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Sample records for amorphous titanium dioxide

  1. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-10-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7 mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large resistance and small capacitance on the amorphous TiO2-x surface, illuminated a red LED for 37 ms after it was charged with 1 mA at 10 V. The fabricated device showed no dielectric breakdown up to 1,100 V. Based on this approach, further advances in the development of amorphous titanium-dioxide supercapacitors might be attained by integrating oxide ribbons with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  2. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7 mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large resistance and small capacitance on the amorphous TiO2-x surface, illuminated a red LED for 37 ms after it was charged with 1 mA at 10 V. The fabricated device showed no dielectric breakdown up to 1,100 V. Based on this approach, further advances in the development of amorphous titanium-dioxide supercapacitors might be attained by integrating oxide ribbons with a micro-electro mechanical system. PMID:27767103

  3. Genotoxicity evaluation of nanosized titanium dioxide, synthetic amorphous silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana M; Louro, Henriqueta; Antunes, Susana; Quarré, Stephanie; Simar, Sophie; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Verleysen, Eveline; Mast, Jan; Jensen, Keld A; Norppa, Hannu; Nesslany, Fabrice; Silva, Maria João

    2014-02-01

    Toxicological characterization of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for safety assessment, while keeping pace with innovation from their development and application in consumer products. The specific physicochemical properties of NMs, including size and morphology, might influence their toxicity and have impact on human health. The present work aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), in human lymphocytes. The morphology and size of those NMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the hydrodynamic particle size-distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. Using a standardized procedure to ensure the dispersion of the NMs and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (without metabolic activation), we observed significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBCs) for some TiO2 NMs and for two MWCNTs, although no clear dose-response relationships could be disclosed. In contrast, all forms of SAS analyzed in this study were unable to induce micronuclei. The present findings increase the weight of evidence towards a genotoxic effect of some forms of TiO2 and some MWCNTs. Regarding safety assessment, the differential genotoxicity observed for closely related NMs highlights the importance of investigating the toxic potential of each NM individually, instead of assuming a common mechanism and equal genotoxic effects for a set of similar NMs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation on bismuth vanadate by electrodeposition of amorphous titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David; Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2014-10-08

    n-BiVO4 is a promising semiconductor material for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. Although most thin-film syntheses yield discontinuous BiVO4 layers, back reduction of photo-oxidized products on the conductive substrate has never been considered as a possible energy loss mechanism in the material. We report that a 15 s electrodeposition of amorphous TiO2 (a-TiO2) on W:BiVO4/F:SnO2 blocks this undesired back reduction and dramatically improves the photoelectrochemical performance of the electrode. Water oxidation photocurrent increases by up to 5.5 times, and its onset potential shifts negatively by ∼500 mV. In addition to blocking solution-mediated recombination at the substrate, the a-TiO2 film-which is found to lack any photocatalytic activity in itself-is hypothesized to react with surface defects and deactivate them toward surface recombination. The proposed treatment is simple and effective, and it may easily be extended to a wide variety of thin-film photoelectrodes.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7) is exempted from the requirement of...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7) is exempted from the requirement of...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  16. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhe; Green, Michael; Just, Michael; Li, Yang Yang; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been long regarded as one of the more promising photocatalysts to remove environmental pollution and to generate hydrogen from water under sunlight irradiation via photocatalysis. TiO2 is environmentally benign and thus is considered a ‘green’ catalyst. In this review we present a short introduction to the physical and electronic properties of TiO2, its photocatalytic mechanisms, and some recent examples of various TiO2 materials used for photocatalysis; these examples include 0, 1, 2, 3D, faceted, defected, composited, and hydrogenated TiO2 materials.

  17. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR.... The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements on § 73.575 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive titanium dioxide may be...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.575(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with titanium dioxide may...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.575(a)(1) and (b). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with titanium dioxide may...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR.... The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements on § 73.575 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive titanium dioxide may be...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  3. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive mixtures for food use made with titanium dioxide may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in this subpart as safe in color additive mixtures for coloring foods, and the... solution obtained by boiling 10 grams of the titanium dioxide for 15 minutes in 50 milliliters of...

  4. Visible Spectra of Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V.; Nagarajan, R.; Maier, J. P.; Zhuang, X.; Le, A.; Steimle, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO) has been extensively studied spectroscopically due to its astrophysical relevance. TiO is the main opacity source in the atmospheres of cool M-type stars in the visible and near infrared. In view of the high cosmic abundance of Ti and O, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is believed to play an important role in dust formation processes from the gas-phase in circumstellar shells of oxygen-rich stars. The electronic spectra of a cold molecular beam of TiO2 have been investigated using mass-resolved resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. TiO2 was produced by laser ablation of a pure titanium rod in the presence of a supersonic expanding mixture of approximately 5% O2 in either helium or argon. The spectra were recorded in the region 17500 cm-1 to 22500 cm-1 and the bands assigned to the A1B2 ← X1A1 transition. The origin and harmonic vibrational constants for the A1B2 state were determined to be: T000 = 17593(5) cm-1, ω1 = 876(3) cm-1, ω2 = 184(1) cm-1, and ω3 = 316(2) cm-1. Further, the dispersed fluorescence of a few bands were recorded to obtain vibrational parameters for the X1A1 state.

  5. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications... safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts...

  6. Nanocrystalline silicon/amorphous silicon dioxide superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchet, P.M.; Tsybeskov, L.; Zacharias, M. |; Hirschman, K. |

    1998-12-31

    Thin layers made of densely packed silicon nanocrystals sandwiched between amorphous silicon dioxide layers have been manufactured and characterized. An amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon dioxide superlattice is first grown by CVD or RF sputtering. The a-Si layers are recrystallized in a two-step procedure (nucleation + growth) for form layers of nearly identical nanocrystals whose diameter is given by the initial a-Si layer thickness. The recrystallization is monitored using a variety of techniques, including TEM, X-Ray, Raman, and luminescence spectroscopies. When the a-Si layer thickness decreases (from 25 nm to 2.5 nm) or the a-SiO{sub 2} layer thickness increases (from 1.5 nm to 6 nm), the recrystallization temperature increases dramatically compared to that of a single a-Si film. The removal of the a-Si tissue present between the nanocrystals, the passivation of the nanocrystals, and their doping are discussed.

  7. Influence Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose For The Transport Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles In Clean Silica And Mineral-Coated Sands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transport properties of titanium dioxide (anatase polymorph) nanoparticles encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were evaluated as a function of changes in the solute chemical properties in clean quartz, amorphous aluminum and iron hydroxide-coated sands. While prist...

  8. Tailored Fabrication of Transferable and Hollow Weblike Titanium Dioxide Structures.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Arto; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Saari, Jesse; Ojanperä, Anniina; Sarlin, Essi; Wondraczek, Holger; Efimov, Alexander; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Vivo, Paola; Maccato, Chiara; Barreca, Davide; Fardim, Pedro; Tkachenko, Nikolai; Valden, Mika; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2017-01-04

    The preparation of weblike titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition on cellulose biotemplates is reported. The method produces a TiO2 web, which is flexible and transferable from the deposition substrate to that of the end application. Removal of the cellulose template by calcination converts the amorphous titania to crystalline anatase and gives the structure a hollow morphology. The TiO2 webs are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to give new insight into manufacturing of porous titanium dioxide structures by means of template-based methods. Functionality and integrity of the TiO2 hollow weblike thin films were successfully confirmed by applying them as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Yan, Jian; Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs, <100 nm) are increasingly being used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics due to the unique properties derived from their small sizes. However, their large surface-area to mass ratio and high redox potential may negatively impact human health and the environment. TiO(2)-NPs can cause inflammation, pulmonary damage, fibrosis, and lung tumors and they are possibly carcinogenic to humans. Because cancer is a disease involving mutation, there are a large number of studies on the genotoxicity of TiO(2)-NPs. In this article, we review the results that have been reported in the literature, with a focus on data generated from the standard genotoxicity assays. The data include genotoxicity results from the Ames test, in vitro and in vivo Comet assay, in vitro and in vivo micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchange assay, mammalian cell hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene assay, the wing somatic mutation and recombination assay, and the mouse phosphatidylinositol glycan, class A gene assay. Inconsistent results have been found in these assays, with both positive and negative responses being reported. The in vitro systems for assessing the genotoxicity of TiO(2)-NPs have generated a greater number of positive results than the in vivo systems, and tests for DNA and chromosome damage have produced more positive results than the assays measuring gene mutation. Nearly all tests for measuring the mutagenicity of TiO(2)-NPs were negative. The current data indicate that the genotoxicity of TiO(2)-NPs is mediated mainly through the generation of oxidative stress in cells.

  10. Amorphous silica-like carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gorelli, Federico A.; Bini, Roberto; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Scandolo, Sandro; Crichton, Wilson A.

    2006-06-01

    Among the group IV elements, only carbon forms stable double bonds with oxygen at ambient conditions. At variance with silica and germania, the non-molecular single-bonded crystalline form of carbon dioxide, phase V, only exists at high pressure. The amorphous forms of silica (a-SiO2) and germania (a-GeO2) are well known at ambient conditions; however, the amorphous, non-molecular form of CO2 has so far been described only as a result of first-principles simulations. Here we report the synthesis of an amorphous, silica-like form of carbon dioxide, a-CO2, which we call `a-carbonia'. The compression of the molecular phase III of CO2 between 40 and 48GPa at room temperature initiated the transformation to the non-molecular amorphous phase. Infrared spectra measured at temperatures up to 680K show the progressive formation of C-O single bonds and the simultaneous disappearance of all molecular signatures. Furthermore, state-of-the-art Raman and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on temperature-quenched samples confirm the amorphous character of the material. Comparison with vibrational and diffraction data for a-SiO2 and a-GeO2, as well as with the structure factor calculated for the a-CO2 sample obtained by first-principles molecular dynamics, shows that a-CO2 is structurally homologous to the other group IV dioxide glasses. We therefore conclude that the class of archetypal network-forming disordered systems, including a-SiO2, a-GeO2 and water, must be extended to include a-CO2.

  11. Structure of molten titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The x-ray structure factor of molten TiO2 has been measured for the first time, enabled by the use of aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating, to a temperature of T = 2250(30) K. Ti-O coordination number in the melt is close to nTiO = 5.0(2), with modal Ti-O bond length rTiO = 1.881(5) Å, both values being significantly smaller than for the high temperature stable Rutile crystal structure (nTiO = 6.0, rTiO = 1.959 Å). The structural differences between melt and crystal are qualitatively similar to those for alumina, which is rationalized in terms of the similar field strengths of Ti4+ and Al3+. The diffraction data are used to generate physically and chemically reasonable structural models, which are then compared to the predictions based on various classical molecular dynamics (MD) potentials. New interatomic potentials, suitable for modelling molten TiO2, are introduced, given the inability of existing MD models to reproduce the diffraction data. These new potentials have the additional great advantage of being able to predict the density and thermal expansion of the melt, as well as solid amorphous TiO2, in agreement with published results. This is of critical importance given the strong correlation between density and structural parameters such as nTiO. The large thermal expansion of the melt is associated with weakly temperature dependent structural changes, whereby simulations show that nTiO = 5.85(2) – (3.0(1) x 10-4 )T (K, 2.75 Å cut-off). The TiO2 liquid is structurally analogous to the geophysically relevant high pressure liquid silica system at around 27 GPa. We argue that the predominance of 5-fold polyhedra in the melt implies the existence of as yet undiscovered TiO2 polymorphs, based on lowerthan-octahedral coordination numbers, which are likely to be metastable under ambient conditions. Given the industrial importance of titanium oxides, experimental and computational searches for such polymorphs are well warranted.

  12. Structure of molten titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The x-ray structure factor of molten TiO2 has been measured, enabled by the use of aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating, to a temperature of T=2250(30)K. The Ti-O coordination number in the melt is close to nTiO=5.0(2), with modal Ti-O bond length rTiO=1.881(5)Å, both values being significantly smaller than for the high temperature stable rutile crystal structure (nTiO=6.0,rTiO=1.959Å). The structural differences between melt and crystal are qualitatively similar to those for alumina, which is rationalized in terms of the similar field strengths of Ti4+ and Al3+. The diffraction data are used to generate physically and chemically reasonable structural models, which are then compared to the predictions based on various classical molecular dynamics (MD) potentials. Interatomic potentials, suitable for modeling molten TiO2, are introduced, given the inability of existing MD models to reproduce the diffraction data. These potentials have the additional advantage of being able to predict the density and thermal expansion of the melt, as well as solid amorphous TiO2, in agreement with published results. This is of critical importance given the strong correlation between density and structural parameters such as nTiO. The large thermal expansion of the melt is associated with weakly temperature dependent structural changes, whereby simulations show that nTiO=5.85(2)-[3.0(1)×10-4]T(K ,2.75Åcutoff). The TiO2 liquid is structurally analogous to the geophysically relevant high pressure liquid silica system at around 27 GPa. We argue that the predominance of fivefold polyhedra in the melt implies the existence of as-yet-undiscovered TiO2 polymorphs, based on lower-than-octahedral coordination numbers, which are likely to be metastable under ambient conditions. Given the industrial importance of titanium oxides, experimental and computational searches for such polymorphs are well warranted.

  13. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  14. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color..., not more than 0.3 percent. Acid soluble substances, not more than 0.5 percent. TiO2, not less than 99... following: Silicon dioxide, SiO2 and/or aluminum oxide, Al2 O3, as dispersing aids—not more than 2...

  15. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color... following: Silicon dioxide, SiO2 and/or aluminum oxide, Al2 O3, as dispersing aids—not more than 2 percent..., not more than 0.3 percent. Acid soluble substances, not more than 0.5 percent. TiO2, not less than 99...

  16. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving any...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring effect. (2) Authorization and compliance with this use shall not be construed as waiving any...

  18. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    Swidwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted.

  19. Amorphous Alloy Surpasses Steel and Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In the same way that the inventions of steel in the 1800s and plastic in the 1900s sparked revolutions for industry, a new class of amorphous alloys is poised to redefine materials science as we know it in the 21st century. Welcome to the 3rd Revolution, otherwise known as the era of Liquidmetal(R) alloys, where metals behave similar to plastics but possess more than twice the strength of high performance titanium. Liquidmetal alloys were conceived in 1992, as a result of a project funded by the California Institute of Technology (CalTech), NASA, and the U.S. Department of Energy, to study the fundamentals of metallic alloys in an undercooled liquid state, for the development of new aerospace materials. Furthermore, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center contributed to the development of the alloys by subjecting the materials to testing in its Electrostatic Levitator, a special instrument that is capable of suspending an object in midair so that researchers can heat and cool it in a containerless environment free from contaminants that could otherwise spoil the experiment.

  20. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  1. Ag-doped titanium dioxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaei Sheini, Navid; Rohani, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide has been utilized for the fabrication of oxygen sensitive ceramic bodies. In this work, disk-shaped TiO2 pellets are fabricated by the sintering of the press- formed anatase powder at 1000°C. Two silver contacts are printed on one of the top base of each sample. Silver wire segments are connected to the printed electrodes. It is shown that the gradual diffusion of silver into titanium dioxide from the electrodes profoundly affects the resistive properties of the ceramic samples. SEM, XRD and EDAX analyses are carried out to determine the position of the silver diffused in the structure. At 35°C, before silver diffusion, the electrical resistance of the device decreases ten times in response to the presence of 3000 ppm ethanol contamination. Sensitivity (Rair/Rgas) to reducing gases is severely affected by the silver doping level in the titanium dioxide. The progress of silver diffusion continuously decreases the sensitivity till it become less than one. Further progress in silver diffusion brings the devices to the condition at which the resistance increases at the presents of reducing gases. In this condition, inverse sensitivities (Rgas/Rair) as large as 103 are demonstrated.

  2. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  4. Titanium dioxide photocatalytic inactivation of prions.

    PubMed

    Paspaltsis, Ioannis; Kotta, Konstantia; Lagoudaki, Roza; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Poulios, Ioannis; Sklaviadis, Theodoros

    2006-10-01

    Prions are postulated to be the infectious agents of a family of transmissible, fatal, neurodegenerative disorders affecting both humans and animals. The possibility of prion transmission constitutes a public-health risk that confronts regulatory authorities everywhere. The main problem in handling prions is the fact that they are extremely resistant to standard decontamination methods. Thus, the use of harsh and expensive practices to destroy prions is inevitable. The development of applicable and efficient prion-inactivation practices is still highly important for the prevention of accidental transmission. In the search for effective and environmentally friendly methods to eliminate organic compounds and bacteria, much attention has been focused on the so-called advanced oxidation processes. These are based on the formation of hydroxyl radicals, which are known to possess a high reductive potential. This study tested the potential of titanium dioxide, an inexpensive and completely inert reagent, to inactivate prions in a heterogeneous photocatalytic process. Initial in vitro experiments were followed by a bioassay with the scrapie strain 263K in Syrian hamsters. The results obtained from this study indicate that titanium dioxide photocatalytic treatment of scrapie-infected brain homogenates reduces infectivity titres significantly.

  5. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  6. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as part of a process to identify and prioritize research to inform future assessments of the potential ecological and health implications of these materials. Two specific applications of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) are considered: (1) as an agent for removing arsenic from drinking water; and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. These case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework that combines a product life cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. They are intended to help identify what may need to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. These “case studies” do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments, nor are they intended to serve as a basis for risk management decisions in the near term on these specific uses of nano TiO2. Rather, the intent is to use this document in developing the scientific and technical information needed for future assessment efforts.

  7. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  8. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles--biological effects].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide occurs as particles of various sizes. Particles of up to 100 nm, corresponding to nanoparticles, and in the size range of 0.1-3 mm are the most frequently used. Titanium dioxide in a bulk form is not classified as dangerous substance, nevertheless nanoparticles may cause adverse health effects. Inhalation exposure to nano-TiO2, causes pulmonary inflammation that may lead to fibrotic and proliferative changes in the lungs. Many studies confirm the genotoxic effect of TiO2, especially in the form of nanoparticles, on mammal and human cells. In rats exposed to TiO2-nanoparticles by inhalation the development of tumors has been observed. However, there is no evidence of additional lung cancer risk or mortality in workers exposed to TiO2 dust. There are some studies demonstrating the adverse effect of TiO2-nanoparticles on fetal development, as well as on reproduction of animals. TiO2 nanoparticles find a still wider application and thus the risk of occupational exposure to this substance increases as well. Considering such alarming data on the biological activity of TiO2 nanoparticles, more attention should be paid to occupational exposure and its health effects. Properties of the nanoparticles, due to their larger surface area and reactivity, differ significantly from the inhalable dust of TiO2, for which the hygiene standards are mandatory in Poland.

  9. Mesoporous titanium dioxide coating for metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hoess, Andreas; Ballo, Ahmed; Cai, Yanling; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    A bioactive mesoporous titanium dioxide (MT) coating for surface drug delivery has been investigated to develop a multifunctional implant coating, offering quick bone bonding and biological stability. An evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method was used to prepare a mesoporous titanium dioxide coating of the anatase phase with BET surface area of 172 m(2)/g and average pore diameter of 4.3 nm. Adhesion tests using the scratch method and an in situ screw-in/screw-out technique confirm that the MT coating bonds tightly with the metallic substrate, even after removal from bone. Because of its high surface area, the bioactivity of the MT coating is much better than that of a dense TiO(2) coating of the same composition. Quick formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro can be related to enhance bonding with bone. The uptake of antibiotics by the MT coating reached 13.4 mg/cm(3) within a 24 h loading process. A sustained release behavior has been obtained with a weak initial burst. By using Cephalothin as a model drug, drug loaded MT coating exhibits a sufficient antibacterial effect on the material surface, and within millimeters from material surface, against E.coli. Additionally, the coated and drug loaded surfaces showed no cytotoxic effect on cell cultures of the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. In conclusion, this study describes a novel, biocompatiblemesoporous implant coating, which has the ability to induce HA formation and could be used as a surface drug-delivery system.

  10. Biodistribution of titanium dioxide from biologic compartments.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Guglielmotti, María Beatriz; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis

    2008-09-01

    The layer of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) of the implant is chronically exposed to the internal electrolyte milieu in the peri-implant biological compartment. Corrosion results from electrochemical attack and ensuing gradual degradation of the metallic materials and is thus of biological interest when these biomaterials are employed in clinical implantology. Herein we evaluated and compared the chronic effect and the biodistribution of TiO(2) administered subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. We propose that the compartmentalization of titanium in the area of subcutaneous injection would reproduce the biological compartment of the implant and its microenvironment from which metal ions could be released and migrate systemically. Potential TiO(2) deposits were identified and characterized in skin, liver and lung by histological and EDX analyses. After both treatments, the skin, liver, and lungs exhibited histological evidence of TiO(2) deposits. In order to characterize in situ macrophage-like cells, tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for CD68. Tissue specimens from all organs assayed showed positive staining for anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody CD68 (PGM1). Despite the compartmentalization of titanium within nodular areas in rats treated subcutaneously, systemic migration occurred. We concluded that systemic migration of TiO(2) occurred regardless of the administration route.

  11. Reduction of titanium dioxide to metallic titanium conducted under the autogenic pressure of the reactants.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Michal; Irzh, Alexander; Gedanken, Aharon

    2009-08-03

    We report on a reaction to convert titanium dioxide to titanium. The reduction reaction was done under the autogenic pressure of the reactants at 750 degrees C for 5 h. The MgO, a by-product, was removed by acids to obtain pure metallic titanium.

  12. Titanium dioxide in fuel cell technology: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    Fuel cell technology is one of the alternative energy sources for the next generation. Although this technology has proven to be one of the main methods for producing new energy sources, fuel cell technology still has some problems that hinder fuel cell commercialization. Recently, new ideas on titanium dioxide are introduced as potential solution in several applications in fuel cell technology. Thus, this article presents an overview on the applications of titanium dioxide and highlights the unique properties and benefits of titanium dioxide in fuel cell technology.

  13. Aggregation stability of titanium dioxide hydrosols

    SciTech Connect

    Grishchenko, L.I.; Medvedkova, N.G.; Nazarov, V.V.; Frolov, Yu.G.

    1994-03-01

    Titanium dioxide based ceramic membranes have recently attracted great interest because of their catalytic and photocatalytic abilities and other advantages typical of the ceramic membranes. For the preparation of the selective layer of the ultrafiltration ceramic TiO{sub 2}-based membranes, hydrosol, as a rule, is used as a starting material. The synthesis of a selective layer of the membrane with predetermined properties requires data on the colloid-chemical properties of these sols, which are rather scarce. The electrophoretic mobility and the size of the scattering centers of the TiO{sub 2} hydrosols obtained through titanium tetraethoxide hydrolysis were measured at 0.5-3.0 pH units. Coagulation thresholds were estimated in the presence of NaNO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Under the conditions investigated, the aggregation stability was shown to be mainly dependent on the structural component of the disjoining pressure. The existence of a hydrated gel-layer on the surface of sol particles was proposed.

  14. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products is steadily increasing. However, the health effects of exposure to these nanoparticles are not thoroughly understood. This study investigated the genotoxicity of six titanium dioxide and two cerium oxide nanoparticles of va...

  16. The immunomodulatory effects of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-11-01

    Due to their characteristic physical, chemical and optical properties, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are attractive tools for use in a wide range of applications. The use of nanoparticles for biological applications is, however, dependent upon their biocompatibility with living cells. Because of the importance of inflammation as a modulator of human health, the safe and efficacious in vivo use of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles is inherently linked to a favorable interaction with immune system cells. However, both titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles have demonstrated potential to exert immunomodulatory and immunotoxic effects. Titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are readily internalized by immune system cells, may accumulate in peripheral lymphoid organs, and can influence multiple manifestations of immune cell activity. Although the factors influencing the biocompatibility of titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles with immune system cells have not been fully elucidated, nanoparticle core composition, size, concentration and the duration of cell exposure seem to be important. Because titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles are widely utilized in pharmaceutical, commercial and industrial products, it is vital that their effects on human health and immune system function be more thoroughly evaluated.

  17. Toxicology of nanosized titanium dioxide: an update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Wen; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has tremendous potential for a host of applications, and TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in health care and consumer sectors such as sunscreens, cosmetics, pharmaceutical additives and implanted biomaterials. Many researches have demonstrated that the physicochemical properties including shape, size, surface characteristics and inner structure of nano-TiO2 particles have different degrees of toxicity to different organism groups under different conditions. Some former reports have demonstrated that nano-TiO2 materials could enter into human body through different routes such as inhalation, dermal penetration and ingestion. After being taken by human body, NP might induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammation and cell apoptosis ultimately in mammal organs and systems. Here, we summarized the update about toxicity of nano-TiO2 and aimed to supply a safety usage guideline of this nanomaterial.

  18. Evaluation of concrete containing photocatalytic titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Shannon

    The air pollution inversions in the mountain west are a societal problem that require a large-scale solution. With the more stringent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations established in 2010, and the recent discovery of the photocatalytic pollution reduction capabilities of titanium dioxide (TiO2), interest has developed to create pollution-reducing construction materials. Over the last decade, a number of laboratory studies have been performed and a few field studies have occurred around the world. There are commercially available photocatalytic materials that can be used in concrete construction; however, the materials are often cost prohibitive. This study investigated both practical application techniques and the effects of the climatic environment around the specimens. When concrete specimens were exposed to the weather for 120-days, the specimen's photocatalytic efficiency decreased significantly. Rejuvenation methods were investigated; however, no methods tested were able to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the specimens to preweathered condition. The final element of this study focused on identifying practical and cost-effective methods of adding TiO2 to current production methods by working with a local precast manufacturer. This research is a stepping stone to develop methodologies to minimize the decline of photocatalytic efficiency due to the exposure to the environment. This element is critical in understanding this complex technology and identifying problems that need to be addressed before products are ready for widespread use.

  19. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment approach that combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Rather, the case studies are intended to help identify what needs to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. This draft document is part of a process that will inform the development of EPA’s research strategy to support nanomaterial risk assessments. The complex properties of various nanomaterials make evaluating them in the abstract or with generalizations difficult if not impossible. Thus, this document focuses on two specific uses of nano-TiO2, as a drinking water treatment and as topical sunscreen. These case studies do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments; rather, they present the structure for identifying and prioritizing research needed to support future assessments.

  20. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Produced in Water-in-oil Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yasushige; Okastu, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuki

    2001-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (titania) particles were prepared by a water-in-oil emulsion system, and studied for the photodecomposition property of methylene blue. Microemulsion (ME) consisted of water, cyclohexane or octane, and surfactant, such as polyoxyethylene (10) octylphenyl ether (TX-100), polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, or bis (2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dropped into the ME solution and then titania particles were formed by the hydrolysis reaction between TTIP in the organic solvent and the water in the core of ME. It was found that ME could be classified to the reversed micelle (RM) region and the swelling reversed micelle (SM) region according to the water content. The water droplets in RM were almost monodispersed, where the water content was small. On the other hand, the water droplets in SM had a size distribution, although most of the water molecules associated with surfactant molecules. The size of the particles prepared in the RM region was smaller than the ME size. In contrast, the size of the particles formed in the SM region was larger than the ME size, and coagulation of the particles was observed within a few hours. The smallest diameter of the particles was 2 nm in the system of cyclohexane with TX-100 surfactant when the molar ratio of water to surfactant was 2. Titania particles prepared in this condition were collected as amorphous powder, and converted to anatase phase at less than 500 K, which is lower than the ordinal phase transition temperature. These anatase phase titania particles only showed a significant photodecomposition of methylene blue by illumination with a Xenon lamp.

  1. Synthesis and crystallization of titanium dioxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleva, A.; Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Levänen, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a simple and low-temperature method to synthesize titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles with supercritical carbon dioxide is presented. The particles were synthesized by measuring 5 ml of tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate precursor to the supercritical chamber. The pressure was maintained at 15.0 MPafor all experiments. Reaction temperatures used were 50 °C or 70 °C. After reaching treatment parameters 10 ml of deionized water was introduced to the chamber with a co-solvent pump. A mixer was used inside the chamber to ensure proper mixing of water and precursor. Reaction times of 10, 60 and 300 min were used. Characterization of the particle crystal phase was determined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface areas were measured with nitrogen adsorption tests (BET). The results showed that the particles synthesized with reaction times of 10 and 60 min contained brookite as the crystalline phase. With longer reaction time of 300 min the phase shifted to anatase. In most experiments there was also significant amount of amorphous phase present. The specific surface areas varied between 274.3–566.6 m2/g.

  2. Cytotoxicity of titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Stefanie; Münzer, Simon; Behrens, Peter; Scheper, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef; Kasper, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Different TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles have been tested concerning their toxicity on selected mammalian cell lines. Various powders and suspensions, all of which consist of titanium or silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been examined. These particles differ in the crystal structure, the size and the BET-surface area. There was also a classification in fixed particles and in particles easily accessible in solution. With focus on the possible adsorption of the nanoparticles into the human organism, via skin and via respiratory tract, the effects on fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) and on a human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line were examined. Additionally, the particles were tested with HEP-G2 cells, which are often used as model cell line for biocompatibility tests, and PC-12 cells, a rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line. The viability of the cells was examined by the MTT-test. The viability results were found to partly depend on the type of cells used. The experimental results show that the adhesion of the cells on the different powders strongly depends on the type of cell lines as well as on the type of powder. It was found that the lower viability of some cells on the powder coatings is not only caused by a cytotoxicity effect of the powders, but is also due to a lower adhesion of the cells on the particle surfaces. Furthermore, it could be shown that the physical properties of the powders cannot be easily correlated to any observed biological effect. While some powders show a significant suppression of the cell growth, others with similar physical properties indicate no toxic effect.

  3. The electrochemistry of nanostructured titanium dioxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Monllor-Satoca, Damián; Jankulovska, Milena; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa; Gómez, Roberto

    2012-08-27

    Several of the multiple applications of titanium dioxide nanomaterials are directly related to the introduction or generation of charge carriers in the oxide. Thus, electrochemistry plays a central role in the understanding of the factors that must be controlled for the optimization of the material for each application. Herein, the main conceptual tools needed to address the study of the electrochemical properties of TiO(2) nanostructured electrodes are reviewed, as well as the electrochemical methods to prepare and modify them. Particular attention is paid to the dark electrochemical response of these nanomaterials and its direct connection with the TiO(2) electronic structure, interfacial area and grain boundary density. The physical bases for the generation of currents under illumination are also presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the kinetics of charge-carrier transfer to solution determines the sign and value of the photocurrent. Furthermore, methods for extracting kinetic information from open-circuit potential and photocurrent measurements are briefly presented. Some aspects of the combination of electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements are also dealt with. Finally, some of the applications of TiO(2) nanostructured samples derived from their electrochemical properties are concisely reviewed. Particular attention is paid to photocatalytic processes and, to a lesser extent, to photosynthetic reactions as well as to applications related to energy from the aspects of both saving (electrochromic layers) and accumulation (batteries). The use of TiO(2) nanomaterials in solar cells is not covered, as a number of reviews have been published addressing this issue. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biological Activity of Mesoporous Dendrimer-Coated Titanium Dioxide: Insight on the Role of the Surface-Interface Composition and the Framework Crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Milowska, Katarzyna; Rybczyńska, Aneta; Mosiolek, Joanna; Durdyn, Joanna; Szewczyk, Eligia M; Katir, Nadia; Brahmi, Younes; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bousmina, Mosto; Bryszewska, Maria; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2015-09-16

    Hitherto, the field of nanomedicine has been overwhelmingly dominated by the use of mesoporous organosilicas compared to their metal oxide congeners. Despite their remarkable reactivity, titanium oxide-based materials have been seldom evaluated and little knowledge has been gained with respect to their "structure-biological activity" relationship. Herein, a fruitful association of phosphorus dendrimers (both "ammonium-terminated" and "phosphonate-terminated") and titanium dioxide has been performed by means of the sol-gel process, resulting in mesoporous dendrimer-coated nanosized crystalline titanium dioxide. A similar organo-coating has been reproduced using single branch-mimicking dendrimers that allow isolation of an amorphous titanium dioxide. The impact of these materials on red blood cells was evaluated by studying cell hemolysis. Next, their cytotoxicity toward B14 Chinese fibroblasts and their antimicrobial activity were also investigated. Based on their variants (cationic versus anionic terminal groups and amorphous versus crystalline titanium dioxide phase), better understanding of the role of the surface-interface composition and the nature of the framework has been gained. No noticeable discrimination was observed for amorphous and crystalline material. In contrast, hemolysis and cytotoxicity were found to be sensitive to the nature of the interface composition, with the ammonium-terminated dendrimer-coated titanium dioxide being the most hemolytic and cytotoxic material. This surface-functionalization opens the door for creating a new synergistic machineries mechanism at the cellular level and seems promising for tailoring the biological activity of nanosized organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

  5. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  6. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in arabidopsis

    EPA Science Inventory

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  7. Unprecedented coloration of rutile titanium dioxide nanocrystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Mane, Rajaram S; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lee, Won Joo; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by a room temperature (27 degrees C) chemical dip process. To our knowledge, this is first report of the preparation of nanoscale rutile TiO2 particles from common inorganic salt at such low temperature. Interestingly, unprecedented dynamic color change accompanies with titanium dioxide grain size, which can be seen with the naked eye that generated curiosity in our mind to check UV-vis absorption, where significant changes were observed. The room temperature synthesized thin films of rutile titanium dioxide make it a potential candidate for high-compatibility material, which can be used in artificial heart valves.

  8. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  9. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  10. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  11. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  12. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  13. Instrument comparison for Aerosolized Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranpara, Anand

    Recent toxicological studies have shown that the surface area of ultrafine particles (UFP i.e., particles with diameters less than 0.1 micrometer) has a stronger correlation with adverse health effects than does mass of these particles. Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are widely used in industry, and their use is associated with adverse health outcomes, such as micro vascular dysfunctions and pulmonary damages. The primary aim of this experimental study was to compare a variety of laboratory and industrial hygiene (IH) field study instruments all measuring the same aerosolized TiO2. The study also observed intra-instrument variability between measurements made by two apparently identical devices of the same type of instrument placed side-by-side. The types of instruments studied were (1) DustTrak(TM) DRX, (2) Personal Data RAMs(TM) (PDR), (3) GRIMM, (4) Diffusion charger (DC) and (5) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Two devices of each of the four IH field study instrument types were used to measure six levels of mass concentration of fine and ultrafine TiO2 aerosols in controlled chamber tests. Metrics evaluated included real-time mass, active surface area and number/geometric surface area distributions, and off-line gravimetric mass and morphology on filters. DustTrak(TM) DRXs and PDRs were used for mass concentration measurements. DCs were used for active surface area concentration measurements. GRIMMs were used for number concentration measurements. SMPS was used for inter-instrument comparisons of surface area and number concentrations. The results indicated that two apparently identical devices of each DRX and PDR were statistically not different with each other for all the trials of both the sizes of powder (p < 5%). Mean difference between mass concentrations measured by two DustTrak DRX devices was smaller than that measured by two PDR devices. DustTrak DRX measurements were closer to the reference method, gravimetric mass concentration

  14. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental asses...

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  16. Pulmonary Effects of Pyrotechnically Disseminated Titanium Dioxide Smoke in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    chosen as the candidate smoke, while maintaining the necessary performance characteristics. Many studies have been performed evaluating the toxicity of...aerosol were performed to assess the toxicity of the inhaled smoke. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Titanium Dioxide Inhalation Bronchoalveolar lavage Rats Repeat...2.4.2 Whole-Body Inhalation Exposures ........................................................ 17 2.4.3 Observation of Toxic Signs

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  18. Photocatalytic oxidation mechanism of alkanes in contact with titanium dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, M.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Isobutane was photooxidized on titanium dioxide between -16 and +180 C in tertiary butanol and acetone. The formation of tertiary butanol preceded the formation of acetone. Above 20 C the latter compound became clearly predominant. The reaction kinetics obeyed a steady state model of oxygen chemisorption with the involvement of isobutane in the physisorbed phase.

  19. Reusable photocatalytic titanium dioxide-cellulose nanofiber films

    Treesearch

    Alexandra Snyder; Zhenyu Bo; Robert Moon; Jean-Christophe Rochet; Lia. Stanciu

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-studied photocatalyst that is known to break down organic molecules upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) act as an attractive matrix material for the suspension of photocatalytic particles due to their desirable mechanical and optical properties. In this work, TiO2...

  20. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental asses...

  1. The surface science of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed. This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance. The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed. Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0). The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail. Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled. Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2(1 1 0) surfaces are given. The structure of the TiO 2(1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed. Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included. The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood. Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies. The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs-Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules. The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed. The tendency to 'wet' the overlayer, the growth morphology, the

  2. Titanium-dioxide film formation using gas cluster ion beam assisted deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsu, O.; Matsuo, J.; Omoto, K.; Seki, T.; Takaoka, G.; Yamada, I.

    2003-05-01

    Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) assisted deposition technique has been applied to form titanium-dioxide films. When oxygen cluster ions collide on solid surfaces, oxygen molecules in the clusters enhance oxidation due to high density energy deposition. Metal titanium pellets were used as source material for EB evaporation, because evaporation with metal pellets is much stable than that of oxide pellets. Films were deposited on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates with various conditions. Characteristics of the films were examined by use of XRD, RBS and AFM. When film was deposited with the acceleration voltage of 7 kV at 473 K, the well c-oriented rutile TiO 2 film was formed with average roughness of 0.4 nm. Without assistance of GCIB rough amorphous film was formed in an atmosphere of oxygen. Very smooth surface films with good crystallinity were formed by GCIB assisted deposition technique.

  3. Studies of titanium dioxide film growth from titanium tetraisopropoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan-Min; Bradley, D. C.; Nix, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    The surface-mediated decomposition of titanium isopropoxide at low pressures has been followed using temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy and reactive scattering measurements. Film growth is initiated at ˜ 450 K, with kinetics controlled by the decomposition of adsorbed intermediates, giving a mixture of acetone, isopropanol and propene as gas-phase by-products. At high temperatures (#62;675 K) the principal by-product is propene and adsorption kinetics may become rate-limiting.

  4. Biological response of tissues with macrophagic activity to titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Evelson, Pablo; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2008-03-15

    The titanium dioxide layer is composed mainly of anatase and rutile. This layer is prone to break, releasing particles to the milieu. Therefore, corrosion may cause implant failure and body contamination. We have previously shown that commercial anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-anatase) is deposited in organs with macrophagic activity, transported in the blood by phagocytic-mononuclear cells, and induces an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of rutile-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)-rutile). Male Wistar rats were injected i.p. with a suspension of TiO(2)-rutile powder at a dose of 1.60 g/100 g b.w. Six months postinjection, the presence of Ti was assessed in serum, blood cells, liver, spleen, and lung. Titanium was found in phagocytic mononuclear cells, serum, and in the parenchyma of all the organs tested. TiO(2)-rutile generated a rise in the percentage of reactive cells, which was smaller than that observed when TiO(2)-anatase was employed in a previous study. Although TiO(2)-rutile provoked an augmentation of ROS, it failed to induce damage to membrane lipids, possibly due to an adaptive response. The present study reveals that TiO(2)-rutile is less bioreactive than TiO(2)-anatase.

  5. Gentamicin-Eluting Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Grown on the Ultrafine-Grained Titanium.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Sima Hashemi; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2017-01-06

    Titanium (Ti)-based materials is the most appropriate choices for the applications as orthopedic and dental implants. In this regard, ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium with an enhanced mechanical properties and surface energy has attracted more attention. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes grown on the titanium could enhance bone bonding, cellular response and are good reservoirs for loading drugs and antibacterial agents. This article investigates gentamicin loading into and release from the TiO2 nanotubes, grown on the UFG compared to coarse-grained (CG) titanium substrate surfaces. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) was employed to produce the UFG structure titanium. TiO2 nanotubes were grown by the anodizing technique on both UFG and CG titanium substrate surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging confirmed TiO2 nanotube growth on the surface. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis results show that the amount of gentamicin load-release in the anodized UFG titanium sample is higher than that of CG one which can be explained in terms of thicker TiO2 nanotube arrays layer formed on UFG sample. Moreover, the anodized UFG titanium samples released the drug in a longer time than CG (1 day for the UFG titanium vs. 3 h for the CG one). Regarding wettability analysis, anodized UFG titanium sample showed more enhanced hydrophilicity than CG counterpart. Therefore, the significantly smaller grain size of pure titanium provided by the ECAP technique coupled with appropriate subsequent anodization treatment not only offers a good combination of biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties but also it provides a delayed release condition for gentamicin.

  6. Ultra-rapid photocatalytic activity of Azadirachta indica engineered colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Rizwana, Kadarmohideen; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were effectively synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica under pH and temperature-dependent condition. 5 mM titanium isopropoxide solution worked as a primary source for the synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectrum of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles authorized the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaf extract, which may play a role as capping and reducing agent. The high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analyses results showed the interconnected spherical in shape titanium dioxide nanoparticles having a mean particle size of 124 nm and a zeta potential of -24 mV. Besides, the colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles energetically degrade the industrially harmful methyl red dye under bright sunlight.

  7. Silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause pregnancy complications in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kohei; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Mimura, Kazuya; Morishita, Yuki; Nozaki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Ogura, Toshinobu; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Aoshima, Hisae; Shishido, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Yuichi; Mayumi, Tadanori; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Norio; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yanagihara, Itaru; Saito, Shigeru; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2011-05-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about their potential risks to human health. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles can cross the placenta barrier in pregnant mice and cause neurotoxicity in their offspring, but a more detailed understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on pregnant animals remains elusive. Here, we show that silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm and 35 nm, respectively, can cause pregnancy complications when injected intravenously into pregnant mice. The silica and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found in the placenta, fetal liver and fetal brain. Mice treated with these nanoparticles had smaller uteri and smaller fetuses than untreated controls. Fullerene molecules and larger (300 and 1,000 nm) silica particles did not induce these complications. These detrimental effects are linked to structural and functional abnormalities in the placenta on the maternal side, and are abolished when the surfaces of the silica nanoparticles are modified with carboxyl and amine groups.

  8. Oxidation of Tyrosine-Phosphopeptides by Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Ollikainen, Elisa; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-06-22

    Protein phosphorylation has a key role in cell regulation. Oxidation of proteins, in turn, is related to many diseases and to aging, but the effects of phosphorylation on the oxidation of proteins and peptides have been rarely studied. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanistic effect of phosphorylation on peptide oxidation induced by titanium dioxide photocatalysis. The effect of phosphorylation was compared between nonphosphorylated and tyrosine phosphorylated peptides using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. We observed that tyrosine was the most preferentially oxidized amino acid, but the oxidation reaction was significantly inhibited by its phosphorylation. The study also shows that titanium dioxide photocatalysis provides a fast and easy method to study oxidation reactions of biomolecules, such as peptides.

  9. Electrical transport and thermometry of electroformed titanium dioxide memristive switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghetti, Julien; Strukov, Dmitri B.; Pickett, Matthew D.; Yang, J. Joshua; Stewart, Duncan R.; Williams, R. Stanley

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the electrical transport of electroformed titanium dioxide memristive switches from liquid helium to room temperatures in order to better understand their internal states. After electroforming, we observed a continuous transition between two distinct limiting behaviors: a nearly Ohmic "ON"-state and an "OFF"-state characterized by conduction through a barrier. We interpret our data in terms of a model in which the electroforming step creates a conducting channel that does not completely bridge the metal contacts on the titanium dioxide film. The switching then occurs as a result of voltage-induced changes in the oxygen vacancy concentration in the gap between the tip of the channel and the adjacent metal contact. We used the metallic resistivity of the conduction channel as an in situ thermometer to measure the local device temperature, thus revealing an important implicit state variable.

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, J C; Klostermann, P; Rice, E W; Clark, R M

    1993-01-01

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfection capabilities of the reactor. In water devoid of significant amounts of inorganic-radical scavengers, rapid cell death was observed with both pure cultures and members of the indigenous flora in a natural water sample. PMID:8390819

  11. Titanium dioxide, single-walled carbon nanotube composites

    DOEpatents

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Gonghu; Gray, Kimberly; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-07-14

    The present invention provides titanium dioxide/single-walled carbon nanotube composites (TiO.sub.2/SWCNTs), articles of manufacture, and methods of making and using such composites. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides membrane filters and ceramic articles that are coated with TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material. In other embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using TiO.sub.2/SWCNT composite material to purify a sample, such as a water or air sample.

  12. Milestones in Functional Titanium Dioxide Thermal Spray Coatings: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardon, M.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Titanium dioxide has been the most investigated metal oxide due to its outstanding performance in a wide range of applications, chemical stability and low cost. Coating processes that can produce surfaces based on this material have been deeply studied. Nevertheless, the necessity of coating large areas by means of rapid manufacturing processes renders laboratory-scale techniques unsuitable, leading to a noteworthy interest from the thermal spray (TS) community in the development of significant intellectual property and a large number of scientific publications. This review unravels the relationship between titanium dioxide and TS technologies with the aim of providing detailed information related to the most significant achievements, lack of knowhow, and performance of TS TiO2 functional coatings in photocatalytic, biomedical, and other applications. The influence of thermally activated techniques such as atmospheric plasma spray and high-velocity oxygen fuel spray on TiO2 feedstock based on powders and suspensions is revised; the influence of spraying parameters on the microstructural and compositional changes and the final active behavior of the coating have been analyzed. Recent findings on titanium dioxide coatings deposited by cold gas spray and the capacity of this technology to prevent loss of the nanostructured anatase metastable phase are also reviewed.

  13. Studies of photokilling of bacteria using titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tsuang, Yang-Hwei; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Chen; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Wang, Chien-Che

    2008-02-01

    Metal pins used to apply skeletal traction or external fixation devices protruding through skin are susceptible to the increased incidence of pin site infection. In this work, we tried to establish the photokilling effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on an orthopedic implant with an in vitro study. In these photocatalytic experiments, aqueous TiO2 was added to the tested microorganism. The time effect of TiO2 photoactivation was evaluated, and the loss of viability of five different bacteria suspensions (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, and Bacteroides fragilis) was examined by the viable count procedure. The bactericidal effect of TiO2 nanoparticle-coated metal plates was also tested. The ultraviolet (UV) dosage used in this experiment did not affect the viability of bacteria, and all bacteria survived well in the absence of TiO2 nanoparticles. The survival curve of microorganisms in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles showed that nearly complete killing was achieved after 50 min of UV illumination. The formation of bacterial colonies above the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated metal plates also decreased significantly. In this study, we clearly demonstrated the bactericidal effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. In the presence of UV light, the titanium dioxide nanoparticles can be applicable to medical facilities where the potential for infection should be controlled.

  14. The Electrowetting and Corrosion Characterizations of Anodized As-Prepared Titanium Dioxide Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Bui, Thi Thanh Huyen

    2017-06-01

    Uniform titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared via the anodizing of titanium electrodes in hydrofluoric acid containing glycerol. The relationship between the electrochemical fabrication process and nanotube formation was studied. The uniformity and diameter of the titanium dioxide nanotube can be controlled by the anodizing voltage and hydrofluoric acid and glycerol concentration. The wettability can be tuned by coating the titanium electrode with the synthesized titanium dioxide nanotube as demonstrated by the contact angle measurement. The hydrophilic characteristic of the anodized electrode surface decreases when the diameter of the titanium dioxide nanotube decreases. To evaluate the corrosion characteristic of the anodized as-prepared electrode, the electrochemical measurement (potentiostatic) was studied in a physiological saline solution. The results show high corrosion resistance of the anodized electrode. The successful preparation of these titanium dioxide nanotube electrodes offers high corrosion resistance and wetting controllability for bio-microfluidic device applications.

  15. The Electrowetting and Corrosion Characterizations of Anodized As-Prepared Titanium Dioxide Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Bui, Thi Thanh Huyen

    2017-03-01

    Uniform titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared via the anodizing of titanium electrodes in hydrofluoric acid containing glycerol. The relationship between the electrochemical fabrication process and nanotube formation was studied. The uniformity and diameter of the titanium dioxide nanotube can be controlled by the anodizing voltage and hydrofluoric acid and glycerol concentration. The wettability can be tuned by coating the titanium electrode with the synthesized titanium dioxide nanotube as demonstrated by the contact angle measurement. The hydrophilic characteristic of the anodized electrode surface decreases when the diameter of the titanium dioxide nanotube decreases. To evaluate the corrosion characteristic of the anodized as-prepared electrode, the electrochemical measurement (potentiostatic) was studied in a physiological saline solution. The results show high corrosion resistance of the anodized electrode. The successful preparation of these titanium dioxide nanotube electrodes offers high corrosion resistance and wetting controllability for bio-microfluidic device applications.

  16. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: a Risk for Human Health?

