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Sample records for amp inducible early

  1. Sequence and expression analysis of the gene encoding inducible cAMP early repressor in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Rui; Gan, Xi; Lei, Aiying; Li, Chao; Yu, Xiaoli; Huang, Jun; Huang, Ting; Liang, Wanwen

    2010-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization library was generated by comparison of cDNA populations isolated from peripheral leukocytes of pre- and post-immunized tilapia. One cDNA sequence encoding complete inducible cAMP early repressor was obtained from the library. The sequence was characterized by the presence of the basic structure of ICER IIgamma. Expression of ICER was in the tissues of four types of tilapia was decreased after infection with Streptococcus. After immunization, expression of ICER was initially decreased and then increased after 7 days. In addition, the order for the overall expression of ICER gene after infection and the increases of ICER expression later after immunization in these four types of tilapia was positively correlated to the disease resistance and productivity of these four species of tilapia. Our results provided molecular mechanisms for the different disease resistance capability in different species of tilapia. In addition, our results also provided reference molecular marker for breeding disease resistant tilapia, cAMP responsive element modulator.

  2. cAMP initiates early phase neuron-like morphology changes and late phase neural differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linxia; Seitz, Linsey C; Abramczyk, Amy M; Liu, Li; Chan, Christina

    2011-03-01

    The intracellular second messenger cAMP is frequently used in induction media to induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural lineage cells. To date, an understanding of the role cAMP exerts on MSCs and whether cAMP can induce MSCs into functional neurons is still lacking. We found cAMP initiated neuron-like morphology changes early and neural differentiation much later. The early phase changes in morphology were due to cell shrinkage, which subsequently rendered some cells apoptotic. While the morphology changes occurred prior to the expression of neural markers, it is not required for neural marker expression and the two processes are differentially regulated downstream of cAMP-activated protein kinase A. cAMP enabled MSCs to gain neural marker expressions with neuronal function, such as, calcium rise in response to neuronal activators, dopamine, glutamate, and potassium chloride. However, only some of the cells induced by cAMP responded to the three neuronal activators and further lack the neuronal morphology, suggesting that although cAMP is able to direct MSCs towards neural differentiation, they do not achieve terminal differentiation.

  3. cAMP initiates early phase neuron-like morphology changes and late phase neural differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Seitz, Linsey C.; Abramczyk, Amy M.; Liu, Li

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular second messenger cAMP is frequently used in induction media to induce mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural lineage cells. To date, an understanding of the role cAMP exerts on MSCs and whether cAMP can induce MSCs into functional neurons is still lacking. We found cAMP initiated neuron-like morphology changes early and neural differentiation much later. The early phase changes in morphology were due to cell shrinkage, which subsequently rendered some cells apoptotic. While the morphology changes occurred prior to the expression of neural markers, it is not required for neural marker expression and the two processes are differentially regulated downstream of cAMP-activated protein kinase A. cAMP enabled MSCs to gain neural marker expressions with neuronal function, such as, calcium rise in response to neuronal activators, dopamine, glutamate, and potassium chloride. However, only some of the cells induced by cAMP responded to the three neuronal activators and further lack the neuronal morphology, suggesting that although cAMP is able to direct MSCs towards neural differentiation, they do not achieve terminal differentiation. PMID:20725762

  4. Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Spessert, R; Gupta, B B P; Rohleder, N; Gerhold, S; Engel, L

    2006-12-01

    The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.

  5. Different Roles of GNAS and cAMP Signaling During Early and Late Stages of Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S.; Kaplan, F. S.; Shore, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are genetic diseases of bone formation at opposite ends of the osteogenic spectrum: imperfect osteogenesis of the skeleton occurs in FD, while heterotopic ossification in skin, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle forms in POH. POH is caused by heterozygous inactivating germline mutations in GNAS, which encodes G-protein subunits regulating the cAMP pathway, while FD is caused by GNAS somatic activating mutations. We used pluripotent mouse ES cells to examine the effects of Gnas dysregulation on osteoblast differentiation. At the earliest stages of osteogenesis, Gnas transcripts Gs α, XLαs and 1A are expressed at low levels and cAMP levels are also low. Inhibition of cAMP signaling (as in POH) by 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine enhanced osteoblast differentiation while conversely, increased cAMP signaling (as in FD), induced by forskolin, inhibited osteoblast differentiation. Notably, increased cAMP was inhibitory for osteogenesis only at early stages after osteogenic induction. Expression of osteogenic and adipogenic markers showed that increased cAMP enhanced adipogenesis and impaired osteoblast differentiation even in the presence of osteogenic factors, supporting cAMP as a critical regulator of osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment. Furthermore, increased cAMP signaling decreased BMP pathway signaling, indicating that G protein-cAMP pathway activation (as in FD) inhibits osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by blocking the BMP-Smad pathway, and suggesting that GNAS inactivation as occurs in POH enhances osteoblast differentiation, at least in part by stimulating BMP signaling. These data support that differences in cAMP levels during early stages of cell differentiation regulate cell fate decisions. PMID:22903279

  6. Modulation in the expression of SHP-1, SHP-2 and PTP1B due to the inhibition of MAPKs, cAMP and neutrophils early on in the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Violeta; Sarmiento, Nancy; Sánchez-Bernal, Carmen; Matellán, Laura; Calvo, José J; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) SHP-1, SHP-2 and PTP1B are overexpressed early on during the development of cerulein -induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats, and their levels can be modulated by some species of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the intracellular levels of cAMP and by general leukocyte infiltration, the latter at least for SHP-2 and PTP1B. In this study we show that cerulein treatment activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 MAPK during the early phase of cerulein-induced AP (2h after the first injection of cerulein). Therefore, by using the MAPK inhibitors SP600125 (a specific JNK inhibitor) and PD98059 (a specific ERK inhibitor), we have unmasked the particular MAPK that underlies the modulation of the expression levels of these PTPs. JNK would act by preventing SHP-1 protein expression from increasing beyond a certain level. ERK 1/2 was the main MAPK involved in the increase in SHP-2 protein expression due to cerulein. JNK negatively modulated the SH2-domain containing PTPs. Both MAPKs played a role in the increase in PTP1B protein expression due to cerulein. Finally, by using the white blood cell inhibitors vinblastine sulfate, gadolinium chloride and FK506 (tacrolimus), we show that the macrophage activity or T-lymphocytes does not modulate the expression of any of the PTPs, although neutrophil infiltration was found to be a regulator of SHP-2 and PTP1B protein expression due to cerulein.

  7. cAMP inducibility of transcriptional repressor ICER in developing and mature human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, J; Spetz, A L; Strominger, J L; Habener, J F

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation and effector functions of T cells. The ability of T cells to form high intracellular levels of cAMP is acquired during development in the human thymus and is retained by the majority of mature peripheral T lymphocytes. Here we show that elevated cAMP levels in T cells correlate with the expression of the potent transcriptional repressor ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) previously described in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further, in transcriptional assays in vivo, ICER inhibits calcineurin-mediated expression of the interleukin 2 promoter as well as Tax-mediated transactivation of the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) promoter. Thus, the induction of ICER in T cells may play an important role in the cAMP-induced quiescence and the persistent latency of HTLV-I. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622971

  8. Calcium-linked increase in coupled cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis is an early event in cholinergic and. beta. -adrenergic stimulation of parotid secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, M.A.; Graeff, R.M.; Walseth, T.F.; Goldberg, N.D. )

    1988-11-01

    The dynamics and compartmental characteristics of cAMP metabolism were examined by {sup 18}O labeling of cellular adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls in rat parotid gland stimulated to secrete with {beta}-adrenergic and cholinergic agents. The secretory response occurred in association with a rapidly increased rate of cAMP hydrolysis apparently coordinated with an equivalent increase in the rate of cAMP synthesis, since the cellular concentration of cAMP remained unchanged. The magnitude of this metabolic response was equivalent to the metabolism of 10-75 times the cellular content of cAMP within the first minute of stimulation. This increased metabolic rate occurred only during the early (1-3 min) period of stimulation, in what appeared to be an exclusive cellular compartment distinguished by a unique distribution of {sup 18}O among adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls. This {sup 18}O distribution contrasted with that produced by forskolin, which increased cellular cAMP concentration and elicited only a delayed response missing the early secretory component. The early acceleration of cAMP metabolism appeared linked to a stimulus-induced increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, since the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore ionomycin produced the same metabolic response in association with secretion. These observations suggest that cAMP metabolism is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling by a Ca{sup 2+}-linked mechanism different from that in which cAMP plays the role of a second messenger.

