng g(-1) respectively. PTX2 was very low. The maximum levels of OA and DTX1 in seawater were 165 and 56 ng g(-1) respectively, and were detected on June, separated by a 14-day period. Shellfish had accumulated the highest levels of OA and DTX1 recorded in this study. Comparison of the variations in DST levels in seawater showed there to be about 2 weeks for administrators to warn of the potential for toxin contamination in shellfish. Further research to explore the relationship between the variables of seawater temperature, sunlight and salinity, and DSTs in shellfish may help to establish a more suitable model for forecasting DST contamination in shellfish. PMID:27295385

  14. Studies on heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus with special reference to shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Judith; Appleton, Hazel; Parry, J. V.

    1987-01-01

    The consumption of bi-valve molluscan shellfish has been associated with outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. Investigations were undertaken to determine the heat inactivation conditions necessary to render shellfish such as cockles safe for the consumer. Conditions for the laboratory maintenance of live cockles are described. In preliminary experiments either poliovirus (106 TCID50/ml seawater) or hepatitis A virus (HAV) (approx. 104 RFU/ml seawater) was introduced into the shellfish tank. Following 48 h filter feeding, virus was recovered from cockles using an adsorption-elution extraction procedure. Titres of virus recovered ranged from 104 to 105 TCID50/ml of shellfish extract for poliovirus and from 103 to 105 RFU/ml of shellfish extract for HAV. Active ingestion of the virus from the seawater was demonstrated by recovering virus from within cockle guts. To quantify recovered HAV, end-point dilutions and an adaptation of a radioimmunofocus assay (RIFA) were compared. The tests were of similar sensitivity but the RIFA has the advantage of being relatively rapid, shortening the time taken to complete an experiment by as much as 4 weeks. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 2 PMID:3036554

  15. Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish and clinical samples during two large epidemics of diarrhoea in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Loreto; Hernández, Cristina; Toro, Jessica; Rioseco, M Luisa; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2006-04-01

    Large epidemics of diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred during the austral summers of 2004 and 2005 in the environs of Puerto Montt, Chile (41 degrees 29'S 72 degrees 24'W). There are no reports of V. parahaemolyticus infections before 2004 in this region, their absence being explained by the low ocean temperatures which seldom reach 16 degrees C. We analysed V. parahaemolyticus obtained from shellfish and clinical samples during epidemics. Isolates were examined using conventional protocols and an improved method for restriction enzyme analysis using total bacterial DNA which permits direct genome restriction enzyme analysis by conventional gel electrophoresis (DGREA) with a similar discrimination index as restriction fragment length polymorphism-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE). Analysis of clinical samples showed that the epidemics were caused by the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clonal group. On the other hand, analysis of shellfish samples during both epidemics showed that 53% contained V. parahaemolyticus (3-93 g(-1)). Detailed analysis of 50 positive shellfish samples showed that only three contained detectable levels of the pandemic clone. Most V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained from shellfish corresponded to non-pandemic clones differentiated into 14 groups by DGREA. In summary, the causative agent during epidemics was only a minor component of a small but diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish. PMID:16584479

  16. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  17. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

  18. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-01

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  19. Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    C De, Bidhan; Meena, D K; Behera, B K; Das, Pronob; Das Mohapatra, P K; Sharma, A P

    2014-06-01

    Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view.

  20. Metabolic complications of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, A M

    2001-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of acute organophosphate (OP) and carbamate poisoning have already been well described. Most of these reports were on the cardiac, neurologic, respiratory and other clinical complications of these compounds. However, very little attention has been given to the metabolic aspects of this problem, particularly those accompanying carbamate poisoning. This paper describes the metabolic complications seen in 84 adult patients after acute poisoning with these compounds.