    PubMed

    Grande, Fedora; Tucci, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a natural oxide of the element titanium with low toxicity, and negligible biological effects. The classification as bio-inert material has given the possibility to normal-sized (>100 nm) titanium dioxide particles (TiO2-NPs) to be extensively used in food products and as ingredients in a wide range of pharmaceutical products and cosmetics, such as sunscreens and toothpastes. Therefore, human exposure may occur through ingestion and dermal penetration, or through inhalation route, during both the manufacturing process and use. In spite of the extensively use of TiO2-NPs, the biological effects and the cellular response mechanisms are still not completely elucidated and thus a deep understanding of the toxicological profile of this compound is required. The main mechanism underlining the toxicity potentially triggered by TiO2-NPs seems to involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, metabolic change and potentially carcinogenesis. The extent and type of cell damage strongly depend on chemical and physical characteristics of TiO2-NPs, including size, crystal structure and photo-activation. In this mini-review, we would like to discuss the latest findings on the adverse effects and on potential human health risks induced by TiO2-NPs exposure.

  17. Improved photocatalytic degradation of textile dye using titanium dioxide nanotubes formed over titanium wires.

    PubMed

    Kar, Archana; Smith, York R; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan

    2009-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes formed by anodization over titanium wires show a significant improvement in photocatalytic activity compared to the nanotubes formed over foils. This is evident when the fractional conversion of a textile dye, methyl orange, increased from 19% over a foil to 40% over wires in the presence of nanotubes of identical dimensions illuminated over the same geometrical area. Higher degradation rates with Pt-TiO2 nanotubes over foils are matched by the Pt-free TiO2 nanotubes over the wires. The higher photocatalytic activity over the anodized wires can be attributed to the efficient capture of reflected and refracted light by the radially outward oriented TiO2 nanotubes formed over the circumference of the titanium wire. The formation of TiO2 nanotubes over wires can be considered as an effective alternate to improve photodegradation rates by avoiding expensive additives.

  18. Titanium Dioxide Volatility in High Temperature Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QynhGiao N.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) containing materials are of high interest to the aerospace industry due to its high temperature capability, strength, and light weight. As with most metals an exterior oxide layer naturally exists in environments that contain oxygen (i.e. air). At high temperatures, water vapor plays a key role in the volatility of materials including oxide surfaces. This study will evaluate cold pressed titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder pellets at a temperature range of 1400 C - 1200 C in water containing environments to determine the volatile hydroxyl species using the transpiration method. The water content ranged from 0-76 mole% and the oxygen content range was 0-100 mole % during the 20-250 hour exposure times. Preliminary results indicate that oxygen is not a key contributor at these temperatures and the following reaction is the primary volatile equation for all three temperatures: TiO2 (s) + H2O (g) = TiO(OH)2 (g).

  19. Thermoelectric properties of titanium dioxide polymorphs from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayerl, Dylan; Kioupakis, Emmanouil

    2014-03-01

    Titanium oxides are promising materials for high-temperature thermoelectrics because of their high Seebeck coefficients, thermal stability, and natural abundance. We use first-principles calculations to investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of several titanium dioxide polymorphs. Our methodology is based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation. The maximally localized Wannier function method is employed to interpolate the GW bands in the Brillouin zone. We use the Boltzmann transport formalism within the constant relaxation time approximation to determine the temperature and carrier-density dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, electron mobility, and electron thermal conductivity from the calculated electronic band structures. We demonstrate agreement with experimentally measured transport parameters and enhanced power factor at high temperature in certain heavily doped phases. This research was supported as part of CSTEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Computational resources were provided by the DOE NERSC facility.

  20. Light-induced chemical vapour deposition painting with titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halary-Wagner, E.; Bret, T.; Hoffmann, P.

    2003-03-01

    Light-induced chemical vapour deposits of titanium dioxide are obtained from titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) in an oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere with a long pulse (250 ns) 308 nm XeCl excimer laser using a mask projection set-up. The demonstrated advantages of this technique are: (i) selective area deposition, (ii) precise control of the deposited thickness and (iii) low temperature deposition, enabling to use a wide range of substrates. A revolving mask system enables, in a single reactor load, to deposit shapes of controlled heights, which overlap to build up a complex pattern. Interferential multi-coloured deposits are achieved, and the process limitations (available colours and resolution) are discussed.

  1. CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Stevan S; Shang, Kuanping; Guan, Binbin; Cheung, Stanley T S; Liao, Ling; Basak, Juthika; Liu, Hai-Feng; Yoo, S J B

    2013-06-17

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of athermal nano-photonic silicon ring modulators. The athermalization method employs compensation of the silicon core thermo-optic contribution with that from the amorphous titanium dioxide (a-TiO(2)) overcladding with a negative thermo-optic coefficient. We developed a new CMOS-compatible fabrication process involving low temperature RF magnetron sputtering of high-density and low-loss a-TiO(2) that can withstand subsequent elevated-temperature CMOS processes. Silicon ring resonators with 275 nm wide rib waveguide clad with a-TiO(2) showed near complete athermalization and moderate optical losses. Small-signal testing of the micro-resonator modulators showed high extinction ratio and gigahertz bandwidth.

  2. Growth of carbon nanotubes from titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qiran; Hu, Yali; Liu, Yunyun; Huang, Shaoming

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated that titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle is an efficient catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). TiO2 nanoparticles can be generated either by sol-gel method or sputtering. Highly dense single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and/or multi-walled CNTs can be produced by ethanol-chemical vapor deposition (EtOH-CVD) using those TiO2 nanoparticles as catalysts. XPS measurements further prove that the TiO2 nanoparticles are responsible for the nanotube growth. Sputtering approach for generating TiO2 nanoparticles provide a facile way for patterning SWNTs for various applications.

  3. Photokilling of T-24 human bladder cancer cells with titanium dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Y.; Shuin, T.; Kawasaki, C.; Hosaka, M.; Kitamura, H.; Cai, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujishima, A.

    1994-01-01

    A photoexcited titanium dioxide surface has a strong ability to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. We have studied this effect in order to use it to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. A distinct cell killing effect was observed on cultured T-24 human bladder cancer cells treated with titanium dioxide particles and 300-400 nm UV light irradiation. Titanium dioxide plus UV light also dramatically suppressed the tumour growth of T-24 cells that were implanted in nude mice. Cells cultured on the titanium dioxide electrode were also killed under UV irradiation when the electrode was anodically polarised, suggesting that photogenerated holes are involved in the cell killing. The cell killing effect caused by titanium dioxide particles plus UV light irradiation was significantly hampered in the presence of L-cysteine and catalase, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide respectively. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the titanium dioxide particles to be distributed on the cell surface and inside the cells. These results suggest that titanium dioxide particles under UV light irradiation produced photogenerated holes on the surface yielding hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide inside or outside the cells and the cells were then killed by the action of these highly oxidising molecules. The possible application of photoexcited titanium dioxide particles to cancer treatment as a new anti-cancer modality is discussed. Images Figure 6 PMID:7981061

  4. Control of the Synthesis of Submicron Titanium Dioxide Particles in a Continuous Plasma-Chemical Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aul'chenko, S. M.; Kartaev, V.

    2015-11-01

    A simulation of the formation and growth of titanium dioxide particles in the working zone of a plasma-chemical reactor has been performed. The possibility of use of the premixing of reagents (titanium tetrachloride and oxygen) outside the reactor for increasing the yield of the final product was investigated. Calculations of the formation and growth of titanium dioxide particles were performed for different values of parameters of the physical and mathematical model of the process.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Shallow Trap State Energies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    the spectra of M-type red stars and in the composition of lunar soil samples returned during the Apollo missions.51 Titanium dioxide is a widely...oxygen from the titania crystal lattice. The oxygen departing the lattice leaves behind electrons which populate the Ti4+ 3d orbitals to form Ti3+ or...that the titanium 3d orbital is energetically close to the titanium dioxide conduction band.98 This evidence strongly indicates that reduced Ti3

  6. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars; Hristovski, Kiril; von Goetz, Natalie

    2012-02-21

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO(2), and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO(2) entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO(2) included candies, sweets, and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO(2) (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that, while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO(2) through foods

  8. Titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Marin, Giovanni; Karppinen, Maarit

    2017-09-01

    Within its rich phase diagram titanium dioxide is a truly multifunctional material with a property palette that has been shown to span from dielectric to transparent-conducting characteristics, in addition to the well-known catalytic properties. At the same time down-scaling of microelectronic devices has led to an explosive growth in research on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a wide variety of frontier thin-film materials, among which TiO2 is one of the most popular ones. In this topical review we summarize the advances in research of ALD of titanium dioxide starting from the chemistries of the over 50 different deposition routes developed for TiO2 and the resultant structural characteristics of the films. We then continue with the doped ALD-TiO2 thin films from the perspective of dielectric, transparent-conductor and photocatalytic applications. Moreover, in order to cover the latest trends in the research field, both the variously constructed TiO2 nanostructures enabled by ALD and the Ti-based hybrid inorganic-organic films grown by the emerging ALD/MLD (combined atomic/molecular layer deposition) technique are discussed.

  9. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.L.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.

    2009-07-15

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO{sub 2} prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}, whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO{sub 2} and Co:TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO{sub 2}; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO{sub 2} and Nb:TiO{sub 2}.

  10. SERS investigation of coatings on thermal modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amininejad, Sayed; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) are progressively manufactured and used in a wide variety of products such as sunscreens, papers, paints and toothpastes. The increase in the production and use of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles would escalate the risk for exposure of the natural environments to these compounds. There are several techniques for identifying and quantifying nanoparticles and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an emerging technique which combines raman spectroscopy with nanotechnology. SERS can also be used to investigate the changes of natural coatings on nanoparticles as an important factor regarding their environmental fate and biological effects. In this work, TiO2 P25 nanoparticles are thermally modified at different temperatures to study the effects of thermal shock on the crystal structure, surface properties and subsequently the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid molecules coated on TiO2 nanoparticles has been observed. The results show that 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid molecules coated on nanoparticles exhibit different degree SERS enhancement on the surface of different nanoparticles modified at different temperatures by thermal modification method. This research work is expected to be important for improving SERS performance of TiO2 nanoparticles for characterization of natural coatings. Keywords: SERS, TiO2, 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid

  11. Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The article contains a summary of factors pertinent to titanium use. Geology and exploitation, production processes, global production, titanium dioxide and alloy applications, and the titanium market are reviewed. Potential applications outlined are for oil and gas equipment and for the automotive industry. Titanium alloys were selected for drilling risers for North Sea oil and gas drilling platforms due to a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. These properties also make titanium alloys attractive for auto parts, although the cost is currently prohibitive.

  12. Titanium dioxide thin films deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for OLED passivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong-Sun; Ko, Myoung-Gyun; Kim, Tae-Sub; Park, Sang-Kyun; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Su-Hwan; Park, Jae-Gun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of titanium dioxide thin films was conducted using Tetrakis dimethylamino titanium (TDMATi) and an oxygen plasma on a polyethersulfon (PES) substrate at a deposition temperature of 90 degrees C. The effects of the induced plasma power on passivation properties were investigated according to film thickness. The growth rate of the titanium dioxide film was 0.8 A/cycle, and the water vapor transmission rate (WTVR) for a 80 nm titanium dioxide film was 0.023 g/m2 day. The passivation performance of the titanium dioxide film was investigated using an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The coated OLED lifetime was 90 h, 15 times longer than that of an uncoated sample.

  13. The microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide films synthesized by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Huang, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, titanium oxide films were deposited on Ti6Al4V and Si (1 0 0) by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering method at different oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, pin-on-disk wear experiments, surface contact angle tests and platelet adhesion investigation were conducted to evaluate the properties of the films. The corrosion behavior of titanium dioxide films was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that titanium oxide films deposited by unbalance magnetron sputtering were compact and could obviously enhance microhardness, wear resistance of titanium alloy substrate. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that Ti-6Al-4V deposited with titanium dioxide films had lower dissolution currents than that of the uncoated one. The results of in vitro hemocompatibility analyses indicated that the blood compatibility of the titanium dioxide films with bandgap 3.2 eV have better blood compatibility.

  14. Chemical vapour deposition of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, S E; Baryshnikova, M V; Filatov, L A; Shahmin, A L; Andreeva, V D

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is often considered as a promising nanomaterial for photocatalytic applications. Here we report the first results of a study of APCVD of N-doped TiO2 thin films prepared with the use of ammonia as a source of nitrogen and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a source of Ti and O atoms. The obtained films were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. It was found that the film growth rate in the TTIP-NH3-Ar reaction system varied insignificantly with substrate temperature in the range of 450,..., 750 degrees C and did not exceed 4.4 nm/min. Yellow and orange layers with nitrogen content of about 7.6% were formed at the deposition temperature higher than 600 degrees C. The results of the structure analysis of the deposited films showed that addition of ammonia led to stabilization of the amorphous phase in the films. The effect of ammonia on optical and photocatalytic properties was also considered.

  15. Hazardous Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muzammal; Khan, Muzaffar

    2017-01-01

    Although nanoparticles (NPs) have made incredible progress in the field of nanotechnology and biomedical research and their applications are demanded throughout industrial world particularly over the past decades, little is known about the fate of nanoparticles in ecosystem. Concerning the biosafety of nanotechnology, nanotoxicity is going to be the second most priority of nanotechnology that needs to be properly addressed. This review covers the chemical as well as the biological concerns about nanoparticles particularly titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs and emphasizes the toxicological profile of TiO2 at the molecular level in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In addition, the challenges and future prospects of nanotoxicology are discussed that may provide better understanding and new insights into ongoing and future research in this field. PMID:28373829

  16. Thermal conductivity of polymer composite pigmented with titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghebrid, N.; Guellal, M.; Rouabah, F.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a numerical modeling of thermal conductivity of a polymer matrix polystyrene composite filled with titanium dioxide spheres, and to compare the obtained results with theoretical prediction models and the experimental data as a function of the quenching temperature. For this purpose, a numerical study was conducted using the finite element method to predict the effective thermal conductivity of the composite. In addition, a comparison with the results from the analytical models showed that the proposed numerical model is in good agreement with the analytical models of Hatta-Taya and Hashin-Shtrikman. Finally, the comparison of the numerical model to experimental results based on the quenching temperature shows that the best quenching temperature that agrees well with the theoretical model Hashin-Shtrikman is 20 °C.

  17. Dermal Titanium Dioxide Deposition Associated With Intralesional Triamcinolone Injection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Cole, Christine; Abraham, Jerrold L; Ragsdale, Bruce; Ngo, Binh

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous discoloration secondary to dermal deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles is recognized but seldom reported in the literature. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 61-year-old gentleman, with a long history of alopecia areata, who presented with numerous, discrete dark blue macules on the scalp. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis ultimately identified the macules as deposits of TiO2. The patient had a history of intralesional triamcinolone injections for management of alopecia areata. A sample of generic 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide paste was analyzed and found to contain many TiO2 particles analogous to those seen in the patient's biopsy sample. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of TiO2 deposition in the dermis likely resulting from topical combined with intralesional triamcinolone injection.

  18. Synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Mao, Samuel S

    2006-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a promising material for many emerging applications. Even more promising are the benefits offered by the material when its length scale is reduced to the nanometer range. Nanomaterials usually exhibit unique properties resulting from either the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio or the quantum confinement effect of energy carriers. In this article we present an overview of recent progress in the synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials. The topics include synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, and mesoporous/nanoporous materials using different preparation approaches such as sol-gel, sol, hydrothermal, solvothermal, and vapor deposition. The applications of TiO2 nanomaterials are also briefly summarized.

  19. Redox-controlled photosensitization of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Szaciłowski, Konrad; Macyk, Wojciech; Hebda, Maciej; Stochel, Grazyna

    2006-11-13

    Photosensitization of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide materials has been achieved by chemisorption of the pentacyanothiamineferrate(II) complex, which offers a relatively high redox potential that determines the photoelectrochemical properties of the photosensitized TiO(2). The adsorbed pentacyanoferrate complex binds to TiO(2) through the cyanide bridge and forms a new surface complex characterized by a metal-to-metal charge-transfer transition (MMCT) (Fe(II)-->Ti(IV)). The photosensitization can be observed only at low potentials at which Fe(II) moieties are present. Photocurrent switching between anodic and cathodic can be induced by varying either the photoelectrode potential or the wavelength of the incident light. Simple molecular modeling-together with spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements-allows the elucidation of the mechanism of the observed photoelectrochemical behavior.

  20. Mesoporous hollow sphere titanium dioxide photocatalysts through hydrothermal silica etching.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; Linley, Stuart; Baxter, George; Gu, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Robust, monodisperse, mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO₂) submicrometer hollow spheres were synthesized through a single step hydrothermal silica etching reaction under mild conditions. Efficient silica (SiO₂) removal was achieved without the use of toxic reagents, and a unique controllable silica redeposition mechanism was identified, imparting the hollow spheres with excellent structural integrity. The parameters of the hydrothermal reaction affecting the etching process, including pH, temperature, and silica concentration, were systematically investigated and optimized for the production of silica-templated hollow structures. The resulting processing conditions yielded TiO₂ hollow spheres with a surface area of ∼300 m² g⁻¹ and anatase phase crystallization, which exhibited high adsorption capacity for methylene blue dye and good photocatalytic activity without requiring high-temperature calcination.

  1. Generation and characterization of stable, highly concentrated titanium dioxide nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Biswas, Pratim; Messing, Maria E.; Gibson, Neil; Geiser, Marianne; Wenk, Alexander; Sahu, Manoranjan; Deppert, Knut; Cydzik, Izabela; Wigge, Christoph; Schmid, Otmar; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela

    2011-02-01

    The intensive use of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems ideally needs to be investigated using physico-chemically uniform and well-characterized NP. In this article, we describe the reproducible production of TiO2 NP aerosols using spark ignition technology. Because currently no data are available on inhaled NP in the 10-50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation studies in rodents. For anticipated in vivo dosimetry analyses, TiO2 NP were radiolabeled with 48V by proton irradiation of the titanium electrodes of the spark generator. The dissolution rate of the 48V label was about 1% within the first day. The highly concentrated, polydisperse TiO2 NP aerosol (3-6 × 106 cm-3) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation, and number concentration. Extensive characterization of NP chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area was performed. The originally generated amorphous TiO2 NP were converted into crystalline anatase TiO2 NP by thermal annealing at 950 °C. Both crystalline and amorphous 20-nm TiO2 NP were chain agglomerated/aggregated, consisting of primary particles in the range of 5 nm. Disintegration of the deposited TiO2 NP in lung tissue was not detectable within 24 h.

  2. Sonochemical fabrication of fluorinated mesoporous titanium dioxide microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Changlin; Yu, Jimmy C.; Chan Mui

    2009-05-15

    A sonochemical-hydrothermal method for preparing fluorinated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres was developed. Formation of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and doping of fluorine was achieved by sonication and then hydrothermal treatment of a solution containing titanium isopropoxide, template, and sodium fluoride. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier translation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and BET surface areas. The P123 template was removed completely during the hydrothermal and washing steps, which was different from the conventional calcination treatment. The as- synthesized TiO{sub 2} microspheres had good crystallinity and high stability. Results from the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) showed that fluorination could remarkably improve the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide. - Graphical abstract: A novel method for preparing fluorinated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres was developed by a combined ultrasonic and hydrothermal treatment. The fluorinated TiO{sub 2} microspheres show high crystallinity, stability and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  3. Cell uptake and oral absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Janer, G; Mas del Molino, E; Fernández-Rosas, E; Fernández, A; Vázquez-Campos, S

    2014-07-15

    Large efforts are invested on the development of in vitro tests to evaluate nanomaterial (NM) toxicity. In order to assess the relevance of the adverse effects identified in in vitro toxicity tests a thorough understanding of the biokinetics of NMs is critical. We used different in vitro and in vivo test methods to evaluate cell uptake and oral absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). These NPs were readily uptaken by A549 cells (carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) in vitro. Such rapid uptake contrasted with a very low oral absorption in a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer system (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) and after oral gavage administration to rats. In this oral study, no significant increase in the levels of titanium was recorded by ICP-MS in any of the tissues evaluated (including among other: small intestine, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen). No NPs were observed by TEM in sections of the small intestine, except for several particles in the cytoplasm of a cell from a Peyer's Patch area. The observation of NPs in Peyer's Patch suggests that the Caco-2 monolayer system is likely to underestimate the potential for oral absorption of NPs and that the model could be improved by including M-cells in co-culture.

  4. Functionalization of titanium dioxide nanotubes with biomolecules for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Weslley F; Arruda, Isabel R S; Silva, Germana M M; Machado, Giovanna; Coelho, Luana C B B; Correia, Maria T S

    2017-12-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are extensively used in the manufacture of implants because they have biocompatibility. The production of a nanostructured surface can be achieved by means of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) which can have dimensions equivalent to the nanometric components of human bone, in addition to increasing the efficiency of such implants. The search is ongoing for ways to improve the performance of these TNTs in terms of their functionalization through coating these nanotubular matrices with biomolecules. The biocompatibility of the functionalized TNTs can be improved by promoting rapid osseointegration, by preventing the adhesion of bacteria on such surfaces and/or by promoting a more sustained local release of drugs that are loaded into such TNTs. In addition to the implants, these nanotubular matrices have been used in the manufacture of high-performance biosensors capable of immobilizing principally enzymes on their surfaces, which has possible use in disease diagnosis. The objective of this review is to show the main techniques of immobilization of biomolecules in TNTs, evidencing the most recent applications of bioactive molecules that have been functionalized in the nanotubular matrices for use in implants and biosensors. This surveillance also proposes a new class of biomolecules that can be used to functionalize these nanostructured surfaces, lectins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical properties of epoxy resin/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A polymeric nanocomposite system (nanodielectric) was fabricated, and its mechanical properties were determined. The fabricated nanocomposite was composed of low concentrations of monodispersed titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles and an epoxy resin specially designed for cryogenic applications. The monodispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution of titanium chloride and polyethylene glycol and subsequently dispersed in a commercial-grade epoxy resin (Araldite{reg_sign} 5808). Nanocomposite thin sheets were prepared at several weight fractions of TiO{sub 2}. The morphology of the composites, determined by transmission electron microscopy, showed that the nanoparticles aggregated to form particle clusters. The influence of thermal processing and the effect of filler dispersion on the structure-property relationships were identified by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis at a broad range of temperatures. The effect of the aggregates on the electrical insulation properties was determined by dielectric breakdown measurements. The optical properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use as filters in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy.

  6. Bioaccumulation of ionic titanium and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in zebrafish eleutheroembryos.

    PubMed

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Rainieri, Sandra; Cámara, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) for commercial applications has greatly increased over the last years and consequently the potential risk for human health. There is a growing awareness of the need to understand the behavior and influence these nanoparticles exert on the environment. Bioaccumulation serves as a good integrator to assess chemical exposure in aquatic systems and is dependent on factors, such as the exposure routes, diet and the aqueous medium. We analyzed the experimental bioaccumulation capability of ionic titanium and TiO(2) NPs by zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos through bioconcentration factors (BCFs), after 48 or 72 h of exposure. The stability of both chemical forms in an aquatic medium was fully characterized for further bioaccumulation studies. Several stabilizing agents (humic acids, soluble starch, polyethylene glycol, Na(4)P(2)O(7) and Na(2)HPO(4)) for anatase and rutile, the two allotrophs of TiO(2) NPs, were evaluated to check the evolution of the aggregation process. Around 60% of TiO(2) NPs remained disaggregated under simulated environmental conditions with the addition of 50 mg L(-1) of humic acids. However, the presence of eleutheroembryos in the exposure medium increased TiO(2) NPs aggregation in the experimental tests. The BCFs values obtained in all cases were <100, which classifies ionic titanium and TiO(2) NPs as non-bioaccumulative substances, under the REACH regulations.

  7. Laser Processing of Fe-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloy Coatings on Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Dittrick, Stanley A.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2013-11-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), a solid freeform fabrication technique, was employed for the processing of Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy (Fe BAA) powder on titanium. One and two layers of the Fe BAA were deposited with the same processing parameters. SEM and XRD analyses of the Fe BAA coatings revealed the retention of the feedstock powder's amorphous nature. The mixing of the feedstock powder in the titanium substrate was very small. A crystalline-amorphous composite microstructure evolved from the laser processing in all types of coatings. The coatings were further laser remelted. The amorphous character was found to increase and the crystallites were found to grow during remelting. The Fe BAA coatings showed higher hardness and smaller wear volume compared to the Ti substrate. A further increase in these properties was observed after laser remelting treatment. During the wear testing in NaCl solution, Ti substrate showed intergranular corrosion, whereas the Fe BAA coatings showed signs of low and localized fretting corrosion in a saline environment. Our results demonstrate that using LENS™, amorphous coatings can be deposited on metallic substrates.

  8. Formation of titanium monoxide (001) single-crystalline thin film induced by ion bombardment of titanium dioxide (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabón, B. M.; Beltrán, J. I.; Sánchez-Santolino, G.; Palacio, I.; López-Sánchez, J.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Rojo, J. M.; Ferrer, P.; Mascaraque, A.; Muñoz, M. C.; Varela, M.; Castro, G. R.; de La Fuente, O. Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    A plethora of technological applications justify why titanium dioxide is probably the most studied oxide, and an optimal exploitation of its properties quite frequently requires a controlled modification of the surface. Low-energy ion bombardment is one of the most extended techniques for this purpose and has been recently used in titanium oxides, among other applications, to favour resistive switching mechanisms or to form transparent conductive layers. Surfaces modified in this way are frequently described as reduced and defective, with a high density of oxygen vacancies. Here we show, at variance with this view, that high ion doses on rutile titanium dioxide (110) induce its transformation into a nanometric and single-crystalline titanium monoxide (001) thin film with rocksalt structure. The discovery of this ability may pave the way to new technical applications of ion bombardment not previously reported, which can be used to fabricate heterostructures and interfaces.

  9. Facile hydrothermal preparation of titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Betty Yea Sze; Huang, Nay Ming; An’amt, Mohd Nor; Marlinda, Abdul Rahman; Norazriena, Yusoff; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Harrison, Ian; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chia, Chin Hua

    2012-01-01

    A simple single-stage approach, based on the hydrothermal technique, has been introduced to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The titanium dioxide nanoparticles are formed at the same time as the graphene oxide is reduced to graphene. The triethanolamine used in the process has two roles. It acts as a reducing agent for the graphene oxide as well as a capping agent, allowing the formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution (~20 nm). Transmission electron micrographs show that the nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the nanocomposites have an enhanced thermal stability over the original components. The potential applications for this technology were demonstrated by the use of a reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode, which enhanced the electrochemical performance compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode when interacting with mercury(II) ions in potassium chloride electrolyte. PMID:22848166

  10. Photoacoustic Signals in Methylene Blue Solutions in Water/Glycerol Mixture Containing Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvekov, A. A.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Korzh, M. G.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Aduev, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the features of photoacoustic phenomena induced by the second harmonic of YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses (532 nm) in a methylene blue solution in a water/glycerol (1:1) mixture containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles as the light-scattering component. Using stationary spectroscopy, it was found that the dimerization degree of methylene blue is substantially lower in this solvent than in water. The dependencies of the signal amplitude normalized to the pulse energy density and of the effective signal rise constant on the methylene blue and titanium dioxide nanoparticle concentrations were obtained. It is shown that the signal rise constant depends linearly on the concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, while the amplitude is almost independent. A method is suggested for simultaneous photoacoustic determination of concentrations of both components. For testing samples, the uncertainty of the determination of the components concentration is less than 5% for methylene blue and less than 37% for titanium dioxide.

  11. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology was synthesized and itsefficacy was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.

  12. Titanium dioxide thin film deposited on flexible substrate by multi-jet electrospraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Daihong; Yi, Wuming; Cao, Zhoubin; Gu, Wenhua

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide thin film plays an important role in thin film solar cells, and has promising future in everyday applications including air cleaning and self-cleaning glass. With the concepts of flexible solar cells and wearable devices being more and more popular, there is increasing interest to coat titanium dioxide thin films on flexible substrates, such as aluminum foils. Many methods have been used to fabricate titanium dioxide thin films, such as dip-coating, spin coating, aerosol spray, plasma-assisted coating, electrospraying, and so on. Among them, electrospraying is especially suitable for thin film deposition on flexible substrates. This work reports fabrication of dense and uniform titanium dioxide thin films on glass as well as flexible aluminum foil using multi-jet electrospraying technique.

  13. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology was synthesized and itsefficacy was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.

  14. Liquid-solid transition of water confined in nanoporous titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Sun, Gang; Li, Chenxi; Hu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we performed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments to investigate the phase transition temperature and the molar enthalpy of the absorbed water confined in porous titanium dioxide. The porous titanium dioxide with three different pore size distribution and different filling fraction of the absorbed water were examined. We found that both the pore size of the examined samples and the filling fraction of the absorbed water affected the water’s phase transition temperature and its molar enthalpy.

  15. Study on titanium foil coated with partial reduction titanium dioxide as bipolar lead-acid battery's substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Pure titanium foil cannot be directly as the substrate for the bipolar lead-acid battery due to its surface oxidized into titanium dioxide in the cell cycle. The poor electronic conductivity of titanium dioxide will increase substrate's ohmic resistance and can affect the cell's electrochemical performances. In this paper, titanium foil's surface is coated with a lay of partial reduction titanium dioxide (TiO2-x) which has excellent chemical stability and high electronic conductivity by means of sol-gel method. Through XRD, SEM and four-probe test, it shows that the modified titanium's surface has the most superior crystal structure and morphology and the highest electronic conductivity in the sintering temperature of 800 °C. We subsequently assemble bipolar lead-acid batteries with Ti coated by TiO2-x as the substrate material. The batteries are discovered that when charged and discharged in 3.5 V-4.84 V at 0.5C the voltage between the charge and discharge voltage platform is 0.3 V, and the initial discharge specific capacity can reach 80 mAh g-1. When the current rate is up to 1C and 2C, the initial discharge specific capacity is 70 mAh g-1and 60 mAh g-1. After 100 cycles, the initial specific capacity only decreases 12.5%.

  16. Photoinduced Electron Accumulation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kensho; Kurashina, Masaru; Kanezaki, Eiji

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (Nps) were prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in 2-propanol with different water contents (0.5 vol% to 7.2 vol%) at 45 °C. The diameter of the Nps was estimated to be 1.5±0.5 nm (L-TiO2) and 3.0±0.6 nm (S-TiO2) from the onset wavelength in the absorption spectra and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A modified Pt electrode with a three-layered sandwich structure was prepared; the outermost and innermost layers were composed of S-TiO2 and L-TiO2, respectively, and the middle layer contained 1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridyl (MV2+)/Nafion®. Irradiation by a 500 W superhigh-pressure mercury lamp produced electrons in the conduction band of TiO2. An anodic current was observed after turning off the light. The mechanism by which anodic current is generated after turning off the radiation involves the reduction of MV2+ to MV+. by photogenerated electrons on the Nps and the diffusion of MV+. in the middle layer. After turning off the irradiation, MV+. transferred an electron to the Pt electrode via holes in the innermost layer or the conduction band of S-TiO2 coincidentally localized on the Pt electrode, resulting in the generation of the anodic current. The generation of MV+. was confirmed by the absorption spectra of MV+.. As a sacrificial reagent, 2-propanol (0.1 M) was used.

  17. Silicon-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Promoted Bone Formation on Titanium Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xijiang; Wang, Tao; Qian, Shi; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Junying; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    While titanium (Ti) implants have been extensively used in orthopaedic and dental applications, the intrinsic bioinertness of untreated Ti surface usually results in insufficient osseointegration irrespective of the excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties of it. In this study, we prepared surface modified Ti substrates in which silicon (Si) was doped into the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes on Ti surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technology. Compared to TiO2 nanotubes and Ti alone, Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes significantly enhanced the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation, including Col-I, ALP, Runx2, OCN, and OPN, in mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and deposition of mineral matrix. In vivo, the pull-out mechanical tests after two weeks of implantation in rat femur showed that Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes improved implant fixation strength by 18% and 54% compared to TiO2-NT and Ti implants, respectively. Together, findings from this study indicate that Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells and improved bone-Ti integration. Therefore, they may have considerable potential for the bioactive surface modification of Ti implants. PMID:26927080

  18. Silicon-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Promoted Bone Formation on Titanium Implants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xijiang; Wang, Tao; Qian, Shi; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Junying; Li, Bin

    2016-02-26

    While titanium (Ti) implants have been extensively used in orthopaedic and dental applications, the intrinsic bioinertness of untreated Ti surface usually results in insufficient osseointegration irrespective of the excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties of it. In this study, we prepared surface modified Ti substrates in which silicon (Si) was doped into the titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanotubes on Ti surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technology. Compared to TiO₂ nanotubes and Ti alone, Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes significantly enhanced the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation, including Col-I, ALP, Runx2, OCN, and OPN, in mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and deposition of mineral matrix. In vivo, the pull-out mechanical tests after two weeks of implantation in rat femur showed that Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes improved implant fixation strength by 18% and 54% compared to TiO₂-NT and Ti implants, respectively. Together, findings from this study indicate that Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells and improved bone-Ti integration. Therefore, they may have considerable potential for the bioactive surface modification of Ti implants.

  19. Diffusion of elements implanted in amorphous titanium disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Heurle, F. M.; Cotte, J.; Gas, P.; Göltz, G.; Stanis, C.; Thomas, O.

    1993-11-01

    The usual Si dopants, B, P, As, and Sb, plus Ge were implanted into thick (400 nm) TiSi 2 layers deposited in an amorphous state by sputtering from a compound target. Samples with the various implants were annealed at temperatures from 300 to 700°C and analyzed both by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion spectroscopy. The annealed samples display a very large grain size, which complicates the interpretation of the concentration profiles obtained by SIMS. In the case of a high dose of B (1 × 10 16 atoms/cm 2 at least), there is an indication of grain boundary transport occurring mostly in the initial stage of the heat treatments, followed by phenomena dominated by a reduced solubility in the terminal large-grained matrix. With all elements, except Sb, evidence of diffusion is obtained at 400°C. Germanium diffusion is even observed at 300°C.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of silicon, silicon dioxide, titanium and ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng

    Various silicon-based thin films (such as epitaxial, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon thin films, silicon dioxide thin films and silicon nitride thin films), titanium thin film and various ferroelectric thin films (such as BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 thin films) play critical roles in the manufacture of microelectronics circuits. For the past few years, there have been tremendous interests to search for cheap, safe and easy-to-use methods to develop those thin films with high quality and good step coverage. Silane is a critical chemical reagent widely used to deposit silicon-based thin films. Despite its wide use, silane is a dangerous material. It is pyrophoric, extremely flammable and may explode from heat, shock and/or friction. Because of the nature of silane, serious safety issues have been raised concerning the use, transportation, and storage of compressed gas cylinders of silane. Therefore it is desired to develop safer ways to deposit silicon-based films. In chapter III, I present the results of our research in the following fields: (1) Silane generator, (2) Substitutes of silane for deposition of silicon and silicon dioxide thin films, (3) Substitutes of silane for silicon dioxide thin film deposition. In chapter IV, hydropyridine is introduced as a new ligand for use in constructing precursors for chemical vapor deposition. Detachement of hydropyridine occurs by a low-temperature reaction leaving hydrogen in place of the hydropyridine ligands. Hydropyridine ligands can be attached to a variety of elements, including main group metals, such as aluminum and antimony, transition metals, such as titanium and tantalum, semiconductors such as silicon, and non-metals such as phosphorus and arsenic. In this study, hydropyridine-containing titanium compounds were synthesized and used as chemical vapor deposition precursors for deposition of titanium containing thin films. Some other titanium compounds were also studied for comparison. In chapter V, Chemical Vapor

  1. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  2. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  3. Carbon-coated rutile titanium dioxide derived from titanium-metal organic framework with enhanced sodium storage behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guoqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chao; Huang, Zhaodong; Li, Simin; Liao, Hanxiao; Wang, Jufeng; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-09-01

    Carbon-coated rutile titanium dioxide (CRT) was fabricated through an in-situ pyrolysis of titanium-based metal organic framework (Ti8O8(OH)4[O2CC6H4CO2]6) crystals. Benefiting from the Tisbnd Osbnd C skeleton structure of titanium-based metal organic framework, the CRT possesses abundant channels and micro/mesopores with the diameters ranging from 1.06 to 4.14 nm, shows larger specific surface area (245 m2 g-1) and better electronic conductivity compared with pure titanium dioxide (12.8 m2 g-1). When applied as anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the CRT electrode exhibits a high cycling performance with a reversible capacity of ∼175 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C-rate after 200 cycles, and obtains an excellent rate capability of ∼70 mAh g-1 after 2000 cycles even at a specific current of 3360 mA g-1(20 C-rate). The outstanding rate capability can be attributed to the carbon-coated structure, which may effectively prevent aggregation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles, accelerate the mass transfer of Na+ and speed up the charge transfer rate. Considering these advantages of this particular framework structure, the CRT can serve as an alternative anode material for the industrial application of SIBs.

  4. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on small intestinal mucosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G E; Erokhina, M V; Abramchuk, S S; Shaitan, K V; Raspopov, R V; Smirnova, V V; Vasilevskaya, L S; Gmoshinski, I V; Kirpichnikov, M P; Tutelyan, V A

    2012-12-01

    Penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles into enterocytes after their administration into isolated loop of rat small intestine was shown in vivo by transmission electron microscopy. Using electron diffraction, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were identified in the apical regions of the cells under plasma membranes and in deeper parts of the cytoplasm as solitary objects or small aggregations. Water dispersions of nanoparticles (3-h exposure to high concentrations) caused no appreciable morphological changes in enterocyte ultrastructure. A 28-day subacute intragastric administration of water dispersion of nanoparticles to rats led to titanium accumulation in the liver, their level was significantly higher than in the control group, which was shown by mass spectrometry with inductive-bound plasma. These data indicated the possibility of penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles through the gastrointestinal barrier under near-physiological conditions.

  5. Investigation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles toxicity and uptake by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, C.; Khodja, H.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Brisset, F.; Flank, A. M.; Fayard, B.; Chaillou, S.; Carrière, M.

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are introduced in a growing number of commercial products and their production may lead to their release in the environment. Plants may be a potential entry point for NP in the food chain. Up to now, results describing NP phytotoxical effects and plant accumulation are scarce and contradictory. To increase knowledge on titanium dioxide NP (TiO2-NPs) accumulation and impact on plants, we designed a study on three plant species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and Arabidopsis thaliana. These plants were exposed in hydroponics to a panel of well-characterized TiO2-NPs, with diameters ranging from 12 to 140 nm, either anatase or rutile. Their accumulation in plant tissues is currently being assessed by complementary imaging techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) imaging and micro-particle induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) imaging. Moreover, the impact of TiO2-NP exposure on germination rate, root elongation, dry biomass and evapotranspiration is evaluated. Preliminary results are presented here, with data collected on wheat plants exposed to 12 nm and 25 nm anatase TiO2-NPs. These results show that TiO2-NPs are taken up by plants, and do not significantly alter their germination and root elongation. These results underline the necessity of deeper evaluation of nanoparticle ecotoxicity, and particularly on their interaction with plants.

  6. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-05-04

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells.

  7. Effects of boric acid and borax on titanium dioxide genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan

    2008-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is a potential carcinogenic/mutagenic agent although it is used in many areas including medical industries and cosmetics. Boron (as boric acid and borax) has also well-described biological effects and therapeutic benefits. In a previous study, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) rates were assessed in control and TiO(2)-treated (1, 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) human whole blood cultures. The results showed that the rates of SCE (at 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) and MN (at 5, 7.5 and 10 microm) formation in peripheral lymphocytes were increased significantly by TiO(2) compared with the controls. The present study also investigated the genetic effects of boric acid and borax (2.5, 5 and 10 microm) on cultures with and without TiO(2) addition. No significant increase in SCE and MN frequencies were observed at all concentrations of boron compounds. However, TiO(2)-induced SCE and MN could be reduced significantly by the presence of boric acid and borax. In conclusion, this study indicated for the first time that boric acid and borax led to an increased resistance of DNA to damage induced by TiO(2). 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  8. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-01-01

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27166761

  9. Characterization of titanium dioxide: Factors affecting photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    Titanium dioxide is being evaluated as a photocatalyst in the destruction of contaminants in aqueous waste streams. Commercial samples of TiO{sub 2} powder have been obtained for base line studies of the photocatalytic destruction of salicylic acid standards. These commercial samples have been prepared by flame hydrolysis and aerosol or spray pyrolysis. Additional samples of TiO{sub 2} have been prepared in house by precipitation from TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution, some with the addition of dopants. X-ray powder diffraction data analysis indicates the predominate phase of these commercial and prepared powders to be anatase. A minor amount of the rutile crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed at various levels in some of these catalysts. The broadness of the x-ray diffraction bands varied among the samples analyzed and indicated the primary particle size to be within the 500 to 1,000 angstrom range with the product produced in house having the smallest crystallite size. Experiments were then performed to assess the photocatalytic performance of these various types of catalyst in the destruction of 30 ppm salicylic acid in deionized water.

  10. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-Biomolecule Interactions Influence Oral Absorption.

    PubMed

    Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-11-29

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO₂ NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO₂ NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO₂ (f-TiO₂) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO₂ (g-TiO₂) NPs. The effect of the interactions between the TiO₂ NPs and biomolecules, such as glucose and albumin, on oral absorption was also investigated, with the aim of determining the surface interactions between them. The intestinal transport pathway was also assessed using 3-dimensional culture systems. The results demonstrate that slightly higher oral absorption of f-TiO₂ NPs compared to g-TiO₂ NPs could be related to their intestinal transport mechanism by microfold (M) cells, however, most of the NPs were eliminated through the feces. Moreover, the biokinetics of f-TiO₂ NPs was highly dependent on their interaction with biomolecules, and the dispersibility was affected by modified surface chemistry.

  11. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle-Biomolecule Interactions Influence Oral Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jae Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO2 NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO2 NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO2 (f-TiO2) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO2 (g-TiO2) NPs. The effect of the interactions between the TiO2 NPs and biomolecules, such as glucose and albumin, on oral absorption was also investigated, with the aim of determining the surface interactions between them. The intestinal transport pathway was also assessed using 3-dimensional culture systems. The results demonstrate that slightly higher oral absorption of f-TiO2 NPs compared to g-TiO2 NPs could be related to their intestinal transport mechanism by microfold (M) cells, however, most of the NPs were eliminated through the feces. Moreover, the biokinetics of f-TiO2 NPs was highly dependent on their interaction with biomolecules, and the dispersibility was affected by modified surface chemistry. PMID:28335354

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of cadmium-EDTA with titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.P.; Green, D.L.

    1999-02-15

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms stable complexes with toxic metals such as cadmium. Metal-EDTA chelates are chemically stable and occur in a number of waste situations. The viability of using photocatalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide to degrade Cd-EDTA was examined at concentrations from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}3} M at pH from 3 to 8. Initially a portion of the complex was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst at low pH. However, independent of the degree of initial adsorption, Cd-EDTA was rapidly destroyed with little dependence on pH. Concurrently, in most cases cadmium was liberated as Cd{sup 2+} with no affiliation with organic reaction products; its fate depended on suspension pH. At low pH, Cd{sub aq}{sup 2+} was released into solution. Also, organic carbon was released into solution as oxidation of adsorbed EDTA occurred. At higher pH the Cd was adsorbed onto the TiO{sub 2} at adsorption equilibrium levels. Major products detected include formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid. Nitrate and glyoxylic, malonic, and oxalic acids were detected, but concentrations were low. The incomplete carbon balance and the lack of nitrate production suggest the production of organic amines from the degradation of Cd-EDTA. Release of the Cd as Cd{sup 2+} occurs after mineralization of only about half of the organic carbon.

  13. Highly reliable spin-coated titanium dioxide dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Sandip Kumar, Arvind; Rao, K. S. R. Koteswara; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-05-23

    Dielectric degradation as low as 0.3 % has been observed for a highly reliable Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film after constant voltage stressing (CVS) with – 4 V for 10{sup 5} second at room temperature (300 K). The film was fabricated by sol –gel spin – coating method on a lightly doped p-Si (~10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}) substrate. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) is 7 nm with a dielectric constant 33 (at 1 MHz). Metal – Oxide – Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors have been fabricated with an optimum annealing temperature of 800°C for one hour in a preheated furnace. The dielectric degradation is annealing temperature dependent. A degradation of 1.4 %, 1.2 % and 1.1 % has been observed for 400°C, 600°C and 1000°C temperature annealed MOS respectively. The dielectric degradation increases below or above the optimum temperature of annealing.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nalika, Nandini; Parvez, Suhel

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a field of scientific innovation which has opened up a plethora of concerns for the potential impact on human and environment. Various toxicological studies have confirmed that nanoparticles (NPs) can be potentially hazardous because of their unique small size and physico-chemical properties. With the wide applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) in day-to-day life in form of cosmetics, paints, sterilization and so on, there is growing concern regarding the deleterious effects of TNPs on central nervous system. Mitochondria is an important origin for generation of energy as well as free radicals and these free radicals can lead to mitochondrial damage and finally lead to apoptosis. The objective of our study was to elucidate the potential neurotoxic effect of TNPs in anatase form. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content which was found to be significantly increased. Reduced glutathione content and major glutathione metabolizing enzymes were also modulated signifying the role of glutathione redox cycle in the pathophysiology of TNPs. Mitochondrial complexes were also modulated from the exposure to TNPs. The present study indicates that nanosize TNPs may pose a health risk to mitochondrial brain with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and thus NPs should be carefully used.

  15. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  16. Characterizing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen spray.

    PubMed

    Lu, P J; Cheng, W L; Huang, S C; Chen, Y P; Chou, H K; Cheng, H F

    2015-12-01

    Numerous commercial products contain titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs); however, many of these are not labelled as containing NPs. This study sought to develop an effective means of characterizing TiO2 and ZnO NPs in sunscreen sprays, including the size, shape and composition of the particles as well as their aggregation/agglomeration characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with a window-type microchip K-kit/copper grid and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the oxide NPs. TME pre-treatment was performed using two approaches: using a conventional copper grid (requiring dilution) and using a K-kit (not requiring dilution). The use of K-kit in conjunction with XRD makes it possible to obtain direct measurements from samples that have not undergone pre-treatment, which could otherwise alter the nature of the samples, such as the degree of agglomeration. XRD was used to obtain information related to particle size and crystal structure. A strong correlation was observed between XRD and TEM measurements. The proposed measurement methods were shown to be highly effective in the characterization of oxide NPs in sunscreen sprays, providing consistent information related to NPs and their interactions in the formulations. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, J.-P.; Heinonen, S.; Huttunen Saarivirta, E.; Honkanen, M.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl3·6 H2O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO2-magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8.

  18. Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode

    SciTech Connect

    Alivov, Yahya E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Nagpal, Prashant E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu

    2014-12-29

    Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5 V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) with sensitivity of 0.19 A/W at reverse bias of −5 V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  19. The photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampaul, Ashti

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in sunscreens to reflect UV radiation from the skin. However, titanium dioxide as anatase and rutile crystal forms is a well-known photocatalyst. The nanoparticles are surface coated with inert inorganic oxides such as silica and alumina or organics such as organosilanes or silicone polymers and more recently, have been doped with manganese oxide. These modifications to the titanium dioxide particles are purported to prevent the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. A range of sunscreens was tested with crystal form and modification type identified via XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SSNMR. The particle modification and crystal form determined whether the particles were inert or rapidly degraded methylene blue dye, and killed or protected cultured human epithelium cells. Novel solid state Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis showed that the greatest amount of superoxide anions was formed during UVA irradiation of the mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms coated with an organosilane. These particles also degraded methylene blue at a similar rate to Degussa P25, a standard uncoated titanium dioxide powder and produced an increase in UVA induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Double Stranded Breaks were observed extensively in cells exposed to UVA irradiated mixed anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with organosilane. A new apoptotic-like cell death mechanism may have been recognised during the UVA irradiation of animal and human cells in the presence of titanium dioxide. This research concludes that mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms of titanium dioxide coated with organosilane or dimethicone may not be safe to use in sunscreen lotions. A less harmful alternative for sunscreen formulations is the manganese doped rutile particles or the alumina coated rutile powders, both of which exhibited a protective effect on cultured epithelial cells.

  20. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Rivière, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N2:O2 during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 °C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and visible light.

  1. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Munnik, F.; Girardeau, T.; Riviere, J.-P.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N{sub 2}:O{sub 2} during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 deg. C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and

  2. Low-loss titanium dioxide waveguides and resonators using a dielectric lift-off fabrication process.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher C; Liu, Chengyu; Suntivich, Jin

    2015-05-04

    We present a bi-layer lift-off fabrication approach to create low-loss amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) integrated optical waveguides and resonators for visible and near-infrared applications. This approach achieves single-mode waveguide losses as low as 7.5 dB/cm around 633 nm and 1.2 dB/cm around 1550 nm, a factor of 4 improvement over previous reports, without the need to optimize etching conditions. Depositing a secondary 260-nm TiO2 layer can reduce losses further, with the optimized process yielding micro-ring resonators with loaded quality factors as high as 1.5 × 10(5) around 1550 nm and 1.6×10(5) around 780 nm. These losses render our TiO2 devices suitable for visible and telecommunications applications; in addition, the simplicity of this lift-off approach is broadly applicable to other novel material platforms, particularly using near-visible wavelengths.