  9. Sustained antagonism of acute ethanol-induced ataxia following microinfusion of cyclic AMP and cpt-cAMP in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Dar, M Saeed

    2011-05-01

    Ataxia is a conspicuous physical manifestation of alcohol consumption in humans and laboratory animals. Previously we reported possible involvement of cAMP in ethanol-induced ataxia. We now report a sustained antagonism of ataxia due to multiple ethanol injections following intracerebellar (ICB) cAMP or cpt-cAMP microinfusion. Adenylyl cyclase drugs cAMP, cpt-cAMP, Sp-cAMP, Rp-cAMP, adenosine A₁ agonist, N⁶-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) and GABA(A) agonist muscimol were directly microinfused into the cerebellum of CD-1 male mice to evaluate their effect on ethanol (2 g/kg; i.p.) ataxia. Drug microinfusions were made via stereotaxically implanted stainless steel guide cannulas. Rotorod was used to evaluate the ethanol's ataxic response. Intracerebellar cAMP (0.1, 1, 10 fmol) or cpt-cAMP (0.5, 1, 2 fmol) 60 min before ethanol treatment, dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced ataxia in general agreement with previous observations. Intracerebellar microinfusion of cAMP (100 fmol) or cpt-cAMP (2 fmol) produced a sustained attenuation of ataxia following ethanol administration at 1, 4, 7 and 25 h or 31 h post-cAMP/cpt-cAMP microinfusion. At 31 h post-cAMP, the ataxic response of ethanol reappeared. Additionally, marked antagonism to the accentuation of ethanol-induced ataxia by adenosine A₁ and GABA(A) agonists, CHA (34 pmol) and muscimol (88 pmol), respectively, was noted 24h after cAMP and cpt-cAMP treatment. This indicated possible participation of AC/cAMP/PKA signaling in the co-modulation of ethanol-induced ataxia by A₁ adenosinergic and GABAergic systems. No change in normal motor coordination was noted when cAMP or cpt-cAMP microinfusion was followed by saline. Finally, Rp-cAMP (PKA inhibitor, 22 pmol) accentuated ethanol-induced ataxia and antagonized its attenuation by cAMP whereas Sp-cAMP (PKA activator, 22 pmol) produced just the opposite effects, further indicating participation of cAMP-dependent PKA downstream. Overall, the results support a role of

  10. Rhythmic melatonin secretion does not correlate with the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, inducible cyclic amp early repressor, period1 or cryptochrome1 mRNA in the sheep pineal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Bashforth, R; Diack, A; Andersson, H; Lincoln, G A; Hazlerigg, D G

    2004-01-01

    The pineal gland, through nocturnal melatonin, acts as a neuroendocrine transducer of daily and seasonal time. Melatonin synthesis is driven by rhythmic activation of the rate-limiting enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT). In ungulates, AA-NAT mRNA is constitutively high throughout the 24-h cycle, and melatonin production is primarily controlled through effects on AA-NAT enzyme activity; this is in contrast to dominant transcriptional control in rodents. To determine whether there has been a selective loss of circadian control of AA-NAT mRNA expression in the sheep pineal, we measured the expression of other genes known to be rhythmic in rodents (inducible cAMP early repressor ICER, the circadian clock genes Period1 and Cryptochrome1, as well as AA-NAT). We first assayed gene expression in pineal glands collected from Soay sheep adapted to short days (Light: dark, 8-h: 16-h), and killed at 4-h intervals through 24-h. We found no evidence for rhythmic expression of ICER, AA-NAT or Cryptochrome1 under these conditions, whilst Period1 showed a low amplitude rhythm of expression, with higher values during the dark period. In a second group of animals, lights out was delayed by 8-h during the final 24-h sampling period, a manipulation that causes an immediate shortening of the period of melatonin secretion. This did not significantly affect the expression of ICER, AA-NAT or Cryptochrome1 in the pineal, whilst a slight suppressive effect on overall Per1 levels was observed. The attenuated response to photoperiod change appears to be specific to the ovine pineal, as the first long day induced rapid changes of Period1 and ICER expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and pituitary pars tuberalis, respectively. Overall, our data suggest a general reduction of circadian control of transcript abundance in the ovine pineal gland, consistent with a marked evolutionary divergence in the mechanism regulating melatonin production between terrestrial

  11. Hepatic gene expression profiling of 5′-AMP-induced hypometabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Takao; Van Oort-Jansen, Anita; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Loose, David S.; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2011-01-01

    There is currently much interest in clinical applications of therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia can be a consequence of hypometabolism. We have recently established a procedure for the induction of a reversible deep hypometabolic state in mice using 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′-AMP) in conjunction with moderate ambient temperature. The current study aims at investigating the impact of this technology at the gene expression level in a major metabolic organ, the liver. Our findings reveal that expression levels of the majority of genes in liver are not significantly altered by deep hypometabolism. However, among those affected by hypometabolism, more genes are differentially upregulated than downregulated both in a deep hypometabolic state and in the early arousal state. These altered gene expression levels during 5′-AMP induced hypometabolism are largely restored to normal levels within 2 days of the treatment. Our data also suggest that temporal control of circadian genes is largely stalled during deep hypometabolism. PMID:21224422

  12. Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

    1987-05-01

    Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

  13. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng; Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J.; Lord, Rebecca L.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited by

  14. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-06

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation.

  15. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  16. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  17. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R

    2012-06-22

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  18. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-induced histone hyperacetylation contributes to its antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing activities.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seungwan; Lee, Yong Gyu; Kim, Ji Hye; Byeon, Se Eun; Rho, Ho Sik; Cho, Jae Youl; Hong, Sungyoul

    2012-01-01

    Histone acetylation is linked to the control of chromatin remodeling, which is involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It is not fully understood whether cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a representative differentiation-inducing molecule, is able to modulate histone acetylation as part of its anticancer activity. In the present study, we aimed to address this issue using cell-permeable cAMP, i.e. dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) and C6 glioma cells. As reported previously, under the conditions of our studies, treatment with dbcAMP clearly arrested C6 cell proliferation and altered their morphology. Its antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing activity in C6 glioma cells involved upregulation of p219WAF/CIP), p27(kip1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Cx43, as well as downregulation of vimentin. Furthermore, dbcAMP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in a time-dependent manner and altered the colocalization pattern of phospho-Src and the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, dbcAMP upregulated the enzyme activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and, in parallel, enhanced cellular acetyllysine levels. Finally, the hyperacetylation-inducing compound, sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, displayed similar anticancer activity to dbcAMP. Therefore, our data suggest that antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of dbcAMP may be generated by its enhanced hyperacetylation function.

  19. Double electron–electron resonance reveals cAMP-induced conformational change in HCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Zagotta, William N.; Stoll, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Binding of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels regulates their gating. cAMP binds to a conserved intracellular cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in the channel, increasing the rate and extent of activation of the channel and shifting activation to less hyperpolarized voltages. The structural mechanism underlying this regulation, however, is unknown. We used double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy to directly map the conformational ensembles of the CNBD in the absence and presence of cAMP. Site-directed, double-cysteine mutants in a soluble CNBD fragment were spin-labeled, and interspin label distance distributions were determined using DEER. We found motions of up to 10 Å induced by the binding of cAMP. In addition, the distributions were narrower in the presence of cAMP. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed changes in mobility associated with cAMP binding, indicating less conformational heterogeneity in the cAMP-bound state. From the measured DEER distributions, we constructed a coarse-grained elastic-network structural model of the cAMP-induced conformational transition. We find that binding of cAMP triggers a reorientation of several helices within the CNBD, including the C-helix closest to the cAMP-binding site. These results provide a basis for understanding how the binding of cAMP is coupled to channel opening in HCN and related channels. PMID:24958877

  20. cAMP-Induced Histones H3 Dephosphorylation Is Independent of PKA and MAP Kinase Activations and Correlates With mTOR Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Rojas, Juan

    2016-03-01

    cAMP is a second messenger well documented to be involved in the phosphorylation of PKA, MAP kinase, and histone H3 (H3). Early, we reported that cAMP also induced H3 dephosphorylation in a variety of proliferating cell lines. Herein, it is shown that cAMP elicits a biphasic H3 dephosphorylation independent of PKA activation in cycling cells. H89, a potent inhibitor of PKA catalytic sub-unite, could not abolish this effect. Additionally, H89 induces a rapid and biphasic H3 serine 10 dephosphorylation, while a decline in the basal phosphorylation of CREB/ATF-1 is observed. Rp-cAMPS, an analog of cAMP and specific inhibitor of PKA, is unable to suppress cAMP-mediated H3 dephosphorylation, whereas Rp-cAMPS effectively blocks CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation by cAMP and its inducers. Interestingly, cAMP exerts a rapid and profound H3 dephosphorylation at much lower concentration (50-fold lower, 0.125 mM) than the concentration required for maximal CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation (5 mM). Much higher cAMP concentration is required to fully induce CREB/ATF-1 gain in phosphate (5 mM), which correlates with the inhibition of H3 dephosphorylation. Also, the dephosphorylation of H3 does not overlap at onset of MAP kinase phosphorylation pathways, p38 and ERK. Surprisingly, rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), cAMP, and its natural inducer isoproterenol, elicit identical dephosphorylation kinetics on both S6K1 ribosomal kinase (a downstream mTOR target) and H3. Finally, cAMP-induced H3 dephosphorylation is PP1/2-dependent. The results suggest that a pathway, requiring much lower cAMP concentration to that required for CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation, is responsible for histone H3 dephosphorylation and may be linked to mTOR down regulation.

  1. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  2. PKA and Epac activation mediates cAMP-induced vasorelaxation by increasing endothelial NO production.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Verónica; Cuíñas, Andrea; Elíes, Jacobo; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Vascular relaxation induced by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent, although the underlying signaling pathways are not fully understood. Aiming to uncover potential mechanisms, we performed contraction-relaxation experiments on endothelium-denuded and intact rat aorta rings and measured NO levels in isolated human endothelial cells using single cell fluorescence imaging. The vasorelaxant effect of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, was decreased after selective inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), a cAMP-activated kinase, or L-NAME, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, only in intact aortic rings. Both selective activation of PKA with 6-Bnz-cAMP and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions. The vasorelaxant effect of the Epac activator, but not that of the PKA activator, was reduced by endothelium removal. Forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP (a cAMP analogue), 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP increased NO levels in endothelial cells and the forskolin effect was significantly inhibited by inactivation of both Epac and PKA, and eNOS inhibition. Our results indicate that the endothelium-dependent component of forskolin/cAMP-induced vasorelaxation is partially mediated by an increase in endothelial NO release due to an enhanced eNOS activity through PKA and Epac activation in endothelial cells.

  3. Cyclic AMP can promote APL progression and protect myeloid leukemia cells against anthracycline-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gausdal, G; Wergeland, A; Skavland, J; Nguyen, E; Pendino, F; Rouhee, N; McCormack, E; Herfindal, L; Kleppe, R; Havemann, U; Schwede, F; Bruserud, Ø; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Døskeland, S O

    2013-01-01

    We show that cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevating agents protect blasts from patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) against death induced by first-line anti-leukemic anthracyclines like daunorubicin (DNR). The cAMP effect was reproduced in NB4 APL cells, and shown to depend on activation of the generally cytoplasmic cAMP-kinase type I (PKA-I) rather than the perinuclear PKA-II. The protection of both NB4 cells and APL blasts was associated with (inactivating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser118 of pro-apoptotic Bad and (activating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser133 of the AML oncogene CREB. Either event would be expected to protect broadly against cell death, and we found cAMP elevation to protect also against 2-deoxyglucose, rotenone, proteasome inhibitor and a BH3-only mimetic. The in vitro findings were mirrored by the findings in NSG mice with orthotopic NB4 cell leukemia. The mice showed more rapid disease progression when given cAMP-increasing agents (prostaglandin E2 analog and theophylline), both with and without DNR chemotherapy. The all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced terminal APL cell differentiation is a cornerstone in current APL treatment and is enhanced by cAMP. We show also that ATRA-resistant APL cells, believed to be responsible for treatment failure with current ATRA-based treatment protocols, were protected by cAMP against death. This suggests that the beneficial pro-differentiating and non-beneficial pro-survival APL cell effects of cAMP should be weighed against each other. The results suggest also general awareness toward drugs that can affect bone marrow cAMP levels in leukemia patients. PMID:23449452

  4. Cyclic AMP can promote APL progression and protect myeloid leukemia cells against anthracycline-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gausdal, G; Wergeland, A; Skavland, J; Nguyen, E; Pendino, F; Rouhee, N; McCormack, E; Herfindal, L; Kleppe, R; Havemann, U; Schwede, F; Bruserud, O; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Døskeland, S O

    2013-02-28

    We show that cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevating agents protect blasts from patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) against death induced by first-line anti-leukemic anthracyclines like daunorubicin (DNR). The cAMP effect was reproduced in NB4 APL cells, and shown to depend on activation of the generally cytoplasmic cAMP-kinase type I (PKA-I) rather than the perinuclear PKA-II. The protection of both NB4 cells and APL blasts was associated with (inactivating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser118 of pro-apoptotic Bad and (activating) phosphorylation of PKA site Ser133 of the AML oncogene CREB. Either event would be expected to protect broadly against cell death, and we found cAMP elevation to protect also against 2-deoxyglucose, rotenone, proteasome inhibitor and a BH3-only mimetic. The in vitro findings were mirrored by the findings in NSG mice with orthotopic NB4 cell leukemia. The mice showed more rapid disease progression when given cAMP-increasing agents (prostaglandin E2 analog and theophylline), both with and without DNR chemotherapy. The all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced terminal APL cell differentiation is a cornerstone in current APL treatment and is enhanced by cAMP. We show also that ATRA-resistant APL cells, believed to be responsible for treatment failure with current ATRA-based treatment protocols, were protected by cAMP against death. This suggests that the beneficial pro-differentiating and non-beneficial pro-survival APL cell effects of cAMP should be weighed against each other. The results suggest also general awareness toward drugs that can affect bone marrow cAMP levels in leukemia patients.