  3. Reduction of carbon dioxide on jet spray formed titanium dioxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, J W; Scott, T B

    2012-04-15

    The photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) on jet spray formed titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) was studied using light-emitting diode (LED) illumination centred at a wavelength of 388 nm. In addition, the photocatalytic reduction of CO(2) under soft X-ray irradiation was also studied. Specifically, the experiments examined the reduction of CO(2) in a gaseous and liquid-gas system using residual gas analysis mass spectrometry. A photochemical reduction of CO(2) was observed over a course of 250 min, with transformation to a major product, C(2)H(3)O(-) (ethenolate), until equilibrium was reached. The product was observed to be surface stabilised, with it reverting back to CO(2) over the course of 100 min without illumination. A proposed free radical mechanism is presented for the formation of this product. A similar effect to that of UV illumination is also observed to occur under the influence of soft X-rays, which presents a potentially significant alternative method for the activation of TiO(2).

  4. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies. PMID:27021687

  5. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A R; Gemini-Piperni, S; Travassos, R; Lemgruber, L; Silva, R C; Rossi, A L; Farina, M; Anselme, K; Shokuhfar, T; Shahbazian-Yassar, R; Borojevic, R; Rocha, L A; Werckmann, J; Granjeiro, J M

    2016-03-29

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of 'Trojan-horse' internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  6. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  7. The stress caused by nitrite with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cell.

    PubMed

    Tu, Min; Huang, Yi; Li, Hai-Ling; Gao, Zhong-Hong

    2012-09-04

    Our previous work found that in the presence of nitrite, titanium dioxide nanoparticles can cause protein tyrosine nitration under UVA irradiation in vivo. In this paper, the human keratinocyte cells was used as a skin cell model to further study the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles when nitrite was present. The results showed that nitrite increased the photo-toxicity of titanium dioxide in a dose-dependant manner, and generated protein tyrosine nitration in keratinocyte cells. Morphological study of keratinocyte cells suggested a specific apoptosis mediated by apoptosis inducing factor. It was also found the main target nitrated in cells was cystatin-A, which expressed abundantly in cytoplasm and functioned as a cysteine protease inhibitor. The stress induced by titanium dioxide with nitrite under UVA irradiation in human keratinocyte cells appeared to trigger the apoptosis inducing factor mediated cell death and lose the inhibition of active caspase by cystatin-A. We conclude that nitrite can bring new damage and stress to human keratinocyte cells with titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UVA irradiation.

  8. Titanium dioxide induced inflammation in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Carolina Maciel; de Azevedo, Walter Mendes; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Toma, Sérgio Hiroshi; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Lordello, Maria Laura; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lúcia; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Ferreira, Marcelo Alves; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPTiO2) and microparticles (MPTiO2) on the inflammatory response in the small intestine of mice. METHODS: Bl 57/6 male mice received distilled water suspensions containing TiO2 (100 mg/kg body weight) as NPTiO2 (66 nm), or MPTiO2 (260 nm) by gavage for 10 d, once a day; the control group received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were extracted for assessment of cytokines, inflammatory cells and titanium content. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in segments of jejunum and ileum (mucosa and underlying muscular tissue). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells were evaluated in duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples fixed in 10% formalin by immunohistochemistry. The titanium content was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. RESULTS: We found increased levels of T CD4+ cells (cells/mm2) in duodenum: NP 1240 ± 139.4, MP 1070 ± 154.7 vs 458 ± 50.39 (P < 0.01); jejunum: NP 908.4 ± 130.3, MP 813.8 ± 103.8 vs 526.6 ± 61.43 (P < 0.05); and ileum: NP 818.60 ± 123.0, MP 640.1 ± 32.75 vs 466.9 ± 22.4 (P < 0.05). In comparison to the control group, the groups receiving TiO2 showed a statistically significant increase in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-4, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β. The cytokine production was more pronounced in the ileum (mean ± SE): IL-12: NP 33.98 ± 11.76, MP 74.11 ± 25.65 vs 19.06 ± 3.92 (P < 0.05); IL-4: NP 17.36 ± 9.96, MP 22.94 ± 7.47 vs 2.19 ± 0.65 (P < 0.05); IL-23: NP 157.20 ± 75.80, MP 134.50 ± 38.31 vs 22.34 ± 5.81 (P < 0.05); TNFα: NP 3.71 ± 1.33, MP 5.44 ± 1.67 vs 0.99 ± 019 (P < 0.05); IFNγ: NP 15.85 ± 9

  9. Titanium dioxide in our everyday life; is it safe?

    PubMed Central

    Skocaj, Matej; Filipic, Metka; Petkovic, Jana; Novak, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered as an inert and safe material and has been used in many applications for decades. However, with the development of nanotechnologies TiO2 nanoparticles, with numerous novel and useful properties, are increasingly manufactured and used. Therefore increased human and environmental exposure can be expected, which has put TiO2 nanoparticles under toxicological scrutiny. Mechanistic toxicological studies show that TiO2 nanoparticles predominantly cause adverse effects via induction of oxidative stress resulting in cell damage, genotoxicity, inflammation, immune response etc. The extent and type of damage strongly depends on physical and chemical characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles, which govern their bioavailability and reactivity. Based on the experimental evidence from animal inhalation studies TiO2 nanoparticles are classified as “possible carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as occupational carcinogen by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The studies on dermal exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles, which is in humans substantial through the use of sunscreens, generally indicate negligible transdermal penetration; however data are needed on long-term exposure and potential adverse effects of photo-oxidation products. Although TiO2 is permitted as an additive (E171) in food and pharmaceutical products we do not have reliable data on its absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity on oral exposure. TiO2 may also enter environment, and while it exerts low acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, upon long-term exposure it induces a range of sub-lethal effects. Conclusions Until relevant toxicological and human exposure data that would enable reliable risk assessment are obtained, TiO2 nanoparticles should be used with great care. PMID:22933961

  10. A review on potential neurotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bin; Liu, Jia; Feng, Xiaoli; Wei, Limin; Shao, Longquan

    2015-08-01

    As the rapid development of nanotechnology in the past three decades, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), for their peculiar physicochemical properties, are widely applied in consumer products, food additives, cosmetics, drug carriers, and so on. However, little is known about their potential exposure and neurotoxic effects. Once NPs are unintentionally exposed to human beings, they could be absorbed, and then accumulated in the brain regions by passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or through the nose-to-brain pathway, potentially leading to dysfunctions of central nerve system (CNS). Besides, NPs may affect the brain development of embryo by crossing the placental barrier. A few in vivo and in vitro researches have demonstrated that the morphology and function of neuronal or glial cells could be impaired by TiO2 NPs which might induce cell necrosis. Cellular components, such as mitochondrial, lysosome, and cytoskeleton, could also be influenced as well. The recognition ability, spatial memory, and learning ability of TiO2 NPs-treated rodents were significantly impaired, which meant that accumulation of TiO2 NPs in the brain could lead to neurodegeneration. However, conclusions obtained from those studies were not consistent with each other as researchers may choose different experimental parameters, including administration ways, dosage, size, and crystal structure of TiO2 NPs. Therefore, in order to fully understand the potential risks of TiO2 NPs to brain health, figure out research areas where further studies are required, and improve its bio-safety for applications in the near future, how TiO2 NPs interact with the brain is investigated in this review by summarizing the current researches on neurotoxicity induced by TiO2 NPs.

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. TiO2 NPs possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle (FP) analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Most of the literature cited here has focused on the respiratory system, showing the importance of inhalation as the primary route for TiO2 NP exposure in the workplace. TiO2 NPs may translocate to systemic organs from the lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) although the rate of translocation appears low. There have also been studies focusing on other potential routes of human exposure. Oral exposure mainly occurs through food products containing TiO2 NP-additives. Most dermal exposure studies, whether in vivo or in vitro, report that TiO2 NPs do not penetrate the stratum corneum (SC). In the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection can deliver TiO2 nanoparticulate carriers directly into the human body. Upon intravenous exposure, TiO2 NPs can induce pathological lesions of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain. We have also shown here that most of these effects may be due to the use of very high doses of TiO2 NPs. There is also an enormous lack of epidemiological data regarding TiO2 NPs in spite of its increased production and use. However, long-term inhalation studies in rats have reported lung tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicology of TiO2 NPs and points out areas where further information is needed. PMID:23587290

  12. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wright, Clayton; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Wang, Liying; Wu, Nianqiang; Yakisich, Juan S; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a ubiquitous whitening compound widely used in topical products such as sunscreens, lotions and facial creams. The damaging health effects of TiO2 inhalation has been widely studied in rats, mice and humans showing oxidative stress increase, DNA damage, cell death and inflammatory gene upregulation in lung and throat cells; however, the effects on skin cells from long-term topical use of various products remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of specific TiO2 nanoparticles (H2TiO7) on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). We performed a comparative analysis using three TiO2 particles varying in size (Fine, Ultrafine and H2TiO7) and analyzed their effects on HaCaTs. There is a clear dose-dependent increase in superoxide production, caspase 8 and 9 activity, and apoptosis in HaCaTs after treatment with all three forms of TiO2; however, there is no consistent effect on cell viability and proliferation with either of these TiO2 particles. While there is data suggesting UV exposure can enhance the carcinogenic effects of TiO2, we did not observe any significant effect of UV-C exposure combined with TiO2 treatment on HaCaTs. Furthermore, TiO2-treated cells showed minimal effects on VEGF upregulation and Wnt signaling pathway thereby showing no potential effect on angiogenesis and malignant transformation. Overall, we report here an increase in apoptosis, which may be caspase 8/Fas-dependent, and that the H2TiO7 nanoparticles, despite their smaller particle size, had no significant enhanced effect on HaCaT cells as compared to Fine and Ultrafine forms of TiO2.

  13. Removal of arsenic from groundwater by granular titanium dioxide adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sunbaek; Patel, Manish; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2005-07-01

    A novel granular titanium dioxide (TiO2) was evaluated for the removal of arsenic from groundwater. Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the effect of anions on arsenic removal. Batch experimental results showed that more arsenate [As(V)] was adsorbed on TiO2 than arsenite [As(III)] in US groundwater at pH 7.0. The adsorption capacities for As(V) and As(III) were 41.4 and 32.4 mgg(-1) TiO2, respectively. However, the adsorbent had a similar adsorption capacity for As(V) and As(III) (approximately 40 mgg(-1)) when simulated Bangladesh groundwater was used. Silica (20 mgl(-1)) and phosphate (5.8 mgl(-1)) had no obvious effect on the removal of As(V) and As(III) by TiO2 at neutral pH. Point-of-entry (POE) filters containing 3 l of the granular adsorbent were tested for the removal of arsenic from groundwater in central New Jersey, USA. Groundwater was continuously passed through the filters at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 3 min. Approximately 45,000 bed volumes of groundwater containing an average of 39 microgl(-1) of As(V) was treated by the POE filter before the effluent arsenic concentration increased to 10 microgl(-1). The total treated water volumes per weight of adsorbent were about 60,000 l per 1 kg of adsorbent. The field filtration results demonstrated that the granular TiO2 adsorbent was very effective for the removal of arsenic in groundwater.

  14. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Clayton; Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Wang, Liying; Wu, Nianqiang; Yakisich, Juan S.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a ubiquitous whitening compound widely used in topical products such as sunscreens, lotions and facial creams. The damaging health effects of TiO2 inhalation has been widely studied in rats, mice and humans showing oxidative stress increase, DNA damage, cell death and inflammatory gene upregulation in lung and throat cells; however, the effects on skin cells from long-term topical use of various products remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of specific TiO2 nanoparticles (H2TiO7) on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). We performed a comparative analysis using three TiO2 particles varying in size (Fine, Ultrafine and H2TiO7) and analyzed their effects on HaCaTs. There is a clear dose-dependent increase in superoxide production, caspase 8 and 9 activity, and apoptosis in HaCaTs after treatment with all three forms of TiO2; however, there is no consistent effect on cell viability and proliferation with either of these TiO2 particles. While there is data suggesting UV exposure can enhance the carcinogenic effects of TiO2, we did not observe any significant effect of UV-C exposure combined with TiO2 treatment on HaCaTs. Furthermore, TiO2-treated cells showed minimal effects on VEGF upregulation and Wnt signaling pathway thereby showing no potential effect on angiogenesis and malignant transformation. Overall, we report here an increase in apoptosis, which may be caspase 8/Fas-dependent, and that the H2TiO7 nanoparticles, despite their smaller particle size, had no significant enhanced effect on HaCaT cells as compared to Fine and Ultrafine forms of TiO2. PMID:27310834

  15. Synthesis of silver-titanium dioxide nanocomposites for antimicrobial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. H.; Fu, H. T.; Wang, X. C.; Yang, J. L.; Jiang, X. C.; Yu, A. B.

    2014-08-01

    Silver-titanium dioxide (Ag-TiO2) nanostructures have attracted increasing attention because of unique functional properties and potential applications in many areas such as photocatalysis, antibacterial, and self-cleaning coatings. In this study, Ag@TiO2 core-shell nanostructures and Ag-decorated TiO2 particles (TiO2@Ag) (the size of these two nanoparticles is ranging from 200-300 nm) have been synthesized by a developed facile but efficient method. These two types of hybrid nanostructures, characterized by various advanced techniques (TEM, XRD, BET and others), exhibit unique functional properties particularly in antibacterial toward Gram negative Escherichia coli, as a case study. Specifically: (i) the TiO2@Ag nanoparticles are superior in bacterial growth inhibition in standard culture conditions (37 °C incubator) to the Ag@TiO2 core-shell ones, in which silver may dominate the antibacterial performance; (ii) while after UV irradiation treatment, the Ag@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles exhibit better performance in killing grown bacteria than the TiO2@Ag ones, probably because of the Ag cores facilitating charge separation for TiO2, and thus produce more hydroxyl radicals on the surface of the TiO2 particles; and (iii) without UV irradiation, both TiO2@Ag and Ag@TiO2 nanostructures show poor capabilities in killing mature bacteria. These findings would be useful for designing hybrid metal oxide nanocomposites with desirable functionalities in bioapplications in terms of sterilization, deodorization, and water purification.

  16. 367-nm photochemistry of chlorine dioxide in and on amorphous ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Roberts, Jeffrey T.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    1998-04-01

    The 367 nm photochemistry of chlorine dioxide, OClO, in and on thin films of amorphous ice at T equals 100 K has been investigated. Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy was used to probe the photoproducts formed in and on amorphous ice films upon 367 nm irradiation. Under dilute conditions, 367 nm irradiation of OClO in amorphous ice results in the formation of the isomer, chlorine superoxide, ClOO. Under more concentrated conditions, in which OClO clusters are presented, 367 nm irradiation OClO results in an additional photoproduct chloryl chloride, Cl-ClO2. Irradiation of OClO adsorbed on ice results in the formation of a single chlorine-containing photoproduct identified as Cl-ClO2. Similarities in the photoreactivity of concentrated amorphous ice films containing OClO clusters and OClO adsorbed on ice suggest that OClO clusters may play a role in ice surface photochemistry.

  17. Strength and tribology of bulk and electroformed nickel amorphized by implantation of titanium and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Christenson, T.R.

    1997-10-01

    Dual ion implantation of titanium and carbon was shown to produce an amorphous layer of exceptional strength within annealed bulk Ni and electroformed Ni and Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} materials used in micro-electromechanical systems. The intrinsic elastic and plastic mechanical properties of the implanted region were quantified using nanoindentation testing in conjunction with finite-element modeling, and the results were interpreted in the light of microstructures observed by electron microscopy. The implantation treatment was found to produce substantial reductions in unlubricated friction and wear.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidence of Surface Speciation of Amino Acids on Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Parikh, S. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Interactions that occur at the interface between molecules and mineral surfaces in the presence of water are integral to many chemical and physical processes, including the behavior of pollutants in the environment, metal implants in the human body, and perhaps the origin of life. During the emergence of life, mineral surfaces may have played a role in the selection of amino acids, leading to the formation of proteins that are essential building blocks of life. To investigate this hypothesis, we are studying two amino acids, glutamic (Glu) and aspartic (Asp) acid, and their adsorption to the rutile form of titanium dioxide as a function of pH and surface coverage in electrolyte solutions. The objective is to get a fundamental understanding of the speciation and coordination chemistry of these amino acids at the rutile surface. We used attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the adsorption of Glu on rutile, and a previously published ATR-FTIR study [1] of Asp and Glu adsorption on an amorphous titanium dioxide film was used as a guide to peak assignment and interpretation of our FTIR spectra. Binding of Glu to both surfaces occurs primarily through one or both of the carboxyl groups, implying that at least two types of surface complexes are formed in a proportion presumably dependent on surface coverage and pH. The interpretation of our results suggests that Glu binds to rutile in a mixed chelating-monodentate fashion involving both carboxyl groups (Glu lying down at the surface), and in a chelating fashion involving only the gamma carboxyl group (Glu standing up at the surface). FTIR results also show that the intensity of the amine peak increases with sorption, which is possibly a consequence of the amine group being brought closer to the surface but not binding directly to it. Glu adsorption on rutile is favored at low pH, based on results from batch adsorption experiments. We have commenced a systematic

  19. Durable warmth retention finishing of down using titanium dioxide optimized by RSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huihao; Qi, Lu; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    A new product, referred to herein as modified down, was prepared by grafting down fiber with titanium dioxide. Grafting modification brings new functionalities to down Using response surface methodology (RSM); the effect of titanium dioxide concentration, KH550 concentration, and baking temperature on the warmth retention is studied using the response surface method (RSM) to obtain the optimal experimental formula and models. The optimal preparation conditions for modified down were 19.35% titanium dioxide, 15.81% KH550, 10min baking time, and 115 °C temperature. The warmth retention of the modified down was 79.98%, The structure and property of modified down were characterized and analyzed by using Flat Plate Warmth Retaining Tester, FT-IR, and TG. The CLO value increased by 27.28%, the thermal resistance increased by 27.34%. The ultimate residual quantities of the modified down fibers were 30.05%.

  20. Bioinspired nanodevice based on the folic acid/titanium dioxide system.

    PubMed

    Gaweda, Sylwia; Stochel, Grazyna; Szaciłowski, Konrad

    2007-05-04

    A new bioinspired nanomaterial has been obtained by chemisorption of folic acid onto nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The organic chromophore is linked with the semiconductor surface via the glutamate chain and anchored with the carboxylate group. The geometry and electronic structure of the chromophore was studied in detail with DFT. Photoelectrochemical studies revealed photosensitization of the new material towards visible light. The photoelectrodes composed of the folic acid/titanium dioxide hybrid material generated photocurrent over a 300-600-nm window. Moreover, the direction of the photocurrent could be changed from anodic to cathodic and vice versa by application of the appropriate photoelectrode potential. Photoelectrochemical and spectroscopic studies allowed the elucidation of the mechanism of photocurrent switching. Photoelectrodes composed of folate-modified titanium dioxide may serve as a simple model of optoelectronic switches and may constitute the basis for molecular photoelectronic devices.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Humidity Microsensors Integrated with Circuitry on-a-Chip

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Chih; Dai, Ching-Liang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2014-01-01

    A humidity microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process was presented. The integrated sensor chip consists of a humidity sensor and a readout circuit. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is titanium dioxide prepared by the sol-gel method. The titanium dioxide is coated on the interdigitated electrodes. The humidity sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial layer and to coat the titanium dioxide. The resistance of the sensor changes as the sensitive film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the integrated humidity sensor has a sensitivity of 4.5 mV/RH% (relative humidity) at room temperature. PMID:24594612

  2. Peroxide-modified titanium dioxide: a chemical analog of putative Martian soil oxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide chemisorbed on titanium dioxide (peroxide-modified titanium dioxide) is investigated as a chemical analog to the putative soil oxidants responsible for the chemical reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments. When peroxide-modified titanium dioxide (anatase) was exposed to a solution similar to the Viking labeled release (LR) experiment organic medium, CO2 gas was released into the sample cell headspace. Storage of these samples at 10 degrees C for 48 hr prior to exposure to organics resulted in a positive response while storage for 7 days did not. In the Viking LR experiment, storage of the Martian surface samples for 2 sols (approximately 49 hr) resulted in a positive response while storage for 141 sols essentially eliminated the initial rapid release of CO2. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 50 degrees C prior to exposure to organics resulted in a negative response. This is similar to, but not identical to, the Viking samples where heating to approximately 46 degrees C diminished the response by 54-80% and heating to 51.5 apparently eliminated the response. When exposed to water vapor, the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide samples release O2 in a manner similar to the release seen in the Viking gas exchange experiment (GEx). Reactivity is retained upon heating at 50 degrees C for three hours, distinguishing this active agent from the one responsible for the release of CO2 from aqueous organics. The release of CO2 by the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide is attributed to the decomposition of organics by outer-sphere peroxide complexes associated with surface hydroxyl groups, while the release of O2 upon humidification is attributed to more stable inner-sphere peroxide complexes associated with Ti4+ cations. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 145 degrees C inhibited the release of O2, while in the Viking experiments heating to this temperature diminished but did not eliminated the response. Although the

  3. Peroxide-modified titanium dioxide: a chemical analog of putative Martian soil oxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide chemisorbed on titanium dioxide (peroxide-modified titanium dioxide) is investigated as a chemical analog to the putative soil oxidants responsible for the chemical reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments. When peroxide-modified titanium dioxide (anatase) was exposed to a solution similar to the Viking labeled release (LR) experiment organic medium, CO2 gas was released into the sample cell headspace. Storage of these samples at 10 degrees C for 48 hr prior to exposure to organics resulted in a positive response while storage for 7 days did not. In the Viking LR experiment, storage of the Martian surface samples for 2 sols (approximately 49 hr) resulted in a positive response while storage for 141 sols essentially eliminated the initial rapid release of CO2. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 50 degrees C prior to exposure to organics resulted in a negative response. This is similar to, but not identical to, the Viking samples where heating to approximately 46 degrees C diminished the response by 54-80% and heating to 51.5 apparently eliminated the response. When exposed to water vapor, the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide samples release O2 in a manner similar to the release seen in the Viking gas exchange experiment (GEx). Reactivity is retained upon heating at 50 degrees C for three hours, distinguishing this active agent from the one responsible for the release of CO2 from aqueous organics. The release of CO2 by the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide is attributed to the decomposition of organics by outer-sphere peroxide complexes associated with surface hydroxyl groups, while the release of O2 upon humidification is attributed to more stable inner-sphere peroxide complexes associated with Ti4+ cations. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 145 degrees C inhibited the release of O2, while in the Viking experiments heating to this temperature diminished but did not eliminated the response. Although the

  4. Peroxide-modified titanium dioxide: a chemical analog of putative Martian soil oxidants.

    PubMed

    Quinn, R C; Zent, A P

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide chemisorbed on titanium dioxide (peroxide-modified titanium dioxide) is investigated as a chemical analog to the putative soil oxidants responsible for the chemical reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments. When peroxide-modified titanium dioxide (anatase) was exposed to a solution similar to the Viking labeled release (LR) experiment organic medium, CO2 gas was released into the sample cell headspace. Storage of these samples at 10 degrees C for 48 hr prior to exposure to organics resulted in a positive response while storage for 7 days did not. In the Viking LR experiment, storage of the Martian surface samples for 2 sols (approximately 49 hr) resulted in a positive response while storage for 141 sols essentially eliminated the initial rapid release of CO2. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 50 degrees C prior to exposure to organics resulted in a negative response. This is similar to, but not identical to, the Viking samples where heating to approximately 46 degrees C diminished the response by 54-80% and heating to 51.5 apparently eliminated the response. When exposed to water vapor, the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide samples release O2 in a manner similar to the release seen in the Viking gas exchange experiment (GEx). Reactivity is retained upon heating at 50 degrees C for three hours, distinguishing this active agent from the one responsible for the release of CO2 from aqueous organics. The release of CO2 by the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide is attributed to the decomposition of organics by outer-sphere peroxide complexes associated with surface hydroxyl groups, while the release of O2 upon humidification is attributed to more stable inner-sphere peroxide complexes associated with Ti4+ cations. Heating the peroxide-modified titanium dioxide to 145 degrees C inhibited the release of O2, while in the Viking experiments heating to this temperature diminished but did not eliminated the response. Although the

  5. Carbonate effects on hexavalent uranium removal from water by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2006-08-10

    A novel nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used to treat depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated water under neutral and alkaline conditions. The novel material had a total surface area of 329 m(2)/g, total surface site density of 11.0 sites/nm(2), total pore volume of 0.415 cm(3)/g and crystallite size of 6.0 nm. It was used in batch tests to remove U(VI) from synthetic solutions and contaminated water. However, the capacity of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water decreased in the presence of inorganic carbonate at pH > 6.0. Adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface charge measurements were used to investigate the causes of the reduced capacity. The surface charge and the FTIR measurements suggested that the adsorbed U(VI) species was not complexed with carbonate at neutral pH values. The decreased capacity of titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water in the presence of carbonate at neutral to alkaline pH values was attributed to the aqueous complexation of U(VI) by inorganic carbonate. The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide had four times the capacity of commercially available titanium dixoide (Degussa P-25) to adsorb U(VI) from water at pH 6 and total inorganic carbonate concentration of 0.01 M. Consequently, the novel material was used to treat DU-contaminated water at a Department of Defense (DOD) site.

  6. Deposition and characterization of titanium dioxide and hafnium dioxide thin films for high dielectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Meeyoung

    The industry's demand for higher integrated circuit density and performance has forced the gate dielectric layer thickness to decrease rapidly. The use of conventional SiO2 films as gate oxide is reaching its limit due to the rapid increase in tunneling current. Therefore, a need for a high dielectric material to produce large oxide capacitance and low leakage current has emerged. Metal-oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are attractive candidates for gate dielectrics due to their electrical and physical properties suitable for high dielectric applications. MOCVD of TiO2 using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) precursor on p-type Si(100) has been studied. Insertion of a TiO x buffer layer, formed by depositing metallic Ti followed by oxidation, at the TiO2/Si interface has reduced the carbon contamination in the TiO2 film. Elemental Ti films, analyzed by in-situ AES, were found to grow according to Stranski-Krastanov mode on Si(100). Carbon-free, stoichiometric TiO2 films were successfully produced on Si(100) without any parasitic SiO2 layers at the TiO 2/Si interface. Electron-beam deposition of HfO2 films on Si(100) has also been investigated in this work. HfO2 films are formed by depositing elemental Hf on Si(100) and then oxidizing it either in O2 or O 3. XPS results reveal that with oxidation Hf(4f) peak shifts +3.45eV with 02 and +3.65eV with O3 oxidation. LEED and AFM studies show that the initially ordered crystalline Hf becomes disordered after oxidation. The thermodynamic stability of HfO2 films on Si has been studied using a unique test-bed structure of Hf/O3/Si. Post-Oxidation of Layer Deposition (POLD) has been employed to produce HfO2 films with a desired thickness. XPS results indicate that stoichiometric HfO 2 films were successfully produced using the POLD process. The investigation of the growth and thin film properties of TiO 2 and HfO2 using oxygen and ozone has laid a foundation for the application of these metal

  7. Strip-loaded waveguide on titanium dioxide thin films by nanoimprint replication.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Leila; Kontturi, Ville; Laukkanen, Janne; Saarinen, Jyrki; Honkanen, Seppo; Kuittinen, Markku; Roussey, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    We present a convenient, low-cost, and mass-production-compatible technique for the fabrication of strip-loaded waveguides. The technique is based on the atomic layer deposition of a slab waveguide, nanoimprinting of a strip, and integration of two structures by lamination. The guiding layer is chosen to be a 200 nm thick titanium dioxide film. The waveguide characteristics are determined by the use of ring resonators. The technique is demonstrated for titanium dioxide thin films, but it is applicable to any other material that meets the refractive index difference condition between the loading strip and the slab waveguide.

  8. Identification of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis-Assisted Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis against bacteria that are dangerous for human health has been investigated in the past, suggesting the possibility of using a specific behavior for each microorganism during this process for its discrimination. In this study, the behavior of some plants’ growth promoting bacteria ( Burkholderia unamae (Strain MTI 641), Acetobacter diazotrophicus (Strain PAl 5T), A. diazotrophicus (Strain CFN-Cf 52), and B. unamae (Strain TATl-371)) interacting with light and bactericidal titanium dioxide films have been analyzed using the photoacoustic technique. The monitoring of these interactions shows particular characteristics that could serve for identifying these species.

  9. Optical property degradation of titanium dioxide micro- and nanopowders under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Li, Chundong; Neshchimenko, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra and absorption spectra of titanium dioxide (anatase) micro- and nanopowders induced by exposure to 100 keV protons and electrons were analyzed at wavelengths between 250 and 2500 nm. It is established that the radiation stability of the nanopowders is higher than the micropowders in the absorption region λ > 500 nm for proton and electron exposure. This effect is caused by the high concentration of radiation defects in micropowders, which is associated with defects of interstitial titanium ions (Tiirad rad rad , Tiirad rad rad rad ), titanium vacancies (VTi⁗, VTi‴ ) and oxygen vacancies VOX.

  10. Photocatalytic production of hydrogen from fixed titanium dioxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoye, Njideka Helen

    This thesis is focused on further developing of an efficient method for the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The research aimed to use thin films deposited with TiO2 and doped with Pt in order to substitute slurry solutions that are currently being used. A new depositing experimental approach to manufacture the thin films was proposed and tested for both physical properties and chemical reactivity. Therefore, the experiment was designed into two parts: The first part was on the manufacturing and the physical characterization of titanium dioxide deposited on glass surfaces and the second part was focused on the ability of the thin film to produce hydrogen. For the second part, a photochemical reactor vessel was used to properly place the glass slides to UV-irradiation. This was yielded by a mercury lamp located at the centre of the reactor. The thesis is organized into five different chapters including introduction, literature review, characterization of TiO2 coated surface, experimental design and hydrogen production, finally conclusive observations and future work. Hydrogen production by photodecomposition of water into H2 and O2 has a very low efficiency due to rapid reverse reaction and, as mentioned above, it usually requires a slurry type of solution. This needs additional processing steps such as filtration and recycling of particles. Therefore, it is important to develop an efficient process for hydrogen production. TiO2 coated surfaces could be an excellent technological alternative. In this study, a sol-gel method was used to produce a transparent TiO 2 thin film which was deposited on a glass substrate by using a new coating technique introduced in this work for H2 production. The TiO2 deposited film on a glass substrate by using the spraying method of coating was characterized for physical analysis (surface characteristics, size of nanoparticles and distribution, etc.) by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission

  11. Human safety review of "nano" titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Karsten; Bradford, Bobbie; Castelli, Dominique; Dufour, Eric; Nash, J Frank; Pape, Wolfgang; Schulte, Stefan; Tooley, Ian; van den Bosch, Jeroen; Schellauf, Florian

    2010-04-01

    Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO(2) and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO(2) nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO(2) and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO(2) and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters.

  12. DNA damaging potential of photoactivated p25 titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Elijah J; Reipa, Vytas; Watson, Stephanie S; Stanley, Deborah L; Rabb, Savelas A; Nelson, Bryant C

    2014-10-20

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are found in numerous commercial and personal care products. Thus, it is necessary to understand and characterize their potential environmental health and safety risks. It is well-known that photoactivated TiO2 NPs in aerated aqueous solutions can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), which can damage DNA. Surprisingly, recent in vitro studies utilizing the comet assay have shown that nonphotoactivated TiO2 NPs kept in the dark can also induce DNA damage. In this work, we utilize stable isotope-dilution gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to quantitatively characterize the levels and types of oxidatively generated base lesions in genomic DNA exposed to NIST Standard Reference Material TiO2 NPs (Degussa P25) under precisely controlled illumination conditions. We show that DNA samples incubated in the dark for 24 h with TiO2 NPs (0.5-50 μg/mL) do not lead to the formation of base lesions. However, when the same DNA is exposed to either visible light from 400 to 800 nm (energy dose of ∼14.5 kJ/m(2)) for 24 h or UVA light at 370 nm for 30 min (energy dose of ∼10 kJ/m(2)), there is a significant formation of lesions at the 50 μg/mL dose for the visible light exposure and a significant formation of lesions at the 5 and 50 μg/mL doses for the UVA light exposure. These findings suggest that commercial P25 TiO2 NPs do not have an inherent capacity to oxidatively damage DNA bases in the absence of sufficient photoactivation; however, TiO2 NPs exposed to electromagnetic radiation within the visible portion of the light spectrum can induce the formation of DNA lesions. On the basis of these findings, comet assay processing of cells exposed to TiO2 should be performed in the dark to minimize potential artifacts from laboratory light.

  13. Shape-Related Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Manfredi; Bianchi, Massimiliano G; Chiu, Martina; Varet, Julia; Costa, Anna L; Ortelli, Simona; Blosi, Magda; Bussolati, Ovidio; Poland, Craig A; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibres are a novel fibrous nanomaterial with increasing applications in a variety of fields. While the biological effects of TiO2 nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the toxicological characterization of TiO2 nanofibres is far from being complete. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of commercially available anatase TiO2 nanofibres using TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) and crocidolite asbestos as non-fibrous or fibrous benchmark materials. The evaluated endpoints were cell viability, haemolysis, macrophage activation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (an indicator of the epithelial barrier competence), ROS production and oxidative stress as well as the morphology of exposed cells. The results showed that TiO2 nanofibres caused a cell-specific, dose-dependent decrease of cell viability, with larger effects on alveolar epithelial cells than on macrophages. The observed effects were comparable to those of crocidolite, while TiO2 NP did not decrease cell viability. TiO2 nanofibres were also found endowed with a marked haemolytic activity, at levels significantly higher than those observed with TiO2 nanoparticles or crocidolite. Moreover, TiO2 nanofibres and crocidolite, but not TiO2 nanoparticles, caused a significant decrease of the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of airway cell monolayers. SEM images demonstrated that the interaction with nanofibres and crocidolite caused cell shape perturbation with the longest fibres incompletely or not phagocytosed. The expression of several pro-inflammatory markers, such as NO production and the induction of Nos2 and Ptgs2, was significantly increased by TiO2 nanofibres, as well as by TiO2 nanoparticles and crocidolite. This study indicates that TiO2 nanofibres had significant toxic effects and, for most endpoints with the exception of pro-inflammatory changes, are more bio-active than TiO2 nanoparticles, showing the relevance of shape in determining the toxicity of nanomaterials

  14. Anatase titanium dioxide thin film based carbon monoxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoudi, Ibrahim Abdullah

    2005-11-01

    Gas sensors are finding increasing number of applications in home, industrial and automotive areas. Incomplete combustion in gas and coal fired electricity plants can generate harmful gases and pollutants. The purpose of the proposed research was to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film based materials for carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing to detect a very low concentration (20--100 ppm) of CO gas. Anatase TiO2 thin films (100--1000 nm) have been developed using pulsed DC magnetron reactive sputtering technique on glass, Si(100) and sapphire substrates. Optimum deposition parameters were determined by studying the crystalline quality of the films using X-ray diffraction. The x-ray photo-emission (XPS) studies indicated a good stoichiometric TiO 2 surface with O to Ti ratio of 1.95 +/- 0.05. Film residual stress was measured using curvature measurements of the substrates before and after deposition of the films. The anatase TiO2 thin films on sapphire showed lower stress compared to glass and Si substrates. Raman spectroscopy measurements were further used to study the correlation between the residual stress and Raman shifts of characteristic peaks to obtain a calibration factor. Anatase TiO2 thin films showed n-type electrical conductivity indicating the presence of shallow electron donors caused by oxygen vacancies. The response of films was tested for 100 ppm of CO in 100 sccm of N2 gas flow as a function of temperature, film thickness, and the substrate. The films show the highest response at 200°C. The films grown on sapphire substrates show the highest response. The response is higher for a film with 1000 nm thickness than the 250 nm thickness film. The CO sensor was tested as a function of CO concentration and as well as under different environs: The films respond to very low concentration, 20--100 ppm, of CO gas, with good reversibility. The response and recovery time were from 2 min to 1 min as the concentration increased from 20 to 100 ppm. It can be

  15. Phototoxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Daphnia magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Charles M.

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are one of the most abundantly utilized nanomaterials in the world. Studies have demonstrated the mechanism of acute toxicity in TiO2-NP to be the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and mortality in exposed organisms. It has also been demonstrated that the anatase crystalline conformation is capable of catalyzing the cleavage of water molecules to further increase the concentration of ROS in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. This photoenhanced toxicity significantly lowers the toxicity threshold of TiO2-NP to environmentally relevant concentrations (ppb). The goal of this study was to determine whether dietary uptake and accumulation of TiO2-NP in the aquatic filter feeder Daphnia magna resulted in photoenhanced toxicity. D. magna and S. caprincornatum were exposed to aqueous solutions of 20ppm and 200ppm TiO2-NP for 24hrs and then transferred to clean moderately hard water. Samples were taken at various time points, dried, and TiO 2 quantified using ICP-MS. Toxicity assays were run on D. magna using three TiO2-NP (20ppm, 200ppm) exposure protocols and two ultraviolet radiation treatments. The first exposure group was exposed to aqueous solutions of TiO2-NP for the duration of the test. The second exposure group was exposed to TiO2-NP for an hour and then transferred to clean water. The third exposure group was fed S. capricornatum that had been allowed to adsorb TiO2-NP. All samples were then placed in an outdoor UV exposure system and exposed to either full spectrum sunlight (with UV) or filtered sunlight (no UV). Here we show that TiO2 uptake peaked at one hour of exposure likely due to sedimentation of the particles out of suspension, thus decreasing bioavailability for the duration of the test. Interestingly, when D. magna were moved to clean water, aqueous concentrations of TiO2 increase as a result of depuration from the gut tract. Data also suggests these excreted particles

  16. Exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing titanium dioxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huadong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhou, Jingwen; Tang, Shichuan; Kong, Fanling; Li, Xinwei; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Ji; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) human exposure is inevitable, but the exposure data on TiO2 are still limited. This study adopted off-line filter-based sampling combined with real-time activity-based monitoring to measure the concentrations in a workplace manufacturing TiO2 (primary diameter: 194 ± 108 nm). Mass concentrations (MCs) of aerosol particles in the packaging workshop (total dust: 3.17 mg/m3, nano dust: 1.22 mg/m3) were much higher than those in the milling workshop (total dust: 0.79 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.31 mg/m3) and executive office (total dust: 0.44 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.19 mg/m3). However, the MCs of TiO2 were at a relatively low level in the packaging workshop (total TiO2: 46.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 16.7 μg/m3) and milling workshop (total TiO2: 39.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 19.4 μg/m3) by ICP-MS. The number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC) of aerosol particles potentially deposited in alveolar (SACA), and tracheobronchial (SACTB) regions of lungs in the packaging workshop were (1.04 ± 0.89) × 105 particles/cm3, 414.49 ± 395.07, and 86.01 ± 83.18 μm2/cm3, respectively, which were all significantly higher than those of the milling workshop [(0.12 ± 0.40) × 105 particles/cm3, 75.38 ± 45.23, and 17.60 ± 9.22 μm2/cm3, respectively] as well as executive office and outdoor background ( p < 0.05). Activity-related characteristics were found in both workshops, and the time-variant characteristics showed very similar trends for 3 days in the packaging workshop. Our study provides important data of TiO2 particles exposure in the workplace.

  17. Shape-Related Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres

    PubMed Central

    Allegri, Manfredi; Bianchi, Massimiliano G.; Chiu, Martina; Varet, Julia; Costa, Anna L.; Ortelli, Simona; Blosi, Magda; Bussolati, Ovidio; Poland, Craig A.; Bergamaschi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibres are a novel fibrous nanomaterial with increasing applications in a variety of fields. While the biological effects of TiO2 nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the toxicological characterization of TiO2 nanofibres is far from being complete. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of commercially available anatase TiO2 nanofibres using TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) and crocidolite asbestos as non-fibrous or fibrous benchmark materials. The evaluated endpoints were cell viability, haemolysis, macrophage activation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (an indicator of the epithelial barrier competence), ROS production and oxidative stress as well as the morphology of exposed cells. The results showed that TiO2 nanofibres caused a cell-specific, dose-dependent decrease of cell viability, with larger effects on alveolar epithelial cells than on macrophages. The observed effects were comparable to those of crocidolite, while TiO2 NP did not decrease cell viability. TiO2 nanofibres were also found endowed with a marked haemolytic activity, at levels significantly higher than those observed with TiO2 nanoparticles or crocidolite. Moreover, TiO2 nanofibres and crocidolite, but not TiO2 nanoparticles, caused a significant decrease of the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of airway cell monolayers. SEM images demonstrated that the interaction with nanofibres and crocidolite caused cell shape perturbation with the longest fibres incompletely or not phagocytosed. The expression of several pro-inflammatory markers, such as NO production and the induction of Nos2 and Ptgs2, was significantly increased by TiO2 nanofibres, as well as by TiO2 nanoparticles and crocidolite. This study indicates that TiO2 nanofibres had significant toxic effects and, for most endpoints with the exception of pro-inflammatory changes, are more bio-active than TiO2 nanoparticles, showing the relevance of shape in determining the toxicity of nanomaterials

  18. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with

  19. Structural and fractal characterization of tungstophosphoric acid modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, S.; Rožić, Lj; Vuković, Z.; Grbić, B.; Radić, N.; Stojadinović, S.; Vasilić, R.

    2017-04-01

    This article presents the comparison of structural and fractal properties of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) and TiO2 modified with tungstophosphoric acid (TiO2/HPW) and their impact on the photocatalytic degradation of hazardous water pollutants. TiO2 and TiO2/HPW samples were synthesized by a combined sol-gel and hydrothermal processing. The XRD analysis of pure TiO2 samples revealed that phase composition was mainly dependent on the calcination temperature, changing from amorphous TiO2 to crystalline anatase and rutile by increasing the temperature. On the other hand, the XRD of TiO2/HPW samples calcined at temperatures above 600 °C showed crystalline peaks associated to formation of WO3 and WO2.92 crystalline domains. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution of TiO2/HPW samples detected the existence of mesoporous characteristic with very narrow bimodal pores in the mesoporous region. The structural heterogeneity of samples was analyzed by means of pore size distribution functions, while the variation in fractal dimension were determined from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, using the modified Frenkel-Halsey-Hill method. The results demonstrate that the approach is capable of characterizing complex textures such as those present in the TiO2 and TiO2/HPW photocatalysts. Besides, the effect of calcinations condition on photocatalytic properties of the samples was also investigated. The highest efficiency with respect to methyl orange photodecomposition was observed for TiO2/HPW photocatalysts calcined at 700 °C.

  20. Co-delivery of ibuprofen and gentamicin from nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Anna; Jarosz, Magdalena; Syrek, Karolina; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2017-04-01

    Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions. The third step lasted 2, 5 and 10min in order to obtain different thicknesses of nanoporous layers. Annealing the as-prepared amorphous layers at the temperature of 400°C led to obtaining the anatase phase. In this study, water-insoluble ibuprofen and water-soluble gentamicin were used as model drugs. Three different drug loading procedures were applied. The desorption-desorption-diffusion (DDD) model of the drug release was fitted to the experimental data. The effects of crystalline structure, depth of TiO2 nanopores and loading procedure on the drug release profiles were examined. The duration of the drug release process can be easily altered by changing the drug loading sequence. Water-soluble gentamicin is released for a long period of time if gentamicin is loaded in ATO as the first drug. Additionally, deeper nanopores and anatase phase suppress the initial burst release of drugs. These results confirm that factors such as morphological and crystalline structure of ATO layers, and the procedure of drug loading inside nanopores, allow to alter the drug release performance of nanoporous ATO layers.

  1. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-Ti02) catalyzes many reactions under UV radiation and is hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six different samples of nano-Ti02 and exposed to UVA radiation. The Ti02 ...

  2. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to two nanoparticles (NPs) -titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium oxide (nano-ceria) at 500 mg NPs L-1 on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and phenotype studies. After 12 days post treatment,...

  3. NOVEL EMBEDDED CERAMIC ELECTRODE SYSTEM TO ACTIVATE NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOR DEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel reactor combining a flame-deposited nanostructured titanium dioxide film and a set of embedded ceramic electrodes was designed, developed and tested for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water. On applying a voltage to the ceramic electrodes, a surface coro...

  4. Impact of natural organic matter on particle behavior and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their inherent phototoxicity and inevitable environmental release, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are increasingly studied in the field of aquatic toxicology. One of the particular interests is the interactions between nano-TiO2 and natural organic matter (NOM)...

  5. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of exposure to two nanoparticles (NPs) -titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium oxide (nano-ceria) at 500 mg NPs L-1 on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied using microarrays and phenotype studies. After 12 days post treatment,...

  6. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  7. Polymorph-dependent titanium dioxide nanoparticle dissolution in acidic and alkali digestions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) with variable structures were quantified in environmental matrices via microwave-based hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) mixed acid digestion and muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium ...

  8. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  9. Impact of natural organic matter on particle behavior and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their inherent phototoxicity and inevitable environmental release, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are increasingly studied in the field of aquatic toxicology. One of the particular interests is the interactions between nano-TiO2 and natural organic matter (NOM)...

  10. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  11. Polymorph-dependent titanium dioxide nanoparticle dissolution in acidic and alkali digestions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) with variable structures were quantified in environmental matrices via microwave-based hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) mixed acid digestion and muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium ...

  12. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  13. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  14. Improvement of water resistance and dimensional stability of wood through titanium dioxide coating

    Treesearch

    Qingfeng Sun; Haipeng Yu; Yixing Liu; Jian Li; Yun Lu; John F. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    Moisture absorption and dimensional distortion are the major drawbacks of wood utilization as building material. In this study, poplar wood coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by the cosolvent-controlled hydrothermal method. Subsequently, its moisture absorption and dimensional stability were examined. Scanning...

  15. Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Nanoparticle uptake in cells may be an important determinant of their potential cytotoxic and inflammatory effects. Six commercial TiO2 NP (A=Alfa Aesar,10nm, A*=Alfa Aesar 32nm, B=P25 27...

  16. Human in vivo and in vitro studies on gastrointestinal absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate; Morton, Jackie; Smith, Ian; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Harding, Anne-Helen; Evans, Gareth

    2015-03-04

    The study was designed to conduct human in vivo and in vitro studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of nanoparticles, using titanium dioxide as a model compound, and to compare nanoparticle behaviour with that of larger particles. A supplier's characterisation data may not fully describe a particle formulation. Most particles tested agreed with their supplied characterisation when assessed by particle number but significant proportions of 'nanoparticle formulations' were particles >100nm when assessed by particle weight. Oral doses are measured by weight and it is therefore important that the weight characterisation is taken into consideration. The human volunteer studies demonstrated that very little titanium dioxide is absorbed gastrointestinally after an oral challenge. There was no demonstrable difference in absorption for any of the three particle sizes tested. All tested formulations were shown to agglomerate in simulated gastric fluid, particularly in the smaller particle formulations. Further agglomeration was observed when dispersing formulations in polymeric or elemental foods. Virtually no translocation of titanium dioxide particles across the cell layer was demonstrated. This study found no evidence that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is more likely to be absorbed in the gut than micron-sized particles.

  17. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  18. GAS PHASE SELECTIVE PHOTOXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND MOLECULAR OXYGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Light-Activated Titanium Dioxide and Molecular Oxygen

    Gas phase selective oxidations of various primary and secondary alcohols are studied in an indigenously built stainless steel up-flow photochemical reactor using ultravi...

  19. NOVEL EMBEDDED CERAMIC ELECTRODE SYSTEM TO ACTIVATE NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIUM DIOXIDE FOR DEGRADATION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel reactor combining a flame-deposited nanostructured titanium dioxide film and a set of embedded ceramic electrodes was designed, developed and tested for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water. On applying a voltage to the ceramic electrodes, a surface coro...

  20. Biotemplated Synthesis of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles via Lignocellulosic Waste Material

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2014-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using rice straw as a soft biotemplate. Rice straw, as a lignocellulosic waste material, is a biomass feedstock which is globally produced in high rate and could be utilized in an innovative approach to manufacture a value-added product. Rice straw as a reliable biotemplate has been used in the sol-gel method to synthesize ultrasmall sizes of TiO2-NPs with high potential application in photocatalysis. The physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible spectra (UV-Vis), and surface area and pore size analysis. All results consensually confirmed that particle sizes of synthesized titanium dioxide were template-dependent, representing decrease in the nanoparticles sizes with increase of biotemplate concentration. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as small as 13.0 ± 3.3 nm were obtained under our experimental conditions. Additionally, surface area and porosity of synthesized TiO2-NPs have been enhanced by increasing rice straw amount which results in surface modification of nanoparticles and potential application in photocatalysis. PMID:25126547

  1. Biotemplated synthesis of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles via lignocellulosic waste material.

    PubMed

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2014-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using rice straw as a soft biotemplate. Rice straw, as a lignocellulosic waste material, is a biomass feedstock which is globally produced in high rate and could be utilized in an innovative approach to manufacture a value-added product. Rice straw as a reliable biotemplate has been used in the sol-gel method to synthesize ultrasmall sizes of TiO2-NPs with high potential application in photocatalysis. The physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated by a number of techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet visible spectra (UV-Vis), and surface area and pore size analysis. All results consensually confirmed that particle sizes of synthesized titanium dioxide were template-dependent, representing decrease in the nanoparticles sizes with increase of biotemplate concentration. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles as small as 13.0 ± 3.3 nm were obtained under our experimental conditions. Additionally, surface area and porosity of synthesized TiO2-NPs have been enhanced by increasing rice straw amount which results in surface modification of nanoparticles and potential application in photocatalysis.