  5. Changes in the expression of LIMP-2 during cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats: Effect of inhibition of leukocyte infiltration, cAMP and MAPKs early on in its development.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Violeta; Sarmiento, Nancy; Sánchez-Bernal, Carmen; Coveñas, Rafael; Hernández-Hernández, Angel; Calvo, José J; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP-2) is an important protein in lysosomal biogenesis and function and also plays a role in the tissue inflammatory response. It is known that lysosomes play a central role in acute pancreatitis, with inflammatory cell infiltration triggering the disease early on. In this study we report increases in pancreatic LIMP-2 protein and mRNA levels as early events that occur during the development of cerulein (Cer)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats. GdCl3, a macrophage inhibitor, but not FK506, a T lymphocyte inhibitor, was able to reverse the increase in LIMP-2 expression after Cer treatment, although such reversion was abolished if the animals were depleted of neutrophils due to a vinblastine sulfate pre-treatment. Immunostaining revealed that the cellular source of LIMP-2 was mainly acinar cells. Additionally, pre-treatments with the MAPKs inhibitors SP600125 and PD98059, inhibitors of JNK and ERK½ activation, respectively, but not of rolipram, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, suppressed the increase in the expression of LIMP-2 after Cer administration. Together, these results indicate that neutrophils are able to drive a macrophage activation that would regulate the increase in LIMP-2 expression during the early phase of Cer-induced AP, with the stress kinases JNK and ERK½ also playing a coordinated role in the increase of LIMP-2 expression due to Cer.

  6. Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Yoshihiko Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science ); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi ); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro )

    1989-04-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

  7. CREB modulates calcium signaling in cAMP-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linxia; Liu, Li; Thompson, Ryan; Chan, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Calcium signaling has a versatile role in many important cellular functions. Despite its importance, regulation of calcium signaling in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) has not been explored extensively. Our previous study revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enabled BMSCs to generate calcium signal upon stimulation by dopamine, KCl and glutamate. Concurrently, cAMP transiently activated the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in BMSCs. Activity of CREB can be modulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathway, however, whether the calcium signaling observed in cAMP-induced BMSCs requires CREB has not been investigated. In an effort to uncover the role of CREB in the generation of calcium signaling in response to modulators such as dopamine and KCl, we knocked down CREB activity in BMSCs. Our study indicated that BMSCs, but not its close relative fibroblasts, are responsive to dopamine and KCl after cAMP treatment. Calcium signal elicited by dopamine depends, in part, on calcium influx whereas that elicited by KCl depends completely on calcium influx. Knock-down of CREB activity significantly reduced or abolished the cAMP-induced calcium response, and reintroducing a constitutively active CREB partially restored the calcium response.

  8. Structural mechanisms in the abolishment of VEGF-induced microvascular hyperpermeability by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bingmei M; Shen, Shang; Chen, Bin

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the structural mechanisms by which elevation of the intraendothelial cAMP levels abolishes or attenuates the transient increase in microvascular permeability by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we examined cAMP effect on VEGF-induced hyperpermeability to small solute sodium fluorescein (Stokes radius = 0.45 nm) P(sodium fluorescein), intermediate-sized solute alpha-lactalbumin (Stokes radius = 2.01 nm) P(alpha-lactalbumin), and large solute albumin (BSA, Stokes radius = 3.5 nm) P(BSA) on individually perfused microvessels of frog mesenteries. After 20 min pretreatment of 2 mM cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, the initial increase by 1 nM VEGF was completely abolished in P(sodium fluorescein) (from a peak increase of 2.6+/-0.37 times control with VEGF alone to 0.96+/-0.07 times control with VEGF and cAMP), in P(alpha-lactalbumin) (from a peak increase of 2.7+/-0.33 times control with VEGF alone to 0.76+/-0.07 times control with VEGF and cAMP), and in P(BSA) (from a peak increase of 6.5+/-1.0 times control with VEGF alone to 0.97+/-0.08 times control with VEGF and cAMP). Based on these measured data, the prediction from our mathematical models suggested that the increase in the number of tight junction strands in the cleft between endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall is one of the mechanisms for the abolishment of VEGF-induced hyperpermeability by cAMP.

  9. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  10. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  11. 5-HT induces cAMP production in crypt colonocytes at a 5-HT4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F C; Smith, E H; Kellum, J M

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that both 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) induce chloride efflux from crypt colonocytes in the rat distal colon; antagonist studies suggest that the 5-HT response is mediated primarily by the 5-HT4 receptor. Since this receptor is known to be positively coupled to adenylate cyclase, we postulated that 5-HT should induce generation of cAMP, which should be inhibited by 5-HT4 antagonists. Method. Mucosal cells from rat distal colon were taken by a sequential calcium chelation technique for enrichment of crypt cells. Cytokeratin stains demonstrated that >99% of cells were colonocytes. [3H]Thymidine uptake studies demonstrate a fivefold increased incorporation in this cell preparation compared to earlier fractions. 3-Isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (IBMX, 100 microM) was added to all cell suspensions in order to prevent cAMP metabolism. Cell suspensions were incubated for 2 min at 37 degreesC with different concentrations of 5-HT (n = 7). cAMP was measured by enzyme immunoassay. In another series of experiments, 5-HT (0.3 microM) stimulation of cAMP was similarly measured in the presence and absence of 5-HT receptor antagonists: 10 microM 5-HTP-DP (5-HT1P; n = 4), 0.1 microM ketanserin (5-HT2A; n = 4), 0.3 microM ondansetron (5-HT3; n = 4), 3 microM tropisetron (5-HT3 and 5-HT4; n = 4), and 10 nM GR-113808 (5-HT4; n = 5). Results. 5-HT produced a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. The increase was significant at concentrations >/=0.3 microM when compared to cells incubated with IBMX alone. In the second series of experiment, 5-HT-induced generation of cAMP at a dose of 0.3 microM was significantly inhibited in the presence of GR-113808 and tropisetron. Conclusion. 5-HT acts at a 5-HT4 receptor to induce production of cAMP in rat distal crypt colonocytes.

  12. cAMP and EPAC Signaling Functionally Replace OCT4 During Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Ashley L; Adil, Maroof M; Mao, Sunnie R; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-01

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells--generated via the ectopic overexpression of reprogramming factors such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC (OSKM) in a differentiated cell type--has enabled groundbreaking research efforts in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery. Although initial studies have focused on the roles of nuclear factors, increasing evidence highlights the importance of signal transduction during reprogramming. By utilizing a quantitative, medium-throughput screen to initially identify signaling pathways that could potentially replace individual transcription factors during reprogramming, we initially found that several pathways--such as Notch, Smoothened, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling--were capable of generating alkaline phosphatase positive colonies in the absence of OCT4, the most stringently required Yamanaka factor. After further investigation, we discovered that cAMP signal activation could functionally replace OCT4 to induce pluripotency, and results indicate that the downstream exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling pathway rather than protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is necessary and sufficient for this function. cAMP signaling may reduce barriers to reprogramming by contributing to downstream epithelial gene expression, decreasing mesenchymal gene expression, and increasing proliferation. Ultimately, these results elucidate mechanisms that could lead to new reprogramming methodologies and advance our understanding of stem cell biology.

  13. The role of ventral striatal cAMP signaling in stress-induced behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Hernandez, Adan; Benavides, David R.; Tassin, Tara C.; Tan, Chunfeng; Day, Jonathan; Fina, Maggy W.; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Yan, Zhen; Goldberg, Matthew S.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Nestler, Eric J.; Taussig, Ronald; Nishi, Akinori; Houslay, Miles D.; Bibb, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signaling cascade is a ubiquitous pathway acting downstream of multiple neuromodulators. We found that the phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) facilitates cAMP degradation and homeostasis of cAMP/PKA signaling. In mice, loss of Cdk5 throughout the forebrain elevated cAMP levels and increased PKA activity in striatal neurons, and altered behavioral responses to acute or chronic stressors. Ventral striatum- or D1 dopamine receptor-specific conditional knockout of Cdk5, or ventral striatum infusion of a small interfering peptide that selectively targets the regulation of PDE4 by Cdk5, all produced analogical effects on stress-induced behavioral responses. Together, our results demonstrate that altering cAMP signaling in medium spiny neurons of the ventral striatum can effectively modulate stress-induced behavioral states. We propose that targeting the Cdk5 regulation of PDE4 could be a new therapeutic approach for clinical conditions associated with stress, such as depression. PMID:26192746

  14. Cyclic AMP induces IPC leukemia cell apoptosis via CRE-and CDK-dependent Bim transcription.

    PubMed

    Huseby, S; Gausdal, G; Keen, T J; Kjærland, E; Krakstad, C; Myhren, L; Brønstad, K; Kunick, C; Schwede, F; Genieser, H-G; Kleppe, R; Døskeland, S O

    2011-12-08

    The IPC-81 cell line is derived from the transplantable BNML model of acute myelogenic leukemia (AML), known to be a reliable predictor of the clinical efficiency of antileukemic agents, like the first-line AML anthracycline drug daunorubicin (DNR). We show here that cAMP acted synergistically with DNR to induce IPC cell death. The DNR-induced death differed from that induced by cAMP by (1) not involving Bim induction, (2) being abrogated by GSK3β inhibitors, (3) by being promoted by the HSP90/p23 antagonist geldanamycin and truncated p23 and (4) by being insensitive to the CRE binding protein (CREB) antagonist ICER and to cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. In contrast, the apoptosis induced by cAMP correlated tightly with Bim protein expression. It was abrogated by Bim (BCL2L11) downregulation, whether achieved by the CREB antagonist ICER, by CDK inhibitors, by Bim-directed RNAi, or by protein synthesis inhibitor. The forced expression of BimL killed IPC-81(WT) cells rapidly, Bcl2-overexpressing cells being partially resistant. The pivotal role of CREB and CDK activity for Bim transcription is unprecedented. It is also noteworthy that newly developed cAMP analogs specifically activating PKA isozyme I (PKA-I) were able to induce IPC cell apoptosis. Our findings support the notion that AML cells may possess targetable death pathways not exploited by common anti-cancer agents.

  15. Involvement of cyclic AMP in the regulations of lymphokine induced glia cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fontana, A; Jost, R; Balsiger, S; Grob, P; Grieder, A

    1981-11-01

    T and B lymphocytes of human or murine origin were found to secrete a factor which increases the DNA and RNA synthesis of cultured glia cells. This factor, termed glia cell stimulating factor (GSF), is released upon stimulation of such immune cells by mitogen or antigen qualifying it as a lymphokine. In this communication we report on the role of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in regulating the effect of GSF on glia cells. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), isoproterenol and theophylline were effective in suppressing the GSF-induced increase of the glia cell proliferation. No inhibition of DNA synthesis and no decrease in cell number was observed when testing these substances on glia cells not being activated by GSF. The drugs were found to induce an increase in cAMP concentrations of glia cells. A partial desensitization of the glia cells to these drug induced elevations of cAMP was detected after pretreatment of the glia cell cultures with GSF. It is suggested that stimulated lymphocytes not only release GSF but also low molecular weight proteins such as PGE1 which regulate the effects of GSF on glia cells by activating their adenylate cyclase.

  16. The β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) does not induce ampC β-lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Miossec, Christine; Claudon, Monique; Levasseur, Premavathy; Black, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Induction of ampC β-lactamase expression can often compromise antibiotic treatment and is triggered by several β-lactams (such as cefoxitin and imipenem) and by the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. The novel β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (NXL104) is a potent inhibitor of both class A and class C enzymes. The potential of avibactam for induction of ampC expression in Enterobacter cloacae was investigated by ampC messenger ribonucleic acid quantitation. Cefoxitin and clavulanic acid were confirmed as ampC inducers, whereas avibactam was found to exert no effect on ampC expression. Thus, avibactam is unlikely to diminish the activity of any partner β-lactam antibiotic against AmpC-producing organisms. PMID:24348054

  17. Autocrine activation of neuronal NMDA receptors by aspartate mediates dopamine- and cAMP-induced CREB-dependent gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Luis E. F.; Murray, Peter D.; Zielke, H. Ronald; Roby, Clinton D.; Kingsbury, Tami J.; Krueger, Bruce K.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic AMP can stimulate the transcription of many activity-dependent genes via activation of the transcription factor, CREB. However, in mouse cortical neuron cultures, prior to synaptogenesis, neither cAMP nor dopamine, which acts via cAMP, stimulated CREB-dependent gene transcription when NR2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were blocked. Stimulation of transcription by cAMP was potentiated by inhibitors of excitatory amino acid uptake, suggesting a role for extracellular glutamate or aspartate in cAMP-induced transcription. Aspartate was identified as the extracellular messenger: enzymatic scavenging of L-aspartate, but not glutamate, blocked stimulation of CREB-dependent gene transcription by cAMP; moreover, cAMP induced aspartate but not glutamate release. Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP acts via an autocrine or paracrine pathway to release aspartate, which activates NR2B-containing NMDARs, leading to Ca2+ entry and activation of transcription. This cAMP/aspartate/NMDAR signaling pathway may mediate the effects of transmitters such as dopamine on axon growth and synaptogenesis in developing neurons or on synaptic plasticity in mature neural networks. PMID:19812345

  18. Evidence that glucocorticoid- and cyclic AMP-induced apoptotic pathways in lymphocytes share distal events.

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, D R; Miesfeld, R L

    1992-01-01

    WEHI7.2 murine lymphocytes undergo apoptotic death when exposed to glucocorticoids or elevated levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), and these pathways are initiated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and protein kinase A, respectively. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel WEHI7.2 variant cell line, WR256, which was selected in a single step for growth in the presence of dexamethasone and arose at a frequency of approximately 10(-10). The defect was not GR-related, as WR256 expressed functional GR and underwent GR-dependent events associated with apoptosis, such as hormone-dependent gene transcription and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, the glucocorticoid-resistant phenotype was stable in culture and did not revert after treatment with 5-azacytidine or upon stable expression of GR cDNA. In addition, WR256 did not exhibit the diminished mitochondrial activity commonly associated with apoptosis. Interestingly, WR256 was also found to be resistant to 8-bromo-cAMP and forskolin despite having normal levels of protein kinase A activity and the ability to induce cAMP-dependent transcription. We examined the steady-state transcript levels of bcl-2, a gene whose protein product acts dominantly to inhibit thymocyte apoptosis, to determine whether elevated bcl-2 expression could account for the resistant phenotype. Our data showed that bcl-2 RNA levels were similar in the two cell lines and not altered by either dexamethasone or 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. These results suggest that WR256 exhibits a "deathless" phenotype and has a unique defect in a step of the apoptotic cascade that may be common to the glucocorticoid- and cAMP-mediated cell death pathways. Images PMID:1378529

  19. Resveratrol attenuates vascular endothelial inflammation by inducing autophagy through the cAMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Liang; Yi, Long; Jin, Xin; Liang, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Ting; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Xi; Chang, Hui; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Jun-Dong; Zhang, Qian-Yong; Mi, Man-Tian