  2. Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters: State of the Science Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to compile and summarize currently-available information pertaining to the manufacturing, processing, use, and end-of-life for nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). The focus of the report is to identify, summarize, and present informat...

  3. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  4. Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters: State of the Science Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to compile and summarize currently-available information pertaining to the manufacturing, processing, use, and end-of-life for nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). The focus of the report is to identify, summarize, and present informat...

  5. Recharge processes of paramagnetic centers during illumination in nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, N. T.; Konstantinova, E. A.; Kokorin, A. I.; Kodom, T.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) has been investigated by the EPR-technique. Two types of paramagnetic centers - N• and NO•-radicals - were detected in the samples. Both N• and NO•-related centers are recharged during illumination. Band diagrams of TiO2 with N• and NO• radicals energy level position are proposed.

  6. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-Ti02) catalyzes many reactions under UV radiation and is hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six different samples of nano-Ti02 and exposed to UVA radiation. The Ti02 ...

  7. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as par...

  8. Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity Assessment of Six Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Nanoparticle uptake in cells may be an important determinant of their potential cytotoxic and inflammatory effects. Six commercial TiO2 NP (A=Alfa Aesar,10nm, A*=Alfa Aesar 32nm, B=P25 27...

  9. Electrical Properties of a Thermoplastic Polyurethane Filled with Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Koerner, Hilmar; Kidder, Michelle; Vaia, Richard; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R

    2010-01-01

    In this study we report a nanodielectric system composed of pre-synthesized nanoparticles embedded in an elastomer. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were synthesized in an aqueous solution of titanium chloride and polyethylene glycol. The nanoparticles were blended in a twin screw extruder with a thermoplastic, polyurethane (Morthane PS455-203), to form nanodielectrics at three different weight fractions of titanium dioxide. Impedance spectroscopy was employed to study polymer dynamics and the influence of nanoparticles on relaxation. The segmental relaxation associated with the glass transition of the polyurethane matrix, and the local relaxations associated with short range motions of polar groups were investigated at wide ranges of frequency (20 Hz-1 MHz) and temperature (300-20 K). The dielectric breakdown strength of the nanodielectrics was also measured to characterize their insulating properties and their potential for use in high voltage applications.

  10. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  11. Effect of chromium and phosphorus on the physical properties of iron and titanium-based amorphous metallic alloy films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Rameshan, R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous iron and titanium-based alloys containing various amounts of chromium, phosphorus, and boron exhibit high corrosion resistance. Some physical properties of Fe and Ti-based metallic alloy films deposited on a glass substrate by a dc-magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, stress analysis, SEM, XRD, SIMS, electron microprobe, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques.

  12. Monolithic co-aerogels of carbon/titanium dioxide as three dimensional nanostructured electrodes for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sungwoo; Cai, Yue; Cheng, Yingwen; Varanasi, C. V.; Liu, Jie

    2012-11-01

    Conductive fillers, such as amorphous carbon, carbon nanotube and graphene etc., are generally mixed with nanostructured metal oxide materials to improve the performance of electrode materials in energy storage devices. However, the conductive framework that provides path for electric conduction does not normally form a well-connected and robust 3-D network to ensure optimized ions transport. Here, we report a convenient, inexpensive and scalable method for synthesizing hybrid carbon and titanium dioxide co-gels and co-aerogels to improve the electrochemical capacity by combining both the lithium insertion and the surface storage mechanisms in Li ion batteries (LIBs) anodes. A monolithic piece of a hybrid C/TiO2 co-aerogel can be directly used as an active electrode without the addition of binders, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). As a result, the performance of LIB anodes using the hybrid co-aerogel is significantly improved over current LIBs based on carbon/titanium oxide composites. The reversible discharge capacity was stabilized at ˜400 mAh g-1 at a 168 mA g-1 scan rate and an operating voltage between 3.0 and 0.05 V vs. Li+/Li with excellent cyclic capacity retention. This approach, however, is not limited to only C/TiO2 system but can be extended to other metal oxides to form co-gels with carbon to improve their potential use in numerous electrochemical, photocatalytic, and photoelectronic devices.

  13. Titanium Dioxide Modulation of the Contractibility of Visceral Smooth Muscles In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbalyuk, Olga V.; Naumenko, Anna M.; Rohovtsov, Oleksandr O.; Skoryk, Mykola A.; Voiteshenko, Ivan S.; Skryshevsky, Valeriy A.; Davydovska, Tamara L.

    2017-02-01

    Electronic scanning microscopy was used in the work to obtain the image and to identify the sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles 21 ± 5 nm. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the preparations of the caecum, antrum, myometrium, kidneys, and lungs of the rats, burdened with titanium dioxide, was also performed. It was established using the tenzometric method in the isometric mode that the accumulation of titanium dioxide in smooth muscles of the caecum resulted in the considerable, compared to the control, increase in the frequency of their spontaneous contractions, the decrease in the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the decrease in the indices of muscle functioning efficiency (the index of contractions in Montevideo units (MU) and the index of contractions in Alexandria units (AU)). In the same experimental conditions, there was not the increase, but the decrease in the frequency of spontaneous contractions, the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the increase in MU and AU indices in the smooth muscles of myometrium (in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2 for 30 days). It was also determined that TiO2 modulates both the mechanisms of the input of extracellular Ca2+ ions and the mechanisms of decreasing the concentration of these cations in smooth muscle cells of the caecum during the generation of the high potassium contraction. In these conditions, there is a considerable increase in the normalized maximal velocity of the contraction phase and the relaxation phase. It was demonstrated in the work that titanium dioxide also changes the cholinergic excitation in these muscles. The impact of titanium dioxide in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2, was accompanied with a considerable impairment of the kinetics of forming the tonic component of the oxytocin-induced contraction of the smooth muscles of myometrium.

  14. Titanium Dioxide Modulation of the Contractibility of Visceral Smooth Muscles In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsymbalyuk, Olga V; Naumenko, Anna M; Rohovtsov, Oleksandr O; Skoryk, Mykola A; Voiteshenko, Ivan S; Skryshevsky, Valeriy A; Davydovska, Tamara L

    2017-12-01

    Electronic scanning microscopy was used in the work to obtain the image and to identify the sizes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles 21 ± 5 nm. The qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the preparations of the caecum, antrum, myometrium, kidneys, and lungs of the rats, burdened with titanium dioxide, was also performed. It was established using the tenzometric method in the isometric mode that the accumulation of titanium dioxide in smooth muscles of the caecum resulted in the considerable, compared to the control, increase in the frequency of their spontaneous contractions, the decrease in the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the decrease in the indices of muscle functioning efficiency (the index of contractions in Montevideo units (MU) and the index of contractions in Alexandria units (AU)). In the same experimental conditions, there was not the increase, but the decrease in the frequency of spontaneous contractions, the duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle, and the increase in MU and AU indices in the smooth muscles of myometrium (in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2 for 30 days). It was also determined that TiO2 modulates both the mechanisms of the input of extracellular Ca(2+) ions and the mechanisms of decreasing the concentration of these cations in smooth muscle cells of the caecum during the generation of the high potassium contraction. In these conditions, there is a considerable increase in the normalized maximal velocity of the contraction phase and the relaxation phase. It was demonstrated in the work that titanium dioxide also changes the cholinergic excitation in these muscles. The impact of titanium dioxide in the group of rats, burdened with TiO2, was accompanied with a considerable impairment of the kinetics of forming the tonic component of the oxytocin-induced contraction of the smooth muscles of myometrium.

  15. Imaging flow cytometry assays for quantifying pigment grade titanium dioxide particle internalization and interactions with immune cells in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Rachel E; Vis, Bradley; Pele, Laetitia C; Faria, Nuno; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-09-20

    Pigment grade titanium dioxide is composed of sub-micron sized particles, including a nanofraction, and is widely utilized in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. Oral exposure to pigment grade titanium dioxide results in at least some material entering the circulation in humans, although subsequent interactions with blood immune cells are unknown. Pigment grade titanium dioxide is employed for its strong light scattering properties, and this work exploited that attribute to determine whether single cell-particle associations could be determined in immune cells of human whole blood at "real life" concentrations. In vitro assays, initially using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, identified titanium dioxide associated with the surface of, and within, immune cells by darkfield reflectance in imaging flow cytometry. This was confirmed at the population level by side scatter measurements using conventional flow cytometry. Next, it was demonstrated that imaging flow cytometry could quantify titanium dioxide particle-bearing cells, within the immune cell populations of fresh whole blood, down to titanium dioxide levels of 10 parts per billion, which is in the range anticipated for human blood following titanium dioxide ingestion. Moreover, surface association and internal localization of titanium dioxide particles could be discriminated in the assays. Overall, results showed that in addition to the anticipated activity of blood monocytes internalizing titanium dioxide particles, neutrophil internalization and cell membrane adhesion also occurred, the latter for both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cell types. What happens in vivo and whether this contributes to activation of one or more of these different cells types in blood merits further attention. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Programming power reduction in confined phase change memory cells with titanium dioxide clad layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liangliang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang; Zheng, Qianqian; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Wanting; Shao, Hehong; Zhu, Xiuwei; Yu, Wenlei

    2017-01-01

    A confined structure phase change memory (PCM) cell has been fabricated based on the focused-ion beam technique. Furthermore, the titanium dioxide clad layer was proposed for promoting the temperature rise in the Ge0.61Sb2Te layer that causes the reduction in the reset voltage and current compared to the phase change memory cell without clad layer. Theoretical thermal simulation and calculation for the reset process are conducted to analyze the thermal effect of the titanium dioxide heating layer. The improved performance of the PCM cell with dioxide clad layer can be attributed to the fact that the buffer layer not only acted as heating layer but also efficiently reduced the cell dissipated power.

  17. Influence of carboxymethyl cellulose for the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in clean silica and mineral-coated sands.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Hee; Al-Abed, Souhail R; Luxton, Todd

    2009-07-01

    The transport properties of titanium dioxide (anatase polymorph) nanoparticles encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were evaluated as a function of changes in the solute chemical properties in clean quartz, amorphous aluminum, and iron hydroxide-coated sands. While pristine anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (ANTNPs) were completely immobile, the presence of CMC significantly enhanced their mobility. The magnitude of the surface charge exhibited by the CMC-coated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (CMC-ANTNPs) significantly exceeded that of the uncoated ANTNPs, thereby leading to a negative surface charge over the pH range investigated (2-10). The mobility of CMC-ANTNPs was retarded by the presence of amorphous Fe and Al hydroxide, Na+ (30 mM), and Ca2+ (30 mM). Removal of CMC-ANTNPs was more significant in the presence of either Ca2+ or Fe-hydroxide. More retardation and incomplete breakthrough of the CMC-ANTNPs was observed in the mineral-coated sands. This is possibly due to an order of magnitude increase in the surface area of mineral-coated sands compared with the clean quartz sand grains and the potential for chelation between CMC bound to ANTNPs and Fe and Al hydroxides. Chemical-colloidal interactions such as chemicomplexation and ligand exchange were the most important factor controlling mobility of CMC-ANTNPs in mineral-coated sands.

  18. Characterization of an Amorphous Titanium Oxide Film Deposited onto a Nano-Textured Fluorination Surface

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Yu; Liu, Hua-Wen; Chen, Tai-Hong; Chang, Chun-Hao; Lu, Yi-Shan; Liu, Day-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of an amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiOx) film was modified using a two-step deposition. The fluorinated base layer with a nano-textured surface prepared by a selective fluorination etching process acted as growth seeds in the subsequent a-TiOx deposition. A nanorod-like microstructure was achievable from the resulting a-TiOx film due to the self-assembled deposition. Compared to the a-TiOx film directly deposited onto the untreated base layer, the rate constant of this fluorinate-free a-TiOx film surface for decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution that was employed to assess the film’s photocatalytic activity was markedly increased from 0.0076 min−1 to 0.0267 min−1 as a mechanism for the marked increase in the specific surface area. PMID:28773553

  19. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  20. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  1. Amorphous alumina thin films deposited on titanium: Interfacial chemistry and thermal oxidation barrier properties

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Charvillat, Cedric; Thebault, Yannick; Esvan, Jerome; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Scheid, Emmanuel; Veith, Gabriel M.; Vahlas, Constantin

    2015-12-02

    Ti/Al2O3 bilayer stacks are used as model systems to investigate the role of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare 30-180 nm thick amorphous alumina films as protective barriers for the medium temperature oxidation (500-600⁰C) of titanium, which is employed in aeronautic applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the films produced from the direct liquid injection (DLI) CVD of aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) are poor oxygen barriers. The films processed using the ALD of trimethylaluminum (TMA) show good barrier properties but an extensive intermixing with Ti which subsequently oxidizes. In contrast, the films prepared from dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) by CVD are excellent oxygen barriers and show little intermixing with Ti. Overall, these measurements correlate the effect of the alumina coating thickness, morphology, and stoichiometry resulting from the preparation method to the oxidation barrier properties, and show that compact and stoichiometric amorphous alumina films offer superior barrier properties.

  2. Amorphous alumina thin films deposited on titanium: Interfacial chemistry and thermal oxidation barrier properties

    DOE PAGES

    Baggetto, Loic; Charvillat, Cedric; Thebault, Yannick; ...

    2015-12-02

    Ti/Al2O3 bilayer stacks are used as model systems to investigate the role of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare 30-180 nm thick amorphous alumina films as protective barriers for the medium temperature oxidation (500-600⁰C) of titanium, which is employed in aeronautic applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the films produced from the direct liquid injection (DLI) CVD of aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) are poor oxygen barriers. The films processed using the ALD of trimethylaluminum (TMA) show good barrier properties butmore » an extensive intermixing with Ti which subsequently oxidizes. In contrast, the films prepared from dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) by CVD are excellent oxygen barriers and show little intermixing with Ti. Overall, these measurements correlate the effect of the alumina coating thickness, morphology, and stoichiometry resulting from the preparation method to the oxidation barrier properties, and show that compact and stoichiometric amorphous alumina films offer superior barrier properties.« less

  3. Efficacy of titanium dioxide photocatalyst for inhibition of bacterial colonization on percutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yoshinobu; Kim, Wook-Cheol; Yoshida, Takashi; Hirashima, Toshiko; Mouri, Hisashi; Urade, Hidenori; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of titanium dioxide photocatalyst in inhibition of bacterial colonization on percutaneous implants. Titanium dioxide photocatalyst was prepared by direct oxidization of pure titanium substrate, and a comparative study with pure titanium was performed. The bactericidal ability of the photocatalyst was examined using methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) suspensions in a colony-forming assay according to the Japanese Industrial Standards committee standard. After exposing the MRSA suspension on sample plates to ultraviolet A (UVA) light, the number of surviving bacteria was estimated. Next, an animal model for inhibition of colonization was examined in vivo. Pins were inserted into the femurs of rabbits, were infected with 10(8) colony-forming units of MRSA suspension, and were illuminated with UVA light for 60 min daily; the number of colonizing bacteria was estimated after 7 days. The bactericidal ability of the photocatalyst was apparent after 60 min, when the bacteria had almost disappeared. The number of colonizing bacteria on photocatalytic pins was decreased significantly in vivo. The photocatalyst was effective even against resistant bacterial colonization. Clinically, the incidence of percutaneous implant infection such as pin tract infection in external fixation could be reduced using the titanium photocatalyst.

  4. Analysis of metal surfaces coated with europium-doped titanium dioxide by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Głogocka, Daria; Noculak, Agnieszka; Pucińska, Joanna; Jopek, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina; Langner, Marek; Przybyło, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The surface passivation with titanium sol-gel coatings is a frequently used technique to control the adsorption of selected biological macromolecules and to reduce the exposure of the bulk material to biological matter. Due to the increasing number of new coating-preparation methods and new gel compositions with various types of additives, the quality and homogeneity determination of the surface covering is a critical factor affecting performance of any implanted material. While coating thickness is easy to determine, the homogeneity of the surface distribution of coating materials requires more elaborate methodologies. In the paper, the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based method, capable to quantitate the homogeneity and uniformity of the europium in titanium dioxide sol-gel coatings on stainless steel surfaces prepared with two different procedures: spin-coating and dip-coating, is presented. The emission intensity of titanium has been used to determine the coating thickness whereas the relative values of europium and titanium emission intensities provide data on the coating homogeneity. The obtained results show that the spin-coating technique provides better surface coverage with titanium dioxide. However, when the surface coating compositions were compared the dip-coating technique was more reliable.

  5. Photoelectrochemical water splitting at titanium dioxide nanotubes coated with tungsten trioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Park, O. Ok; Kim, Sungwook

    2006-10-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen using solar light is a potentially clean and renewable source for hydrogen fuel. Titanium oxide nanotubes coated with tungsten oxide were prepared to harvest more solar light for the first time and characterized their water splitting efficiency. The tungsten trioxide coatings significantly enhanced the visible spectrum absorption of the titanium dioxide nanotube array, as well as their solar-spectrum induced photocurrents. For the sample, upon white light illumination at 150mW/cm2, hydrogen gas generated at the overall conversion efficiency of 0.87%.

  6. Photoelectrochemical water splitting at titanium dioxide nanotubes coated with tungsten trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Park, O Ok; Kim, Sungwook

    2006-10-16

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen using solar light is a potentially clean and renewable source for hydrogen fuel. Titanium oxide nanotubes coated with tungsten oxide were prepared to harvest more solar light for the first time and characterized their water splitting efficiency. The tungsten trioxide coatings significantly enhanced the visible spectrum absorption of the titanium dioxide nanotube array, as well as their solar-spectrum induced photocurrents. For the sample, upon white light illumination at 150 mW/cm{sup 2}, hydrogen gas generated at the overall conversion efficiency of 0.87%.

  7. Binding of oxygen with titanium dioxide on singlet potential energy surface: An ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanchikov, Georgii A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out to investigate interaction of titanium dioxide TiO2 with oxygen O2 in ground triplet and excited singlet states. On a singlet potential energy surface (PES) formation of a stable compound of titanium peroxide TiO4 is revealed which should appear in reaction of TiO2 with singlet oxygen without activation barrier. This peroxide is lower in energy than the ground state of two individual molecules TiO2 + 3O2 by 34.6 kcal/mol. Location of conical intersection between triplet and singlet PESs of TiO2sbnd O2 is also investigated.

  8. Electrochemical response of carbon paste electrode modified with mixture of titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide in the detection of heavy metals: lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Khanh Quoc; Lunsford, Suzanne K

    2012-11-15

    A novel carbon modified electrode was developed by incorporating titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide into the graphite carbon paste electrode to detect heavy metals-cadmium and lead. In this work, the development of the novel titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide modified carbon paste electrode was studied to determine the optimum synthesis conditions related to the temperature, heating duration, amount and ratio of titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide, and amount of surfactant, to create the most reproducible results. Using cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis, this study has proven that the novel titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide can be utilized to detect heavy metals-lead and cadmium, at relatively low concentrations (7.6×10(-6) M and 1.1×10(-5) M for Pb and Cd, respectively) at optimum pH value (pH=3). From analyzing CV data the optimal electrodes surface area was estimated to be 0.028 (±0.003) cm(2). Also, under the specific experimental conditions, electron transfer coefficients were estimated to be 0.44 and 0.33 along with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of 5.64×10(-3) and 2.42×10(-3) (cm/s) for Pb and Cd, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of anodized titanium for hydrometallurgical applications—Evidence for the reduction of cupric on titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Alfantazi, Akram; Asselin, Edouard

    2013-10-01

    Anodic oxide films (AOFs) were potentiostatically formed on commercially pure titanium in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solutions at various anodizing voltages (up to 80 V) at room temperature. The subject of this study was the corrosion resistance of the AOFs in synthetic copper sulfide leaching solutions containing 30 g L-1 sulfuric acid as well as 12 g L-1 Cl-, 15 g L-1 Cu2+ and 1 g L-1 Fe3+. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the corrosion response of the AOFs in copper sulfide leaching solutions up to 85 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the AOFs before and after 12 h of immersion at 85 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface chemistry of the AOFs after immersion. OCP measurements showed that the final failure of the AOFs occurred in 2 h in de-aerated 30 g L-1 H2SO4 and 12 g L-1 Cl- solutions at 85 °C. Both LPR and EIS results showed a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the anodized titanium versus that of freshly polished titanium. Electrochemical results were confirmed by SEM analysis, where the AOF formed at 80 V lead to the best improvement in corrosion resistance. XPS measurements revealed that Cu2+ was reduced to Cu or Cu+ within the titanium oxide film. It was further confirmed that the presence of leaching oxidants would inhibit the reduction of Cu2+ on titanium dioxide in chloride containing copper sulfide leaching solutions.

  10. Photocatalytic oxidation mechanism of isobutane in contact with titanium dioxide (TiO2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, M.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of isobutane to acetone in the presence of irradiated ultraviolet irradiated titanium dioxide was found to occur in several steps. Insertion of an oxygen atom onto the tertiary carbon transforming the isobutane into tertiary butanol occurred first. This step implied the photonic formation of the 02- species and its reaction with positive holes. The tertiary butanol was then dehydrated to isobutene which is oxidized acetone and carbon dioxide. Insertion of an oxygen atom onto the primary carbon led to isobutanal after oxidation to the alcohol. An analogous reaction scheme was proposed for all alkanes.

  11. An investigation of adhesive/adherend and fiber/matrix interactions. Part A: Surface characterization of titanium dioxide, titantium and titanium 6% Al to 4% V powders: Interaction with water, hydrogen chloride and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siriwardane, R. V.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The titanium dioxide surface is discussed. Polymer adhesive are also discussed. Titanium powders are considered. Characterization techniques are also considered. Interactions with polymers, water vapor, and HCl are reported. Adsorbents are characterized.

  12. Influence of alumina and titanium dioxide coatings on abrasive wear resistance of AISI 1045 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A.; Remolina, A.; Marulanda, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to compare the behaviour of an AISI 1045 steel's abrasive wear resistance when is covered with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) or Titanium dioxide (TiO2), of nanometric size, using the technique of thermal hot spray, which allows to directly project the suspension particles on the used substrate. The tests are performed based on the ASTM G65-04 standard (Standard Test Method for Measuring Abrasion Using the Dry Sand/Rubber Apparatus). The results show that the amount of, lost material increases linearly with the travelled distance; also determined that the thermal treatment of hardening-tempering and the alumina and titanium dioxide coatings decrease in average a 12.9, 39.6 and 29.3% respectively the volume of released material during abrasive wear test.

  13. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szura, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  14. Synthesis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Efficiency cells as a thickness of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szura, Dominika

    2016-12-01

    Defying the influence of the thickness of TiO2 efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell. It was confirmed that the compatibility of printed layers with the parameters closely related with the DSSC. It was found that the increase in thickness of the titanium dioxide layer, increases the distance between the electrodes, determined by the thickness of the Surlyn foil. With the rise of thickness of dyed layer of TiO2 established decrease in the value of its transmittance. Greatest transparency and aesthetic value obtained for photovoltaic modules with a single layer of titanium dioxide. The improved performance efficiency and preferred yields maximum power were noticed and exhibited by the cells covered with three layers of TiO2. It was established that the behaviour of economic efficiency in the production process, provides a range of cells with two layers of oxide, showing a similar performance and greater transparency.

  15. Defective titanium dioxide single crystals exposed by high-energy {001} facets for efficient oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Dan-Ni; Gong, Li; Zhang, Ai-Yong; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Jie-Jie; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The cathodic material plays an essential role in oxygen reduction reaction for energy conversion and storage systems. Titanium dioxide, as a semiconductor material, is usually not recognized as an efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst owning to its low conductivity and poor reactivity. Here we demonstrate that nano-structured titanium dioxide, self-doped by oxygen vacancies and selectively exposed with the high-energy {001} facets, exhibits a surprisingly competitive oxygen reduction activity, excellent durability and superior tolerance to methanol. Combining the electrochemical tests with density-functional calculations, we elucidate the defect-centred oxygen reduction reaction mechanism for the superiority of the reductive {001}-TiO2−x nanocrystals. Our findings may provide an opportunity to develop a simple, efficient, cost-effective and promising catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in energy conversion and storage technologies. PMID:26493365

  16. Selective growth of palladium and titanium dioxide nanostructures inside carbon nanotube membranes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid nanostructured arrays based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and palladium or titanium dioxide materials have been synthesized using self-supported and silicon-supported anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as nanoporous template. It is well demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can be grown using these membranes and hydrocarbon precursors that decompose at temperatures closer to 600°C without the use of a metal catalyst. In this process, carbonic fragments condensate to form stacked graphitic sheets, which adopt the shape of the pores, yielding from these moulds' multi-walled carbon nanotubes. After this process, the ends of the tubes remain open and accessible to other substances, whereas the outer walls are protected by the alumina. Taking advantage of this fact, we have performed the synthesis of palladium and titanium dioxide nanostructures selectively inside carbon nanotubes using these CNT-AAO membranes as nanoreactors. PMID:22731888

  17. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible antimicrobial N-halamine-functionalized titanium dioxide core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Ma, Wei; Cheng, Xiaoli; Ren, Xuehong; Xie, Zhiwei; Liang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    As one of the most powerful biocides, N-halamine based antimicrobial materials have attracted much interest due to their non-toxicity, rechargeability, and rapid inactivation against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, novel titanium dioxide-ADMH core-shell nanoparticles [TiO2@poly (ADMH-co-MMA) NPs] were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization using 3-allyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (ADMH) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with nano-TiO2. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, TEM, TGA, and XPS. The UV stability of N-halamine nanoparticles has been improved with the addition of titanium dioxide. After chlorination treatment by sodium hypochlorite, biocidal efficacies of the chlorinated nanoparticles against S. aureus (ATCC 6538) and E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) were determined. The nanoparticles showed excellent antimicrobial properties against bacteria within brief contact time. In addition, in vitro cell cytocompatibility tests showed that the antibacterial nanoparticles had good biocompatibility.

  18. Investigation on Stability and Optical Properties of Titanium Dioxide and Aluminum Oxide Water-Based Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Kin Yuen; Najwa, Z. A.; Ku Ahmad, K. Z.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan

    2017-05-01

    Water is regarded as a poor absorber of solar energy. This affects the efficiency of solar thermal systems. The addition of nanoparticles to heat transfer fluids used in solar thermal systems can enhance their optical properties. These new-generation heat transfer fluids are known as nanofluids. The present study investigates the stability and optical properties of three nanofluids, including aluminum oxide (13 nm and <50 nm) and titanium dioxide (21 nm) nanofluids. The stability of the nanofluids was observed through a photo-capturing method and zeta potential measurements. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance and transmittance of the prepared nanofluids. The effect of factors such as type of particle, type of surfactant, and pH of the solution on the optical properties of the nanofluids was also investigated. We found that the titanium dioxide nanofluid had better optical properties but lower stability compared to aluminum oxide nanofluids.

  19. Titanium dioxide encapsulation of supported Ag nanoparticles on the porous silica bead for increased photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Deng, Lu; Sun, Chaochao; Li, Junqi; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy has been developed to encapsulate Ag nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysts to prevent their dropping and sintering. Ag nanoparticles with diameters about 5-10 nm were first supported on the porous silica bead. These were then covered with a fresh layer of titanium dioxide with the thickness about 5 nm. SEM and TEM images were used to confirm the success of each synthesis step, and the photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution at ambient temperature under both UV and visible light irradiation. The resulting titanium dioxide encapsulated Ag nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation, this can be attributed to effective charge separation and light harvesting of the plasmonic silver nanoparticles decoration, even the reducing of the exciton recombination rate caused by the small grain size of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals.

  20. Defective titanium dioxide single crystals exposed by high-energy {001} facets for efficient oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Dan-Ni; Gong, Li; Zhang, Ai-Yong; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Jie-Jie; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-10-01

    The cathodic material plays an essential role in oxygen reduction reaction for energy conversion and storage systems. Titanium dioxide, as a semiconductor material, is usually not recognized as an efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst owning to its low conductivity and poor reactivity. Here we demonstrate that nano-structured titanium dioxide, self-doped by oxygen vacancies and selectively exposed with the high-energy {001} facets, exhibits a surprisingly competitive oxygen reduction activity, excellent durability and superior tolerance to methanol. Combining the electrochemical tests with density-functional calculations, we elucidate the defect-centred oxygen reduction reaction mechanism for the superiority of the reductive {001}-TiO2-x nanocrystals. Our findings may provide an opportunity to develop a simple, efficient, cost-effective and promising catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in energy conversion and storage technologies.

  1. Effects of porous films on the light reflectivity of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yong; Qiao, Bing; Wang, Tig-Jie; Gao, Han; Yu, Keyi

    2016-11-01

    The light reflectivity of the film-coated titanium dioxide particles (TiO2) as a function of the film refractive index was derived and calculated using a plane film model. For the refractive index in the range of 1.00-2.15, the lower the film refractive index is, the higher is the light reflectivity of the film. It is inferred that the lower apparent refractive index of the porous film resulted in the higher reflectivity of light, i.e., the higher hiding power of the titanium dioxide particles. A dense film coating on TiO2 particles with different types of oxides, i.e., SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, ZnO, ZrO2, TiO2, corresponding to different refractive indices of the film from 1.46 to 2.50, was achieved, and the effects of refractive index on the hiding power from the model prediction were confirmed. Porous film coating of TiO2 particles was achieved by adding the organic template agent triethanolamine (TEA). The hiding power of the coated TiO2 particles was increased from 88.3 to 90.8 by adding the TEA template to the film coating (5-20 wt%). In other words, the amount of titanium dioxide needed was reduced by approximately 10% without a change in the hiding power. It is concluded that the film structure coated on TiO2 particle surface affects the light reflectivity significantly, namely, the porous film exhibits excellent performance for pigmentary titanium dioxide particles with high hiding power.

  2. SECM characterization of immobilised enzymes by self-assembled monolayers on titanium dioxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E M; Beyer, S; Heinze, J

    2007-11-01

    SECM in generator-collector mode was used to detect the presence of immobilised enzymes on titanium dioxide layers which were chemically or electrochemically generated with possible application as chemical sensors and biosensors. Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were immobilised by SAM generation using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and ascorbic acid. The enzymes were successfully immobilised on two different TiO(2) surfaces. A simple test of durability of the system was made and a model of SAM organisation is presented.

  3. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppmann, T.; Yatsenko, S.; Leonhardt, S.; Krampe, E.; Radovanovic, I.; Bastian, M.; Wintermantel, E.

    2014-05-01

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO2 for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO2 coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO2 particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO2 P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO2-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  4. Optical, Physical, and Chemical Properties of Surface Modified Titanium Dioxide Powders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    200 WORDS Titanium Dioxide (TiO;) powder is currently used by the U.S. Army as an obscurant fill in the M82 and M 106 visible smoke grenades. The...Experimentally Coated TiO: Powders 23 8. Carr Indices Chart of Flowability 25 9. Carr Indices Chart of Floodability 25 10. Floodability Test Results...for Commercial TiO: Powders 26 11. Flowability Results for Commercial TiO: Powders 26 12. Commercially Available Powders-Correlation Coefficients

  5. Birefringence and Dichroizm of Porous Aluminum Oxide Filled with Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkas, N. L.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Birefringence and dichroizm of a porous aluminum oxide layer filled with titanium dioxide is calculated for the model of an effective medium. Oblique incidence of ordinary and extraordinary waves is considered. A dependence of the layer transmittance on the angle of electromagnetic wave incidence is compared with the available experimental data. The sensitivity of the experimental technique suggested previously to the change of the refractive index of the pore filler is investigated.

  6. Titanium dioxide visible light photocatalysis: surface association enables photocatalysis with visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Pitre, Spencer P; Yoon, Tehshik P; Scaiano, Juan C

    2017-04-13

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely employed and inexpensive photocatalyst, but its use in organic synthesis has been limited by the short-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation typically used. We have discovered that TiO2 particles efficiently mediate photocatalytic radical cation Diels-Alder cycloadditions using a simple visible light source, enabled by the formation of a visible light absorbing complex of the substrate on the semiconductor surface.

  7. Antimicrobial polymers - The antibacterial effect of photoactivated nano titanium dioxide polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Huppmann, T. Leonhardt, S. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Krampe, E. E-mail: erhard.krampe@tum.de; Wintermantel, E.; Yatsenko, S. Radovanovic, I. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de; Bastian, M. E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de

    2014-05-15

    To obtain a polymer with antimicrobial properties for medical and sanitary applications nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles have been incorporated into a medical grade polypropylene (PP) matrix with various filler contents (0 wt %, 2 wt %, 10 wt % and 15 wt %). The standard application of TiO{sub 2} for antimicrobial efficacy is to deposit a thin TiO{sub 2} coating on the surface. In contrast to the common way of applying a coating, TiO{sub 2} particles were applied into the bulk polymer. With this design we want to ensure antimicrobial properties even after application of impact effects that could lead to surface defects. The filler material (Aeroxide® TiO{sub 2} P25, Evonik) was applied via melt compounding and the compounding parameters were optimized with respect to nanoscale titanium dioxide. In a next step the effect of UV-irradiation on the compounds concerning their photocatalytic activity, which is related to the titanium dioxide amount, was investigated. The photocatalytic effect of TiO{sub 2}-PP-composites was analyzed by contact angle measurement, by methylene blue testing and by evaluation of inactivation potential for Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria. The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the filler content was evaluated, and on the basis of different titanium dioxide fractions adequate amounts of additives within the compounds were discussed. Specimens displayed a higher photocatalytic and also antimicrobial activity and lower contact angles with increasing titania content. The results suggest that the presence of titania embedded in the PP matrix leads to a surface change and a photocatalytic effect with bacteria killing result.

  8. Toxicity and Fate Comparison between Several Brass and Titanium Dioxide Powders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    Gold, and four brands of titanium dioxide were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia magna (water flea), Arikistrodesmusfalcatus (green algae... magna ) is a filter feeder. Daphnia filter the surrounding water and ingest any particulate that Is trapped in their filtering apparatus. They do not...several other particulate materials. TEST MATERIAL TEST SPECIES ECs 0 (msAL) EPA* Ranking SF-150 Brass Daphnia magna 0.021 9 Ankistrodesmus falcatus 0.242

  9. Study on the Effect of Different Amount of Titanium Dioxide Nano-Powder to the Nano-Structured Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin film with additional various amount of TiO2 nanopowder has been successfully prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The amounts of TiO2 nanopowders are varied at 0.02 g, 0.04 g, 0.06 g, 0.08 g, 0.10 g and 0.12 g, respectively. The effects of different amount of Titanium Dioxide nanopowder to the structural, electrical and optical properties have been studied. The effects of different amount of nano-powder TiO2 were characterized using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), 2-point probe I-V measurement and UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer. For electrical properties, O.1 g of TiO2 nanopowder gives the lowest sheet resistance among other nanostructured TiO2 thin film. As for XRD data, all thin films are in crystalline anatase form which can observe at 2θ degree 25.6° for [101]. As the amount TiO2 nanopowder increased at 0.10 g and 0.12 g, new crystalline anatase phase can be observed at 2θ degree 48.6° for [200]. All TiO2 thin films also exhibited optical transmittance over 69% with wavelength range from 200 nm to 1000 nm.

  10. Self-assembled monolayers and titanium dioxide: From surface patterning to potential applications.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yaron

    2011-01-01

    The ability to control the properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) attached to solid surfaces and the rare photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide provide a rationale for the study of systems comprising both. Such systems can be realized in the form of SAMs grown on TiO(2) or, in a complementary manner, as TiO(2) grown on SAMs. Accordingly, the current status of knowledge regarding SAMs on TiO(2) is described. Photocatalytic phenomena that are of specific relevance to SAMs, such as remote degradation, and cases where SAMs were used to study photocatalytic phenomena, are discussed as well. Mastering of micro-patterning is a key issue en route to a successful assimilation of a variety of titanium dioxide based devices. Accordingly, particular attention is given to the description of a variety of methods and techniques aimed at utilizing the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide for patterning. Reports on a variety of applications are discussed. These examples, representing the areas of photovoltaics, microelectronics, microelectromechanics, photocatalysis, corrosion prevention and even biomedicine should be regarded as appetizers paving the way for further studies to be performed.

  11. Unexpected Effects of Activator Molecules' Polarity on the Electroreological Activity of Titanium Dioxide Nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Agafonov, A V; Davydova, O I; Krayev, A S; Ivanova, O S; Evdokimova, O L; Gerasimova, T V; Baranchikov, A E; Kozik, V V; Ivanov, V K

    2017-07-13

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, obtained using the sol-gel method and modified with organic solvents, such as acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, diethyl ether, dimethyl sulfoxide, toluene, and chloroform, were used as the filler of polydimethylsiloxane-based electrorheological fluids. The effect of electric field strength on the shear stress and yield stress of electrorheological fluids was investigated, as well as the spectra of their dielectric relaxation in the frequency range from 25 to 10(6) Hz. Modification of titanium dioxide by polar molecules was found to enhance the electrorheological effect, as compared with unmodified TiO2, in accordance with the widely accepted concept of polar molecule dominated electrorheological effect (PM-ER). The most unexpected result of this study was an increase in the electrorheological effect during the application of nonpolar solvents with zero or near-zero dipole moments as the modifiers. It is suggested that nonpolar solvents, besides providing additional polarization effects at the filler particles interface, alter the internal pressure in the gaps between the particles. As a result, the filler particles are attracted to one another, leading to an increase in their aggregation and the formation of a network of bonds between the particles through liquid bridge contacts. Such changes in the electrorheological fluid structure result in a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the structures that arise when an electric field is applied, and an increase in the observed electrorheological effect in comparison with the unmodified titanium dioxide.

  12. Diffuse Urticarial Reaction Associated with Titanium Dioxide Following Laser Tattoo Removal Treatments.

    PubMed

    Willardson, Hal Bret; Kobayashi, Todd T; Arnold, Jason G; Hivnor, Chad M; Bowen, Casey D

    2017-03-01

    Local and generalized allergic reactions following laser tattoo removal have been documented, but are rare. To our knowledge, this is the fourth documented case of widespread urticarial eruptions following laser tattoo removal treatment. Unlike previously documented cases, this patient's reaction was found to be associated with titanium dioxide within the tattoo and her symptoms were recalcitrant to medical therapy. A 46-year-old female experienced diffuse urticarial plaques, erythema, and pruritis following multiple laser tattoo removal treatments with an Nd:YAG laser. The systemic allergic reaction was recalcitrant to increasing doses of antihistamines and corticosteroids. The tattoo was finally surgically excised. The excised tissue was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and contained high levels of titanium dioxide. Two weeks following the excision, and without the use of medical therapy, the patient had complete resolution of her generalized urticaria. Ours is the first documented case of a diffuse urticarial reaction following laser tattoo removal treatments that shows a strong association to titanium dioxide within the tattoo pigment. Herein, we describe a novel surgical approach to treat recalcitrant generalized allergic reaction to tattoo pigment.

  13. Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials Provokes Inflammation of an in Vitro Human Immune Construct

    PubMed Central

    Schanen, Brian C.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Seal, Sudipta; Drake, Donald R.; Warren, William L.; Self, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle technology is undergoing significant expansion largely because of the potential of nanoparticles as biomaterials, drug delivery vehicles, cancer therapeutics, and immunopotentiators. Incorporation of nanoparticle technologies for in vivo applications increases the urgency to characterize nanomaterial immunogenicity. This study explores titanium dioxide, one of the most widely manufactured nanomaterials, synthesized into its three most common nanoarchitectures: anatase (7–10 nm), rutile (15–20 nm), and nanotube (10–15 nm diameters, 70–150 nm length). The fully human autologous MIMIC immunological construct has been utilized as a predictive, nonanimal alternative to diagnose nanoparticle immunogenicity. Cumulatively, treatment with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the MIMIC system led to elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased maturation and expression of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells. Additionally, these treatments effectively primed activation and proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells in comparison to dendritic cells treated with micrometer-sized (>1 μm) titanium dioxide, characteristic of an in vivo inflammatory response. PMID:19769402

  14. Self-assembled monolayers and titanium dioxide: From surface patterning to potential applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ability to control the properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) attached to solid surfaces and the rare photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide provide a rationale for the study of systems comprising both. Such systems can be realized in the form of SAMs grown on TiO2 or, in a complementary manner, as TiO2 grown on SAMs. Accordingly, the current status of knowledge regarding SAMs on TiO2 is described. Photocatalytic phenomena that are of specific relevance to SAMs, such as remote degradation, and cases where SAMs were used to study photocatalytic phenomena, are discussed as well. Mastering of micro-patterning is a key issue en route to a successful assimilation of a variety of titanium dioxide based devices. Accordingly, particular attention is given to the description of a variety of methods and techniques aimed at utilizing the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide for patterning. Reports on a variety of applications are discussed. These examples, representing the areas of photovoltaics, microelectronics, microelectromechanics, photocatalysis, corrosion prevention and even biomedicine should be regarded as appetizers paving the way for further studies to be performed. PMID:22259769

  15. Amorphization effects on pure titanium using C{sup +}, O{sup +} and Cr{sup +} ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, N.S.; Lanza, F.; Paracchini, L.; Brossa, F.

    1998-01-20

    In this work, the influence of the amorphization effect of C{sup +}, O{sup +} and Cr{sup +} implantation on the friction and wettability properties of pure titanium (grade 2) has been studied. Doses from 1 {times} 10{sup 17} to 5 {times} 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup {minus}2} at multiple energies of 50 to 190 keV have been used. Additionally, pin-on-disk tribological tests using Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins under lubricated conditions and wettability measurements of implanted and unimplanted titanium samples were carried out. The authors found, that the more suitable material for the wettability and hence wear resistance is C{sup +} implanted titanium, because of its higher surface energy than the unimplanted titanium corresponding energy. Friction tests on monoenergetic 180 keV C{sup +} and O{sup +} modified titanium with 1 {times} 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup {minus}2} have showed an essentially reduced friction compared to samples implanted with the same dose but at multiple energies. A reduction of the wettability by about 7% and the friction coefficient by about 18% was observed for carbon implanted titanium with a dose of 1 {times} 10{sup 17} C{sup +} cm{sup {minus}2}; this effect corresponds to a good correlation between wettability and friction coefficient after C{sup +} implantation in titanium. It was concluded that the reduction of the friction coefficient with monoenergetic C{sup +} implanted titanium is 3.7 times lower compared with those of pure titanium.

  16. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-01

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  17. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-21

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  18. Application of mesoporous silicon dioxide and silicate in oral amorphous drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ken K; Bogner, Robin H

    2012-02-01

    Aqueous solubility of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is an important consideration to ensure successful drug development. Mesoporous materials have been investigated as an amorphous drug delivery system owing to their nanosized capillaries and large surface areas. The complex interactions of crystalline compounds with mesoporous media and their implication in drug delivery are not well understood. Molecules interacting with porous media behave very differently than those in bulk phase. Their altered dynamics and thermodynamics play an important role in the properties and product performance of the amorphous system. In this review, application of mesoporous silicon dioxide and silicates in drug amorphization is the main focus. First, as background, the nature of gas-porous media interactions is summarized. The synthesis of various types of mesoporous silica, which are used by many investigators in this field, is described. Second, the behavior of molecules confined in mesopores is compared with those in bulk, crystalline phase. The molecular dynamics of compounds due to confinement, analyzed using various techniques, and their consequences in drug delivery are discussed. Finally, the preparation and performance of drug delivery systems using mesoporous silica are examined.

  19. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials. PMID:27767082

  20. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide by Microwave Plasma Torch.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ta-Chin; Chen, Hua-Wei; Lin, Sheng-Kai

    2015-04-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized from titanium tetraisopropanol (TTIP) using a microwave plasma torch (MPT) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The visible light photocatalysis was studied by the decomposition of methylene blue. MB present in the aqueous solution could be almost completely (> 70%) decomposed within about 720 min of reaction time under visible light irradiation. This is due to the carbon-compounds on the surface of TiO2 (TiOC) corresponding to the results of FTIR. Furthermore, a decrease in recombination between the electron and hole was induced by the existence of TiOC.

  1. Intracellular localization of titanium dioxide-biomolecule nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Stojicevic, N.; Vogt, S.; Maser, J.; Lai, B.; Rajh, T.; Thurnauer, M.; Woloschak, G.

    2002-10-30

    Emerging areas of nanotechnology hold the promise of overcoming the limitations of existing technology for intracellular manipulation. These new developments include the creation of nanocomposites that can be introduced into the cells, targeted to specific subcellular sites, and subsequently used as platforms for initiation of intracellular processes dependent on or aided by locally high concentrations of specific molecules delivered as components of the nanocomposites. Nanocomposites that combine functional properties of biomolecules with the functional properties of inorganic components could provide new tools for biology, medicine, chemistry and material sciences. Here we describe how we introduced TiO{sub 2}-DNA nanocomposites into cells, and localized titanium in the cells by mapping the Ti K{alpha} X-ray fluorescence induced at the 2-ID-E microprobe of the SRI-CAT at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  2. Intracellular localization of titanium dioxide-biomolecule nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunesku, T.; Stojicevic, N.; Vogt, S.; Maser, J.; Lai, B.; Rajh, T.; Thurnauer, M.; Woloschak, G.

    2003-03-01

    Emerging areas of nanotechnology hold the promise of overcoming the limitations of existing technology for intracellular manipulation. These new developments include the creation of nanocomposites that can be introduced into the cells, targeted to specific subcellular sites, and subsequently used as platforms for initiation of intracellular processes dependent on or aided by locally high concentrations of specific molecules delivered as components of the nanocomposites. Nanocomposites that combine functional properties of biomolecules with the functional properties of inorganic components could provide new tools for biology, medicine, chemistry and material sciences. Here we describe how we introduced TiO2-DNA nanocomposites into cells, and localized titanium in the cells by mapping the Ti Kα X-ray fluorescence induced at the 2-ID-E microprobe of the SRI-CAT at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  3. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Loghman; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail; Khajavi, Ramin; Rashidi, Abosaeed; Mirjalili, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite coated cotton samples proved low toxicity and possessed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  4. Microstructural characterization of a fumed titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Datye, A.K.; Huang, Min; Riegel, G.; Bolton, J.R.

    1995-02-15

    The authors present observations of a fumed titania photocatalyst using high resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction. The catalyst was observed as-received and after being used for photocatalytic destruction of salicylic acid. The characterization results suggest that the photocatalyst consists of individual single crystal particles of the rutile and anatase phases of titania; no amorphous titania particles could be identified conclusively. The authors also did not detect any particles of anatase that were covered by a layer of rutile, as proposed previously by Bickley et al. No changes were seen in the titania after it was used for photocatalysis of salicylic acid at pH 6 for short times (less than 1 hr).

  5. Solid phase epitaxial regrowth of (001) anatase titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barlaz, David Eitan; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2016-03-15

    The growing interest in metal oxide based semiconductor technologies has driven the need to produce high quality epitaxial films of one metal oxide upon another. Largely unrecognized in synthetic efforts is that some metal oxides offer strongly polar surfaces and interfaces that require electrostatic stabilization to avoid a physically implausible divergence in the potential. The present work examines these issues for epitaxial growth of anatase TiO{sub 2} on strontium titanate (001). Solid phase epitaxial regrowth yields only the (001) facet, while direct crystalline growth by atomic layer deposition yields both the (112) and (001). The presence of amorphous TiO{sub 2} during regrowth may provide preferential stabilization for formation of the (001) facet.

  6. Determination of photocatalytic activity in amorphous and crystalline titanium oxide films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chiang, Bo-Sheng; Chang, Springfield; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-oxygenated amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO x:OH) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using precursors of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and oxygen. The influences of chemical states and crystal quality on the photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated in the as-deposited and post-annealed films. The degree of the photocatalytic activity was deeply correlated with the porosity related to the hydroxyl (OH) groups in the as-deposited amorphous film. The crystallized anatase structures was observed from the 200 °C-deposited a-TiO x:OH film after a post-annealing treatment at 400 °C. The photocatalytic activity related to the film with anatase structure was markedly superior to that of an amorphous film with porous structures. The larger the crystal size of the anatase structure, the higher the photocatalytic activity obtained. At elevated annealed temperatures, the inferior anatase structure due to the crystalline transformation led to a low photocatalytic activity. It was concluded that the photocatalytic activity of an amorphous TiO x film prepared using PECVD was determined by the porosity originating from the functional OH groups in the film, whereas the crystalline quality of anatase phase in the annealed poly-TiO x film was crucial to the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Irradiation-induced intermixing effects at the interfaces of titanium and titanium-dioxide thin films and Fe-12%Cr substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairov, A.; Sridharan, K.

    2016-11-01

    Irradiation-induced compositional and structural changes at the interfaces between Fe-12%Cr binary alloy substrate and thin films of titanium and titanium-dioxide have been investigated. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV Ni2+ ions at 300 °C and 500 °C, up to damage levels of 35 dpa (displacements per atom). For the 300 °C irradiation case, irradiation enhanced the interdiffusion coefficient by a factor over twenty for the titanium film samples, but by a factor of only 1.2 for the titanium dioxide film samples. At 500 °C, significant intermixing was observed in the titanium film samples and resulted in the formation of a wide Fe2Ti reaction zone. For the titanium dioxide film samples, chromium was observed to diffuse into sub-stoichiometric regions of the film. Irradiation caused the formation of chromium-rich nanoprecipitates within the oxide film and promoted a phase transformation in the film from anatase TiO2 to the Ti2O3 phase.

  8. Paramagnetic resonance studies of defects in titanium dioxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shan

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) are used to identify and characterize point defects in TiO2 crystals having the rutile structure. Defect production occurs at low temperature during illumination with 442 nm laser light. Spectra with S = 1/2 and S = 1 are assigned to singly ionized and neutral oxygen vacancies, respectively. These oxygen vacancies have their unpaired spins localized on the two neighboring titanium ions aligned along the [001] axis. A Ti3+ ion next to a substitutional Si4+ ion, a Ti3+ self-trapped electron, and a self-trapped hole on the oxygen sublattice are also observed. Fluorine ions substitute for oxygen and are present as unintentional impurities in TiO2 crystals. Isolated singly ionized fluorine donors in an as-grown (fully oxidized) crystal convert to their neutral charge state during exposure to 442 nm laser light at 6 K. These donors return to the singly ionized charge state within a few seconds when the light is removed. In contrast, the neutral fluorine donors are observed at 6 K without photoexcitation after a crystal is reduced at 600 ºC in flowing nitrogen gas. The angular dependences of the EPR and ENDOR spectra provide a complete set of spin-Hamiltonian parameters (principal values are 1.9746, 1.9782, and 1.9430 for the g matrix and -0.23, 0.47, and 5.15 MHz for the 19F hyperfine matrix). These matrices suggest that the unpaired electron is localized primarily on one of the two equivalent neighboring substitutional titanium ions, i.e., the ground state of the neutral fluorine donor in rutile-structured TiO2 is a Ti 3+ ion adjacent to a F- ion. Hydrogen, in the form of an OH- ion, is a shallow donor in TiO2. In the neutral charge state, the unpaired electron forms an adjacent Ti3+ ion. The hydrogen EPR signal cannot be produced in oxidized crystals containing fluorine donors, which suggest that hydrogen is a shallower donor than fluorine in TiO2 (rutile) crystals. The hydrogen EPR

  9. Growth mechanism of titanium dioxide nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Boercker, J E; Enache-Pommer, E; Aydil, E S

    2008-03-05

    Mesoporous films made of titanium dioxide nanowires are desirable for dye-sensitized solar cells because nanowires provide direct conduction pathways for photogenerated electrons. Anatase titanium dioxide nanowires with polycrystalline microstructure were synthesized on titanium foil using a three-step process. First, the top surface of the titanium foil was transformed to Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes through hydrothermal oxidation in NaOH. Next, the Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes were converted to H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes by ion exchange. Finally, the H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes were converted to polycrystalline anatase nanowires through a topotactic transformation. The film morphology evolution, crystal structure transformations and growth mechanism are described in detail. Titanium foil reacts with NaOH to form Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) sheets, which exfoliate and spiral into nanotubes. The Na(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes are immersed in HCl solution to replace the Na(+) ions with H(+) ions. During the topotactic transformation of H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes to anatase TiO(2) nanowires, the sheets made of edge bonded TiO(6) octahedra in the H(2)Ti(2)O(4)(OH)(2) nanotubes dehydrate and move towards each other to form anatase crystals oriented along the nanotube axis which creates a polycrystalline nanowire. These mesoporous TiO(2) nanowire films were suitable for use as dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes.

  10. Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications. PMID:25383380

  11. Titanium Dioxide Nanofibers and Microparticles Containing Nickel Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Macossay, Javier; Kanjwal, Muzafar A.; Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Tantry, Mudasir A.; Kim, Hern

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the introduction of various nanocatalysts containing nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded within TiO2 nanofibers and TiO2 microparticles. Typically, a sol-gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide and Ni NPs was prepared to produce TiO2 nanofibers by the electrospinning process. Similarly, TiO2 microparticles containing Ni were prepared using a sol-gel syntheses process. The resultant structures were studied by SEM analyses, which confirmed well-obtained nanofibers and microparticles. Further, the XRD results demonstrated the crystalline feature of both TiO2 and Ni in the obtained composites. Internal morphology of prepared nanofibers and microparticles containing Ni NPs was characterized by TEM, which demonstrated characteristic structures with good dispersion of Ni NPs. In addition, the prepared structures were studied as a model for hydrogen production applications. The catalytic activity of the prepared materials was studied by in situ hydrolysis of NaBH4, which indicated that the nanofibers containing Ni NPs can lead to produce higher amounts of hydrogen when compared to other microparticles, also reported in this paper. Overall, these results confirm the potential use of these materials in hydrogen production systems. PMID:24436780

  12. Titanium dioxide as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications.

  13. Correlation between bioactivity and structural properties of titanium dioxide coatings grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigal, I. P.; Markeev, A. M.; Gudkova, S. A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Mityaev, A. S.; Alekhin, A. P.

    2012-02-01

    TiO2 coatings were grown on Ti and Si by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) from titanium ethoxide and water at 300 °C in a wide range of the reaction cycles number N = 100-2000. TiO2 coatings were found to be amorphous at low value of N < 300 while the coatings grown at N ≥ 300 revealed anatase polycrystalline structure. The TiO2 coatings bioactivity was evaluated by hydroxyapatite forming ability by the technique of soaking in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). Correlation between bioactivity and structural properties of TiO2 was determined. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with electron probe microanalysis showed that amorphous TiO2 coating did not induce the hydroxyapatite growth whereas anatase resulted in the hydroxyapatite forming on the samples surfaces which confirmed TiO2 anatase bioactivity.

  14. Disinfection of titanium dioxide nanotubes using super-oxidized water decrease bacterial viability without disrupting osteoblast behavior.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Partida, Ernesto; Valdez-Salas, Benjamín; Escamilla, Alan; Curiel, Mario; Valdez-Salas, Ernesto; Nedev, Nicola; Bastidas, Jose M

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) on Ti6Al4V alloy were synthesized by anodization using a commercially available super-oxidized water (SOW). The NT surfaces were sterilized by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and disinfected using SOW. The adhesion and cellular morphology of pig periosteal osteoblast (PPO) cells and the behavior of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultured on the sterilized and disinfected surfaces were investigated. A non-anodized Ti6Al4V disc sterilized by UV irradiation (without SOW) was used as control. The results of this study reveal that the adhesion, morphology and filopodia development of PPO cells in NTs are dramatically improved, suggesting that SOW cleaning may not disrupt the benefits obtained by NTs. Significantly decreased bacterial viability in NTs after cleaning with SOW and comparing with non-cleaned NTs was seen. The results suggest that UV and SOW could be a recommendable method for implant sterilization and disinfection without altering osteoblast behavior while decreasing bacterial viability.

  15. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  16. Polyoxometalate complexes of anatase-titanium dioxide cores in water.

    PubMed

    Raula, Manoj; Gan Or, Gal; Saganovich, Marina; Zeiri, Offer; Wang, Yifeng; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Weinstock, Ira A

    2015-10-12

    Polyoxometalate (POM) cluster anions are shown to serve as covalently coordinated ligands for anatase-TiO2 nanocrystals, giving isolable assemblies uniquely positioned between molecular macroanions and traditional colloidal nanoparticles. Na(+) salts of the water-soluble polyanionic structures are obtained by reacting amorphous TiO2 with the 1 nm lacunary ion, Na7 [α-XW11 O39 ] (X=P(5+) ), at 170 °C, after which an average of 55 α-PW11 O39 (7-) clusters are found as pentadentate ligands for Ti(IV) ions covalently linked to 6 nm single-crystal anatase cores. The attached POMs are reversible electron acceptors, the reduction potentials of which shift in a predictable fashion by changing the central heteroatom, X, directly influencing a model catalytic reaction. Just as POM cluster anions control the reactivities of metal centers in molecular complexes, directly coordinated POM ligands with tunable redox potentials now provide new options for rationally controlling the reactions of semiconductor nanocrystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Preparation of platinum modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles with the use of laser ablation in water.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Sawczak, M; Klein, M; Nowaczyk, G; Jurga, S; Cenian, A

    2014-08-07

    We report on the preparation method of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide modified with platinum by using nanosecond laser ablation in liquid (LAL). Titania in the form of anatase crystals has been prepared in a two-stage process. Initially, irradiation by laser beam of a titanium metal plate fixed in a glass container filled with deionized water was conducted. After that, the ablation process was continued, with the use of a platinum target placed in a freshly obtained titania colloid. In this work, characterization of the obtained nanoparticles, based on spectroscopic techniques--Raman, X-ray photoelectron and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy--is given. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to describe particle morphology. On the basis of photocatalytic studies we observed the rate of degradation process of methylene blue (MB) (a model organic pollution) in the presence of Pt modified titania in comparison to pure TiO2--as a reference case. Physical and chemical mechanisms of the formation of platinum modified titania are also discussed here. Stable colloidal suspensions containing Pt modified titanium dioxide crystalline anatase particles show an almost perfect spherical shape with diameters ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with platinum exhibit much higher (up to 30%) photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of MB under UV illumination than pure titania.

  18. -Doped Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Films on 304 Stainless Steel by Duplex Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Linhai; Qian, Laohong; Yao, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoying

    2014-05-01

    Sn4+-doped titanium dioxide photocatalytic films were synthesized on 304 stainless steel (SS) by a duplex treatment. The SS substrates were alloyed with titanium (Ti) through cathodic-arc ion plating followed by a microarc oxidation (MAO) treatment in different electrolytes. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to characterize the films surface morphology, crystalline phase, and composition, respectively. Photocatalytic activity was measured using an UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the films with a porous structure are mainly composed of TiO2, which exists in an anatase and rutile state. Furthermore, small quantities of SnO2 have been found in the Sn4+-doped titanium dioxide films. The fraction of anatase varies with the MAO time and electrolytes, whereas the pore size remains the similar with the same MAO current intensity and density and the surface roughness increases slightly with increasing MAO time. It was also found that the photocatalytic activity of the Sn4+-doped porous film improved, and the film synthesized with a shorter MAO time in a lower Na2SnO3-containing electrolyte is superior to the films with longer MAO times and higher Na2SnO3 concentrations.

  19. Formation of titanium dioxide core-shell microcapsules through a binary-phase spray technique.

    PubMed

    Bergek, Jonatan; Elgh, Björn; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Nordstierna, Lars

    2017-09-13

    Core-shell microcapsules consisting of a titanium dioxide shell and a hydrophobic solvent core have been prepared with diameters of a few micrometers and a narrow size distribution using a simple and fast airbrush technique. These microcapsules were prepared at room temperature in a single-step process in which an oil with a dissolved titanium alkoxide precursor was forced together with an aqueous solution, containing a surface-active polymer, through a narrow spray nozzle using a nitrogen gas propellant. Several different parameters of chemical, physical, and processing origin were investigated to find an optimal recipe. Two different alkanes, one ketone, and four alcohols were tested and evaluated as core materials, alone or together with the antifungal biocide 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT). Long-chain alcohols were found suitable as core oil due to their low solubility in water and surface activity. The addition of the surface-active polymers in the water phase was important in aiding the formation and stabilization of the titanium dioxide shell. An impressive loading of 50 wt% of the semi-hydrophobic OIT was possible to encapsulate using this simple and applicable procedure.

  20. Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures and morphology transformation during annealing processes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongbok; Ryu, Yeontack; Kim, Hansoo; Yu, Choongho

    2009-03-11

    Wire- and belt-like single-crystalline titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized by using a simple thermal annealing method, which has often been avoided for the synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures from high melting point metals such as Ti. The synthesis method requires neither high reaction temperature nor complicated reaction processes, and can be used for producing dense nanomaterials with relatively short reaction time at temperatures much lower than the melting point of titanium and titanium dioxide. Key synthesis factors including the choice of eutectic catalyst, growth temperature, and annealing time were systematically investigated. The synthesis reaction was promoted by a copper eutectic catalyst, producing long nanostructures with short reaction times. For example, it was observed that only 30 min of annealing time at 850 degrees C was enough to produce densely grown approximately 10 microm long nanowires with diameters of approximately 100 nm, and longer reaction time brought about morphology changes from wires to belts as well as producing longer nanostructures up to approximately 30 microm. The nanostructures have the crystalline rutile structure along the [Formula: see text] growth direction. Finally, our simple and effective method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures could be utilized for growing other metal oxide nanowires from high melting temperature metals.

  1. Temperature dependence and P/Ti ratio in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium dioxide and powder properties.

    PubMed

    Onoda, H; Matsukura, A

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide has photocatalytic activity and is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium dioxide was shaken with phosphoric acid to synthesize a white pigment for cosmetics. Titanium dioxide was treated with 0.1 mol/L of phosphoric acid at various P/Ti molar ratios, and then shaken in hot water for 1 h. The chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, colour phase, and smoothness of the obtained powder were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium dioxide, however the peaks diminished subsequent to phosphoric acid treatment. The samples included small particles with sub-micrometer size. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders decreased, decomposing less sebum on the skin. Samples prepared at high P/Ti ratio with high shaking temperature indicated low whiteness in in L*a*b* colour space. The shaking and heating temperature and P/Ti ratio had influence on the smoothness of the obtained materials. Phosphoric acid treatment of titanium dioxide is an effective method to inhibit photocatalytic activity for a white pigment. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  3. Hydrogen-induced rupture of strained Si─O bonds in amorphous silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Al-Moatasem; Watkins, Matthew B; Grasser, Tibor; Afanas'ev, Valery V; Shluger, Alexander L

    2015-03-20

    Using ab initio modeling we demonstrate that H atoms can break strained Si─O bonds in continuous amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO(2)) networks, resulting in a new defect consisting of a threefold-coordinated Si atom with an unpaired electron facing a hydroxyl group, adding to the density of dangling bond defects, such as E' centers. The energy barriers to form this defect from interstitial H atoms range between 0.5 and 1.3 eV. This discovery of unexpected reactivity of atomic hydrogen may have significant implications for our understanding of processes in silica glass and nanoscaled silica, e.g., in porous low-permittivity insulators, and strained variants of a-SiO(2).

  4. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Karin; Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-08-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions.

  5. (29)Si hyperfine structure of the E(')(alpha) center in amorphous silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Buscarino, G; Agnello, S; Gelardi, F M

    2006-09-29

    We report a study by electron paramagnetic resonance on the E'(alpha) point defect in amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO(2)). Our experiments were performed on gamma-ray irradiated oxygen-deficient materials and pointed out that the (29)Si hyperfine structure of the E'(alpha) consists of a pair of lines split by approximately 49 mT. On the basis of the experimental results, a microscopic model is proposed for the E'(alpha) center, consisting of a hole trapped in an oxygen vacancy with the unpaired electron sp(3) orbital pointing away from the vacancy in a back-projected configuration and interacting with an extra oxygen atom of the a-SiO(2) matrix.

  6. Optical and morphological properties of sol gel derived titanium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. B.; Sharma, S. K.; M, Vishwas; Rao, K. Narasimha

    2015-08-01

    Titanium oxide (Titania) thin films were synthesized on different substrates via the sol-gel dip-coating method using alkoxide solution. Some selected samples were also prepared with different percentage of Lead (Pb). The influence of Pb addition in precursor sol on the optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films was studied. The optical transmittance in the visible region has increased with increase in weight percentage of lead. The refractive index was slightly decreased with Pb addition. Crystallization of these coatings was achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Increase in average grain size from 250 nm to 350 nm with increase in Pb concentration is observed. Films were appeared to more coarse with increase in Pb addition. An increase in Pb addition resulted increase in average roughness from 12 nm to 25 nm.

  7. Optical and morphological properties of sol gel derived titanium dioxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A. B.; Sharma, S. K.; M, Vishwas; Rao, K. Narasimha

    2015-08-28

    Titanium oxide (Titania) thin films were synthesized on different substrates via the sol-gel dip-coating method using alkoxide solution. Some selected samples were also prepared with different percentage of Lead (Pb). The influence of Pb addition in precursor sol on the optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films was studied. The optical transmittance in the visible region has increased with increase in weight percentage of lead. The refractive index was slightly decreased with Pb addition. Crystallization of these coatings was achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Increase in average grain size from 250 nm to 350 nm with increase in Pb concentration is observed. Films were appeared to more coarse with increase in Pb addition. An increase in Pb addition resulted increase in average roughness from 12 nm to 25 nm.

  8. Electrochemical grafting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) into a titanium dioxide nanotube host network.

    PubMed

    Janáky, Csaba; Bencsik, Gábor; Rácz, Arpád; Visy, Csaba; de Tacconi, Norma R; Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2010-08-17

    This study focuses on electrodeposition for infiltrating in situ a conducting polymer such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) into a host titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanotube array (NTA) framework. The TiO(2) NTA was electrosynthesized on titanium foil in turn by anodization in a fluoride-containing medium. The PEDOT layer was electrografted into the TiO(2) NTA framework using a two-step potentiostatic growth protocol in acetonitrile containing supporting electrolyte. The nanoscopic features of oligomer/polymer infiltration and deposition in the NTA interstitial voids were monitored by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Systematic changes in the nanotube inner diameter and the wall thickness afforded insights into the evolution of the TiO(2)NTA/PEDOT hybrid assembly. This assembly was subsequently characterized by UV-visible diffuse reflectance, cyclic voltammetry, and photoelectrochemical measurements. These data serve as a prelude to further use of these hybrids in heterojunction solar cells.

  9. Synthesis of nano-titanium dioxide by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaler, Vandana; Duchaniya, R. K.; Pandel, U.

    2016-04-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide powder was synthesised via sol-gel route by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ethanol and water mixture in high acidic medium. The synthesized nanopowder was further characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy in order to determine size, morphology and crystalline structure of the material. The synthesis of nano-TiO2 powder in anatase phase was realized by XRD. The optical studies of nano-TiO2 powder was carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy and band gap was calculated as 3.5eV, The SEM results with EDAX confirmed that prepared nano-TiO2 particles were in nanometer range with irregular morphology. The FTIR analysis showed that only desired functional groups were present in sample. These nano-TiO2 particles have applications in solar cells, chemical sensors and paints, which are thrust areas these days.

  10. Visible light induced photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria by modified titanium dioxide films on organic polymers.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Rafał; Strus, Magdalena; Buchalska, Marta; Heczko, Piotr B; Macyk, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Commercially available polypropylene foil was pretreated with a low temperature oxygen plasma and covered with a thin film of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide by dip coating. The films were then photosensitized by titanium(IV) surface charge transfer complexes formed by impregnation with catechol. The photoactivity of the coatings up to 460 nm was confirmed by photoelectrochemical measurements. The photoinactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by a glass adhesion test based on ISO 27447:2009(E) in the presence of visible light. The coating showed good antimicrobial activity induced by light from a light-emitting diode (405 nm), in particular towards E. coli ATCC 25922 strain. Adaptation of ISO 27447:2009(E) to assess bacterial photoinactivation by photocatalytic coatings will allow this procedure to be applied for the comparison of photoactivity under a range of irradiation conditions.

  11. The Infrared Spectra and Absorption Intensities of Amorphous Ices: Methane and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J.

    2015-11-01

    Our research group is carrying out new IR measurements of icy solids relevant to the outer solar system and the interstellar medium, with an emphasis on amorphous and crystalline ices below ~70 K. Our goal is to add to the relatively meager literature on this subject and to provide electronic versions of state-of-the-art data, since the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate reference spectra and IR band strengths. In the past year, we have focused on two of the simplest and most abundant components of icy bodies in the solar system - methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Infrared spectra from ˜ 4500 to 500 cm-1 have been measured for each of these molecules in μm-thick films at temperatures from 10 to 70 K. All known amorphous and crystalline phases have been reproduced and, for some, presented for the first time. We also report measurements of the index of refraction at 670 nm and the mass densities for each ice phase. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible. Electronic versions of our new results are available at http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/691/cosmicice/ constants.html.

  12. Examining the efficiency of muffle furnance-induced alkaline hydrolysis in determining the titanium content of environmental samples containing engineered titanium dioxide particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium hydroxide (KOH) fusion digestion technique was developed and its comparative digestion and dissolution efficacy for different titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs)/environmental matrices was evaluated. Digestion of different enviro...

  13. Examining the efficiency of muffle furnance-induced alkaline hydrolysis in determining the titanium content of environmental samples containing engineered titanium dioxide particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium hydroxide (KOH) fusion digestion technique was developed and its comparative digestion and dissolution efficacy for different titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs)/environmental matrices was evaluated. Digestion of different enviro...

  14. Possibilities of surface coating for thermal insulation. [zirconium dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zircon coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, E.; Weisser, G.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations performed for pulsating heat sources indicate a relatively thin (200-1000 micron) coating can lower temperature both inside and on the surface of a construction material. Various coating materials (including zirconium dioxide) are discussed, together with possible thermic stresses and ways to deal with the latter.

  15. Optical constants of e-beam evaporated titanium dioxide thin films in the 25.5- to 612-eV energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comisso, Antonela; Nardello, Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio

    2016-09-01

    The optical constants of titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been experimentally determined at energies in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions, from 25.5 to 612 eV. Measuring angle-dependent reflectance of amorphous TiO2 thin films with synchrotron radiation at the BEAR beamline of Synchrotron ELETTRA. The experimental reflectivity profiles were fitted to the Fresnel equations using a genetic algorithm applied to a least-square curve fitting method, obtaining values for δ and β. We compared our measurements with tabulated data. All samples were grown on Si (100) substrates by the electron-beam evaporation technique, with a substrate temperature of 150°C and deposition rates of 0.3 to 0.5 Å/s. Complete films characterization have been carried out with structural (XRD, ellipsometry, and profilometry), compositional (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and morphological (atomic force microscopy) analyses.

  16. Migration of titanium dioxide microparticles and nanoparticles through the body and deposition in the gingiva: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Guglielmotti, María B; Domingo, Mariela G; Steimetz, Tammy; Ramos, Emilio; Paparella, María L; Olmedo, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this experimental work was to evaluate deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) microparticles and nanoparticles, which could originate from titanium bioimplants, in the gingiva. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a suspension of TiO2 particles of different sizes (150, 10, or 5 nm). The rats were killed 12 months post-injection, and the buccal and lingual gingivae were resected and evaluated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the presence of titanium in deposits of microparticles and nanoparticles, and the concentration of titanium in tissues was measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Histological examination showed that all experimental groups exhibited agglomerates, in the gingiva, of titanium particles of micrometer size range, with no associated inflammatory response. Higher concentrations of titanium traces were shown, by ICP-MS, in both buccal and lingual tissues of all experimental groups compared with their matched controls. Titanium concentrations were significantly higher in the buccal gingiva than in the lingual gingiva, and after injection with 5-nm particles than with 10-nm particles in both localizations. Titanium microparticles and nanoparticles deposit in the gingiva, and mostly on the buccal side. Gingival deposition of titanium could be considered a tissue indicator of tribocorrosion processes of titanium bioimplants.

  17. Oral bacterial adhesion on amorphous carbon and titanium films: effect of surface roughness and culture media.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Flores, A; Ximénez-Fyvie, L A; Rodil, S E

    2010-01-01

    Implant infections can cause severe problems from malfunctioning to dangerous sepsis affecting the health of the patient. For many years, titanium has been the most common material used on dental implants due to their mechanical and biocompatibility properties. Recent studies suggest that amorphous carbon (a-C) films can be possible candidates for coating dental implants, improving some important features like biocompatibility and bone formation. In the oral cavity, the risk of an implant infection is high due to multiple species are capable to colonize this site and these biofilm infections can limit the use of these medical devices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the surface chemistry, roughness, and culture media in the bacterial colonization process. To achieve this, a-C and Ti films were deposited on rough and smooth surfaces and cultured with different microorganisms belonging to the oral microbiota with mycoplasma medium (MM) or human saliva (HS). Samples were incubated for 24 h, after this, samples were sonicated and the number of attached bacteria was determined by counting the colony-forming units (CFU's) from each sample. The proportion of the species in the biofilms was determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Data were analyzed by Student's t test using Bonferroni's modification of Student's t test and differences on the proportion of the bacterial species attached to each surface were determined using the Mann-Whitney test. Results show an increased number of CFU's on rough surfaces, especially on the a-C surfaces. The incubation media were an important factor on the adhesion of certain taxa, whereas other species were more sensitive to surface chemistry and others to surface roughness.

  18. Air Stable Doping and Intrinsic Mobility Enhancement in Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide by Amorphous Titanium Suboxide Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amritesh; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Movva, Hema C P; Roy, Anupam; Ghosh, Rudresh; Sonde, Sushant; Kang, Sangwoo; Chang, Jiwon; Trivedi, Tanuj; Dey, Rik; Guchhait, Samaresh; Larentis, Stefano; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2015-07-08

    To reduce Schottky-barrier-induced contact and access resistance, and the impact of charged impurity and phonon scattering on mobility in devices based on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), considerable effort has been put into exploring various doping techniques and dielectric engineering using high-κ oxides, respectively. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a high-κ dielectric that serves as an effective n-type charge transfer dopant on monolayer (ML) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Utilizing amorphous titanium suboxide (ATO) as the "high-κ dopant", we achieved a contact resistance of ∼180 Ω·μm that is the lowest reported value for ML MoS2. An ON current as high as 240 μA/μm and field effect mobility as high as 83 cm(2)/V-s were realized using this doping technique. Moreover, intrinsic mobility as high as 102 cm(2)/V-s at 300 K and 501 cm(2)/V-s at 77 K were achieved after ATO encapsulation that are among the highest mobility values reported on ML MoS2. We also analyzed the doping effect of ATO films on ML MoS2, a phenomenon that is absent when stoichiometric TiO2 is used, using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations that shows excellent agreement with our experimental findings. On the basis of the interfacial-oxygen-vacancy mediated doping as seen in the case of high-κ ATO-ML MoS2, we propose a mechanism for the mobility enhancement effect observed in TMD-based devices after encapsulation in a high-κ dielectric environment.

  19. Three-dimensional ordered titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide film-based microfluidic device for efficient on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, De; He, Zhongyuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-09-15

    Microfluidic technology plays a significant role in separating biomolecules, because of its miniaturization, integration, and automation. Introducing micro/nanostructured functional materials can improve the properties of microfluidic devices, and extend their application. Inverse opal has a three-dimensional ordered net-like structure. It possesses a large surface area and exhibits good mass transport, making it a good candidate for bio-separation. This study exploits inverse opal titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide films for on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment. Titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based microfluidic devices were constructed from templates of 270-, 340-, and 370-nm-diameter poly(methylmethacrylate) spheres. The phosphopeptide enrichments of these devices were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The device constructed from the 270-nm-diameter sphere template exhibited good comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment, and was the best among these three devices. Because the size of opal template used in construction was the smallest, the inverse opal film therefore had the smallest pore sizes and the largest surface area. Enrichment by this device was also better than those of similar devices based on nanoparticle films and single component films. The titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based device provides a promising approach for the efficient separation of various biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Titanium dioxide in pyroclastic layers from volcanoes in the cascade range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Porter, S.C.

    1965-01-01

    Rapid determinations of titanium dioxide have been made by x-ray emission techniques to evaluate the potentiality of using the TiO2 content of samples for checking field correlations and assisting in identification of pyroclastic units from Cascade volcanoes. Preliminary data suggest that the two most wide-spread units have characteristic ranges of TiO2 content and that other, less extensive layers have ranges which, though characteristic, often overlap the ranges of the more widespread layers. Relative to fresh samples, weathered samples from B and C soil horizons are enriched in TiO 2.

  1. Titanium dioxide nanofiber-cotton targets for efficient multi-keV x-ray generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nagai, Keiji; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Mima, Kunioki; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Pan, Chao; Girard, Frederic; Primout, Michel; Villette, Bruno; Brebion, Didier; Fournier, Kevin B.; Fujishima, Akira

    2008-08-04

    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27{+-}7 mg/cm{sup 3}) nanofiber-cotton targets composed of titanium dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency [(3.7{+-}0.5)%] from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that [(1.4{+-}0.9)%] for a planar Ti-foil target.

  2. ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLE FILLED EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Polizos, G.; Tuncer, E.; Sauers, I.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; More, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution. They were dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix (commercially available under the trade name Araldite 5808) using a planetary mixer. Nanocomposite materials were prepared with several weight loadings of nanoparticles In this work we Investigate the effects of the particle agglomeration on the mechanical and electrical properties of the composites. The structure of the composites was probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For investigating the mechanical properties, a dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) was employed. The dielectric breakdown strength and the impedance response were also measured in order to characterize the insulating properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use in high voltage applications.

  3. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Filled Epoxy Resin Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polizos, G.; Tuncer, E.; Sauers, I.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; More, K. L.

    2010-04-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution. They were dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix (commercially available under the trade name Araldite 5808) using a planetary mixer. Nanocomposite materials were prepared with several weight loadings of nanoparticles. In this work we investigate the effects of the particle agglomeration on the mechanical and electrical properties of the composites. The structure of the composites was probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For investigating the mechanical properties, a dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) was employed. The dielectric breakdown strength and the impedance response were also measured in order to characterize the insulating properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use in high voltage applications.

  4. Electrical and mechanical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticle filled epoxy resin composites

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Georgios; Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; More, Karren Leslie

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous solution. They were dispersed into an epoxy polymer matrix (commercially available under the trade name Araldite 5808) using a planetary mixer. Nanocomposite materials were prepared with several weight loadings of nanoparticles. In this work we investigate the effects of the particle agglomeration on the mechanical and electrical properties of the composites. The structure of the composites was probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For investigating the mechanical properties, a dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) was employed. The dielectric breakdown strength and the impedance response were also measured in order to characterize the insulating properties of the nanocomposites and their potential use in high voltage applications.

  5. Relaxation of photogenerated carriers in the anatase form of crystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Chihiro; Wada, Akio

    2005-01-01

    Relaxation of photo-generated carriers in anatase form of crystalline titanium dioxide has ben studied by the photoconductivity measurement. Illumination of anatase crystal with UV light at 300 K has found to induce persistent enhancement in conductivity over 3000 seconds. The magnitude of the induced change is 4000 times greater than that measured in rutile crystal in the same experimental condition. The decay of the persistent photoconductivity after the termination of the UV illumination was characterized by the stretched exponential function. The excitation spectrum measurement revealed that the persistent conductivity characterized by the stretched-exponential relaxation was induced by super-band-gap excitation.

  6. Photoconductivity of an inorganic/organic composite containing dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, M.; Däubler, T. K.; Harth, E.; Scherf, U.; Gügel, A.; Neher, D.

    1998-02-01

    The photophysical properties of solid films of an inorganic/organic composite composed of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles, a conjugated polymer, and a [60] fullerene derivative have been investigated. Large charge collection efficiencies of up to 10% at a field of only 10 V/μm were observed. The photoaction spectrum of the composite is interpreted in terms of three major contributions: a weak photocurrent due to the absorption of photons by the polymer, photogeneration of charges involving the fullerene, and a broad region below the onset of the polymer absorption which involves photophysical processes in the dye-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-01-01

    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment.

  8. Optical properties and radiation stability of submicro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide measured in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, M. M.; Neshchimenko, V. V.; Yuryev, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    This study carried out an in situ and external investigation on the reflective spectra of micro- and nanopowders titanium dioxide before and after irradiation by 30 keV electrons. The particle sizes range from 60-240 nm. It was established that the decrease in the particle size leads to an increase in intrinsic defects. The particles with intrinsic defects are then transformed into absorption centers during irradiation as a result of optical degradation of TiO2 powders. High radiation stability has particle sizes range from 80-160 nm.

  9. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films for biosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Sensor is the device that can detect and produce output or response that comes from any input from the physical environment. In this study, sensor is developed by simple photolithography process to create a small IDE device. The device is coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to give the positive result in detection. The result shows the device with coating stabilized at 2.46×10-10 compare to device without TiO2 which only at 2.24×10-10. IDE device is reusable and can use many times for different kind of detection.

  10. Biomolecule-directed assembly of binary gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Genxi

    2010-02-01

    We report in this paper a novel strategy for "bottom-up" assembly of two types of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles. By only using a small biomolecule, coenzyme A, as a "linker" to direct the assembly of metallic gold and semiconductor titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the usual biomolecule-directed system can be greatly simplified. Effects of experimental conditions on the formation of binary nanoparticles are studied. This strategy using single small biomolecule to direct assembly of nanoparticles is proven to be efficient, facile and non-toxic and should be extendable to other building blocks.

  11. Ammonia sensing using lossy mode resonances in a tapered optical fibre coated with porphyrin-incorporated titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Divya; Mullaney, Kevin; Korposh, Serhiy; James, Stephen W.; Lee, Seung-Woo; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2016-05-01

    The development of an ammonia sensor, formed by the deposition of a functionalised titanium dioxide film onto a tapered optical fibre is presented. The titanium dioxide coating allows the coupling of light from the fundamental core mode to a lossy mode supported by the coating, thus creating lossy mode resonance (LMR) in the transmission spectrum. The porphyrin compound that was used to functionalise the coating was removed from the titanium dioxide coating upon exposure to ammonia, causing a change in the refractive index of the coating and a concomitant shift in the central wavelength of the lossy mode resonance. Concentrations of ammonia as small as 1ppm was detected with a response time of less than 1min.

  12. Fabrication of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using organic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoriya, Sorachon

    to ~2 microm. In comparison to DMSO electrolyte, the electrochemical anodization rates are relatively slower in DEG electrolyte; as a result, the nanotube length is typically less than 10 microm. Pore size of nanotubes grown in DEG has been extended from 150 nm up to approximately 400 nm. The approach to pore widening could be achieved by using a specific condition of low HF concentration and prolonged anodization time. The study of evolution of nanotubes grown in DEG electrolytes showed that a fibrous layer was formed in the early growth stages and then was chemically and gradually removed after a long duration, leaving behind the nanotubes with large pore size. In DEG electrolyte, the closer spacing between Ti and Pt electrodes resulted in the larger nanotube morphological parameters due to the enhanced electrode kinetics facilitating the electrode reactions. Furthermore, this dissertation showed possibilities to crystallize the titania nanotube array films at room temperature via anodization in either DMSO or DEG electrolytes. The partially crystallized films could be achieved specifically in the optimum slow growth process conditions. Due to partial crystallization of the as-anodized samples, the high temperature annealing study revealed that the temperatures of phase transformation are 260 ºC and 430°C for respectively amorphous to anatase and anatase to rutile, which are accounted as the lowest phase transformation temperatures reported to date (2010). Finally, the photoelectrochemical properties of the DMSO fabricated nanotubes were investigated. The maximum photocurrent density of ~ 11 mA cm--2 was achieved by using the 46-microm long nanotube array sample with completely open pores, and photoconversion efficiencies of 5.425 % (+/- 0.087) (under UV light) and 0.197 % (+/- 0.001) (under solar spectrum AM 1.5) have been demonstrated. Biomedical applications of the DEG fabricated nanotube arrays films such as blood clotting, hemocompatibility, and drug

  13. Titanium dioxide nanotube films: Preparation, characterization and electrochemical biosensitivity towards alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Roman, Ioan; Trusca, Roxana Doina; Soare, Maria-Laura; Fratila, Corneliu; Krasicka-Cydzik, Elzbieta; Stan, Miruna-Silvia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2014-04-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by anodization on different substrates (titanium, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys) in ethylene glycol and glycerol. The influence of the applied potential and processing time on the nanotube diameter and length is analyzed. The as-formed nanotube layers are amorphous but they become crystalline when subjected to subsequent thermal treatment in air at 550°C; TNT layers grown on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates consist of anatase and rutile, while those grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy consist only of anatase. The nanotube layers grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy are less homogeneous, with supplementary islands of smaller diameter nanotubes, spread across the surface. Better adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts was found for the nanotubes grown on all three substrates by comparison to an unprocessed titanium plate. The sensitivity towards bovine alkaline phosphatase was investigated mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in relation to the crystallinity, the diameter and the nature of the anodization electrolyte of the TNT/Ti samples. The measuring capacity of the annealed nanotubes of 50nm diameter grown in glycerol was demonstrated and the corresponding calibration curve was built for the concentration range of 0.005-0.1mg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of doping titanium dioxide nanoparticles on phase transformation, photocatalytic activity and anti-bacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzby, Scott Edward

    Nanosized titanium dioxide has a variety of important applications in everyday life including a photocatalyst for pollution remediation, photovoltaic devices, sunscreen, etc. This study focuses on the various properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with various cation and anion species. Samples were produced by various methods including metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), plasma assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PA-MOCVD) and sol-gel. Numerous techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopy both scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) were used for physical characterization. Photocatalytic properties were determined by the oxidation of methylene blue dye and 2-chlorophenol in water as well as gaseous formic acid with results analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra violet - visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). For the purpose of enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the effect of anion doping and the anatase-rutile phase ratio were studied. Although anatase, rutile and mixed crystallite phases all show some degree of activity in photocatalytic reactions, these results show that anatase is better suited for the degradation of organic compounds in an aqueous medium any advantage in photocatalytic activity gained through the enhancement in optical response from the smaller band gap by addition of rutile was overcome by the negatives associated with the rutile phase. Furthermore substitutional nitrogen doping showed significant improvement in UV photocatalysis as well as allowing for visible light activation of the catalyst. Further studies on the phase transitions in titanium dioxide nanoparticles were carried out by synthesizing various cation doped samples by sol-gel. Analysis of the phases by XRD showed an inverse relationship between dopant size and rutile percentage

  15. [Influence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the expression of genes of biomarkers of inflammatory responses and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Baranova, L A; Zhornik, E V; Volotovski, I D

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the toxic effect of silver (AgNP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles their influence on the expression of genes of biomarkers of inflammatory responses and apoptosis in human lymphocytes was studied. An increase in the IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and p53 genes expression in the concentration range of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles of 10-40 μk g/ml was found. Increased expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and p53 genes under the nanoparticles action indicates the stimulation of the immune system and of apoptosis, respectively.

  16. Effect of doping on the photocatalytic, electronic and mechanical properties of sol-gel titanium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtoglu, Murat

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been an active research area over the last decade as a promising solution for energy generation and environmental problems which has led to promising applications from air and water purification systems, self-cleaning and self-sterilizing surfaces to solar cells and hydrogen production from water dissociation reaction. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), an abundant material with a high photocatalytic efficiency and chemical stability, is undoubtedly the most widely studied and used among all photocatalytic materials. Although titanium dioxide has been used in powder form, its immobilized form (film) is necessary from practical application standpoint. However, there are several shortcomings of titanium dioxide films that need to be addressed to realize a wide range of successful applications: lack of visible light activity, poisoning of the catalytic performance by the substrate and the low surface area compared to powder forms. In addition, mechanical properties of such films have not been investigated thoroughly, which may be critical when abrasion and weathering resistance are necessary. To address each of these issues, a systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of doping titanium dioxide films with a variety of elements were conducted. Utilizing theoretical calculations to filter elements for experimental studies as well as interpretation of the experimental results, several dopant or dopant combinations were found to remedy some of the issues of photocatalytic titanium dioxide films. Doping with 32 metals, nitrogen and 11 metal-nitrogen combinations are investigated theoretically and the results are used as guideline for the experimental studies. Particular attention is given to certain metal dopants such as Cr, V, Mo, Ta and Ga not just because of their relatively modest cost but also their non-toxicity and wide availability of their compatible compounds for sol-gel synthesis. While metal-dopants improved the overall

  17. A spin label study of the effects of asbestos, quartz, and titanium dioxide dusts on the bovine erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Leyko, W; Gendek, E

    1985-04-01

    The effects of five UICC asbestos samples, titanium dioxide, and quartz on the bovine red cell membrane have been studied in erythrocyte ghosts by the spin labelling technique. Analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of two sulphydryl reactive spin labels and one fatty acid spin label in red cell ghosts showed modifications in membrane protein after asbestos treatment but no alterations in membrane lipids. In experiments with quartz no membrane changes were noted but titanium dioxide altered the proteins bound with the protein reactive spin label used in the present study. The possible mechanism for these effects is discussed.

  18. Nanotubular Heterostructure of Tin Dioxide/Titanium Dioxide as a Binder-Free Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myungjun; Lee, Joobong; Lee, Seonhee; Seo, Seongrok; Bae, Changdeuck; Shin, Hyunjung

    2015-07-20

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), tin dioxide (SnO2 ), and heterostructured TiO2 /SnO2 nanotube (NT) arrays have been fabricated by template-assisted atomic-layer deposition (ALD) for use as anodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). TiO2 NT arrays with 8 nm thick walls showed higher capacity (≈250 mA h g(-1) after the 50th cycle at a rate of C/10) than the typical theoretical capacity of bulk TiO2 and a radically improved capacity retention property upon cycling. SnO2 NT arrays with different wall thicknesses (8, 10, 13, and 20 nm) were also fabricated and their electrochemical performances were measured. All of the SnO2 NT arrays showed substantially higher initial irreversible capacity and higher reversible capacity than those of bulk TiO2 . Thinner walls of the SnO2 NTs result in better capacity retention. Heterotubular structures of TiO2 (5 nm)/SnO2 (10 nm)/TiO2 (5 nm) were successfully fabricated, and displayed a sufficiently high capacity (≈300 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles) with exceptionally improved cycling performance up to the 50th cycle.

  19. Electrospray deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Halimi, Siti Umairah Bakar, Noor Fitrah Abu Ismail, Siti Norazian Hashib, Syafiza Abd; Naim, M. Nazli

    2014-02-24

    Deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles was conducted by using eletrospray method. 0.05wt% of titanium dioxide suspension was prepared and characterized by using Malvern Zetasizer prior to the experiment. From Zetasizer results, stable suspension condition was obtained which is at pH 2 with zeta potential value of ±29.0 mV. In this electrospraying, the suspension was pumped at flowrate of 5 ml/hr by using syringe pump. The input voltage of 2.1 kV was applied at the nozzle tip and counter electrode. Electrosprayed particles were collected on the grounded aluminium plate substrate which was placed at 10–20 cm from counter electrode. Particles were then characterized using FESEM and average size of electrosprayed particles obtained. Initial droplet size was calculated by scaling law and compared with FE-SEM results in order to prove droplet fission occur during electrospray. Due to the results obtained, as the working distance increase from 10–20 cm the deposited TiO{sub 2} droplet size decrease from 247–116 nm to show droplet fission occur during the experiment.

  20. Surface character and membranolytic activity of rutile and anatase: two titanium dioxide polymorphs.

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, R P; Langer, A M; Weisman, I; Herson, G B

    1987-01-01

    Biological studies of two titanium dioxide polymorphs, rutile and anatase, have produced conflicting results. Generally, the in vivo and in vitro methods used to evaluate pneumoconiotic dusts have shown the polymorphs to be inert, but occasionally both minerals have been reported to produce effects consistent with biologically active minerals. Many of these reports failed to specify which polymorph was used experimentally. While this limited the value of the data, the problem was further compounded by the variation in the surface properties of each polymorph depending on whether the specimen was a naturally occurring mineral or was made synthetically. Five naturally occurring and 11 synthetically produced titanium dioxide specimens were studied. The physical characterisation of each specimen entailed the determination of the polymorph type(s) by continuous scan x ray diffraction and the size distribution by transmission electron microscopy. The ability of each specimen to lyse erythrocytes was determined and compared with quartz. Only two, both synthetic rutiles, were found to be active. The hydrogen bonding ability of the surfaces of these rutiles were compared with inert rutile and quartz. The binding properties of the active rutile have been found to be consistent with those properties associated with biologically active quartz. The surface properties of rutile are the determinants of its activity. Because natural and synthetic rutiles possess different surface properties, they display different activities. Images PMID:3676122

  1. Photocatalytic oxidation of arsenite by a composite of titanium dioxide and activated carbon fiber.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuhua; Jia, Yongfeng; Shi, Zhongliang; Zhao, Shanlin

    2010-01-01

    Preoxidation process is usually needed in the treatment of arsenic-containing drinking water because arsenite (i.e. As[III]) is less easily removed by adsorption. Nano-scale titanium dioxide is an efficient photocatalyst for arsenite oxidation but its application in water treatment is limited due to the difficulty of separation or packed-bed application of the tiny particles. This study synthesized a composite photocatalyst by loading titanium dioxide onto activated carbon fiber (TiO(2)/ACF). The effects of calcination temperature, photocatalyst dosage, pH, initial concentration of As(III) and common anions on the oxidation of As(III) were studied. Photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) took place in minutes and followed first-order kinetics. 0.80 mg L(-1) of As(III) could be entirely oxidized to As(V) within 30 min in the presence of 3.0 g L(-1) photocatalyst and under UV-light irradiation. The oxidation of As(III) occurred in a wide range of pH as examined from 2 to 10 with the oxidation efficiency increasing markedly with pH. The presence of phosphate and silicate significantly decreased As(III) oxidation at pH 7, while the effect of sulfate and chloride was small.

  2. Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Nickheslat, Ali; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Izanloo, Hassan; Fatehizadeh, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The effect of important parameters including initial phenol concentration, TiO2 catalyst dose, duration of UV radiation, pH of solution, and contact time was investigated. Results. In the dip-coat lining stage, the produced nanoparticles with anatase crystalline structure have the average particle size of 30 nm and are uniformly distributed over the tube surface. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with the descending of the solution pH and initial phenol concentration and rising of the contact time. Conclusion. Results showed that the light easily passes through four layers of coating (about 105 nm). The highest removal efficiency of phenol with photocatalytic UV/TiO2 process was 50% at initial phenol concentration of 30 mg/L, solution pH of 3, and 300 min contact time. The comparison of synthetic solution and petrochemical wastewater showed that at same conditions the phenol removal efficiency was equal. PMID:23710198

  3. A reproducible number-based sizing method for pigment-grade titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kluwig, Manfred; Koch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary A strong demand for reliable characterization methods of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations concerning the classification of nanomaterials. Scientific efforts towards standardized number-based sizing methods have so far been concentrated on model systems, such as spherical gold or silica nanoparticles. However, for industrial particulate materials, which are typically targets of regulatory efforts, characterisation is in most cases complicated by irregular particle shapes, broad size distributions and a strong tendency to agglomeration. Reliable sizing methods that overcome these obstacles, and are practical for industrial use, are still lacking. By using the example of titanium dioxide, this paper shows that both necessities are well met by the sophisticated counting algorithm presented here, which is based on the imaging of polished sections of embedded particles and subsequent automated image analysis. The data presented demonstrate that the typical difficulties of sizing processes are overcome by the proposed method of sample preparation and image analysis. In other words, a robust, reproducible and statistically reliable method is presented, which leads to a number-based size distribution of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, for example, and therefore allows reliable classification of this material according to forthcoming regulations. PMID:25383293

  4. A reproducible number-based sizing method for pigment-grade titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Theissmann, Ralf; Kluwig, Manfred; Koch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A strong demand for reliable characterization methods of particulate materials is triggered by the prospect of forthcoming national and international regulations concerning the classification of nanomaterials. Scientific efforts towards standardized number-based sizing methods have so far been concentrated on model systems, such as spherical gold or silica nanoparticles. However, for industrial particulate materials, which are typically targets of regulatory efforts, characterisation is in most cases complicated by irregular particle shapes, broad size distributions and a strong tendency to agglomeration. Reliable sizing methods that overcome these obstacles, and are practical for industrial use, are still lacking. By using the example of titanium dioxide, this paper shows that both necessities are well met by the sophisticated counting algorithm presented here, which is based on the imaging of polished sections of embedded particles and subsequent automated image analysis. The data presented demonstrate that the typical difficulties of sizing processes are overcome by the proposed method of sample preparation and image analysis. In other words, a robust, reproducible and statistically reliable method is presented, which leads to a number-based size distribution of pigment-grade titanium dioxide, for example, and therefore allows reliable classification of this material according to forthcoming regulations.