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation participates centrally in all stages of atherosclerosis (AS), which begins with inflammatory changes in the endothelium, characterized by expression of the adhesion molecules. Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring phytoalexin that can attenuate endothelial inflammation; however, the exact mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Autophagy refers to the normal process of cell degradation of proteins and organelles, and is protective against certain inflammatory injuries. Thus, we intended to determine the role of autophagy in the antiinflammatory effects of RSV in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that RSV pretreatment reduced tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF/TNF?)-induced inflammation and increased MAP1LC3B2 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 ? 2) expression and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) degradation in a concentration-dependent manner. A bafilomycin A 1 (BafA1) challenge resulted in further accumulation of MAP1LC3B2 in HUVECs. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA), chloroquine as well as ATG5 and BECN1 siRNA significantly attenuated RSV-induced autophagy, which, subsequently, suppressed the downregulation of RSV-induced inflammatory factors expression. RSV also increased cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) content, the expression of PRKA (protein kinase A) and SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), as well as the activity of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). RSV-induced autophagy in HUVECs was abolished in the presence of inhibitors of ADCY (adenylyl cyclase, KH7), PRKA (H-89), AMPK (compound C), or SIRT1 (nicotinamide and EX-527), as well as ADCY, PRKA, AMPK, and SIRT1 siRNA transfection, indicating that the effects of RSV on autophagy induction were dependent on cAMP, PRKA, AMPK and SIRT1. In conclusion, RSV attenuates endothelial inflammation by inducing autophagy, and the autophagy in part was mediated through the activation of the cAMP-PRKA-AMPK-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  20. Glucose- and Hormone-Induced cAMP Oscillations in α- and β-Cells Within Intact Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Sandler, Stellan; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE cAMP is a critical messenger for insulin and glucagon secretion from pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. Dispersed β-cells show cAMP oscillations, but the signaling kinetics in cells within intact islets of Langerhans is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The subplasma-membrane cAMP concentration ([cAMP]pm) was recorded in α- and β-cells in the mantle of intact mouse pancreatic islets using total internal reflection microscopy and a fluorescent translocation biosensor. Cell identification was based on the opposite effects of adrenaline on cAMP in α- and β-cells. RESULTS In islets exposed to 3 mmol/L glucose, [cAMP]pm was low and stable. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) induced dose-dependent elevation of [cAMP]pm, often with oscillations synchronized among β-cells. Whereas glucagon also induced [cAMP]pm oscillations in most α-cells, <20% of the α-cells responded to GLP-1. Elevation of the glucose concentration to 11–30 mmol/L in the absence of hormones induced slow [cAMP]pm oscillations in both α- and β-cells. These cAMP oscillations were coordinated with those of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the β-cells but not caused by the changes in [Ca2+]i. The transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitor 2′5′-dideoxyadenosine suppressed the glucose- and hormone-induced [cAMP]pm elevations, whereas the preferential inhibitors of soluble AC, KH7, and 1,3,5(10)-estratrien-2,3,17-β-triol perturbed cell metabolism and lacked effect, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Oscillatory [cAMP]pm signaling in secretagogue-stimulated β-cells is maintained within intact islets and depends on transmembrane AC activity. The discovery of glucose- and glucagon-induced [cAMP]pm oscillations in α-cells indicates the involvement of cAMP in the regulation of pulsatile glucagon secretion. PMID:21444924

  1. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  2. Intracellular cAMP increases during the positive inotropism induced by androgens in isolated left atrium of rat.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Lucía; Sánchez, Manuel; Rubín, José Manuel; Hidalgo, Agustín; Bordallo, Carmen; Cantabrana, Begoña

    2002-03-01

    Molecular interactions of androgens with the plasma membrane may produce rapid cardiovascular effects that cannot be explained by the classic genomic mechanisms. In this sense, 5 alpha- and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone-induced an acute positive inotropic effect in isolated left atrium of rat, an effect which may be due to cAMP-dependent mechanisms. To prove this, intracellular levels of cAMP, after exposure to androgens in the organ bath, and binding to beta(1)-adrenoceptors were evaluated. After a 4-min exposure, 5 alpha- and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone increased cAMP levels from 3.83+/-0.61 to 6.15+/-1.1 and 11.18+/-2.4 pmol cAMP/mg of protein, respectively. These increases were inhibited by atenolol and not modified by treatment of the rats with reserpine. The androgen-induced cAMP increase seems to be produced via an extracellular interaction, because positive inotropism and raised levels of cAMP were produced by 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, it is independent of beta(1)-adrenoceptor activation, because neither androgen displaced [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol binding. Therefore, the androgens induced a positive inotropic effect via a postsynaptic effect that increases intracellular levels of cAMP. This effect is modulated by transcriptional mechanisms or by a protein with a short half-life.

  3. The small molecule PKA-specific cyclic AMP analogue as an inducer of osteoblast-like cells differentiation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kevin W-H; Kan, Ho Man; Ashe, Keshia M; Laurencin, Cato T

    2012-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation is an important landmark for bone formation, bone repair and regeneration; however, it is a very complex process controlled by different signalling mechanisms. Several groups have reported that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling system is responsible for regulating osteoblast cell differentiation. Nonetheless, to date, the principle role of the cAMP molecules related to this process remains controversial. Moreover, the underlying cAMP-dependent signalling cascade governing the osteoblastic differentiation has not been clarified. In this study we investigated the roles of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signalling in proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, using the PKA-specific small molecule cAMP analogue, 6-Bnz-cAMP, at 100 µM. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, runt transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) protein expressions were used as osteoblast-specific markers to demonstrate osteoblastic differentiation. Further, calcium measurement of the extracellular matrix was employed as the hallmark of matrix mineralization or calcification. We report here that activation of PKA by the small molecule 6-Bnz-cAMP induces osteoblastic differentiation and matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, 6-Bnz-cAMP does not induce cytotoxicity to the cells, as revealed by our cell proliferation studies. Therefore, based on these findings, we propose that the PKA-specific small molecule 6-Bnz-cAMP may serve as a novel bone-inducing growth factor for repairing and regenerating bone tissues during bone-regenerative engineering.

  4. AmpA protein functions by different mechanisms to influence early cell type specification and to modulate cell adhesion and actin polymerization in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Cost, Hoa N; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2013-01-01

    The Dictyostelium discoideum ampA gene encodes a multifunctional regulator protein that modulates cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions and actin polymerization during growth and is necessary for correct cell type specification and patterning during development. Insertional inactivation of the ampA gene results in defects that define two distinct roles for the ampA gene during development. AmpA is necessary in a non-cell autonomous manner to prevent premature expression of a prespore gene marker. It is also necessary in a cell autonomous manner for the anterior like cells, which express the ampA gene, to migrate to the upper cup during culmination. It is also necessary to prevent excessive cell-cell agglutination when cells are developed in a submerged suspension culture. Here, we demonstrate that a supernatant source of AmpA protein, added extracellularly, can prevent the premature mis-expression of the prespore marker. Synthetic oligopeptides are used to identify the domain of the AmpA protein that is important for preventing cells from mis-expressing the prespore gene. We further demonstrate that a factor capable of inducing additional cells to express the prespore gene marker accumulates extracellularly in the absence of AmpA protein. While the secreted AmpA acts extracellularly to suppress prespore gene expression, the effects of AmpA on cell agglutination and on actin polymerization in growing cells are not due to an extracellular role of secreted AmpA protein. Rather, these effects appear to reflect a distinct cell autonomous role of the ampA gene. Finally, we show that secretion of AmpA protein is brought about by elevating the levels of expression of ampA so that the protein accumulates to an excessive level.