  5. Anti-angiogenic effect of bare titanium dioxide nanoparticles on pathologic neovascularization without unbearable toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Son, Jin Gyeong; Song, Nam Woong; Kim, Yong-Il; Yu, Young Suk; Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2014-07-01

    Local application requires fewer nanoparticles than systemic delivery to achieve effective concentration. In this study, we investigated the potential toxicity and efficacy of bare titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles by local administration into the eye. Mono-disperse, 20nm-size TiO2 nanoparticles did not affect the viability of retinal constituent cells within certain range of concentrations (~1.30μg/mL). Furthermore, local delivery of TiO2 nanoparticles did not induce any significant toxicity at the level of gene expression and histologic integrity in the retina of C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, at the low concentration (130ng/mL) without definite toxicity, these nanoparticles suppressed in vitro angiogenesis processes and in vivo retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy mice when they are administered intravitreally. Taken together, our results demonstrate that even TiO2 nanoparticles can be safely utilized for the treatment of retinal diseases at the adequate concentration levels, especially through local administration. In this paper the local application of titanium dioxide is described as a local treatment for retinal diseases associated with neovascularization. While these nanoparticles have known systemic toxicity, this work demonstrates that when applied locally in a mouse model, they can be used without observable toxicity even in their native forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase sensitivity in the next generation of the water flea Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a chronic flow-through exposure system with subsequent acute toxicity tests for the standard test organism Daphnia magna, we found that juvenile offspring of adults that were previously exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit a significantly increased sensitivity to titanium dioxide nanoparticles compared with the offspring of unexposed adults, as displayed by lower 96 h-EC(50) values. This observation is particularly remarkable because adults exhibited no differences among treatments in terms of typically assessed endpoints, such as sensitivity, number of offspring, or energy reserves. Hence, the present study suggests that ecotoxicological research requires further development to include the assessment of the environmental risks of nanoparticles for the next and hence not directly exposed generation, which is currently not included in standard test protocols.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes as novel lithium adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Moazeni, Maryam; Hajipour, Hengameh; Askari, Masoud; Nusheh, Mohammad

    2015-01-15

    The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. To achieve this goal, it is vital to use an effective adsorbent with maximum lithium adsorption potential together with a stable structure during extraction and insertion of the ions. In this study, titanium dioxide and then lithium titanate spinel with nanotube morphology was synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal process. The produced Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel ternary oxide nanotube with about 70 nm diameter was then treated with dilute acidic solution in order to prepare an adsorbent suitable for lithium adsorption from local brine. Morphological and phase analysis of the obtained nanostructured samples were done by using transmission and scanning electron microscopes along with X-ray diffraction. Lithium ion exchange capacity of this adsorbent was finally evaluated by means of adsorption isotherm. The results showed titanium dioxide adsorbent could recover 39.43 mg/g of the lithium present in 120 mg/L of lithium solution.

  8. Titanium dioxide solid phase for inorganic species adsorption and determination: the case of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Vera, R; Fontàs, C; Anticó, E

    2017-04-01

    We have evaluated a new titanium dioxide (Adsorbsia As600) for the adsorption of both inorganic As (V) and As (III) species. In order to characterize the sorbent, batch experiments were undertaken to determine the capacities of As (III) and As (V) at pH 7.3, which were found to be 0.21 and 0.14 mmol g(-1), respectively. Elution of adsorbed species was only possible using basic solutions, and arsenic desorbed under batch conditions was 50 % when 60 mg of loaded titanium dioxide was treated with 0.5 M NaOH solution. Moreover, its use as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of arsenic species from well waters has been investigated, without any previous pretreatment of the sample. Solid-phase extraction was implemented by packing several minicolumns with Adsorbsia As600. The method has been validated showing good accuracy and precision. Acceptable recoveries were obtained when spiked waters at 100-200 μg L(-1) were measured. The presence of major anions commonly found in waters did not affect arsenic adsoption, and only silicate at 100 mg L(-1) level severely competed with arsenic species to bind to the material. Finally, the measured concentrations in water samples containing arsenic from the Pyrinees (Catalonia, Spain) showed good agreement with the ICP-MS results.

  9. Enhanced photoactivity of graphene/titanium dioxide nanotubes for removal of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Hong; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is commonly used as an antipyretic or analgesics agent and poses threat to human health. In this research, TiO2 and graphite oxide were used as precursors of titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene respectively. Titanium dioxide nanotube and graphene (GR-TNT) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and TGA were used to characterize the catalysts. The acetaminophen degradation rate can reach up to 96% under UV light irradiation for 3 h and with the 5% GR-TNT dosage of 0.1 g L-1. Further experiments were done to probe the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction catalyzed by the GR-TNT composite. EDTA (hole scavengers) and t-BuOH (radical scavengers) were used to detect the main active oxidative species in the system. The results showed that the holes are the main oxidation species in the photocatalytic process. This study provides a new prospect for acetaminophen degradation by using high efficiency catalysts.

  10. Development and characterization of multilayer films of polyaniline, titanium dioxide and CTAB for potential antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Farias, Emanuel Airton O; Dionisio, Natália A; Quelemes, Patrick V; Leal, Sergio Henrique; Matos, José Milton E; Silva Filho, Edson C; Bechtold, Ivan H; Leite, José Roberto S A; Eiras, Carla

    2014-02-01

    Composites prepared from polyaniline (PANI) and the ceramic technology of titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been proposed, however, the interaction of these materials with greater control of molecular arrangement becomes attractive in order to achieve properties not previously described or yet the optimization of those already reported. Therefore, in this study, thin hybrid films made of polyaniline (PANI), a conductive polymer, and the technological ceramic, titanium dioxide (TiO2), were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aiming to improve the dispersion of the ceramic in the polymer matrix, the commercial surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used in the formation of the films. The best condition of deposition was found showing synergic interactions between the conjugated materials. The antibacterial activity of the PANI(TiO2)/CTAB films was studied and the obtained results suggest their use as antimicrobial coatings.

  11. Photo-decolorization and detoxification of toxic dyes using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Farzana, M Hasmath; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-09-01

    The removal of three different dyes namely Reactive Red 2 (RR), Methylene Blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) using titanium dioxide impregnated chitosan beads (TCB) by photocatalytic method has been studied. The TCB was characterized by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectral studies and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The photocatalytic activity of TCB for the decolorization of the three dyes is much higher than that of bare titanium dioxide, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of TiO2 and chitosan. The chitosan adsorbs dye molecule which continuously supplies, dye molecule for degradation by TiO2 thereby preventing the electron-hole recombination. The photocatalytic experiment was carried out by varying different parameters such as irradiation time, dosage, pH, substrate concentration and co-ions. The kinetics of decolorization of dyes are explained on the basis of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The mineralization of dyes has also been confirmed by COD measurements.

  12. Effects of Nano-Titanium Dioxide on Freshwater Algal Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kulacki, Konrad J.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    To make predictions about the possible effects of nanomaterials across environments and taxa, toxicity testing must incorporate not only a variety of organisms and endpoints, but also an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie nanoparticle toxicity. Here, we report the results of a laboratory experiment in which we examined how titanium dioxide nanoparticles impact the population dynamics and production of biomass across a range of freshwater algae. We exposed 10 of the most common species of North American freshwater pelagic algae (phytoplankton) to five increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 (ranging from controls to 300 mg n-TiO2 L−1). We then examined the effects of n-TiO2 on the population growth rates and biomass production of each algal species over a period of 25 days. On average, increasing concentrations of n-TiO2 had no significant effects on algal growth rates (p = 0.376), even though there was considerable species-specific variation in responses. In contrast, exposure to n-TiO2 tended to increase maximum biomass achieved by species in culture (p = 0.06). Results suggest that titanium dioxide nanoparticles could influence certain aspects of population growth of freshwater phytoplankton, though effects are unlikely at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23071735

  13. Microfibrous mesh coated with titanium dioxide: a self-sterilizing, self-cleaning filter.

    PubMed

    López, José Ernesto Ortiz; Jacoby, William A

    2002-10-01

    The utility of metal microfibrous mesh coated with titanium dioxide as a self-sterilizing, self-cleaning filter for air is explored. The low-cost mesh is produced via a roll-to-roll process similar to paper manufacturing. The titanium dioxide is applied by spraying an aqueous suspension of the photocatalyst on the surface of the mesh using an airbrush. Photocatalytic activity comparable to a powder layer is achieved at one quarter of the mass loading. The coating enhanced the separation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from aqueous suspension, but also led to an increase in pressure drop in an air stream flowing through the mesh. The self-cleaning property of the coated mesh is established by recovery of pressure drop performance lost due to biofilm buildup. This is accomplished via a photocatalytic regeneration process involving exposing the mesh to ultraviolet light in air. Oxidation is confirmed by monitoring CO2 evolution during the regeneration. Scanning electron photomicrographs also provide visual evidence of successful regeneration via photocatalysis.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Haibin Duan Xuechen; Liu Guocong; Li Lili

    2008-08-04

    Copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes were prepared via an assembly process based on the reactions between Cu(NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2} and hydroxide radicals on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, followed by the heat treatment in air at 723 K. The as-prepared samples were characterized with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy (FL). The photocatalytic activity of the copper ions surface-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes was investigated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B. The results showed that copper ions were successfully introduced onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. And two kinds of copper species of Cu(I) and Cu(II) were found on TiO{sub 2} surface. Copper ions act as electron trappers facilitating the separation of electrons and holes on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, which allows more efficiency for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic production of active chlorine on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; Sene, Jeosadaque J; Selcuk, Huseyin; Anderson, Marc A

    2004-06-01

    The production of chlorine and hypochlorite is of great economical and technological interest due to their large-scale use in many kinds of commercial applications. Yet, the current processes are not without problems such as inevitable side reactions and the high cost of production. This work reports the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of chloride ions to free chlorine as it has been investigated by using titanium dioxide (TiO2) and several metal-doped titanium dioxide (M-TiO2) material electrodes. An average concentration of 800 mg L(-1) of free chlorine was obtained in an open-air reactor using a TiO2 thin-film electrode biased at +1.0 V (SCE) and illuminated by UV light. The M-doped electrodes have performed poorly compared with the pure TiO2 counterpart. Test solutions containing 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl pH 2.0-4.0 were found to be the best conditions for fast production of free chlorine. A complete investigation of all parameters that influence the global process of chlorine production by the photo electrocatalytic method such as applied potential, concentration of NaCl, pH solution, and time is presented in detail. In addition, photocurrent vs potential curves and the reaction order are also discussed.

  16. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  17. Titanium dioxide antireflection coating for silicon solar cells by spray deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, W.; Tracy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick antireflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organotitanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, n-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screen-printed silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showed increases of over 40% in the electrical conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. Considerations pertaining to the optimization of AR coatings in general are discussed, and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented.

  18. Modeling and simulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis with finite-rate sintering in planar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick, Sean C.; Wang, Guanghai

    2011-03-01

    Numerical simulations of titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis in planar, non-premixed diffusion flames are performed. Titania is produced by the oxidation of titanium tetrachloride using a methane-air flame. The flow field is obtained using the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The methane-air flame and oxidation of titanium tetrachloride are modeled via one-step reactions. Evolution of the particle field is obtained via a nodal method which accounts for nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and coalescence with finite-rate sintering. The modeling of finite-rate sintering is accomplished via the use of uniform primary-particle size distribution. Simulations are performed at two different jet-to-co-flow velocity ratios as well as with finite-rate and instantaneous sintering models. In doing so we elucidate the effect of fluid mixing and finite-rate sintering on the particle field. Results show that highly agglomerated particles are found on the periphery of the eddies, where the collisions leading to nanoparticle coagulation occur faster than nanoparticle coalescence.

  19. Tissue distribution and elimination after oral and intravenous administration of different titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to obtain kinetic data that can be used in human risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanomaterials. Methods Tissue distribution and blood kinetics of various titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NM-100, NM-101, NM-102, NM-103, and NM-104), which differ with respect to primary particle size, crystalline form and hydrophobicity, were investigated in rats up to 90 days post-exposure after oral and intravenous administration of a single or five repeated doses. Results For the oral study, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were selected as target tissues for titanium (Ti) analysis. Ti-levels in liver and spleen were above the detection limit only in some rats. Titanium could be detected at low levels in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results indicate that some minor absorption occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but to a very limited extent. Both after single and repeated intravenous (IV) exposure, titanium rapidly distributed from the systemic circulation to all tissues evaluated (i.e. liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, brain, thymus, reproductive organs). Liver was identified as the main target tissue, followed by spleen and lung. Total recovery (expressed as % of nominal dose) for all four tested nanomaterials measured 24 h after single or repeated exposure ranged from 64-95% or 59-108% for male or female animals, respectively. During the 90 days post-exposure period, some decrease in Ti-levels was observed (mainly for NM-100 and NM-102) with a maximum relative decrease of 26%. This was also confirmed by the results of the kinetic analysis which revealed that for each of the investigated tissues the half-lifes were considerable (range 28–650 days, depending on the TiO2-particle and tissue investigated). Minor differences in kinetic profile were observed between the various particles, though these could not be clearly related to differences in primary particle size or hydrophobicity. Some indications were observed for an

  20. In vitro assessment of artifacts induced by titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants in cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Benic, Goran I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether or not the intensity of artifacts around implants in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) differs between titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants. Twenty models of a human mandible, each containing one implant in the single-tooth gap position 45, were cast in dental stone. Five test models were produced for each of the following implant types: titanium 4.1 mm diameter (Ti4.1 ), titanium 3.3 mm diameter (Ti3.3 ), titanium-zirconium 3.3 mm diameter (TiZr3.3 ) and zirconium dioxide 3.5-4.5 mm diameter (ZrO3.5-4.5 ) implants. For control purposes, three models without implants were produced. Each model was scanned using a CBCT device. Gray values (GV) were recorded at eight circumferential positions around the implants at 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm from the implant surface (GVT est ). GV were assessed in the corresponding volumes of interest (VOI) in the control models without implants (GVC ontrol ). Differences of gray values (ΔGV) between GVT est and GVC ontrol were calculated as percentages. One-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were applied to detect differences between implant types. Mean ΔGV for ZrO3.5-4.5 presented the highest absolute values, generally followed by TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants. The differences of ΔGV between ZrO3.5-4.5 and the remaining groups were statistically significant in the majority of the VOI (P ≤ 0.0167). ΔGV for TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants did not differ significantly in the most VOI. For all implant types, ΔGV showed positive values buccally, mesio-buccally, lingually and disto-lingually, whereas negative values were detected mesially and distally. Zirconium dioxide implants generate significantly more artifacts as compared to titanium and titanium-zirconium implants. The intensity of artifacts around zirconium dioxide implants exhibited in average the threefold in comparison with titanium implants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue® and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm2) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm2). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10−4 M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10−5 M (AlamarBlue® assay), and 7.6 × 10−4 M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure. PMID:26262634

  2. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells.

    PubMed

    Crosera, Matteo; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella; Pelin, Marco; Florio, Chiara; Bellomo, Francesca; Adami, Gianpiero; Apostoli, Pietro; De Palma, Giuseppe; Bovenzi, Massimo; Campanini, Marco; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-07

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) suspensions (concentration 1.0 g/L) in synthetic sweat solution were applied on Franz cells for 24 h using intact and needle-abraded human skin. Titanium content into skin and receiving phases was determined. Cytotoxicity (MTT, AlamarBlue(®) and propidium iodide, PI, uptake assays) was evaluated on HaCat keratinocytes after 24 h, 48 h, and seven days of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, no titanium was detectable in receiving solutions for both intact and damaged skin. Titanium was found in the epidermal layer after 24 h of exposure (0.47 ± 0.33 μg/cm(2)) while in the dermal layer, the concentration was below the limit of detection. Damaged skin, in its whole, has shown a similar concentration (0.53 ± 0.26 μg/cm(2)). Cytotoxicity studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that TiO2NPs induced cytotoxic effects only at very high concentrations, reducing cell viability after seven days of exposure with EC50s of 8.8 × 10(-4) M (MTT assay), 3.8 × 10(-5) M (AlamarBlue(®) assay), and 7.6 × 10(-4) M (PI uptake, index of a necrotic cell death). Our study demonstrated that TiO2NPs cannot permeate intact and damaged skin and can be found only in the stratum corneum and epidermis. Moreover, the low cytotoxic effect observed on human HaCaT keratinocytes suggests that these nano-compounds have a potential toxic effect at the skin level only after long-term exposure.

  3. Tunable top-down fabrication and functional surface coating of single-crystal titanium dioxide nanostructures and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungkyu; Janissen, Richard; Ussembayev, Yera Ye.; van Oene, Maarten M.; Solano, Belen; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanocylinders tethered with individual DNA molecules for use as force- and torque-transducers in an optical torque wrench. These developments provide the means for increased exploitation of the superior material properties of single-crystal TiO2 at the nanoscale.Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a key component of diverse optical and electronic applications that exploit its exceptional material properties. In particular, the use of TiO2 in its single-crystalline phase can offer substantial advantages over its amorphous and polycrystalline phases for existing and yet-to-be-developed applications. However, the implementation of single-crystal TiO2 has been hampered by challenges in its fabrication and subsequent surface functionalization. Here, we introduce a novel top-down approach that allows for batch fabrication of uniform high-aspect-ratio single-crystal TiO2 nanostructures with targeted sidewall profiles. We complement our fabrication approach with a functionalization strategy that achieves dense, uniform, and area-selective coating with a variety of biomolecules. This allows us to fabricate single-crystal rutile

  4. Processing and characterization of titanium dioxide grown on titanium foam for potential use as Li-ion electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Park, Hyeji; Um, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Won-Sub; Choe, Heeman

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the processing and potential application of Ti foams to the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Ti foam is successfully synthesized using a water-based freeze-casting process, and anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) is formed on the surface of the Ti foam for application to the anode of LIB. The metallic Ti foam acts as a current collector ;platform; with increased surface area and the TiO2 surface coating acts as an active anode material. Coin-cell test results show that the unique combination of the Ti foam and the TiO2 coating anode has highly stable cycling properties and can thus be considered promising for use as an advanced anode for LIBs that require high safety and stability. It is anticipated that the use of the unique Ti-foam-based electrode design will not only be limited to LIBs but also will be applied to other energy and environmental areas as a catalyst or filter.

  5. Controllable synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocomposites by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Liu, Jian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-04-22

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to synthesize graphene-based metal oxide nanocomposites. This strategy was fulfilled on the preparation of TiO(2)-graphene nanosheet (TiO(2)-GNS) nanocomposites using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The synthesized nanocomposites demonstrated that ALD exhibited many benefits in a controllable means. It was found that the as-deposited TiO(2) was tunable not only in its morphologies but also in its structural phases. As for the former, TiO(2) was transferable from nanoparticles to nanofilms with increased cycles. With regard to the latter, TiO(2) was changeable from amorphous to crystalline phase, and even a mixture of the two with increased growth temperatures (up to 250 °C). The underlying growth mechanisms were discussed and the resultant TiO(2)-GNS nanocomposites have great potentials for many applications, such as photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and sensors.

  6. Controllable synthesis of graphene-based titanium dioxide nanocomposites by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo; Geng, Dongsheng; Liu, Jian; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-04-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to synthesize graphene-based metal oxide nanocomposites. This strategy was fulfilled on the preparation of TiO2-graphene nanosheet (TiO2-GNS) nanocomposites using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The synthesized nanocomposites demonstrated that ALD exhibited many benefits in a controllable means. It was found that the as-deposited TiO2 was tunable not only in its morphologies but also in its structural phases. As for the former, TiO2 was transferable from nanoparticles to nanofilms with increased cycles. With regard to the latter, TiO2 was changeable from amorphous to crystalline phase, and even a mixture of the two with increased growth temperatures (up to 250 °C). The underlying growth mechanisms were discussed and the resultant TiO2-GNS nanocomposites have great potentials for many applications, such as photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and sensors.

  7. Mid-infrared optical properties of thin films of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Kischkat, Jan; Peters, Sven; Gruska, Bernd; Semtsiv, Mykhaylo; Chashnikova, Mikaela; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Fedosenko, Oliana; Machulik, Stephan; Aleksandrova, Anna; Monastyrskyi, Gregorii; Flores, Yuri; Masselink, W Ted

    2012-10-01

    The complex refractive index components, n and k, have been studied for thin films of several common dielectric materials with a low to medium refractive index as functions of wavelength and stoichiometry for mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths within the range 1.54-14.29 μm (700-6500 cm(-1)). The materials silicon oxide, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and titanium oxide are prepared using room temperature reactive sputter deposition and are characterized using MIR variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The investigation shows how sensitive the refractive index functions are to the O2 and N2 flow rates, and for which growth conditions the materials deposit homogeneously. It also allows conclusions to be drawn on the degree of amorphousness and roughness. To facilitate comparison of the materials deposited in this work with others, the index of refraction was also determined and provided for the near-IR and visible ranges of the spectrum. The results presented here should serve as a useful information base for designing optical coatings for the MIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The results are parameterized to allow them to be easily used for coating design.

  8. Mineral filters in sunscreen products--comparison of the efficacy of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide by in vitro method.

    PubMed

    Couteau, C; Alami, S; Guitton, M; Paparis, E; Coiffard, L J M

    2008-01-01

    European legislation currently authorizes 26 sun filters among which, there is only one mineral filter: titanium dioxide. In the United States, two mineral filters are authorized: titanium dioxide in a maximum dose of 25% and zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is authorized in Europe, but its concentration level is not limited. A large number of commercial products are containing one of these mineral filters. The difference between these products lies in the percentage of the active substance, the way they are incorporated into the final product and the size of the primary particles. Depending on the ingredient used, there is a large variation in efficacy. The efficacy of the products tested was determined by an in vitro method using a spectrophotometer equipped with an integration sphere. Titanium dioxide was thus seen to be much more effective than zinc oxide; indeed no commercial form of zinc oxide tested can give a sun protection factor (SPF) higher than 10 at its maximum dose of use, unlike titanium dioxide which in its coated form (coated with alumina and with stearic acid, amongst others) gives a SPF of 38. This study has also allowed us to dispel the theory that talc--a raw material which has been used empirically for years in foundation in the belief that it has photoprotective effects--has an effect against sun rays. Talc proved to be particularly ineffective, as when it is used at a level of 25%, it only gives a totally negligible SPF of one unit.

  9. Development of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate nanocomposite as an antibacterial coating for fruit storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel nanocomposite of silver/titanium dioxide/chitosan adipate (Ag/TiO2/CS) was developed through photochemical reduction using a chitosan adipate template. Chitosan served as a reducing agent for the metal ions, and anchored metal ions by forming Ag–N coordination bonds and electrostatic attract...

  10. Effect of Treatment Media on the Agglomeration of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Impact on Genotoxicity, Cellular Interaction, and Cell Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to humans and the environment. Although TiO2 nanoparticles have been shown to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosome damage (micronucleus ass...

  11. Effects of Material Properties on Sedimentation and Aggregation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles of Anatase and Rutile in the Aqueous Phase

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the sedimentation and aggregation kinetics of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with varying material properties (i.e., crystallinity, morphology, and chemical compositions). Used in the study were various types of commercially available TiO2 nanoparti...

  12. Effects of Material Properties on Sedimentation and Aggregation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles of Anatase and Rutile in the Aqueous Phase

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the sedimentation and aggregation kinetics of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with varying material properties (i.e., crystallinity, morphology, and chemical compositions). Used in the study were various types of commercially available TiO2 nanoparti...

  13. Effect of Treatment Media on the Agglomeration of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Impact on Genotoxicity, Cellular Interaction, and Cell Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to humans and the environment. Although TiO2 nanoparticles have been shown to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosome damage (micronucleus ass...

  14. Controlling the process of titanium dioxide nanoparticle growth in a continuous-flow plasma-chemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aul‧chenko, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    The formation and growth of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the working zone of a plasma-chemical reactor were modeled and the effect of the hardening air jet parameters in the reactor on the size of the particles formed in it has been studied. The results of modeling were compared with relevant experimental data.

  15. Nanocomposite titanium dioxide/polymer photovoltaic cells: effects of TiO2 microstructure, time, and illumination power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Michelle J.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Henry, Bernard M.; Kirov, Kiril R.; Webster, Graham R.; Assender, Hazel E.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Burn, Paul L.; Grovenor, Chris R.

    2004-02-01

    Nanocomposite titanium dioxide/polymer photovoltaic cells have been fabricated using poly[2-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV). Two different types of titanium dioxide were used, one synthesized using a sol-gel method, the other was a commercial paste. The crystal structure, porosity and absorption spectra of the titanium dioxide layers were measured, and the titanium dioxide synthesized using the sol-gel method had a much lower level of anatase. The photovoltaic properties of the ITO/TiO2/MEHPPV/Au cells, which were similar for both types of TiO2, were measured as a function of illumination power and compared with equivalent circuit models. A simple equivalent circuit model incorporating a diode, two resistances and a light induced current was inconsistent with the illumination -- dependent data and was improved by adding an illumination dependent shunt resistance. A very long lived, photo-induced increase in dark current was observed, which could not be explained by a polymer degradation mechanism or an increase in temperature under illumination, but was more likely to be due to trapped charge.

  16. Phosphopeptide screening using nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films as affinity matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization targets in mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niklew, Marie-Luise; Hochkirch, Ulrike; Melikyan, Anna; Moritz, Thomas; Kurzawski, Sandra; Schlüter, Hartmut; Ebner, Ingo; Linscheid, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    The use of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films as affinity targets for the selective isolation and enrichment of phosphopeptides with subsequent analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is described. A strong affinity of phosphopeptides to anatase titanium dioxide surfaces is observed, and a standard protocol for the selective isolation and enrichment of phosphopeptides on titanium dioxide films using a proteolytic digest of alpha- and beta-casein was developed. All washing and elution procedures using these films can be processed directly on the MALDI target, thereby avoiding sample contamination and losses. In addition, the enrichment of the phosphopeptides was improved due to a considerable enlargement of the surface. Several film substrates compatible with routine inlet systems of mass spectrometers, as conductive glass, aluminum, and silicon, have been manufactured and tested. A biological application was examined by the human fibrinogen-thrombin system. For a quantification and comparison of different expression levels of phosphoproteins in biological systems, the peptides were labeled with S-methyl thioimidate reagents. The capability of this method for high-throughput applications make the use of mesoporous titanium dioxide films as an affinity MALDI target a promising tool in phosphoproteomics. A combination of an amidation protocol showed that a quantification of phosphorylated peptides can easily be performed using TiO(2) films.

  17. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species exposed to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol develop...

  18. Behavior of Enterobacter pulveris in amorphous and crystalline powder matrices treated with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Callanan, M; Paes, M; Iversen, C; Kleijn, R; Bravo Almeida, C; Peñaloza, W; Johnson, N; Vuataz, G; Michel, M

    2012-11-01

    The resistance of an Enterobacter pulveris strain to combined heat and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) treatments in different powder matrices was examined. The strain proved resistant to scCO(2) treatment up to 50 MPa pressure at temperatures >73 °C for at least 20 min in a commercial infant formula. Water availability was shown to be important for the observed thermotolerance, because introduction of water in the scCO(2) gas flow during treatment resulted in a 1 log(10) cfu/g reduction of the initial inoculum. Interestingly, similar tolerance to heat and scCO(2) treatment was observed in a less complex matrix, a maltodextrin powder. In contrast, the bacterial strain proved sensitive to lower temperatures (55-65 °C) over shorter times (≤10 min) in a dextrose powder composed of crystalline particles. Therefore, the microorganism demonstrates heat sensitivity in the crystalline powder matrix closer to that of nonpowder liquid matrices. These data demonstrate the increased heat tolerance of the bacterium specifically in amorphous powders and indicate that this characteristic is not dependent on fat and other components commonly found in infant formula. The information is important in designing strategies to deal with contamination of powders with Enterobacteriacae, including pathogenic Cronobacter spp. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide on catalytic photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water: Experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongmei; Bi, Ye; Kan, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Hong, Sanguo

    2011-05-01

    The catalytic activities of copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were studied experimentally and theoretically in the synthesis of methanol by the photo reduction of carbon dioxide with water firstly. Photo catalysts copper and cerium co-doped titanium dioxide were prepared via the equivalent-volume incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman, BET, and electrochemistry analyses. The catalytic properties were determined in the synthesis of methanol from CO 2 in the aqueous solution. The experimental results suggested that Cu/Ce-TiO 2 catalysts obviously enhanced the efficiency of the photocatalytic reduction of CO 2. The methanol yield could reach up to 180.3 μmol/g-cat rapidly. The different effects of copper and cerium on the surface of titanium dioxide have been calculated at the Becke's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional together with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) level. Our results revealed that Ce atoms affect the reaction more profoundly than Cu atoms do. Ce atoms activated H 2O and CO 2 molecules, while Cu atoms act as the channel of photoelectrons in real time and prevent the recombination of electrons and holes.

  20. [Evaluation of health effect among occupational population exposed to nano-titanium dioxide: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Xu, H D; Zhou, J W; Tang, S C; Kong, F L; Li, X W; Shen, Z L; Yan, L; Chen, Z J; Zhao, L; Jia, G; Zhang, J

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To characterize the health effects of nano-titanium dioxide exposure in an occupational cohort. Methods: Eighty-five male employees of a nano-titanium dioxide manufacturing enterprise in Shandong Province were evaluated in September 2014. Forty-four were exposed to nano-titanium dioxide (exposure group), and 41 were not exposed to nano-titanium dioxide (control group). We collected employees' basic information, smoking and drinking history, previous medical history, family history, and occupational history. Differences in blood pressure, hematological parameters, and blood biochemistry between the two groups were analyzed and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of nano-titanium dioxide exposure on blood pressure, hematological parameters, and blood biochemistry indices after controlling for age, smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five employees from the exposure group and 25 employees from the control group were selected at random for measurement of genetic damage by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of nano-titanium dioxide exposure on micronucleus frequency or micronucleus cell frequency after controlling for age, smoking, drinking, and BMI. Results: The median (P25-P75) surface area concentration of particles deposited in the tracheobronchial region, the surface area concentration of particles deposited in the alveolar region, and particle number concentration in the exposure group were 35.35(24.31-57.42) μ m(2)/cm(3), 173.09(116.27-270.72) μ m(2)/cm(3), and 40 244.00 (17 803.50-78 679.00) /cm(3), respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control group 33.90 (27.44-43.29) μm(2)/cm(3), 150.50(125.82-192.87)μm(2)/cm(3), and 18 721.00 (12 721.00-51 898.50)/cm(3), respectively. Z values were 15.47, 15.96, and 14.54, respectively (P<0.001 for all three values). Multiple linear regression analysis

  1. Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide coatings on KD-II silicon carbide fibers and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shiyi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To provide oxidation protection and/or to act as an interfacial coating, titanium oxide (TiO2) coatings were deposited on KD-II SiC fibers by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water (H2O) as precursors. The average deposition rate was about 0.08 nm per cycle, and the prepared coatings were smooth, uniform and conformal, shielding the fibers entirely. The as-deposited coatings were amorphous regardless of the coating thickness, and changed to anatase and rutile crystal phase after annealing at 600 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. The oxidation measurement suggests that the TiO2 coating enhanced the oxidation resistance of SiC fibers obviously. SiC fibers coated with a 70-nm-thick TiO2 layer retained a relatively high tensile strength of 1.66 GPa even after exposition to air at 1400 °C for 1 h, and thick silica layer was not observed. In contrast, uncoated SiC fibers were oxidized dramatically through the same oxidation treatment, covered with a macro-cracked thick silica film, and the tensile strength was not measurable due to interfilament adhesion. The above results indicate that TiO2 films deposited by ALD are a promising oxidation resistance coating for SiC fibers.

  2. Product selectivity of visible-light photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using titanium dioxide doped by different nitrogen-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Huang, Zhengfeng; Cheng, Xudong; Wang, Qingli; Chen, Yi; Dong, Peimei; Zhang, Xiwen

    2015-11-01

    The influence of nitrogen-source on the photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is herein first investigated from the perspective of the chemical bond form of the nitrogen element in the nitrogen-source. The definitive role of groups such as Nsbnd N from the nitrogen-source on the surface of as-prepared samples in the selectivity of the dominant product of photocatalytic reduction is demonstrated. Well-crystallized one-dimensional Nsbnd TiO2 nanorod arrays with a preferred orientation of the rutile (3 1 0) facet are manufactured via a hydrothermal treatment using hydrazine and ammonia variously as the source of nitrogen. Significant selectivity of the dominant reduced products has been exhibited for Nsbnd TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen-sources in carbon dioxide photocatalytic reduction under visible light illumination. CH4 is the main product with N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2, while CO is the main product with NH3-doped Nsbnd TiO2, which can be attributed to the existence of the reducing Nsbnd N groups in the N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2 surfaces after the hydrothermal treatment. Compared with the approaches previously reported, the facile one-step route utilized here accomplishes the fabrication of Nsbnd TiO2 possessing visible-light activity and attainment of selectivity of dominant photocatalytic reduction product simultaneously by choosing a nitrogen-source with appropriate chemical bond form, which provides a completely new approach to understanding the effects of doping treatment on photocatalytic properties.

  3. Stabilization of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles at the Surface of Carbon Nanomaterials Promoted by Microwave Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Santangelo, Saveria; Fazio, Enza; Neri, Fortunato; D'Arienzo, Massimiliano; Morazzoni, Franca; Zhang, Yihe; Pinna, Nicola; Russo, Patrícia A

    2015-10-12

    TiO2 is frequently combined with carbon materials, such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO), to produce composites with improved properties, for example for photocatalytic applications. It is shown that heating conditions significantly affect the interface and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 @C, and that microwave irradiation can be advantageous for the synthesis of carbon-based materials. Composites of TiO2 with RGO or amorphous carbon were prepared from reaction of titanium isopropoxide with benzyl alcohol. During the synthesis of the TiO2 nanoparticles, the carbon is involved in reactions that lead to the covalent attachment of the oxide, the extent of which depends on the carbon characteristics, heating rate, and mechanism. TiO2 is more efficiently stabilized at the surface of RGO than amorphous carbon. Rapid heating of the reaction mixture results in a stronger coupling between the nanoparticles and carbon, more uniform coatings, and smaller particles with narrower size distributions. The more efficient attachment of the oxide leads to better photocatalytic performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibition by surface modified titanium alloy medical implants following application of silver, titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite nanocoatings.

    PubMed

    Besinis, A; Hadi, S D; Le, H R; Tredwin, C; Handy, R D

    2017-03-17

    One of the most common causes of implant failure is peri-implantitis, which is caused by bacterial biofilm formation on the surfaces of dental implants. Modification of the surface nanotopography has been suggested to affect bacterial adherence to implants. Silver nanoparticles are also known for their antibacterial properties. In this study, titanium alloy implants were surface modified following silver plating, anodisation and sintering techniques to create a combination of silver, titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocoatings. Their antibacterial performance was quantitatively assessed by measuring the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis, proportion of live/dead cells and lactate production by the microbes over 24 h. Application of a dual layered silver-HA nanocoating to the surface of implants successfully inhibited bacterial growth in the surrounding media (100% mortality), whereas the formation of bacterial biofilm on the implant surfaces was reduced by 97.5%. Uncoated controls and titanium dioxide nanocoatings showed no antibacterial effect. Both silver and HA nanocoatings were found to be very stable in biological fluids with material loss, as a result of dissolution, to be less than 0.07% for the silver nanocoatings after 24 h in a modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. No dissolution was detected for the HA nanocoatings. Thus, application of a dual layered silver-HA nanocoating to titanium alloy implants creates a surface with antibiofilm properties without compromising the HA biocompatibility required for successful osseointegration and accelerated bone healing.

  5. Appreciating the role of thermodynamics in LCA improvement analysis via an application to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Geoffrey F; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2011-04-01

    Although many regard it as the most important step of life cycle assessment, improvement analysis is given relatively little attention in the literature. Most available improvement approaches are highly subjective, and traditional LCA methods often do not account for resources other than fossil fuels. In this work exergy is evaluated as a thermodynamically rigorous way of identifying process improvement opportunities. As a case study, a novel process for producing titanium dioxide nanoparticles is considered. A traditional impact assessment, a first law energy analysis, and an exergy analysis are done at both the process and life cycle scales. The results indicate that exergy analysis provides insights not available via other methods, especially for identifying unit operations with the greatest potential for improvement. Exergetic resource accounting at the life cycle scale shows that other materials are at least as significant as fossil fuels for the production of TiO2 nanoparticles in this process.

  6. Dendritic Hematite Nanoarray Photoanode Modified with a Conformal Titanium Dioxide Interlayer for Effective Charge Collection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhibin; Wang, Tuo; Zhang, Jijie; Li, Chengcheng; Li, Huimin; Gong, Jinlong

    2017-07-25

    This paper describes the introduction of a thin titanium dioxide interlayer that serves as passivation layer and dopant source for hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ) nanoarray photoanodes. This interlayer is demonstrated to boost the photocurrent by suppressing the substrate/hematite interfacial charge recombination, and to increase the electrical conductivity by enabling Ti(4+) incorporation. The dendritic nanostructure of this photoanode with an increased solid-liquid junction area further improves the surface charge collection efficiency, generating a photocurrent of about 2.5 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (vs. RHE) under air mass 1.5G illumination. A photocurrent of approximately 3.1 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE could be achieved by addition of an iron oxide hydroxide cocatalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. In vivo evaluation of chitosan-PVP-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Archana, D; Singh, Brijesh K; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2013-06-05

    In our present study, the blends of chitosan, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The size distribution of the TiO2 nanoparticles was measured using transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The studies on the mechanical properties of composite material indicate that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles increases its strength. The prepared nanocomposite dressing has excellent antimicrobial efficacy and good biocompatibility against NIH3T3 and L929 fibroblast cells. Compared to conventional gauze, soframycin skin ointment and chitosan treated groups, the prepared nano dressing caused an accelerated healing of open excision type wounds in albino rat model. The synergistic effects of nanocomposite dressing material like good antibacterial ability, high swelling properties, high WVTR, excellent hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility, wound appearance and wound closure rate through in vivo test makes it a suitable candidate for wound healing applications.

  8. Characterization of adsorption and electronic excited states of quercetin on titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of quercetin on colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles in ethanol and its excited-state electronic structure were investigated by means of electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. The changes in electronic charge redistribution as reflected by the dipole moment difference, ∆μ, between the ground and excited electronic states were measured with electroabsorption spectroscopy and analyzed using results of TD DFT computations. Adsorption of quercetin causes a red shift of its absorption spectrum. Raman spectra of quercetin analyzed with reference to analogous data for morin indicate binding of quercetin through the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety. The difference dipole moment, which is 5.5 D in free quercetin, increases to 11.8 D in opposite direction in adsorbed quercetin, and is associated with charge-transfer to the Ti atom. The computed transition energy, intensity, vector Δμ and molecular orbitals involved in the electronic transition at different molecular configurations indicate a bidentate chelating mode of binding of quercetin.

  9. Photochemical synthesis of citric acid cycle intermediates based on titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Raffaele; Brucato, John Robert; De Sio, Antonio; Botta, Giorgia; Pace, Emanuele; Gambicorti, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    The emergence of the citric acid cycle is one of the most remarkable occurrences with regard to understanding the origin and evolution of metabolic pathways. Although the chemical steps of the cycle are preserved intact throughout nature, diverse organisms make wide use of its chemistry, and in some cases organisms use only a selected portion of the cycle. However, the origins of this cycle would have arisen in the more primitive anaerobic organism or even back in the proto-metabolism, which likely arose spontaneously under favorable prebiotic chemical conditions. In this context, we report that UV irradiation of formamide in the presence of titanium dioxide afforded 6 of the 11 carboxylic acid intermediates of the reductive version of the citric acid cycle. Since this cycle is the central metabolic pathway of contemporary biology, this report highlights the role of photochemical processes in the origin of the metabolic apparatus.

  10. Examination of Ostwald ripening in the photocatalytic growth of silver nanoparticles on titanium dioxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwoński, Ireneusz; Spilarewicz-Stanek, Kaja; Kisielewska, Aneta; Kądzioła, Kinga; Cichomski, Michał; Ginter, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were grown on the surface of titanium dioxide coating (TiO2) using a photochemical method. The size and number of AgNPs were monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 20, 30, 180 and 300 s of UV illumination. It was found that for short illumination times (20 s) a significant number of small nanoparticles were grown. However, after an additional 10 s of illumination, small nanoparticles were subject to decomposition and the released Ag+ ions were utilized for the growth of the existing larger nanoparticles, causing an increase in their dimensions. The observed results indicate that the nucleation and further growth of AgNPs proceed according to Ostwald ripening. For longer illumination times (180, 300 s) a coalescence of closely located particles was observed.

  11. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human gastric epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Monica Catarina; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Costa, Solange; Dhawan, Alok; Oliveira, Paula A; Teixeira, João P

    2014-02-01

    Manufacturing or using nanomaterials may result in exposure of workers to nanoparticles. Potential routes of exposure include skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract. The lack of health-based standards for nanomaterials combined with their increasing use in many different workplaces and products emphasize the need for a reliable temporary risk assessment tool. Therefore, the aim of this work was to explore the effects of different doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human gastric epithelial cells in vitro. We analyzed proliferation by MTT assay, apoptosis by Tunel, migration by injury assay, oxidative stress by determining GSH/GSSG ratio and DNA damage by Comet assay on nanoparticle-treated AGS human gastric epithelial cell line in comparison to controls. We show and discuss the tumor-like phenotypes of nanoparticles-exposed AGS cells in vitro, as increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Our results demonstrate for the first time that nanoparticles induce tumor-like phenotypes in human gastric epithelial cells.

  12. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile.

  13. Characteristics of titanium dioxide nanostructures synthesized via electrochemical anodization at different applied voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, Y. L.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the study of the growth of nanostructure titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) via electrochemical anodization method. Both constant and alternating anodization voltage would be applied in this study. The effects of applied voltage on the morphological and structural properties were studied. Images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) revealed that morphology of nanostructure could be manipulated by changing the type and amount of applied voltage. Besides that, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that crystalline structures (anatase and rutile) could be obtained after being annealed at 700°C for 60 minutes. By analysing the data in XRD measurements, crystallite size of the TiO{sub 2} could be calculated by using the Scherrer method. Besides that, the relationship between mean crystallites sizes and anodization voltage would also be further studied in this paper.

  14. Ultrafast photophysical studies of a multicomponent sunscreen: Oxybenzone-titanium dioxide mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Lewis A.; Grosvenor, Lucy C.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies of the sunscreen constituent oxybenzone have suggested that the dominant mechanism underlying the efficient photoprotection it offers relies on an initial ultrafast enol → keto tautomerisation, followed by nonadiabatic transfer to the ground electronic state. Subsequent collisions with the solvent bath then reform the original enol-tautomer. Utilising femtosecond transient electronic absorption spectroscopy we explore the dissipation of electronic excitation energy in oxybenzone in the presence of titanium dioxide, a widely used, and complementary sunscreen component. We find the relaxation dynamics of this popular organic filter are unaltered by the presence of this favoured inorganic scatterer and the overall dynamics can be described by the additive contribution of the individual constituents. The combination of the two components provides broadband photoprotective properties justifying the widely used organic filter and inorganic scatterer mixtures in commercial sunscreen products.

  15. Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of a herbicide derivative, isoproturon in aqueous suspension of titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Haque, M M; Muneer, M

    2003-10-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of a herbicide derivative, N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-N',N'-dimethylurea (Isoproturon, 1) was investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide by monitoring the change in absorption intensity and depletion in Total Organic Carbon content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics was studied under different conditions such as pH, catalyst concentration, substrate concentration, different types of TiO(2) and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) and potassium persulphate (K(2)S(2)O(8)) besides molecular oxygen. The degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The photocatalyst Degussa P25 was found to be more efficient as compared with other photocatalysts. An attempt was made to identify the degradation product through GC-MS analysis technique.

  16. Nanohybrids of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Titanium Dioxide for Photocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin

    2017-09-05

    The ever increasing need for renewable and clean energy resources as well as environmental concerns are considered as two serious challenges of today's society. Photocatalysis has proved to be a reliable and effective technology to overcome these issues. However, in order to bring the full potential of this approach into reality, two main hurdles of fast charge recombination and the limited visible light absorption should be tackled. To address these obstacles, nanocomposites based on titanium dioxide nanostructures and semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) have been developed and proven to be excellent photocatalysts. In this review, we will overview the recent developments on the fabrication and rational design of these nanocomposites both for hydrogen production and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants with emphasis on those appealing structures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Spectral broadening in anatase titanium dioxide waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher C; Shtyrkova, Katia; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Reshef, Orad; Ippen, Erich; Mazur, Eric

    2013-07-29

    We observe spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in single-mode anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths (1565 and 794 nm). By fitting our data to nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we quantify nonlinear optical parameters around 1565 nm. Our fitting yields a nonlinear refractive index of 0.16 × 10(-18) m(2)/W, no two-photon absorption, and stimulated Raman scattering from the 144 cm(-1) Raman line of anatase with a gain coefficient of 6.6 × 10(-12) m/W. Additionally, we report on asymmetric spectral broadening around 794 nm. The wide wavelength applicability and negligible two-photon absorption of TiO(2) make it a promising material for integrated photonics.

  18. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B using graphene and titanium dioxide composite catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Du, Wen-Han; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jin; Xiong, Chao; Yuan, Hong-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Graphene and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite catalyst has been synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis method, and used for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh.B) in water. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of this composite was evaluated by decomposing of Rh.B in water under visible or UV light irradiation. The degradation results indicated that the photoelectrocatalytic performance of this composite catalyst was greatly enhanced due to the improved adsorption performance and separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers possibly. The composite with graphene content of 10 wt.% exhibited superior activity under UV light irradiation. After 30 min of reaction, the photoelectrocatalytic degradation ratio of Rh.B was about 96% when pH = 6-7. The results of this work provide a good method for the treatment of organic wastewater with high performance.

  19. Asymmetric distribution of phosphatidyl serine in supported phospholipid bilayers on titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Fernanda F; Textor, Marcus; Reviakine, Ilya

    2006-04-11

    Supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) are useful for studying cell adhesion, cell-cell interactions, protein-lipid interactions, protein crystallization, and applications in biosensor and biomaterial areas. We have recently reported that SPBs could be formed on titanium dioxide, an important biomaterial, from vesicles containing anionic phospholipid phosphatidyl serine (PS) in the presence of calcium. Here, we show that the mobility of the fluorescently labeled PS present in these bilayers is severely restricted, whereas that of the zwitterionic phosphatidyl choline is not affected. Removal of calcium alleviated the restriction on the mobility of PS. Both components were found to be mobile in SPBs of identical compositions prepared in the presence of calcium on silica. To explain these results, we propose that, on TiO2, PS is trapped in the proximal leaflet of the bilayers. This proposal is supported by the results of protein adsorption experiments carried out on bilayers containing various amounts of PS prepared on silica and titania.

  20. Mediatorless Impedance Studies with Titanium Dioxide Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection.

    PubMed

    Abdul Halim, Nur Hamidah; Lee, Yook Heng; Marugan, Radha Swathe Priya Malon; Hashim, Uda

    2017-09-18

    An impedimetric-based biosensor constructed using gold nanoparticles (AuNP) entrapped within titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles for hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection is the main feature of this research. The matrix of the biosensor employed the surface of TiO₂, which was previously modified with an amine terminal group using 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) at a low temperature to create a ready to immobilise surface for the biosensor application. Hemoglobin (Hb), which exhibits peroxidase-like activity, was used as the bioreceptor in the biosensor to detect H₂O₂ in solution. The analysis was carried out using an alternative impedance method, in which the biosensor exhibited a wide linear range response between 1 × 10(-4) M and 1.5 × 10(-2) M and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 × 10(-5) M without a redox mediator.

  1. Anemia and genotoxicity induced by sub-chronic intragastric treatment of rats with titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grissa, Intissar; Elghoul, Jaber; Ezzi, Lobna; Chakroun, Sana; Kerkeni, Emna; Hassine, Mohsen; El Mir, Lassaad; Mehdi, Meriem; Ben Cheikh, Hassen; Haouas, Zohra

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used for their whiteness and opacity. We investigated the hematological effects and genotoxicity of anatase TiO2 NPs following sub-chronic oral gavage treatment. TiO2-NPs were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wistar rats were treated with anatase TiO2 NPs by intragastric administration for 60 days. Hematological analysis showed a significant decrease in RBC and HCT and a significant increase in MCV, PLT, MPV and WBC at higher doses. Furthermore, abnormally shaped red cells, sometimes containing micronuclei, and hyper-segmented neutrophil nuclei were observed with TiO2 NPs treatment. The micronucleus test revealed damage to chromosomes in rat bone marrow at 100 and 200mg/kg bw; the comet assay showed significant DNA damage at the same doses.

  2. Degradation of orange dyes and carbamazepine by soybean peroxidase immobilized on silica monoliths and titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Calza, Paola; Zacchigna, Dario; Laurenti, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the removal of three common dyes (orange I, orange II, and methylorange) and of the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine from aqueous solutions by means of enzymatic and photocatalytic treatment was studied. Soybean peroxidase (SBP) was used as biocatalyst, both free in solution and immobilized on silica monoliths, and titanium dioxide as photocatalyst. The combination of the two catalysts led to a faster (about two to four times) removal of all the orange dyes compared to the single systems. All the dyes were completely removed within 2 h, also in the presence of immobilized SBP. As for carbamazepine, photocatalytic treatment prevails on the enzymatic degradation, but the synergistic effect of two catalysts led to a more efficient degradation; carbamazepine's complete disappearance was achieved within 60 min with combined system, while up to 2 h is required with TiO2 only.

  3. Synthesis and dielectric studies of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) / titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Prathibha; Thomas, Sunil; V, Arunkumar K.; S, Karthika; V, Unnikrishnan N.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis of poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) / titanium dioxide nanocomposites via sol- gel technique. The structural and dielectric properties of the samples were also analysed in this work. PVP doped with varying concentrations of TiO2 are prepared by the sol-gel route. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and impedance spectroscopy. XRD and TEM confirm the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles in the composites. The dielectric response and the AC electrical conductivity of the samples are investigated for the frequency range 1 kHz-2MHz at room temperature. The dielectric studies show low values for dielectric constant and loss at high frequencies.

  4. Surface morphology of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on aluminum interdigitated device electrodes (IDEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Farehanim, M. A.; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based Interdigitated Device Electrodes (IDEs) Nanobiosensor device was developed for intracellular biochemical detection. Fabrication and characterization of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using IDE nanocoated with TiO2 was studied in this paper. SEM analysis was carried out at 10 kV acceleration volatege and a 9.8 mA emission current to compare IDE with and without TiO2 on the surface area. The simple fabrication process, high sensitivity, and fast response of the TiO2 based IDEs facilitate their applications in a wide range of areas. The small size of semiconductor TiO2 based IDE for sensitive, label-free, real time detection of a wide range of biological species could be explored in vivo diagnostics and array-based screening.

  5. Fast, efficient, and quality-controlled phosphopeptide enrichment from minute sample amounts using titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Dickhut, Clarissa; Radau, Sonja; Zahedi, René P

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up mass spectrometry (MS) is still the method of choice for analyzing protein phosphorylation. However, the low stoichiometry of phosphorylation, especially in highly complex samples, renders the specific enrichment of phosphopeptides prior to analysis inevitable. In recent years, specific phosphopeptide enrichment strategies combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS (LC-MS) provided researchers deeper insights into the phosphorylation networks of biological systems.Here, we describe two protocols for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from biological samples using titanium dioxide (TiO2) resins, enabling the handling of small sample amounts (<20 μg of protein) as well as larger sample amounts (up to the milligram range), depending on the scientific issue to be solved.Furthermore, we imply quality control steps during sample preparation to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the phosphoproteomic findings.

  6. Sunscreens with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nano-Particles: A Societal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van de Poel, Ibo; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The risks of novel technologies, such as nano(bio)technology cannot be fully assessed due to the existing uncertainties surrounding their introduction into society. Consequently, the introduction of innovative technologies can be conceptualised as a societal experiment, which is a helpful approach to evaluate moral acceptability. This approach is illustrated with the marketing of sunscreens containing nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. We argue that the marketing of this TiO2 nanomaterial in UV protective cosmetics is ethically undesirable, since it violates four reasonable moral conditions for societal experimentation (absence of alternatives, controllability, limited informed consent, and continuing evaluation). To remedy the current way nano-sized TiO2 containing sunscreens are utilised, we suggest five complementing actions (closing the gap, setup monitoring tools, continuing review, designing for safety, and regulative improvements) so that its marketing can become more acceptable. PMID:20835397

  7. Urease-mediated room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John M; Kinsinger, Nichola; Sun, Chhay; Li, Dongsheng; Kisailus, David

    2012-08-29

    Enzymes are an important class of biological molecules whose specific functionalities can be exploited to perform tasks beyond the reach of conventional chemistry. Because they are operational under environmentally friendly, ambient conditions, the adaptation of these biomacromolecules can potentially be used to replace current energy-intensive and environmentally harsh synthesis methods for materials. Here we used a hydrolytic enzyme, urease, to modify the solution environment around a water-soluble and stable TiO(2) precursor to synthesize nanocrystalline titanium dioxide under environmentally benign conditions. This urease-mediated synthesis yields nearly monodisperse TiO(2) nanostructures with high surface area that can be utilized for numerous energy-based applications such as low-cost photovoltaics and photocatalysts.

  8. Effect of nanostructured graphene oxide on electrochemical activity of its composite with polyaniline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh Phan, Thi; Thanh Luong, Thi; Mai, Thi Xuan; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Tot Pham, Thi

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) significantly affects the electrochemical activity of its composite with polyanline titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work various composites with different GO contents have been successfully synthesized by chemical method to compare not only their material properties but also electrochemical characteristics with each other. The results of an electrochemical impedance study showed that their electrochemical property has been improved due to the presence of GO in a composite matrix. The galvanodynamic polarization explained that among them the composite with GO/Ani ratio in the range of 1-14 exhibits a better performance compared to the other due to yielding a higher current desity (280 μA cm-2). The TEM and SEM images which presented the fibres of a composite bundle with the presence of PANi and TiO2 were examined by IR-spectra and x-ray diffraction, respectively.

  9. Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Valkonen, Minna; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-12-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards.

  10. Virus inactivation by silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Liga, Michael V; Bryant, Erika L; Colvin, Vicki L; Li, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic inactivation of viruses and other microorganisms is a promising technology that has been increasingly utilized in recent years. In this study, photocatalytic silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nAg/TiO(2)) were investigated for their capability of inactivating Bacteriophage MS2 in aqueous media. Nano-sized Ag deposits were formed on two commercial TiO(2) nanopowders using a photochemical reduction method. The MS2 inactivation kinetics of nAg/TiO(2) was compared to the base TiO(2) material and silver ions leached from the catalyst. The inactivation rate of MS2 was enhanced by more than 5 fold depending on the base TiO(2) material, and the inactivation efficiency increased with increasing silver content. The increased production of hydroxyl free radicals was found to be responsible for the enhanced viral inactivation.

  11. Nanocomposites based on thermoplastic elastomers with functional basis of nano titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulovskaya, V. D.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Orekhov, A. S.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Domoroshchina, E. N.; Shegay, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Nanocomposites based on a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) (low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and 1,2-polybutadiene in a ratio of 60/40) with functional titanium dioxide nanoparticles of different nature, TiO2/TPE, have been prepared and investigated by a complex of methods (X-ray diffraction analysis using X-ray and synchrotron radiation beams, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy). The morphology of the composites is found to be somewhat different, depending on the TiO2 characteristics. It is revealed that nanocomposites with cellular or porous structures containing nano-TiO2 aggregates with a large specific surface and large sizes of crystallites and nanoparticles exhibit the best deformation‒strength and fatigue properties and stability to the effect of active media under conditions of ozone and vapor‒air aging.

  12. Nanostructured anatase-titanium dioxide based platform for application to microfluidics cholesterol biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahar Ali, Md.; Srivastava, Saurabh; Solanki, Pratima R.; Varun Agrawal, Ved; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2012-08-01

    We report results of studies relating to the fabrication of a microfluidics cholesterol sensor based on nanocrystalline anatase-titanium dioxide (ant-TiO2) film deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. The results of response studies (optimized under the flow rate of 30 μl/min) conducted on cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) immobilized onto crystalline ant-TiO2 nanoparticles (˜27 nm)/ITO microfluidics electrode reveal linearity as 1.3 to 10.3 mM and improved sensitivity of 94.65 μA/mM/cm2. The observed low value of Km (0.14 mM) indicates high affinity of ChOx to cholesterol. No significant changes in current response of this microfluidics sensor are measured in the presence of different interferents.

  13. Low-voltage driving phototransistor based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Xu, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Lu, Yuming; Cai, Chuanbing

    2012-01-01

    Photo-gated transistors based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin film are established. A transistor-like transport behavior characterized by the linear increase, saturated plateau, and breakdown-like increase in the voltage-current curve is achievable with a low driven bias for the present device. The response current exhibits a linear dependence on the intensity of gated light, and the measured maximum photosensitivity is approximately 0.1 A/W. The dynamic responses for various light frequencies and their dependences on the load resistances are investigated as well. The cut-off frequency of ~50 Hz is abstracted, indicating the potential application for economical and efficient light switch or optical communication unit. The dc photo-gated response is explained by the energy level diagram, and is numerically simulated by an equivalent circuit model, suggesting a clear correlation between photovoltaic and photoconductive behaviors as well as their optical responses.

  14. Oxalate Formation in Titanium-Carbon Dioxide Anionic Clusters Studied by Infrared Photodissociation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, Leah G.; Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2017-06-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation during carbon dioxide fixation would enable bulk synthesis of hydrocarbon chains, generally through formation of an oxalate intermediate. In this talk, we demonstrate the formation of [Ti(CO_{2})_{y}]^{-} (y = 4-6) gas phase clusters with an oxalate ligand bearing significant (> 1 e^{-}) negative charge. Gas phase anionic clusters were generated using laser ablation of a titanium metal target in the presence of a CO_{2} expansion, and the infrared photodissociation spectra were measured from 950-2400 cm^{-1}, revealing vibrations characteristic of the oxalate anion. The molecular structure of these clusters was identified by comparing the experimental vibrational spectra with density functional theory calculations.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of titanium dioxide films on copper in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Laamari, M; Ben Youssef, A; Bousselmi, L

    Electrophoretic deposition was used to produce titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructured films on copper substrate in aqueous media for photocatalytic application. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) with a weight rate from 0 to 15% was added to TiO2 P25 suspension in order to enhance film adhesion. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, contact angle measurement, nanoindentation, scratch test and photoluminescence. The photocatalytic activity of the films was tested with amido black 10B under UV irradiation. The results indicated that the morphology and the mechanical properties of films depended on the added PVP amount. Scratch test showed that adhesion strength rose with increased PVP amount. The photocatalytic activity indicated that TiO2 film synthesized with 13% PVP had the highest efficiency.

  16. The morphological characterizations of titanium dioxide (TiO2) via sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N. K. S.; Hashim, U.; Vijayakumaran, T.

    2017-03-01

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has comes with many fascinating properties in environmental purification, photocatalytic activity and in sensor application. TiO2 is prepared by sol-gel method and been coated on the silicon oxide (SiO) and glasses for 1 layer, 3 layers, 5 layers and finally 7 layers to find the best layer for coating purpose. A few characterizations had been carried out such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL) and Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement for TiO2. The I-V recorded for the presence of Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) is 2.46×10-10 at 1V increased from 2.24×10-10 without the coating of TiO2. TiO2 coated on IDE triggered more sensitive sensor compared to IDE without metal oxides coated.

  17. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

  18. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  19. [Studies on nano-particle sols of hydroxyaptite and titanium dioxide for haemo-compatibility].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Feng, Lingyun; Peng, Renxiu; Cao, Xianying

    2002-06-01

    A biological evaluation is conducted for two types of nano-particle sols, hydroxyaptite(HAP) and titanium dioxide(TiO2). The results show that HAP sol significnatly prolongs the bleeding time and coagulation time of mice as well as the prothrombin time(PT) and partial thromboplastin time(PTT) of rats while TiO2 sol exhibits no such effects. Neither HAP sol nor TiO2 sol instigated in-vitro hemolysis of rabbit erythrocyte. However, both of the materials caused in-vitro aggregation of rabbit erythrocytes. The reason underlying the different results as to the two types of material is their specific stabilizer, heparin for HAP sol and PVC for TiO2 sol. We came to the conclusion that a biologically inert stablizer has no less significance than the nano-particle's very own nature in a nano-material's application prospect.

  20. Manipulation of optical properties of human skin by light scattering nanoparticles of titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexey P.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Lademann, Jürgen; Myllylä, Risto

    2004-10-01

    An acute problem to protect human skin against harmful UV solar rays emerged in recent years because of increased occasions of skin cancer. The aim of this research is to evaluate, how optical properties of the horny layer of human skin can be changed by imbedding the titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particles in order to achieve the maximal attenuation of the UV solar radiation. In-depth distribution in the skin of TiO2 particles typically achieved with the sunscreens is determined experimentally by the tape-stripping technique. Computer code implementing the Monte Carlo method is used to simulate photon migration within 20-mm thick horny layer partially filled with nano-sized TiO2 spheres. Dependencies of absorbed by and reflected from, as well as transmitted through the horny layer UV radiation of two wavelengths (310 and 400 nm) on the concentration of TiO2 particles are obtained and analyzed.

  1. Photocatalytic and optical properties of titanium dioxide thin films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Z. S.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) over sodalime glass substrates at substrate temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 450 °C. The effect of deposition temperature on the structure and microstructure of the obtained films has been studied by x-rays diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Diffraction patterns show the existence of a pure anatase phase beside a texture change with the increase of deposition temperature. Micrographs show grain fragmentation with the increase in deposition temperature. UV-Vis. spectra have been recorded by spectrophotometery. The optical energy gap has been calculated for the deposited films from the spectrophotometrical data. Photocatalytic experiments have been carried out. The photocatalytic activity has been found to decrease with the increase in deposition temperature.

  2. A novel approach for determining total titanium from titanium dioxide nanoparticles suspended in water and biosolids by digestion with ammonium persulfate.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Kambiz; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Dimock, Brian; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2012-02-03

    Titanium dioxide (i.e. TiO(2)) in nano-form is a constituent of many nanomaterials that are used in sunscreens, cosmetics, industrial products and in biomedical applications. Quantification of TiO(2) nanoparticles in various matrixes is a topic of great interest for researchers studying the potential health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles. However, analysis of TiO(2) as Ti(4+) is difficult because current digestion techniques require use of strong acids that may be a health and safety risk in the laboratory. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method to digest TiO(2) nanoparticles using ammonium persulfate as a fusing reagent. The digestion technique requires short times to completion and optimally requires only 1 g of fusing reagent. The fusion method showed >95% recovery of Ti(4+) from 6 μg mL(-1) aqueous suspensions prepared from 10 μg mL(-1) suspension of different forms of TiO(2,) including anatase, rutile and mixed nanosized crystals, and amorphous particles. These recoveries were greater than open hot-plate digestion with a tri-acid solution and comparable to microwave digestion with a tri-acid solution. Cations and anions commonly found in natural waters showed no significant interferences when added to samples in amounts of 10 ng to 110 mg, which is a much broader range of these ions than expected in environmental samples. Using ICP-MS for analysis, the method detection limit (MDL) was determined to be 0.06 ng mL(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.20 ng mL(-1). Analysis of samples of untreated and treated wastewater and biosolids collected from wastewater treatment plants yielded concentrations of TiO(2) of 1.8 and 1.6 ng mL(-1) for the wastewater samples, respectively, and 317.4 ng mg(-1) dry weights for the biosolids. The reactions between persulfate ions and TiO(2) were evaluated using stoichiometric methods and FTIR and XRD analysis. A formula for the fusing reaction is proposed that involves the formation of sulfate

  3. Bactericidal effects and mechanisms of visible light-responsive titanium dioxide photocatalysts on pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of visible light-responsive titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalysts. These photocatalysts have a range of applications including disinfection, air and water cleaning, deodorization, and pollution and environmental control. Titanium dioxide is a chemically stable and inert material, and can continuously exert antimicrobial effects when illuminated. The energy source could be solar light; therefore, TiO(2) photocatalysts are also useful in remote areas where electricity is insufficient. However, because of its large band gap for excitation, only biohazardous ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation can excite TiO(2), which limits its application in the living environment. To extend its application, impurity doping, through metal coating and controlled calcination, has successfully modified the substrates of TiO(2) to expand its absorption wavelengths to the visible light region. Previous studies have investigated the antibacterial abilities of visible light-responsive photocatalysts using the model bacteria Escherichia coli and human pathogens. The modified TiO(2) photocatalysts significantly reduced the numbers of surviving bacterial cells in response to visible light illumination. They also significantly reduced the activity of bacterial endospores; reducing their toxicity while retaining their germinating abilities. It is suggested that the photocatalytic killing mechanism initially damages the surfaces weak points of the bacterial cells, before totally breakage of the cell membranes. The internal bacterial components then leak from the cells through the damaged sites. Finally, the photocatalytic reaction oxidizes the cell debris. In summary, visible light-responsive TiO(2) photocatalysts are more convenient than the traditional UV light-responsive TiO(2) photocatalysts because they do not require harmful UV light irradiation to function. These photocatalysts, thus, provide a promising and feasible approach for

  4. Tensile strength and impact strength of color modified acrylic resin reinforced with titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Loghman; Shirkavand, Saeed; Akbari, Faezeh; Sabzikari, Niloofar

    2017-05-01

    Poor mechanical properties are among the main limitations of acrylic resins. Addition of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to acrylic resin has been shown to improve its mechanical properties with an adverse effect on its color. Thus, this study sought to assess the tensile and impact strength of a color modified heat cure acrylic resin reinforced with TiO2 nanoparticles. In this in vitroexperimental study, 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were added to SR Triplex Hot heat-cure acrylic resin powder and mixed. Pigments and color fibers were also added and 18 samples were fabricated of this paste for tensile and impact strength testing (n=9) according to ISO5271. Eighteen control samples were also fabricated from the acrylic powder without any modification. Independent t-test was used for data analysis (P< 0.05). The mean tensile strength of the reinforced group was found to be significantly higher (difference of 11 MPa) than that of the control group (P=0.001). The mean impact strength of the reinforced group was 7 MPa higher than that of the control group and this difference was statistically significant as well (P=0.001). The color modified acrylic resin reinforced with 1wt% TiO2 showed significantly higher tensile and impact strength compared to the conventional acrylic resin. Thus, TiO2 nanoparticles may be incorporated into color-modified acrylic resin powder to enhance its tensile and impact strength, given that they have no adverse effect on other properties. Key words:Tensile strength, acrylic resins, titanium dioxide, impact strength.

  5. Physicochemical characterization of raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, M J; Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R; Vaca, F

    2009-07-30

    The present study was conducted to characterize several raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology and physical composition. The main objective was to gain basic information for the future potential application of these co-products in fields such as agriculture, construction, civil engineering, etc. Microscopic studies were performed by applying scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XRMA) while the mineralogical compositions were analysed by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The concentrations of major elements such as Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, S and K were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while heavy metals and other trace elements were determined by ICP-MS. The physicochemical characterization of the raw materials used in the titanium dioxide industry, in addition to the characterization of the co-products generated, has enabled the evaluation of the degree of fractionation of different elements and compounds between the different co-products, as well as the control of the possible variations in the physicochemical composition of the raw materials throughout the time and the study of the influence of these variations in the characteristics of the obtained co-products. As a main conclusion of our study, it is possible to indicate that the levels of the pollutant elements associated to the co-products analysed were, in general, within safe limits and, therefore, they could potentially be used in composites as fertilizers or for building materials in road construction, etc. Nevertheless, for the specific application of each of these co-products in agriculture, construction and civil engineering, additional studies need to be performed to evaluate their appropriateness for the proposed application, together with specific studies on their health and environmental impact.

  6. Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in plants: A review of current research.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ashley; Venkatachalam, P; Sahi, Shivendra; Sharma, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have become widely used in recent years for many manufacturing and medical processes. Recent literature suggests that many metallic nanomaterials including those of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) cause significant toxic effects in animal cell culture and animal models, however, toxicity studies using plant species are limited. This review examines current progress in the understanding of the effect of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on plant species. There are many facets to this ongoing environmental problem. This review addresses the effects of NPs on oxidative stress-related gene expression, genotoxicity, seed germination, and root elongation. It is largely accepted that NP exposure results in the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to both positive and negative effects on plant growth. However, factors such as NP size, shape, surface coating and concentration vary greatly among studies resulting in conflicting reports of the effect at times. In addition, plant species tend to differ in their reaction to NP exposure, with some showing positive effects of NP augmentation while many others showing detrimental effects. Seed germination studies have shown to be less effective in gauging phytotoxicity, while root elongation studies have shown more promise. Given the large increase in nanomaterial applications in consumer products, agriculture and energy sectors, it is critical to understand their role in the environment and their effects on plant life. A closer look at nanomaterial-driven ecotoxicity is needed. Ecosystem-level studies are required to indicate how these nanomaterials transfer at the critical trophic levels affecting human health and biota.

  7. Polymer based graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite (GTNC): an emerging and efficient thermoelectric material.

    PubMed

    Dey, Abhijit; Hadavale, Sayali; Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; More, Priyesh; Khanna, Pawan K; Sikder, Arun Kanti; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-11-28

    An ecofriendly procedure for the synthesis of graphene-titanium dioxide nanocomposites (GTNC) has been developed by dispersing nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) and graphene nanosheets (GNSs) in ethanol via ultrasonication followed by microwave irradiation. Such nanohybrids were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. We have also demonstrated the synthesis of highly conductive composites like poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)polystyrene sulphonate ( PSS)-GTNC, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)-GTNC, PEDOT:PSS-graphene, and PVAc-graphene by ultrasonication followed by hot compaction towards their thermoelectric application. The filler (graphene, GTNC) concentration and polymer matrix were judiciously varied and optimized for the sake of high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient which leads to a higher power factor (PF). The PVAc based composite with a composition of PVAc (20%) and GTNC (80%) was found to be the most promising material with an electrical conductivity of 2.6 × 10(4) S m(-1) and a Seebeck coefficient of -42 μV K(-1) at room temperature (RT). As a result, the PF reaches 47 μW m(-1) K(-2) at RT which is approximately 37 times, 5 times and 3 times higher than that for the PVAc-graphene based composite, the PSS-GTNC based composite and the PSS-graphene based composite respectively. The origin of the thermoelectric performance of the GTNC composite seems to be from the synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and TiO2 nanoparticles. The composite shows a large power factor value without using any conducting polymer.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: some aspects of toxicity/focus on the development.

    PubMed

    Rollerova, E; Tulinska, J; Liskova, A; Kuricova, M; Kovriznych, J; Mlynarcikova, A; Kiss, A; Scsukova, S

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles belong to the most widely manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) on a global scale because of their photocatalytic properties and the related surface effects. TiO2 NPs are in the top five NPs used in consumer products. Ultrafine TiO2 is widely used in the number of applications, including white pigment in paint, ceramics, food additive, food packaging material, sunscreens, cosmetic creams, and, component of surgical implants. Data evidencing rapid distribution, slow or ineffective elimination, and potential long-time tissue accumulation are especially important for the human risk assessment of ultrafine TiO2 and represent new challenges to more responsibly investigate potential adverse effects by the action of TiO2 NPs considering their ubiquitous exposure in various doses. Transport of ultrafine TiO2 particles in systemic circulation and further transition through barriers, especially the placental and blood-brain ones, are well documented. Therefore, from the developmental point of view, there is a raising concern in the exposure to TiO2 NPs during critical windows, in the pregnancy or the lactation period, and the fact that human mothers, women and men in fertile age and last but not least children may be exposed to high cumulative doses. In this review, toxicokinetics and particularly toxicity of TiO2 NPs in relation to the developing processes, oriented mainly on the development of the central nervous system, are discussed Keywords: nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, nanomaterials, titanium dioxide, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, blood brain barrier, placental barrier.

  9. Reprint of: Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticle toxicity in plants: A review of current research.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ashley; Venkatachalam, P; Sahi, Shivendra; Sharma, Nilesh

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have become widely used in recent years for many manufacturing and medical processes. Recent literature suggests that many metallic nanomaterials including those of silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) cause significant toxic effects in animal cell culture and animal models, however, toxicity studies using plant species are limited. This review examines current progress in the understanding of the effect of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on plant species. There are many facets to this ongoing environmental problem. This review addresses the effects of NPs on oxidative stress-related gene expression, genotoxicity, seed germination, and root elongation. It is largely accepted that NP exposure results in the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to both positive and negative effects on plant growth. However, factors such as NP size, shape, surface coating and concentration vary greatly among studies resulting in conflicting reports of the effect at times. In addition, plant species tend to differ in their reaction to NP exposure, with some showing positive effects of NP augmentation while many others showing detrimental effects. Seed germination studies have shown to be less effective in gauging phytotoxicity, while root elongation studies have shown more promise. Given the large increase in nanomaterial applications in consumer products, agriculture and energy sectors, it is critical to understand their role in the environment and their effects on plant life. A closer look at nanomaterial-driven ecotoxicity is needed. Ecosystem-level studies are required to indicate how these nanomaterials transfer at the critical trophic levels affecting human health and biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Gold nanoparticles immobilized on electrospun titanium dioxide nanofibers for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Halit; Buyukbekar, Burak Zafer; Sakalak, Huseyin; Kohsakowski, Sebastian

    2017-02-13

    This study involves the preparation and catalytic properties of anatase titanium dioxide nanofibers (TiO2 NFs) supported gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (NP) into 4-aminophenol (AP) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The fabrication of surfactant-free Au NPs was performed using pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) technique. The TiO2 NFs were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and calcination process using a solution containing poly(vinyl pyrolidone)(PVP) and titanium isopropoxide. The adsorption efficiency of laser-generated surfactant-free Au NPs to TiO2 NF supports as a function of pH was analyzed. Our results show that the electrostatic interaction mainly controls the adsorption of the nanoparticles. Au NPs/TiO2 NFs composite exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP. The unique combination of these materials leads to the development of highly efficient catalysts. Our heterostructured nanocatalysts possibly form an efficient path to fabricate various metal NP/metal-oxide supported catalysts. Thus the applications of PLAL-noble metal NPs can widely broaden.

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modulate the toxicological response to cadmium in the gills of Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Balbi, Teresa; Grassi, Giacomo; Frenzilli, Giada; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Smerilli, Arianna; Guidi, Patrizia; Canesi, Laura; Nigro, Marco; Monaci, Fabrizio; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Rocco, Lucia; Focardi, Silvano; Monopoli, Marco; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-10-30

    We investigated the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) on the response to cadmium in the gills of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in terms of accumulation and toxicity. Mussels were in vivo exposed to nano-TiO2, CdCl2, alone and in combination. Several cellular biomarkers were investigated in gills: ABC transport proteins and metallothioneins at gene/protein (abcb1, abcc-like and mt-20) and functional level, GST activity, NO production and DNA damage (Comet assay). Accumulation of total Cd and titanium in gills as in whole soft tissue was also investigated. Significant responses to Cd exposure were observed in mussel gills as up-regulation of abcb1 and mt-20 gene transcription, increases in total MT content, P-gp efflux and GST activity, DNA damage and NO production. Nano-TiO2 alone increased P-gp efflux activity and NO production. When combined with Cd, nano-TiO2 reduced the metal-induced effects by significantly lowering abcb1 gene transcription, GST activity, and DNA damage, whereas, additive effects were observed on NO production. A lower concentration of Cd was observed in the gills upon co-exposure, whereas, Ti levels were unaffected. A competitive effect in uptake/accumulation of nano-TiO2 and Cd seems to occur in gills. A confirmation is given by the observed absence of adsorption of Cd onto nano-TiO2 in sea water media.

  12. In situ quantification of diverse titanium dioxide nanoparticles unveils selective endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marina; Saez, Gladys; Muggiolu, Giovanna; Lavenas, Magali; Le Trequesser, Quentin; Michelet, Claire; Devès, Guillaume; Barberet, Philippe; Chevet, Eric; Dupuy, Denis; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Seznec, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    Although titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively studied, their possible impact on health due to their specific properties supported by their size and geometry, remains to be fully characterized to support risk assessment. To further document NPs biological effects, we investigated the impact of TiO2 NPs morphology on biological outcomes. To this end, TiO2 NPs were synthesized as nanoneedles (NNs), titanate scrolled nanosheets (TNs), gel-sol-based isotropic nanoparticles (INPs) and tested for perturbation of cellular homeostasis (cellular ion content, cell proliferation, stress pathways) in three cell types and compared to the P25. We showed that TiO2 NPs were internalized at various degrees and their toxicity depended on both titanium content and NPs shape, which impacted on intracellular calcium homeostasis thereby leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Finally, we showed that a minimal intracellular content of TiO2 NPs was mandatory to induce toxicity enlightening once more the crucial notion of internalized dose threshold beside the well-recognized dose of exposure.

  13. Impact through time of different sized titanium dioxide particles on biochemical and histopathological parameters.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Marcos E; Tasat, Deborah R; Ramos, Emilio; Paparella, María L; Evelson, Pablo; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Cabrini, Rómulo L; Guglielmotti, María B; Olmedo, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Due to corrosion, a titanium implant surface can be a potential source for the release of micro (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs) into the biological environment. This work sought to evaluate the biokinetics of different sized titanium dioxide particles (TiO2 ) and their potential to cause cell damage. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with 150 nm, 10 nm, or 5nm TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 particles was evaluated in histologic sections of the liver, lung, and kidney and in blood cells at 3 and 12 months. Ultrastructural analysis of liver and lung tissue was performed by TEM, deposit concentration in tissues was determined spectroscopically, and oxidative metabolism was assessed by determining oxidative membrane damage, generation of superoxide anion (O2(-)), and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. TiO2 particles were observed inside mononuclear blood cells and in organ parenchyma at 3 and 12 months. TiO2 deposits were consistently larger in liver than in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophage O2(-) generation and average particle size correlated negatively (p < 0.05). NPs were more reactive and biopersistent in lung tissue than MPs. Antioxidant activity, particularly in the case of 5 nm particles, failed to compensate for membrane damage in liver cells; the damage was consistent with histological evidence of necrosis.

  14. Synthesis of nano-titanium dioxide by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect

    Kaler, Vandana Duchaniya, R. K.; Pandel, U.

    2016-04-13

    Nanosized titanium dioxide powder was synthesised via sol-gel route by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide with ethanol and water mixture in high acidic medium. The synthesized nanopowder was further characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy in order to determine size, morphology and crystalline structure of the material. The synthesis of nano-TiO{sub 2} powder in anatase phase was realized by XRD. The optical studies of nano-TiO{sub 2} powder was carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy and band gap was calculated as 3.5eV, The SEM results with EDAX confirmed that prepared nano-TiO{sub 2} particles were in nanometer range with irregular morphology. The FTIR analysis showed that only desired functional groups were present in sample. These nano-TiO{sub 2} particles have applications in solar cells, chemical sensors and paints, which are thrust areas these days.

  15. Transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in saturated porous media under various solution chemistry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Bin; Morales, Verónica L.; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lei; Gao, Jie; Bai, Wei; Yang, Liuyan

    2012-09-01

    Because of its wide applications, nanosized titanium dioxide may become a potential environmental risk to soil and groundwater system. It is therefore important to improve current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of titanium oxides nanoparticles (TONPs). In this work, the effect of solution chemistry (i.e., pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter (NOM) concentration) on the deposition and transport of TONPs in saturated porous media was examined in detail. Laboratory columns packed with acid-cleaned quartz sand were used in the experiment as porous media. Transport experiments were conducted with various chemistry combinations, including four ionic strengths, three pH levels, and two NOM concentrations. The results showed that TONP mobility increased with increasing solution pH, but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. It is also found that the presence of NOM in the system enhanced the mobility of TONPs in the saturated porous media. The Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to justify the mobility trends observed in the experimental data. Predictions from the theory agreed excellently with the experimental data.

  16. Fabrication of drug eluting implants: study of drug release mechanism from titanium dioxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlekhan, Azhang; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Takoudis, Christos; Mathew, Mathew T.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Yarin, Alexander L.; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2015-06-01

    Formation of titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) on a titanium surface holds great potential for promoting desirable cellular response. However, prolongation of drug release from these nano-reservoirs remains to be a challenge. In our previous work TNTs were successfully loaded with a drug. In this study the effect of TNTs dimensions on prolongation of drug release is quantified aiming at the introduction of a simple novel technique which overcomes complications of previously introduced methods. Different groups of TNTs with different lengths and diameters are fabricated. Samples are loaded with a model drug and rate of drug release over time is monitored. The relation of the drug release rate to the TNT dimensions (diameter, length, aspect ratio and volume) is established. The results show that an increase in any of these parameters increases the duration of the release process. However, the strongest parameter affecting the drug release is the aspect ratio. In fact, TNTs with higher aspect ratios release drug slower. It is revealed that drug release from TNT is a diffusion-limited process. Assuming that diffusion of drug in (Phosphate-Buffered Saline) PBS follows one-dimensional Fick’s law, the theoretical predictions for drug release profile is compatible with our experimental data for release from a single TNT.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects in the spleen-injured mice following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xuezi; Fei, Min; Sheng, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Yu, Xiaohong; Hong, Jie; Ze, Yuguan; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Ze, Xiao; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2014-10-01

    Immune injuries following the exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs) have been greatly concerned along with the TiO₂ NPs are widely used in pharmacology and daily life. However, very little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in the spleen-injured mice due to TiO₂ NPs exposure. In this study, mice were continuously exposed to 2.5, 5, or 10 TiO₂ NPs mg kg(-1) body weight for 90 days with intragastric administration to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms in the spleen. The findings showed that TiO₂ NPs exposure resulted in significant increases in spleen and thymus indices, and titanium accumulation, in turn led to histopathological changes and splenocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, the exposure of TiO₂ NPs could significantly increase the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-2, Eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interferon-γ, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-13, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10, migration inhibitory factor, CD69, major histocompatibility complex, protein tyrosine phosphatase, protein tyrosine kinase 1, basic fibroblast growth factor, Fasl, and GzmB expression, whereas markedly decrease the levels of NKG2D, NKp46, 2B4 expression involved in immune responses, lymphocyte healing and apoptosis. These findings would better understand toxicological effects induced by TiO₂ NPs exposure.

  18. Response of human fibroblasts to implant surface coated with titanium dioxide photocatalytic films.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Noriyuki; Negishi, Hideyuki; Okada, Shusaku; Nonami, Toru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2010-10-01

    This study was to develop a titanium dioxide (TiO(2))-coated implant abutment, surface with ultraviolet (UV) light-induced hydrophilicity and investigate the initial response of human, fibroblasts to the surface modification. Commercially pure titanium (JIS 2 grade) disks were coated with TiO(2) to various, thicknesses (1, 2 or 3 μm) using peroxotitanium acid solution. The surface characteristics of each disk, were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface roughness equipment and scanning electron, microscopy (SEM). The hydrophilic change of each disk was determined by the contact angles at 0-24h, after 24-h UV irradiation. The biological response at the surface of each disk was examined by using, human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs). The data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple-comparison tests. The TiO(2)-coated disk surface had an anatase structure. Surface roughness did not differ, significantly among the disks; the surface morphology was smooth and had a hydrophilic or superhydrophilic, status. HPLF proliferation significantly increased on the TiO(2)-coated disks compared with the uncoated disks and depended upon the coated film thickness. An anatase TiO(2)-coated surface under UV irradiation markedly improves the initial response of human fibroblasts. Copyright © 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac oxidative damage in mice following exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; Wang, Xiaochun; Sang, Xuezi; Ze, Yuguan; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Dong; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Cheng, Jie; Cheng, Zhe; Hu, Renping; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2013-11-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2 ) is a widely used powerful nanoparticulate material with high stability, anticorrosion, and photocatalytic property. However, it is possible that during nano-TiO2 exposure, there may be negative effects on cardiovascular system in intoxicated mice. The present study was therefore undertaken to determine nano-TiO2 -induced oxidative stress and to determine whether nano-TiO2 intoxication alters the antioxidant system in the mouse heart exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight nano-TiO2 for 90 consecutive days. The findings showed that long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 resulted in obvious titanium accumulation in heart, in turn led to sparse cardiac muscle fibers, inflammatory response, cell necrosis, and cardiac biochemical dysfunction. Nano-TiO2 exposure promoted remarkably reactive oxygen species production such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl and 8-OHdG levels as degradation products of lipid, protein, and DNA peroxidation in heart. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 exposure attenuated the activities of antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and levels of antioxidants including ascorbic acid, glutathione, and thiol in heart. Therefore, TiO2 NPs exposure may impair cardiovascular system in mice, and attention should be aroused on the application of nano-TiO2 and their potential long-term exposure effects especially on human beings.

  20. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  1. Phenotypic and genomic responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis germinants.

    PubMed

    Tumburu, Laxminath; Andersen, Christian P; Rygiewicz, Paul T; Reichman, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium oxide (nano-cerium) on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied by using microarrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and by evaluating germinant phenotypic plasticity. Exposure to 12 d of either nano-titania or nano-ceria altered the regulation of 204 and 142 genes, respectively. Genes induced by the nanoparticles mainly include ontology groups annotated as stimuli responsive, including both abiotic (oxidative stress, salt stress, water transport) and biotic (respiratory burst as a defense against pathogens) stimuli. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicates that both nanoparticles affected a range of metabolic processes (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] metabolism, hormone metabolism, tetrapyrrole synthesis, and photosynthesis). Individual exposures to the nanoparticles increased percentages of seeds with emergent radicles, early development of hypocotyls and cotyledons, and those with fully grown leaves. Although there were distinct differences between the nanoparticles in their affect on molecular mechanisms attributable to enhancing germinant growth, both particles altered similar suites of genes related to various pathways and processes related to enhanced growth.

  2. Determination of trace impurities in titanium dioxide by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huang Mao; Krivan, Viliam; Welz, Bernhard; Schlemmer, Gerhard

    1997-10-01

    A slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn in powdered titanium dioxide is described. The behaviour of the titanium matrix in the atomizer and its interferences with the determination of Al, Fe, Co, Ni and Mn were studied. A tungsten carbide modified graphite tube was used to improve the signal shape and the repeatability for the determination of Fe. For all elements, except for Cd and Pb, quantification by a calibration curve established with aqueous standards was possible. No chemical modifier was used throughout in order to minimize contamination. For the contamination risk elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn, the slurry sampling technique allows to achieve limits of detection (3 σ of the blank) 5-20 times lower than the solution technique, resulting for these elements in values of 1, 3, 0.5, 0.5, 0.9 and 2 ng g -1, respectively, and, generally being in the range of 0.2 ng g -1 (Cd) to 10 ng g -1 (Al and Tl). The results obtained by the slurry sampling technique are compared with those of other independent methods including four solution methods and neutron activation analysis.

  3. TITANIUM DIOXIDE TRIADS FOR IMPROVED CHARGE-SEPARATION USING CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, T.M.; Gaylor, T.N.; de la Garza, L.; Rajh, T.

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially one of the best solutions to solar energy conversion because of the low cost of required materials and production processes. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticulate fi lms are the basis for one of these types of cells, providing large surface area for dye-sensitizer adsorption. Because TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms develop defects caused by oxygen defi ciency, deep reactive electron traps are formed. With the addition of an enediol ligand, these electron traps are deliberately removed, enhancing the conduction of electrons within the fi lm. In this project, TiO2 nanoparticulate fi lms made by a layer-by-layer dip coating method were modifi ed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). DOPAC binds to the titanium atoms on the surface of the nanoparticles, restoring their octahedral geometry. This restructuring of the surface shifts the spectral properties of the TiO2 to the visible spectrum and improves the separation of charges which is observed using photoelectrochemistry. Furthermore, DOPAC enables the electronic attachment of other molecules to the surface of TiO2 fi lms, such as the conductive polymer polyaniline base. This conductive polymer provides an extended separation of charges which increases photocurrent production by forming a triad with the TiO2 semiconductor through the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid linker. The photocurrent increases due to the donor properties of the conductive polymer thereby decreasing charge pair recombination.

  4. Influence of the titanium dioxide addition in matrix formulation on the radwaste-mortar matrix characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Peric, A.D.

    1996-08-01

    The rutile form of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was added to mortar matrix preparations with to improve the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the radwaste-mortar matrix mixtures, in particular the leach-rate of the immobilized radionuclide. The final solidified radwaste form was made with high water-to-cement ratio (0.36) for easy leaching of the immobilized radionuclide, {sup 137}Cs. TiO{sub 2} was added to the mortar formulation, replacing the appropriate amount of cement, in the amounts of 1, 2, 5, 8 and 10 weight percents of total cement weight. In the highly basic environment of the mortar (pH {approx_equal} 12), the titanium will form a HTiO-type membrane, which is semipermeable and selective for the cations like Cs{sup +} in the pH range above 5.5. Only the rutile form of TiO{sub 2} was observed in the prospected radwaste mortar mixture samples, using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Nevertheless, {sup 137}Cs leach-rate for the matrix formulations prepared with TiO{sub 2} was notably lower than the normally prepared (TiO{sub 2} free) samples. Furthermore, the mechanical strength of the samples prepared with TiO{sub 2} was higher than that of the TiO{sub 2}-free samples, and the correlation between the mechanical strength and TiO{sub 2} content appears to be exponential over the composition range explored here. Improvement of the physico-chemical properties of the titanium prepared formulations, is a topic of further investigations.

  5. Modification of polypropylene foils by low pressure oxygen plasma and its influence on the formation of titanium dioxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Rafal; Macyk, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    Commercially available polypropylene foils were pre-treated with low pressure, room temperature radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma at constant power and pressure. Various durations of pre-treatment process were applied. Afterwards the samples were covered with titanium dioxide thin film by dip-coating technique and photosensitized by titanium(IV) surface complexes formed upon impregnation with catechol-like ligands. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were used for determining plasma species. The surface properties before and after plasma treatment were characterized by contact angle measurements, FTIR-ATR, UV-Vis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Titanium dioxide thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity of TiO2 films was tested by photocurrent measurements. It was shown that plasma pre-treatment is essential for oxygen groups formation which contribute to titanium dioxide binding to polymer surface. The support from National Science Centre within the DEC-2012/05/N/ST5/01497 grant is highly acknowledged.

  6. Inhibition of uranium(VI) sorption on titanium dioxide by surface iron(III) species in ferric oxide/titanium dioxide systems.

    PubMed

    Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Collins, Richard N; Palmer, Gabriel; Lumpkin, Gregory R; Angove, Michael J

    2012-10-16

    Uranium (U(VI)) sorption in systems containing titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and various Fe(III)-oxide phases was investigated in the acidic pH range (pH 2.5-6). Studies were conducted with physical mixtures of TiO(2) and ferrihydrite, TiO(2) with coprecipitated ferrihydrite, and with systems where Fe(III) was mostly present as crystalline Fe(III) oxides. The presence of ferrihydrite resulted in decreased U(VI) sorption relative to the pure TiO(2) systems, particularly below pH 4, an unexpected result given that the presence of another sorbent would be expected to increase U(VI) uptake. In mixtures of TiO(2) and crystalline Fe(III) oxide phases, U(VI) sorption was higher than for the analogous mixtures of TiO(2) with ferrihydrite, and was similar to U(VI) sorption on TiO(2) alone. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the TiO(2) system with freshly precipitated Fe(III) oxides indicated the presence of an Fe(III) surface phase that inhibits U(VI) sorption-a reaction whereby Fe(III) precipitates as lepidocrocite and/or ferrihydrite effectively blocking surface sorption sites on the underlying TiO(2). Competition between dissolved Fe(III) and U(VI) for sorption sites may also contribute to the observed decrease in U(VI) sorption. The present study demonstrates the complexity of sorption in mixed systems, where the oxide phases do not necessarily behave in an additive manner, and has implications for U(VI) mobility in natural and impacted environments where Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides are usually assumed to increase the retention of U(VI).

  7. Degradation of microcystin toxins in a falling film photocatalytic reactor with immobilized titanium dioxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Gordon S; Stockenström, Sonja; de Villiers, David; Engelbrecht, Willem J; Wessels, Gabriël F S

    2002-01-01

    The increasing incidence of algal blooms in fresh water supplies and the consequent possibility of cyanobacterial microcystin contamination of potable water is a cause of recent concern. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation forms part of a family of advanced water treatment technologies comprising the generation of reactive oxidizing species in water media and results in the complete oxidative degradation (mineralization) of organic pollutants to yield carbon dioxide, water and inorganic ions. A new experimental laboratory-scale 'falling film' reactor has been developed to study the photocatalytic degradation of microcystins in aqueous solution. The reactor consisted of a fiberglass sheet impregnated with immobilized titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst over which the microcystin solution was pumped (as a falling film) while being irradiated from UV-C germicidal lamps. The design of the system obviated the necessity to separate suspended catalyst from treated water as required in slurry reactors. The photocatalytic degradation was characterized by pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. Rapid degradation of microcystins LR, YR and RR was observed in natural lake water with half lives less than 10 min, while even faster rates were achieved in laboratory distilled water. Although low pH (pH 3) marginally improved reaction rates. the presence of radical scavengers such as sulfate ions was detrimental to the photocatalytic oxidation process.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanotube membranes for solar energy conversion: effect of deep and shallow dopants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-04-12

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been intensively investigated as a material of choice for solar energy conversion in photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, photovoltaic, and other photosensitized devices for converting light into chemical feedstocks or electricity. Towards management of light absorption in TiO2, while the nanotubular structure improves light absorption and simultaneous charge transfer to mitigate problems due to the indirect bandgap of the semiconductor, typically dopants are used to improve light absorption of incident solar irradiation in the wide bandgap of TiO2. While these dopants can be critical to the success of these solar energy conversion devices, their effect on photophysical and photoelectrochemical properties and detailed photokinetics are relatively under-studied. Here, we show the effect of deep and shallow metal dopants on the kinetics of photogenerated charged carriers in TiO2 and the resulting effect on photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical processes using these nanotube membranes. We performed a detailed optical, electronic, voltammetry and electrochemical impedance study to understand the effect of shallow and deep metal dopants (using undoped and niobium- and copper-doped TiO2 nanotubes) on light absorption, charge transport and charge transfer processes. Using wireless photocatalytic methylene blue degradation and carbon dioxide reduction, and wired photoelectrochemical device measurements, we elucidate the effect of different dopants on solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency and simultaneously describe the photokinetics using a model, to help design better energy conversion devices.

  9. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with model natural colloids under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, Antonia; Labille, Jérôme; Scheringer, Martin; Thill, Antoine; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-16

    The heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with natural colloids (NCs), which are ubiquitous in natural surface waters, is a crucial process affecting the environmental transport and fate of ENPs. Attachment efficiencies for heteroaggregation, α hetero, are required as input parameters in environmental fate models to predict ENP concentrations and contribute to ENP risk assessment. Here, we present a novel method for determining α hetero values by using a combination of laser diffraction measurements and aggregation modeling based on the Smoluchowski equation. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 15 nm) were used to demonstrate this new approach together with larger silicon dioxide particles (SiO2, 0.5 μm) representing NCs. Heteroaggregation experiments were performed at different environmentally relevant solution conditions. At pH 5 the TiO2 NPs and the SiO2 particles are of opposite charge, resulting in α hetero values close to 1. At pH 8, where all particles are negatively charged, α hetero was strongly affected by the solution conditions, with α hetero ranging from <0.001 at low ionic strength to 1 at conditions with high NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. The presence of humic acid stabilized the system against heteroaggregation.

  10. A facile synthesis of poly(3-octylthiophene)-titanium dioxide nanocomposite particles in supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, Haldorai; Woo, Min Hee; Park, Eun Ju; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2008-09-01

    Poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite powder where TiO2 was embedded with homogeneous dispersion was synthesized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization of 3-octylthiophene in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), using ferric chloride as the oxidant. The synthesized materials could be obtained as dry powder upon venting of CO2 after the polymerization. The composites were subsequently characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and photoluminescence (PL). The incorporation of TiO2 in the composite was endorsed by FT-IR studies. TGA revealed enhanced thermal stability of P3OT/TiO2 nanocomposite compared to 3-octylthiophene. TEM analysis showed that well dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Photoluminescence quenching increased with increasing TiO2 concentration in the composite.

  11. High-purity hydrogen generation by ultraviolet illumination with the membrane composed of titanium dioxide nanotube array and Pd layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Masashi; Noda, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2011-09-01

    High-purity hydrogen generation was observed by using a membrane composed of a bilayer of an anodized titanium dioxide nanotube array (TNA) and a hydrogen permeable metal. This membrane was fabricated by transferring a TNA embedded in a titanium foil onto a sputtered 10-μm-thick palladium film. Alcohols are reformed photocatalytically and concurrently generated hydrogen is purified through the Pd layer. H2 with a purity of more than 99% was obtained from liquid alcohols under ultraviolet illumination onto the membrane. Thus, we demonstrated the integration of photocatalytic hydrogen production and purification within a single membrane.