  5. Dual chemotaxis signalling regulates Dictyostelium development: intercellular cyclic AMP pulses and intracellular F-actin disassembly waves induce each other.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Michael G; Grutsch, James F

    2008-10-01

    Aggregating Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae periodically emit and relay cAMP, which regulates their chemotaxis and morphogenesis into a multicellular, differentiated organism. Cyclic AMP also stimulates F-actin assembly and chemotactic pseudopodium extension. We used actin-GFP expression to visualise for the first time intracellular F-actin assembly as a spatio-temporal indicator of cell reactions to cAMP, and thus the kinematics of cell communication, in aggregating streams. Every natural cAMP signal pulse induces an autowave of F-actin disassembly, which propagates from each cell's leading end to its trailing end at a linear rate, much slower than the calculated and measured velocities of cAMP diffusion in aggregating Dictyostelium. A sequence of transient reactions follows behind the wave, including anterior F-actin assembly, chemotactic pseudopodium extension and cell advance at the cell front and, at the back, F-actin assembly, extension of a small retrograde pseudopodium (forcing a brief cell retreat) and chemotactic stimulation of the following cell, yielding a 20s cAMP relay delay. These dynamics indicate that stream cell behaviour is mediated by a dual signalling system: a short-range cAMP pulse directed from one cell tail to an immediately following cell front and a slower, long-range wave of intracellular F-actin disassembly, each inducing the other.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase on Scopolamine Induced Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Ho; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Song, Joo-Hyun; Ha, Joohun

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, is activated in response to cellular stress when intracellular levels of AMP increase. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of AMPK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. An adenovirus expressing AMPK wild type alpha subunit (WT) or a dominant negative form (DN) was injected into the hippocampus of rats using a stereotaxic apparatus. The AMPK WT-injected rats showed significant reversal of the scopolamine induced cognitive deficit as evaluated by escape latency in the Morris water maze. In addition, they showed enhanced acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-reactive neurons in the hippocampus, implying increased cholinergic activity in response to AMPK. We also studied the cellular mechanism by which AMPK protects against glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrated that AMPK WT-infected cells increased cell viability and reduced Annexin V positive hippocampal neurons. Western blot analysis indicated that AMPK WT-infected cells reduced the expression of Bax and had no effects on Bcl-2, which resulted in a decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These data suggest that AMPK is a useful cognitive impairment treatment target, and that its beneficial effects are mediated via the protective capacity of hippocampal neurons. PMID:23946693

  7. cAMP/PKA enhances interleukin-1β-induced interleukin-6 synthesis through STAT3 in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kumiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iida, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that interleukin (IL)-1β induces IL-6 synthesis via activation of the IκB/NFκB pathway, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, but not p44/p42 MAP kinase in rat glioma cell line, C6 cells and that cAMP enhances the IL-6 synthesis. However, the details behind enhancement of IL-1β-induced IL-6 synthesis by cAMP remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the exact mechanism of cAMP underlying the amplification of IL-1β-induced IL-6 synthesis in C6 cells. 8-Bromo cAMP significantly enhanced IL-1β-induced STAT3 phosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation of IκB, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. In addition, we found that forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly enhanced IL-1β-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Janus family of tyrosine kinase (JAK) inhibitor I markedly suppressed the amplification by 8-bromo cAMP of IL-1β-induced IL-6 release. IL-1β induced JAK2 phosphorylation, and FLLL32, a specific JAK2 inhibitor, significantly reduced IL-1β-stimulated IL-6 release. 4-Cyano-3-methylisoquinoline, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), significantly attenuated the enhancing effect of 8-bromo cAMP on IL-1β-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. 8-Bromo cAMP markedly induced JAK2 phosphorylation. PKA siRNA transfection reduced enhancement of IL-1β-induced IL-6 release by 8-bromo cAMP. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/PKA pathway upregulates IL-1β-induced IL-6 synthesis through enhancement of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in C6 glioma cells.

  8. Modulation by cyclic AMP and phorbol myristate acetate of cephaloridine-induced injury in rat renal cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Y; Gemba, M

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways of cAMP and protein kinase C (PKC) have been suggested to modulate the generation of free radicals. We investigated the effects of cAMP and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, on cephaloridine (CER)-induced renal cell injury, which has been reported to be due to the generation of free radicals. Incubation of rat renal cortical slices with CER resulted in increases in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and in decreases in gluconeogenesis and p-aminohippurate (PAH) accumulation in rat renal cortical slices, suggesting free radical-induced injury in slices exposed to CER. A derivative of cAMP ameliorated not only the increase in lipid peroxidation but also the renal cell damage induced by CER. This amelioration by a cAMP derivative of lipid peroxidation and renal cell damage caused by CER was blocked by KT 5720, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Lipid peroxidation and the indices of cell injury were increased by PMA. PMA also enhanced CER-induced lipid peroxidation and cell damage in the slices. This enhancement by PMA of CER-induced injury was blocked by H-7, a PKC inhibitor. These results indicated that intracellular signaling pathways of cAMP and PKC modulate free radical-mediated nephrotoxicity induced by CER.

  9. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  10. Secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 through cAMP-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Soo; Yumkham, Sanatombi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Yea, Kyungmoo; Shin, You Chan; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-02-28

    The gastrointestinal functions of secretin have been fairly well established. However, its function and mode of action within the nervous system remain largely unclear. To gain insight into this area, we have attempted to determine the effects of secretin on neuronal differentiation. Here, we report that secretin induces the generation of neurite outgrowth in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The expressions of Tau and beta-tubulin, neuronal differentiation markers, are increased upon secretin stimulation. In addition, secretin induces sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and also stimulates the cAMP secretion. Moreover, the neurite outgrowth elicited by secretin is suppressed to a marked degree in the presence of either PD98059, a specific MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or H89, a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells through cAMP- MAPK pathway, and provide a novel insight into the manner in which secretin participates in neuritogenesis.

  11. Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

  12. Inhibitory effects of cyclic AMP elevating agents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microvascular permeability change in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Irie, K; Fujii, E; Ishida, H; Wada, K; Suganuma, T; Nishikori, T; Yoshioka, T; Muraki, T

    2001-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of cyclic AMP elevating agents were examined in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microvascular permeability change. Vascular permeability on the back skin was measured by the local accumulation of Pontamine sky blue (PSB) after subcutaneous injection of LPS (400 microg site-1) from Salmonella typhimurium. Dye leakage in the skin was significantly increased 2 h after injection of LPS. This LPS-induced dye leakage was suppressed by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, including pentoxifylline (160 mg kg-1), milrinone (5 - 10 mg kg-1), rolipram (0.5 - 10 mg kg-1) and zaprinast (5 - 10 mg kg-1). The dye leakage was also inhibited by beta-adrenoceptor agonists, including isoproterenol (0.5 - 5 mg kg-1) and salbutamol (0.05 - 5 mg kg-1), an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (5 mg kg-1), and a cell permeable cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP, 10 mg kg-1). LPS caused a transient increase in serum TNF-alpha level peaking at 1 h after the injection. This increase in serum TNF-alpha was completely blocked by a pretreatment with pentoxifylline (160 mg kg-1), milrinone (5 mg kg-1), rolipram (1 mg kg-1), zaprinast (10 mg kg-1), salbutamol (0.5 mg kg-1), forskolin (1 mg kg-1) and 8-Br-cAMP (10 mg kg-1). LPS caused an increase in serum IL-1alpha level peaking at 3 h after injection. This increase in serum IL-1alpha was not significantly suppressed by the cyclic AMP elevating agents. Our study suggests that cyclic AMP elevating agents attenuate LPS-induced microvascular permeability change by suppressing TNF-alpha up regulation.