  12. Antimicrobial properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins incorporated with silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cariogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Khalil, Soufia; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Pourakbari, Babak; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effects of adding nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) and their mixture to poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to induce antimicrobial activity in acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: Acrylic specimens in size of 20 mm × 20 mm × 1 mm of 0.5% and 1% of nano-TiO2 (21 nm) and nano-SiO2 (20 nm) and their mixture (TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles) (1:1 w/w) were prepared from the mixture of acrylic liquid containing nanoparticles and acrylic powder. To obtain 0.5% and 1% concentration, 0.02 g and 0.04 g of the nanoparticles was added to each milliliter of the acrylic monomer, respectively. Antimicrobial properties of six specimens of these preparations, as prepared, were assessed against planktonic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min follow-up by broth dilution assay. The specimens of each group were divided into three subgroups: Dark, daylight, or ultraviolet A (UVA). The percent of bacterial reduction is found out from the counts taken at each time point. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis. Results: Exposure to PMMA containing the nanoparticles reduced the bacterial count by 3.2–99%, depending on the nanoparticles, bacterial types, and light conditions. Planktonic cultures of S. mutans and L. acidophilus exposed to PMMA containing 1% of TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001) (98% and 99%, respectively) in a time-dependent manner under UVA. The S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts did not significantly decrease in PMMA containing 0.5% nano-TiO2 and PMMA containing 0.5% nano-SiO2 in the dark. No statistically significant reduction (P > 0.05) was observed in the counts of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in PMMA without the nanoparticles exposed to UVA. Conclusions: PMMA resins incorporated with TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic

  13. Antimicrobial properties of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins incorporated with silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sodagar, Ahmad; Khalil, Soufia; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Pourakbari, Babak; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of adding nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) and their mixture to poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to induce antimicrobial activity in acrylic resins. Acrylic specimens in size of 20 mm × 20 mm × 1 mm of 0.5% and 1% of nano-TiO2 (21 nm) and nano-SiO2 (20 nm) and their mixture (TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles) (1:1 w/w) were prepared from the mixture of acrylic liquid containing nanoparticles and acrylic powder. To obtain 0.5% and 1% concentration, 0.02 g and 0.04 g of the nanoparticles was added to each milliliter of the acrylic monomer, respectively. Antimicrobial properties of six specimens of these preparations, as prepared, were assessed against planktonic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min follow-up by broth dilution assay. The specimens of each group were divided into three subgroups: Dark, daylight, or ultraviolet A (UVA). The percent of bacterial reduction is found out from the counts taken at each time point. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc analysis. Exposure to PMMA containing the nanoparticles reduced the bacterial count by 3.2-99%, depending on the nanoparticles, bacterial types, and light conditions. Planktonic cultures of S. mutans and L. acidophilus exposed to PMMA containing 1% of TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant decrease (P < 0.001) (98% and 99%, respectively) in a time-dependent manner under UVA. The S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts did not significantly decrease in PMMA containing 0.5% nano-TiO2 and PMMA containing 0.5% nano-SiO2 in the dark. No statistically significant reduction (P > 0.05) was observed in the counts of S. mutans and L. acidophilus in PMMA without the nanoparticles exposed to UVA. PMMA resins incorporated with TiO2/SiO2 nanoparticles showed strong antimicrobial activity against the cariogenic bacteria.

  14. Microbial community response of nitrifying sequencing batch reactors to silver, zero-valent iron, titanium dioxide and cerium dioxide nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanjun; Metch, Jacob W; Vejerano, Eric P; Miller, Ian J; Leon, Elena C; Marr, Linsey C; Vikesland, Peter J; Pruden, Amy

    2015-01-01

    As nanomaterials in consumer products increasingly enter wastewater treatment plants, there is concern that they may have adverse effects on biological wastewater treatment. Effects of silver (nanoAg), zero-valent iron (NZVI), titanium dioxide (nanoTiO₂) and cerium dioxide (nanoCeO₂) nanomaterials on nitrification and microbial community structure were examined in duplicate lab-scale nitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) relative to control SBRs that received no nanomaterials or ionic/bulk analogs. Nitrification function was not measurably inhibited in the SBRs by any of the materials as dosing was initiated at 0.1 mg/L and sequentially increased every 14 days to 1, 10, and 20 mg/L. However, SBRs rapidly lost nitrification function when the Ag⁺ experiment was repeated at a continuous high load of 20 mg/L. Shifts in microbial community structure and decreased microbial diversity were associated with both sequential and high loading of nanoAg and Ag⁺, with more pronounced effects for Ag⁺. Bacteroidetes became more dominant in SBRs dosed with Ag⁺, while Proteobacteria became more dominant in SBRs dosed with nanoAg. The two forms of silver also had distinct effects on specific bacterial genera. A decrease in nitrification gene markers (amoA) was observed in SBRs dosed with nanoAg and Ag⁺. In contrast, impacts of NZVI, nanoTiO₂, nanoCeO₂ and their analogs on microbial community structure and nitrification gene markers were limited. TEM-EDS analysis indicated that a large portion of nanoAg remained dispersed in the activated sludge and formed Ag–S complexes, while NZVI, nanoTiO₂ and nanoCeO₂ were mostly aggregated and chemically unmodified. Overall, this study suggests a high threshold of the four nanomaterials in terms of exerting adverse effects on nitrification function. However, distinct microbial community responses to nanoAg indicate potential long-term effects.

  15. Design and development of a new generation of UV-visible-light-driven nanosized codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts and biocides/sporocides, and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamal, Dambar B.

    For solar environmental remediation, a new generation of nanosized (< 10 nm) titanium dioxide photocatalysts codoped with metals and nonmetals, or metals only were prepared by the xero-gel and aero-gel methods. For silver or cobalt-based xero-gel titanium dioxide photocatalysts, photoactivities tests revealed that codoping of titanium dioxide with a metal (1% Ag or 2% Co) and nonmetals (carbon and sulfur) is necessary to achieve high-activities for acetaldehyde degradation under visible light (wavelength > 420 nm). It was concluded that high visible-light-activities for acetaldehyde degradation over codoped titanium dioxide were attributed to an interplay of anatase crystallinity, high-surface area, reduced band-gap (< 3.0 eV), uniform dispersion of doped metal ions, and suppressed recombination rate of photogenerated electronhole pairs. Moreover, the nature and amount of codoped metals play a significant role in visible-light-induced photocatalysis. Metals (Al, Ga, and In) doped/codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by the aero-gel method. The photocatalytic studies showed that activities of metal doped/codoped photocatalysts under UV light (wavelength < 400 nm) were found to be dependent on pollutants. Indium demonstrated beneficial effects in both textural and photocatalytic properties. Gallium and indium codoped titanium dioxide photocatalysts displayed even better performance in the CO oxidation reaction under UV light. Notably, titanium dioxide codoped with Ga, In, and Pt, exhibited unique photoactivities for the CO oxidation under both UV and visible light irradiation, indicating that this system could have promise for the water-gas shift reaction for hydrogen production. Silver-based nanostructured titanium dioxide samples were developed for killing human pathogens (Escherichia coli cells and Bacillus subtilis spores). Biocidal tests revealed that silver, carbon, and sulfur codoped titanium dioxide nanoparticles (< 10 nm) possess very strong

  16. Early bone growth on the surface of titanium implants in rat femur is enhanced by an amorphous diamond coating

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Amorphous diamond (AD) is a durable and compatible biomaterial for joint prostheses. Knowledge regarding bone growth on AD-coated implants and their early-stage osseointegration is poor. We investigated bone growth on AD-coated cementless intramedullary implants implanted in rats. Titanium was chosen as a reference due to its well-known performance. Materials and methods We placed AD-coated and non-coated titanium implants (Ra ≈ 0.2 μm) into the femoral bone marrow of 25 rats. The animals were divided in 2 groups according to implant coating and they were killed after 4 or 12 weeks. The osseointegration of the implants was examined from hard tissue specimens by measuring the new bone formation on their surface. Results 4 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone in the AD-coated group was greater than that in the non-coated group (15.3 (SD 7.1) μm vs. 7.6 (SD 6.0) μm). 12 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone was similar in the non-coated group and in the AD-coated group. Interpretation We conclude that AD coating of femoral implants can enhance bone ongrowth in rats in the acute, early stage after the operation and might be an improvement over earlier coatings. PMID:21504369

  17. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of titanium dioxide and strontium titanate for microelectronics applications: Process development and material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vydianathan, Kanchana

    1998-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and strontium titanate (SrTiO 3) are promising candidates as high dielectric constant (epsilon) materials in emerging dynamic random access memory capacitors and electroluminescent displays, and as gate insulator in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. This thesis focuses on the development of chemical vapor deposition routes to TiO2 and SrTiO3 thin films using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate-type complexes, namely Ti(tmhd)3 and Sr(tmhd)2 as the elemental sources. For TiO2, systematic studies led to the identification of a wide process window for pure films. As-deposited films exhibited a weakly crystallized anatase structure, or a mixture of anatase-rutile structures. An anatase to rutile transformation was induced upon annealing. epsilon values of 85 and 110 were obtained for, respectively (112)-oriented anatase films and films having a mixed anatase-rutile structure with (110) preferred orientation. epsilon was directly proportional to film thickness, a behavior attributed to the presence of an interfacial silicon oxide (SiO2) layer that lowered epsilon for thinner films. The I--V characteristics of the Al/TiOx/Si capacitors indicated rectification with the Al/TiOx contact blocking electron and hole injection, while the Si/TiOx contact acting as electron injector. A field strength of 1.2 MV/cm at 10-4 A was measured for a 200nm thick TiOx film. Leakage current densities (JL) of the films below 5000A decreased upon annealing, a trend attributed to improved interfacial properties, because of interfacial SiO2 formation. JL of films thicker than 5000A increased upon annealing due to the formation of micro-cracks. For SrTiO3, varying compositions (0.44 < Sr/Ti < 3) were obtained by controlling elemental source temperatures. As-deposited films were predominantly crystalline cubic perovskite, mixed with amorphous oxide phases. Annealing the Sr-rich films resulted in the crystallization of the amorphous SrO phases, with the

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of wastewater pollutants: titanium dioxide mediated degradation of methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange.

    PubMed

    Antharjanam, Sudhadevi; Philip, Robert; Suresh, Das

    2003-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes such as methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange in aqueous suspensions of TiO2 has been investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetics of degradation was studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and catalyst concentration, and types of titanium dioxide used and in the presence of electron acceptors and electron donors. The degradation rates of the dyes have been found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. Carbon dioxide yield measurements indicate that only partial mineralization occurs in the initial phase of oxidation.

  19. Excellent ammonia sensing performance of gas sensor based on graphene/titanium dioxide hybrid with improved morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zongbiao; Tai, Huiling; Guo, Rui; Yuan, Zhen; Liu, Chunhua; Su, Yuanjie; Chen, Zhi; Jiang, Yadong

    2017-10-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) hybrid material has been prepared through a facile hydrothermal method for ammonia detection at room temperature. The combined characterizations including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the successful formation of rGO-TiO2 hybrid. It also showed that the morphology of graphene sheets was greatly improved to become porous and undulating due to introduction of synthetic titanium dioxide. Accordingly, the hybrid-based sensor showed much more excellent sensing properties in comparison to that of bare graphene film sensor. The mechanism for the improvement could be ascribed to the synergetic effect between rGO sheets and TiO2 nanospheres, specifically, the enrichment of active adsorption sites on account of the supporting function of TiO2 nanospheres.

  20. Evolution of natural organic matter by size exclusion chromatography during photocatalytic degradation by solvothermal-synthesized titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sergio H; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria M

    2012-04-30

    This study shows the effect of different titanium dioxides in transforming the structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) during photocatalytic degradation with a solar UV light simulator. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) synthesized by the sol-gel method coupled with the solvothermal technique and Degussa P-25 TiO(2) were used. The evolution of NOM degradation was followed by size exclusion chromatography with dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet and fluorescence detection (SEC-DOC, SEC-UV(254) and SEC-Fl(254/450)). For both catalysts, there was a preferential degradation of the larger molecules of NOM into medium and smaller molecular size fractions. However, the synthesized TiO(2) was found to be more efficient than Degussa P-25 TiO(2) for DOC removal, especially UV(254) absorption and Fl(254/450) removal.

  1. The impact of the dopants on the formation of conductive path in titanium dioxide: ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wen-Shi; Yang, Jian-Feng; Li, Hai-Xia; Mao, Ling-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Ab initio calculations are performed about the dependent characteristics of the conductive path on Ti/Cu/Zr interstitials and oxygen vacancies in rutile-type titanium dioxide. It is found that eight oxygen vacancies in two columns around five Ti-ions could lead to a conductive path. Besides, the conductive path will occur when additional four oxygen vacancies exist at the third column in ⟨ 110 ⟩ direction rather than on (110) facet. Oxygen vacancies at the third and fourth columns on (110) facet are considered and lead to a conductive path. Furthermore, one or three metal interstitials, such as Ti, Cu or Zr, are doped in titanium dioxide with three columns of oxygen vacancies on (110) facet, respectively. The conductive path is only found in the structure above with three Ti interstitials. We conclude that more Ti interstitials doping in reduced TiO2 benefit the formation of stable conductive path in resistive random access memory.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, G Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Reddy, G Pramod; Kumar, J

    2013-08-01

    Targeted drug delivery using nanocrystalline materials delivers the drug at the diseased site. This increases the efficacy of the drug in killing the cancer cells. Surface modifications were done to target the drug to a particular receptor on the cell surface. This paper reports synthesis of hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and modification of their surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) followed by folic acid (FA). Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, is attached to functionalized hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The pure and functionalised nanoparticles are characterised with XRD, TEM and UV spectroscopy. Anticancer analysis was carried out in DEN induced hepatocarcinoma animals. Biochemical, hematological and histopathological analysis show that the surface modified paclitaxel attached nanoparticles have an higher anticancer activity than the pure paclitaxel and surface modified nanoparticles without paclitaxel. This is due to the targeting of the drug to the folate receptor in the cancer cells.

  3. Analysis of sugar phosphates in plants by ion chromatography on a titanium dioxide column with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yoko; Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshinori; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2004-06-11

    This paper describes the development of a practical method for the analysis of sugar phosphates from the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The extraction method of sugar phosphates from higher plants was first optimized for HPAEC-PAD analysis. In order to improve the resolution in HPAEC-PAD, a column packed with titanium dioxide resin was used. The titanium dioxide column was used as a trap-column for sugar phosphates and nucleotides, for the removal of sample matrices. Sample pretreatment was achieved in-line and automatically using a six-port valve placed after the injection valve.

  4. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation by silica supported and platinum promoted titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Meenal M.; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Parwate, D.V.; Rayalu, Sadhana S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor. Hydrogen yield observed is 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} and that for P-25 is 161 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The value is 30 times higher than benchmark material Degussa P-25. This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. - Highlights: • Semiconductor titanium dioxide has been supported on silica gel and promoted with Pt by simple wet impregnation route. • This synthesized photocatalyst is showing high surface area of 140.6 m{sup 2}/g with crystallite size in the range of 15.44 Å. • This photocatalyst is showing enhanced hydrogen yield of about 4791.43 μmol/h/g of TiO{sub 2}. • This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. • The effect of various operating parameters on supported photocatalyst also has been studied. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor

  5. Toxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Titanium Dioxide Bulk Salt in the Liver and Blood of Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Assessed by Different Assays.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Fakhr-E-Alam, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) bulk salt as well as its nanoparticles (NPs) in anatase phase with mean crystallite size of 36.15 nm in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subcutaneous injections at four different dose levels of either control (0), 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of rat for 28 days on alternate days. Animal mortality, haematology, micronucleus assay, liver histology and activities of liver tissue damage markers like, alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), as well as oxidative stress indicators like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were investigated. The study revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) among control and experimental groups in all the haematological parameters at the end of experiment. Significantly elevated levels (P < 0.05) of ALT, AST and ALP were found for the group treated with TiO2 NPs at the dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight as compared to control. TiO2 and TiO2 NPs caused dose-dependent genotoxicity in the blood cells of the treated rat as revealed by micronuclei test. The highest frequency of micronuclei was observed in rats treated with NPs at the dose of 150 mg/kg BW which was significantly different (P < 0.001) from all other experimental groups after 28 days of exposure. Similarly, all the treatments showed dose-dependent oxidative stress in the treated rats. However, the significantly high decline in the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST as well as elevation in malondialdehyde and GSH was observed in the group receiving NPs at the rate of 150 mg/kg BW. TiO2 also caused histological alterations in the liver. The study revealed that higher dose of TiO2 NPs exerted significantly harmful effects on liver and blood as compared to its lower doses as well as from all other doses of their bulk counterparts.

  6. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate DSS-induced colitis: role of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pedro A; Morón, Belen; Becker, Helen M; Lang, Silvia; Atrott, Kirstin; Spalinger, Marianne R; Scharl, Michael; Wojtal, Kacper A; Fischbeck-Terhalle, Anne; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Hausmann, Martin; Kraemer, Thomas; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-07-01

    Western lifestyle and diet are major environmental factors playing a role in the development of IBD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as food additives or in pharmaceutical formulations and are consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. We investigated the effects of TiO2 in the development of colitis and the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain receptor, pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome. Wild-type and NLRP3-deficient mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis were orally administered with TiO2 nanoparticles. The proinflammatory effects of TiO2 particles in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages were also studied, as well as the ability of TiO2 crystals to traverse IEC monolayers and accumulate in the blood of patients with IBD using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles worsened acute colitis through a mechanism involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, crystals were found to accumulate in spleen of TiO2-administered mice. In vitro, TiO2 particles were taken up by IECs and macrophages and triggered NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 assembly, caspase-1 cleavage and the release of NLRP3-associated interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. TiO2 also induced reactive oxygen species generation and increased epithelial permeability in IEC monolayers. Increased levels of titanium were found in blood of patients with UC having active disease. These findings indicate that individuals with a defective intestinal barrier function and pre-existing inflammatory condition, such as IBD, might be negatively impacted by the use of TiO2 nanoparticles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate DSS-induced colitis: role of the NLRP3 inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Pedro A; Morón, Belen; Becker, Helen M; Lang, Silvia; Atrott, Kirstin; Spalinger, Marianne R; Scharl, Michael; Wojtal, Kacper A; Fischbeck-Terhalle, Anne; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle; Hausmann, Martin; Kraemer, Thomas; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Objective Western lifestyle and diet are major environmental factors playing a role in the development of IBD. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as food additives or in pharmaceutical formulations and are consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. We investigated the effects of TiO2 in the development of colitis and the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain receptor, pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome. Design Wild-type and NLRP3-deficient mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis were orally administered with TiO2 nanoparticles. The proinflammatory effects of TiO2 particles in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages were also studied, as well as the ability of TiO2 crystals to traverse IEC monolayers and accumulate in the blood of patients with IBD using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles worsened acute colitis through a mechanism involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Importantly, crystals were found to accumulate in spleen of TiO2-administered mice. In vitro, TiO2 particles were taken up by IECs and macrophages and triggered NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 assembly, caspase-1 cleavage and the release of NLRP3-associated interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. TiO2 also induced reactive oxygen species generation and increased epithelial permeability in IEC monolayers. Increased levels of titanium were found in blood of patients with UC having active disease. Conclusion These findings indicate that individuals with a defective intestinal barrier function and pre-existing inflammatory condition, such as IBD, might be negatively impacted by the use of TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:26848183

  9. Influence of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the novel flower-like titanium dioxide oxygen sensor performances.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, L; López-Suárez, A; Tiburcio-Silver, A

    2010-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2-anatase phase) thin films, consisting of agglomerated flower-like nanoparticles, have been synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in combination with titanium (IV) oxide acetylacetonate [TiO(acac)2], and methanol at 550 degrees C. These thin films were subsequently thermally treated in air, at 950 degrees C for six hours, and the flower-like particles were transformed into smooth surfaces mainly formed by the TiO2-rutile phase. In order to prepare oxygen sensors of good performance, TiO2 thin films were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes with contacted alumina substrates. The silver colloidal solution was impregnated on the TiO2 thin film. Since the solvent in which the silver nanoparticles are suspended evaporates at 200 degrees C, the thin films were then annealed at this temperature in air for one hour. The effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the response of the thin films TiO2 oxygen sensors has been studied, in a mixture with zero-grade air. The gas-sensing properties of TiO2 sensors in an atmosphere of 10(4) ppm of oxygen were measured between 25 and 500 degrees C. The experimental results obtained with colloidal silver nanoparticles as surface additive show that the sensitivity to an O2 concentration of 100 ppm in zero grade air at 300 degrees C reaches a stationary value of 0.40, and 0.03, for TiO2-anatase and -rutile phase films, respectively. This values are as high as those reported for oxygen sensors prepared by more expensive techniques.

  10. The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Li

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO2 exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO2 using mice models. The results showed that titanium was distributed to and accumulated in the heart, brain, spleen, lung, and kidney of mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) nano-TiO2 exposure, in a dose-dependent manner. The organ/body weight ratios of the heart, spleen, and kidney were significantly increased, and those of the brain and lung were decreased. High doses of nano-TiO2 significantly damaged the functions of liver and kidney and glucose and lipid metabolism, as showed in the blood biochemistry tests. Nano-TiO2 caused damages in mitochondria and apoptosis of hepatocytes, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression disorders of protective genes in the liver of mice. We found ruptured and cracked nerve cells and inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain. We also found that the activities of constitutive nitric oxide synthases (cNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and acetylcholinesterase, and the levels of nitrous oxide and glutamic acid were changed in the brain after nano-TiO2 exposure. Ex vivo mouse embryo models exhibited developmental and genetic toxicity after high doses of nano-TiO2. The size of nano-TiO2 particles may affect toxicity, larger particles producing higher toxicity. In summary, nano-TiO2 exhibited toxicity in multiple organs in mice after exposure through i.p. injection and gavage. Our study may provide data for the assessment of the risk of nano-TiO2 exposure on human health.

  11. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: analytical methods to define nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Greet; Herrera-Rivera, Zahira; Helsper, Hans P F G; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Tromp, Peter C; Oomen, Agnes G; Rietveld, Anton G; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2014-07-09

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a common food additive used to enhance the white color, brightness, and sometimes flavor of a variety of food products. In this study 7 food grade TiO2 materials (E171), 24 food products, and 3 personal care products were investigated for their TiO2 content and the number-based size distribution of TiO2 particles present in these products. Three principally different methods have been used to determine the number-based size distribution of TiO2 particles: electron microscopy, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with inductively coupled mass spectrometry, and single-particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The results show that all E171 materials have similar size distributions with primary particle sizes in the range of 60-300 nm. Depending on the analytical method used, 10-15% of the particles in these materials had sizes below 100 nm. In 24 of the 27 foods and personal care products detectable amounts of titanium were found ranging from 0.02 to 9.0 mg TiO2/g product. The number-based size distributions for TiO2 particles in the food and personal care products showed that 5-10% of the particles in these products had sizes below 100 nm, comparable to that found in the E171 materials. Comparable size distributions were found using the three principally different analytical methods. Although the applied methods are considered state of the art, they showed practical size limits for TiO2 particles in the range of 20-50 nm, which may introduce a significant bias in the size distribution because particles <20 nm are excluded. This shows the inability of current state of the art methods to support the European Union recommendation for the definition of nanomaterials.

  12. Adsorption of Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) on Titanium Dioxide and Coal Fly Ash Particles

    PubMed Central

    Shabtai, Y.; Fleminger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) can be used to enrich and isolate a titanium-rich fraction from coal fly ash. The gram-positive bacterium was isolated by its ability to adhere strongly and rapidly to suspended particles of pure titanium dioxide or coal fly ash. Adsorption depends on the salt concentration and occurs in seawater. Lowering of the salt concentration or washing of particles with pure water did not, however, cause desorption of the bacteria from TiO2 particles; this was achieved by strong alkaline treatment or combined treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea but not with dilute acids, alcohols, or cationic or nonionic detergents. The bacterium exhibits higher affinity towards oxides of Ti and Zn than to other oxides with similar distribution of particle size. Moreover, it adheres much faster to TiO2 than to magnetite (Fe3O4) or Al2O3. After about 1 min, more than 85% of the cells were adsorbed on TiO2, compared with adsorption of only 10 and 8% to magnetite and Al2O3, respectively. Adsorption of the bacteria on TiO2 occurs over a pH range of 1.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures from 4 to over 80°C. Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray analysis revealed preferential adherence of the bacterium to coal ash particles richer in Ti. Stronger adhesion to TiO2 was also demonstrated in the translocation of bacteria, preadsorbed on magnetite, to TiO2 particles. The temporary co-adhesion to magnetite and TiO2 was exploited for the design of a prototype biomagnetic separation process in which bacterial cells serve as an adhesive mediator between magnetite and TiO2 particles in a mixture of Al, Si, and Ti oxides that simulates their proportion in the ash. Images PMID:16349369

  13. Adsorption of Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) on Titanium Dioxide and Coal Fly Ash Particles.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Y; Fleminger, G

    1994-09-01

    Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) can be used to enrich and isolate a titanium-rich fraction from coal fly ash. The gram-positive bacterium was isolated by its ability to adhere strongly and rapidly to suspended particles of pure titanium dioxide or coal fly ash. Adsorption depends on the salt concentration and occurs in seawater. Lowering of the salt concentration or washing of particles with pure water did not, however, cause desorption of the bacteria from TiO(2) particles; this was achieved by strong alkaline treatment or combined treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea but not with dilute acids, alcohols, or cationic or nonionic detergents. The bacterium exhibits higher affinity towards oxides of Ti and Zn than to other oxides with similar distribution of particle size. Moreover, it adheres much faster to TiO(2) than to magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or Al(2)O(3). After about 1 min, more than 85% of the cells were adsorbed on TiO(2), compared with adsorption of only 10 and 8% to magnetite and Al(2)O(3), respectively. Adsorption of the bacteria on TiO(2) occurs over a pH range of 1.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures from 4 to over 80 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray analysis revealed preferential adherence of the bacterium to coal ash particles richer in Ti. Stronger adhesion to TiO(2) was also demonstrated in the translocation of bacteria, preadsorbed on magnetite, to TiO(2) particles. The temporary co-adhesion to magnetite and TiO(2) was exploited for the design of a prototype biomagnetic separation process in which bacterial cells serve as an adhesive mediator between magnetite and TiO(2) particles in a mixture of Al, Si, and Ti oxides that simulates their proportion in the ash.

  14. Cellular responses of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian D; Gilbert, Samantha L; Khan, Bushra; Carroll, David L; Ringwood, Amy H

    2015-10-01

    Because of the continued development and production of a variety of nanomaterials and nanoparticles, their uptake and effects on the biota of marine ecosystems must be investigated. Filter feeding bivalve molluscs are highly adapted for capturing particles from the external environment and readily internalize nano- and micro-sized particles through endocytosis, so they are commonly used as valuable indicator species for nanoparticle studies. In these studies, adult eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were exposed to a range of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2-NP) concentrations (5, 50, 500, and 5000 μg/L) in conjunction with natural sunlight. Isolated hepatopancreas tissues were also exposed to the same TiO2-NP concentrations using particles exposed to similar light and dark conditions. Dose-dependent decreases in lysosomal stability were observed in the adult oyster studies as well as in the isolated tissues, at exposures as low as 50 μg/L. Titanium accumulation in isolated hepatopancreas tissue studies was directly correlated to lysosomal destabilization. Based on measurements of lipid peroxidation as an indicator of oxidative stress, TiO2-NPs toxicity was not related to increased ROS production over the short-term course of these exposures. Analysis of particle size using dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that concentration had a significant impact on agglomeration rates, and the small agglomerates as well as individual particles are readily processed by oysters. Overall, this study illustrates that low concentrations of TiO2-NPs may cause sublethal toxicity on oysters, which might be enhanced under natural sunlight conditions. In estuarine environments, where these nanomaterials are likely to accumulate, agglomeration rates, interaction with organics, and responses to sunlight are critical in determining the extent of their bioreactivity and biological impacts.

  15. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles increase plasma glucose via reactive oxygen species-induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Wang, Changlin; Ma, Xiao; He, Hongjuan; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2015-10-01

    There have been few reports about the possible toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles on the endocrine system. We explored the endocrine effects of oral administration to mice of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (0, 64 and 320 mg kg(-1) body weight per day to control, low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively, 7 days per week for 14 weeks). TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and their physiological distribution was investigated by inductively coupled plasma. Biochemical analyzes included plasma glucose, insulin, heart blood triglycerides (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related markers (total SOD, GSH and MDA). Phosphorylation of IRS1, Akt, JNK1, and p38 MAPK were analyzed by western blotting. Increased titanium levels were found in the liver, spleen, small intestine, kidney and pancreas. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose significantly increased whereas there was no difference in plasma insulin secretion. Increased ROS levels were found in serum and the liver, as evidenced by reduced total SOD activity and GSH level and increased MDA content. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles induced insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver, shown by increased phosphorylation of IRS1 (Ser307) and reduced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473). The pathway by which TiO2 nanoparticles increase ROS-induced IR were included in the inflammatory response and phosphokinase, as shown by increased serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased phosphorylation of JNK1 and p38 MAPK in liver. These results show that oral administration of TiO2 nanoparticles increases ROS, resulting in IR and increasing plasma glucose in mice.

  16. Femtosecond laser induced periodic nanostructures on titanium dioxide film for improving biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinonaga, T.; Horiguchi, N.; Tsukamoto, M.; Nagai, A.; Yamashita, K.; Hanawa, T.; Matsushita, N.; Guoqiang, X.; Abe, N.

    2013-03-01

    Periodic nanostructures formation on Titanium dioxide (TiO2) film by scanning of femtosecond laser beam spot at fundamental and second harmonic wave is reported. Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used for biomaterials, because of its excellent anti-corrosion and high mechanical properties. However, Ti implant is typically artificial materials and has no biofunction. Hence, it is necessary for improving the bioactivity of Ti. Recently, coating of TiO2 film on Ti plate surface is useful methods to improve biocompatibility of Ti plate. Then, if periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, cell spreading might be controlled at one direction. We propose periodic nanostructures formation on TiO2 film by femtosecond laser irradiation. Cell spread could be controlled along the grooves of periodic nanostructures. In the experiments, the film was formed on Ti plate with an aerosol beam. A commercial femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser system was employed in our experiments. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film at fundamental and second harmonic wave. Periodic nanostructures were also produced on Ti plate with femtosecond laser. The period of periodic nanostructures on the film was much shorter than that on Ti plate. By cell test, there was a region of cell spreading along the grooves of periodic nanostructures on the film formed with femtosecond laser at fundamental wave. On bare film surface, cell spreading was observed at all direction. These results suggest that direction of cell spread could be controlled by periodic nanostructures formation on the film.

  17. Heterogeneous polymer modification: Polyolefin maleation in supercritical carbon dioxide and amorphous fluoropolymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Heather J.

    1999-11-01

    Three distinct heterogeneous polymer modification reactions are explored in this work. The first is a bulk reaction commonly conducted on polyolefins---the free radical addition of maleic anhydride. This reaction was run using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as the solvent. The second was the chemical surface modification of an amorphous fluorocopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and a perfluorodioxole monomer (Teflon AF). Several reactions were explored to reduce the surface of the fluorocopolymer for the enhancement of wettability. The last modification was also on Teflon AF and involved the physical modification of the surface through the transport polymerization of xylylene in order to synthesize a novel bilayer membrane. The bulk maleation of poly-4-methyl-1-pentene (PMP) was the focus of the first project. SC CO2 was utilized as both solvent and swelling agent to promote this heterogeneous reaction and led to successful grafting of anhydride groups on both PMP and linear low density polyethylene. Varying the reaction conditions and reagent concentrations allowed optimization of the reaction. The grafted anhydride units were found to exist as single maleic and succinic grafts, and the PMP became crosslinked upon maleation. The surface of a fluoropolymer can be difficult to alter. An examination of three reactions was made to determine the reactivity of Teflon AF: sodium naphthalenide treatment (Na-Nap), aluminum metal modification through deposition and dissolution, and mercury/ammonia photosensitization. The fluorocopolymer with the lower perfluorodioxole percentage was found to be more reactive towards modification with the Na-Nap treatment. The other modification reactions appeared to be nearly equally reactive toward both fluorocopolymers. The functionality of the Na-Nap-treated surface was examined in detail with the use of several derivatization reactions. In the final project, an asymmetric gas separation membrane was synthesized using Teflon AF as

  18. Titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and can be found in nearly all rocks and sediments. It is a lithophile element with a strong affinity for oxygen and is not found as a pure metal in nature. Titanium was first isolated as a pure metal in 1910, but it was not until 1948 that metal was produced commercially using the Kroll process (named after its developer, William Kroll) to reduce titanium tetrachloride with magnesium to produce titanium metal.

  19. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations.

    PubMed

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20-30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol-gel method. Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles against biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesline, A.; John, Neetu P.; Narayanan, P. M.; Vani, C.; Murugan, Sevanan

    2015-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens responsible for a wide spectrum of infections and the emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has lead to treatment drawbacks towards large number of drugs. Formation of biofilms is the main contributing factor to antibiotic resistance. The development of reliable processes for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is an important aspect of nanotechnology today. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles comprise well-known inhibitory and bactericidal effects. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in recent years. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles against biofilm producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Biofilm production was detected by tissue culture plate method. Out of 30 MRSA isolates, 22 isolates showed strong biofilm production and 2 showed weak and moderate biofilm formation. Two strong and weak biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial activity using commercially available zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Thus, the nanoparticles showed considerably good activity against the isolates, and it can be concluded that they may act as promising, antibacterial agents in the coming years.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide. PMID:26865351

  2. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  3. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for use in dental resin formulations

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Andrew; Zuo, Ranfang; Villamena, Frederick A; Rockenbauer, Antal; Digeorge Foushee, Ann Marie; Flores, Kristin; Dutta, Prabir K; Nagy, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The addition of antibacterial functionality to dental resins presents an opportunity to extend their useful lifetime by reducing secondary caries caused by bacterial recolonization. In this study, the potential efficacy of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for this purpose was determined. Nitrogen doping was carried out to extend the ultraviolet absorbance into longer wavelength blue light for increased biocompatibility. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (approximately 20–30 nm) were synthesized with and without nitrogen doping using a sol–gel method. Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy indicated a band of trap states, with increasing blue light absorbance as the concentration of the nitrogen dopant increased. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements indicated the formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals upon particle exposure to visible light and oxygen. The particles were significantly toxic to Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner after a 1-hour exposure to a blue light source (480 nm). Intracellular reactive oxygen species assay demonstrated that the particles caused a stress response in human gingival epithelial cells when exposed to 1 hour of blue light, though this did not result in detectable release of cytokines. No decrease in cell viability was observed by water-soluble tetrazolium dye assay. The results show that nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles have antibacterial activity when exposed to blue light, and are biocompatible at these concentrations. PMID:27980404

  4. A high-performance dielectric elastomer consisting of bio-based polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Kang, Hailan; Gong, Daolin; Zhang, Liqun

    2013-10-01

    A bio-based polyester elastomer containing many polar groups was combined with high-dielectric-constant titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder to form a dielectric elastomer composite for the first time. The effects of the titanium dioxide filler on the elastic modulus, dielectric properties, and electromechanical responses of the polyester dielectric elastomer were studied. We found that the dielectric constant of composites increased with increasing content of TiO2. Nevertheless, the elastic modulus of the composites did not increase with increasing content of TiO2, and the polyester elastomer filled with 6 vol. % of TiO2 exhibited the lowest elastic modulus, which led to a high prestrain-free actuated strain of 11.8% at a low electric field of just 9.8 kV/mm. The actuated strain is better than other dielectric elastomers reported in the literature. The high electromechanical performance was attributed to the increase in dielectric constant and decrease in elastic modulus of the composite from those of the pure polyester elastomer. The decrease in elastic modulus was explained in detail by the competing effects of crosslink density and filler network. In addition, a dramatic increase in dielectric constant of the composite was observed and discussed through several dielectric mixing rules. Finally, the polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide are both environment-friendly, making possible the composite to be used in biological and medical devices.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-11

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  6. Visible light mediated cyclization of tertiary anilines with maleimides using nickel(II) oxide surface-modified titanium dioxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Grampp, Günter; Liu, Yun; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Tao, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liang, Xue-Zheng; Xiao, Hui-Quan; Shen, Yong-Miao

    2015-03-06

    Surface-modified titanium dioxides by highly dispersed NiO particles have an extended absorption in the visible light region and a reduced hole-electron pair recombination than unmodified TiO2. They have now been successfully applied as highly active heterogeneous photocatalysts in the visible light mediated direct cyclization of tertiary anilines with maleimides to give tetrahydroquinoline products in moderate to high yields at ambient temperature. In contrast with unmodified titanium dioxide catalysts that are conventionally used in a stoichiometric amount in combination with UVA light, only a catalytic amount (1 mol %) of the surface-modified TiO2 catalyst is needed along with visible light to efficiently catalyze the reaction. Compared with transition-metal complexes such as Ru(bpy)3Cl2 or Ir(ppy)2(dtbbpy)PF6, advantages of these surface-modified titanium dioxides as photocatalyst include high catalytic activity, low cost, ease of recovering, and being able to be used for at least nine times without significant decay of catalytic activity.

  7. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Ramasamy, S.; Avadhani, G. S.; Palanikumar, L.; Kumar, J.

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO2 nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  8. Microfabricated Amorphous Silicon Nanopillars on an Ultrasmooth 500-nm-thick Titanium Adhesion Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    which may be found by heat treatment of the photoresist (5) or perhaps working with poly( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) rather than ZEP electron beam...isobutyl ketone PMMA poly( methyl methacrylate ) Pt platinum RMS root mean square SEM scanning electron microscopy Si silicon Ti titanium...at 21 °C in xylenes and then was rinsed for 30 s in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). 2.3 Silicon Deposition and Liftoff Prior to deposition, a 5-min

  9. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tumburu, Laxminath; Andersen, Christian P; Rygiewicz, Paul T; Reichman, Jay R

    2017-01-01

    Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to 2 widely used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titania) and cerium dioxide (nano-ceria). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more differentially expressed genes in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more differentially expressed genes under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that although nano-titania up-regulated overall metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level, possibly because of functional and genomic redundancy in Arabidopsis, which may mask expression of morphological changes, despite discernable responses at the transcriptome level. In addition, transcriptomic changes often relate to transgenerational phenotypic development, and hence it may be productive to direct further experimental work to integrate high-throughput genomic results with longer term changes in subsequent generations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:71-82. Published 2016 Wiley

  10. Particle size characterization of titanium dioxide in sunscreen products using sedimentation field-flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Samontha, Atitaya; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation field-flow fractionation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SdFFF-ICP-MS) was successfully applied to investigate particle size distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in sunscreen samples after hexane extraction to remove organic components from the samples. Three brands of sunscreen products of various sun protection factor (SPF) value were used as samples. Different particle size distribution profiles were observed for sunscreen samples of various brands and SPF values; however, the particle size distributions of titanium dioxide in most sunscreen samples investigated in this work were larger than 100 nm. The titanium dioxide concentrations were higher for the products of higher SPF values. By comparing the results obtained from online SdFFF-ICP-MS and those from the off-line ICP-MS determination of titanium after acid digestion, ICP-MS was found to effectively atomize and ionize the titanium dioxide particle without the need for acid digestion of the samples. Therefore, the online coupling between SdFFF and ICP-MS could be effectively used to provide quantitative information of titanium dioxide concentrations across particle size distribution profiles.

  11. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    PubMed

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4 g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the

  12. Effect of the nano-bio interface on the genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and associated cellular responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Raju Yashaswi

    Several toxicological studies have shown that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), one of the most widely produced engineered nanoparticles, can induce genotoxicity; however, potential adverse health effects associated with their physicochemical properties are not fully understood. Proteins in a biological medium can adsorb to the surface of the nanoparticle resulting in the formation of a protein corona that can alter the physicochemical properties of the particle. Furthermore, the protein corona may impact the interaction between nanoparticles and cells, referred to as the nano-bio interface, effecting the uptake, distribution, and toxicity of the particles. Despite the potential influence of the composition of the biological medium on the physicochemical properties and genotoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, the majority of studies have not examined systematically the influence of medium composition on protein corona, genotoxicity, and cellular responses. In this dissertation we tested the overall hypothesis that titanium dioxide nanoparticles in medium that produces the smallest agglomerates would be taken up into cells and induce genotoxicity, and that exposure would initiate the signaling of key mediators of a DNA damage and inflammation response. Three major findings were shown in this study: 1) Protein corona formation on the surface of nano-TiO2 can impact the nano-bio interface and change cellular interaction. 2) Smaller agglomerates of nano-TiO2 are taken up more by cells without inducing cell cycle arrest, thereby allowing induced DNA damage to be processed into micronuclei in BEAS-2B cells. 3) Nano-TiO 2 in medium that facilitates increased cellular interaction induces the upregulation of the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response (similar to ionizing radiation) and NF-kappaB inflammation pathways. Taken together, our research provides a systematic examination of the physicochemical properties, genotoxicity, and cellular responses induced by

  13. Leaching potential of nano-scale titanium dioxide in fresh municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dulger, M; Sakallioglu, T; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner-Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-02-01

    With the rapid development in nanotechnology in recent years, the number of commercially available products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has increased significantly. It is expected that large fractions of these ENMs will end up in landfills for final disposal. Despite the wide use of ENMs, little data is available on their fate within landfills. This study examined the leaching behavior of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2), one of the mostly used ENMs, in fresh municipal solid wastes (MSWs). Batch reactors containing municipal waste samples were spiked with a range of nano-TiO2 concentrations at different pH and ionic strength conditions. The Ti concentrations in leachate decreased rapidly and reached steady state after about 12-24 h. Results suggest that, for the environmental conditions considered, approximately 3-19% of the added nano-TiO2 remained in leachate. Batch tests conducted with individual synthetically-prepared solid waste components also showed low leaching potential (5.2% for organic waste, 3.3% for glass, 1.7% for both textile and paper and 0.6% for metal), indicating that all components of MSW contributed to the retention of the nano-TiO2 mass within the solid matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on the Ohmic Contact, Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. K.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin film with various sol-gel concentrations has been successfully prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. Nanostructured TiO2 thin films prepared at different sol-gel concentration from 0.1 M to 0.4 M. The IV measurement was measured using direct currents between two contacts were measured using Advantest source meter (R6243). To perform the IV measurement, two kinds of metal contact has been used; Platinum (Pt) and Gold (Au). It showed that both of metal contact shows that 0.2 M of concentration gives the lowest sheet resistance. The sheet resistance and resistivity of the thin film decreased from 0.1 M to 0.2 M and significantly increased at 0.3 M and 0.4 M. Optical transmission spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm using UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer (VARIAN 5000). The effect of sol concentration on band gap (Eg) values of the TiO2 thin films has been studied. The lowest band gap is 3.35 eV which contribute to 0.2 M of concentration and it is also understand that prepared nanostructured TiO2 thin film is indirect band gap.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete materials - influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-08-01

    Combining the use of photocatalysts with cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic air pollution mitigation. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness of pollutant degradation by concrete surface layers that incorporate a photocatalytic material - Titanium Dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of the concrete samples was determined by photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. Recycled glass cullets, derived from crushed waste beverage bottles, were used to replace sand in preparing the concrete surface layers. Factors, which may affect the pollutant removal performance of the concrete layers including glass color, aggregate size and curing age, were investigated. The results show a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity due to the use of glass cullets as aggregates in the concrete layers. The samples fabricated with clear glass cullets exhibited threefold NO removal efficiency compared to the samples fabricated with river sand. The light transmittance property of glass was postulated to account for the efficiency improvement, which was confirmed by a separate simulation study. But the influence of the size of glass cullets was not evident. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of concrete surface layers decreased with curing age, showing a loss of 20% photocatalytic activity after 56-day curing.

  16. Photocatalytic bactericidal action of fluorescent light in a titanium dioxide particle mixture: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Hironobu; Shiraishi, Koutaro; Asahara, Tomohiko; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Baba, Koumei; Taoda, Hiroshi; Terasaki, Nao

    2009-06-01

    Traditional titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has photocatalytic bactericidal properties only under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, which restricts its use in clinical treatment regimens. In this study, we evaluated the photocatalytic bactericidal effects of an aqueous system of TiO(2) particles irradiated by fluorescent light (FL) on Staphylococcus aureus. A TiO(2) particle mixture containing 19 ppm (0.019 mg/mL) of TiO(2) was prepared. A bacterial solution of 1 x 10(5) CFU/mL was added one drop at a time to the TiO(2) mixture. The resulting product was then irradiated with FL. The bacterial survival rate decreased steadily in the TiO(2) mixture group, reaching 76.7% after 30 min of FL irradiation and 10.9% after 60 min. After 60 to 180 min, the bacterial survival ratio of the TiO(2) mixture group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that treating the surfaces of surgical devices and the surgical field with a TiO(2) particle mixture can create a nearly sterile environment that can be maintained throughout surgery, even at low luminous intensities.

  17. Alteration of metabolomic profiles by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human gingivitis model.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Contreras, Rene; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Umemura, Naoki; Kaneko, Miku; Hatakeyama, Yoko; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Although nanoparticles (NPs) has afforded considerable benefits in various fields of sciences, several reports have shown their harmful effects, suggesting the necessity of adequate risk assessment. To clarify the mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs)-enhanced gingival inflammation, we conducted the full-scale metabolomic analyses of human gingival fibroblast cells treated with IL-1β alone or in combination with TiO2 NPs. Observation with transmission electron microscope demonstrated the incorporation of TiO2 NPs into vacuoles of the cells. TiO2 NPs significantly enhanced the IL-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 production and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression. IL-1β reduced the intracellular concentrations of overall primary metabolites especially those of amino acid, urea cycle, polyamine, S-adenosylmethione and glutathione synthetic pathways. The addition of TiO2 NPs further augmented these IL-1β-induced metabolic changes, recommending careful use of dental materials containing TiO2 NPs towards patients with gingivitis or periodontitis. The impact of the present study is to identify the molecular targets of TiO2 NPs for the future establishment of new metabolic markers and therapeutic strategy of gingival inflammation.

  18. Highly Transparent Dual-Sensitized Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays for Spontaneous Solar Water Splitting Tandem Configuration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kahee; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2015-08-26

    Vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) titanium dioxide (TiO2) arrays on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates, which can act as host electron transport materials for low bandgap materials, were synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction combined with a controlled chemical etching process. By controlling the chemical etching conditions, we can maximize the light transmission properties of the 1D TiO2 arrays, which is beneficial for the front electrode in photoelectrochemical (PEC) tandem configurations. As a result, dual sensitization to form 1D TiO2@CdS@CdSe (CdS and CdSe coated 1D TiO2) results in excellent photocurrent density, as well as transparency, and the resulting material is able to pass unabsorbed photons through the front electrode into the rear bias solar cell. Owing to the improved light transmission in combination with the increased specific surface area of the obtained 1D TiO2 arrays from the controlled etching process, a high-efficiency PEC tandem device with ∼2.1% was successfully fabricated for unassisted hydrogen evolution. Efficient PEC tandem device was fabricated for unassisted solar hydrogen generation using highly transparent composite electrode composed of dual sensitization to form 1D TiO2@CdS@CdSe.

  19. Sedimentation and reuse of titanium dioxide: Application to suspended-photocatalyst reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.J.; Kong, S.; Lee, W.

    1995-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) sedimentation, enhanced through charge neutralization and coagulation/flocculation with metal salts and polymers, was investigated to evaluate the potential for its recovery from the effluents of suspended photocatalyst reactors. The application emphasizes reuse of the TiO{sub 2} after separation from the reactor effluent. Zeta-potential analysis showed that the zero point of charge (ZPC) of TiO{sub 2} suspensions was at pH 2.5, and settling rates for the photocatalyst were greatest at {+-} 0.5 pH unit of the ZPC. Aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulfate were effective in enhancing TiO{sub 2} sedimentation through coagulating and flocculating the dispersed TiO{sub 2} catalyst at neutral pH. However, two cationic polymers and one anionic polymer were effective in enhancing TiO{sub 2} sedimentation only at pH 3. Using 1,2-bis(2-chloro-ethoxy)ethane as a photocatalytic substrate, ferrous sulfate-coagulated TiO{sub 2} and acid-precipitated TiO{sub 2} had the highest rates of photocatalytic activity after sedimentation.

  20. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with alkanephosphonic acids for transparent nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiterkamp, G. J.; Hempenius, M. A.; Wormeester, H.; Vancso, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    The surface functionalization of rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles with 1-decylphosphonic acid and diethyl undec-10-enyl phosphonate in a two-stage process, involving a change in reaction medium, is described. Similarly, 1-decylphosphonic acid and diethyl 1-decylphosphonate were employed as surface modifiers. The nanoparticles coated in two successive steps formed stable, transparent dispersions in toluene. Surface functionalization was monitored using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed enhanced surface coverage after the second capping step. Incorporation of C=C-terminal surface coupling molecules in the second stage was directly proved using FTIR. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the dual-functionalized particles possessed a uniform size of around 13 nm. Particle dimensions were further analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transparent nanocomposites were formed by introducing the functionalized nanoparticles into a poly(benzyl acrylate) matrix. The refractive index of poly(benzyl acrylate) composites, measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, increased from 1.57 for the pure polymer to 1.63 for 14.0 vol.% TiO2 at λ = 586 nm. Nanocomposite films with particle weight percentages of up to 30% (9.5 vol.%) showed a high light transmittance of around 90% at wavelengths above λ = 400 nm.