  13. Abnormal Mitochondrial cAMP/PKA Signaling Is Involved in Sepsis-Induced Mitochondrial and Myocardial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Neviere, Remi; Delguste, Florian; Durand, Arthur; Inamo, Jocelyn; Boulanger, Eric; Preau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors couple to Gs-proteins leading to transmembrane adenylyl cyclase activation and cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. Cyclic AMP is also produced in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates respiration through protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of respiratory chain complexes. We hypothesized that a blunted mitochondrial cAMP-PKA pathway would participate in sepsis-induced heart dysfunction. Adult male mice were subjected to intra-abdominal sepsis. Mitochondrial respiration of cardiac fibers and myocardial contractile performance were evaluated in response to 8Br-cAMP, PKA inhibition (H89), soluble adenylyl cyclase inhibition (KH7), and phosphodiesterase inhibition (IBMX; BAY60-7550). Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiratory rates of cardiac fibers were reduced in septic mice. Compared with controls, stimulatory effects of 8Br-cAMP on respiration rates were enhanced in septic fibers, whereas inhibitory effects of H89 were reduced. Ser-58 phosphorylation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV-1 was reduced in septic hearts. In vitro, incubation of septic cardiac fibers with BAY60-7550 increased respiratory control ratio and improved cardiac MVO2 efficiency in isolated septic heart. In vivo, BAY60-7550 pre-treatment of septic mice have limited impact on myocardial function. Mitochondrial cAMP-PKA signaling is impaired in the septic myocardium. PDE2 phosphodiesterase inhibition by BAY60-7550 improves mitochondrial respiration and cardiac MVO2 efficiency in septic mice. PMID:27973394

  14. Berberine attenuates cAMP-induced lipolysis via reducing the inhibition of phosphodiesterase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Ying; Wu, Ling; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rong; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Ning; Chen, Mingdao; Ning, Guang

    2011-04-01

    Berberine, a hypoglycemic agent, has been shown to decrease plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) level in insulin-resistant rats. In the present study, we explored the mechanism responsible for the antilipolytic effect of berberine in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It was shown that berberine attenuated lipolysis induced by catecholamines, cAMP-raising agents, and a hydrolyzable cAMP analog, but not by tumor necrosis factor α and a nonhydrolyzable cAMP analog. Unlike insulin, the inhibitory effect of berberine on lipolysis in response to isoproterenol was not abrogated by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but additive to that of PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor. Prior exposure of adipocytes to berberine decreased the intracellular cAMP production induced by isoproterenol, forskolin, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), along with hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) Ser-563 and Ser-660 dephosphorylation, but had no effect on perilipin phosphorylation. Berberine stimulated HSL Ser-565 as well as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. However, compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, did not reverse the regulatory effect of berberine on HSL Ser-563, Ser-660, and Ser-565 phosphorylation, nor the antilipolytic effect of berberine. Knockdown of AMPK using RNA interference also failed to restore berberine-suppressed lipolysis. cAMP-raising agents increased AMPK activity, which was not additive to that of berberine. Stimulation of adipocytes with berberine increased phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3B and PDE4 activity measured by hydrolysis of (3)[H]cAMP. These results suggest that berberine exerts an antilipolytic effect mainly by reducing the inhibition of PDE, leading to a decrease in cAMP and HSL phosphorylation independent of AMPK pathway.

  15. Dissociation of dorsal root ganglion neurons induces hyperexcitability that is maintained by increased responsiveness to cAMP and cGMP.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Hong; Walters, Edgar T; Song, Xue-Jun

    2007-01-01

    Injury or inflammation affecting sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causes hyperexcitability of DRG neurons that can lead to spontaneous firing and neuropathic pain. Recent results indicate that after chronic compression of DRG (CCD treatment), both hyperexcitability of neurons in intact DRG and behaviorally expressed hyperalgesia are maintained by concurrent activity in cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathways. We report here that when tested under identical conditions, dissociation produces a pattern of hyperexcitability in small DRG neurons similar to that produced by CCD treatment, manifest as decreased action potential (AP) current threshold, increased AP duration, increased repetitive firing to depolarizing pulses, increased spontaneous firing and resting depolarization. A novel feature of this hyperexcitability is its early expression-as soon as testing can be conducted after dissociation (approximately 2 h). Both forms of injury increase the electrophysiological responsiveness of the neurons to activation of cAMP-PKA and cGMP-PKG pathways as indicated by enhancement of hyperexcitability by agonists of these pathways in dissociated or CCD-treated neurons but not in control neurons. Although inflammatory signals are known to activate cAMP-PKA pathways, dissociation-induced hyperexcitability is unlikely to be triggered by signals released from inflammatory cells recruited to the DRG because of insufficient time for recruitment during the dissociation procedure. Inhibition by specific antagonists indicates that continuing activation of cAMP-PKA and cGMP-PKG pathways is required to maintain hyperexcitability after dissociation. The reduction of hyperexcitability by blockers of adenylyl cyclase and soluble guanylyl cyclase after dissociation suggests a continuing release of autocrine and/or paracrine factors from dissociated neurons and/or satellite cells, which activate both cyclases and help to maintain acute

  16. Glucose starvation-induced dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is cAMP and energy dependent.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tran T; McDougald, Diane; Klebensberger, Janosch; Al Qarni, Budoor; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Schleheck, David

    2012-01-01

    Carbon starvation has been shown to induce a massive dispersal event in biofilms of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, the molecular pathways controlling this dispersal response remain unknown. We quantified changes in the proteome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and planktonic cells during glucose starvation by differential peptide-fingerprint mass-spectrometry (iTRAQ). In addition, we monitored dispersal photometrically, as a decrease in turbidity/opacity of biofilms pre-grown and starved in continuous flow-cells, in order to evaluate treatments (e.g. inhibitors CCCP, arsenate, chloramphenicol, L-serine hydroxamate) and key mutants altered in biofilm development and dispersal (e.g. nirS, vfr, bdlA, rpoS, lasRrhlR, Pf4-bacteriophage and cyaA). In wild-type biofilms, dispersal started within five minutes of glucose starvation, was maximal after 2 h, and up to 60% of the original biomass had dispersed after 24 h of starvation. The changes in protein synthesis were generally not more than two fold and indicated that more than 100 proteins belonging to various classes, including carbon and energy metabolism, stress adaptation, and motility, were differentially expressed. For the different treatments, only the proton-ionophore CCCP or arsenate, an inhibitor of ATP synthesis, prevented dispersal of the biofilms. For the different mutants tested, only cyaA, the synthase of the intracellular second messenger cAMP, failed to disperse; complementation of the cyaA mutation restored the wild-type phenotype. Hence, the pathway for carbon starvation-induced biofilm dispersal in P. aeruginosa PAO1 involves ATP production via direct ATP synthesis and proton-motive force dependent step(s) and is mediated through cAMP, which is likely to control the activity of proteins involved in remodeling biofilm cells in preparation for planktonic survival.

  17. Mathematical model of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in constitutive and UV-induced melanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2002-07-01

    Cascade of reactions of cAMP-dependent signaling pathway in melanocytes is investigated by mathematical modeling. Model takes into account (alpha) -melanocyte stimulating hormone binding to melanocortin-1 receptor, adenylate cyclase activation by G-protein, increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration, PKA activation by cAMP, CREB phosphorylation by PKA, microphthalmia gene expression, microphthalmia binding to tyrosinase gene promoter, increase of tyrosinase synthesis. Positive and negative feedback loops of this system are analyzed.

  18. The role of quorum sensing system in antimicrobial induced ampC expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingming; Jiang, Handong; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Wang, Junfei; Dong, Liang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quorum sensing (QS) systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) on the expression of ampC gene induced by antibiotics. An in vitro dynamic model of P. aeruginosa biofilms was established in a silicon tube in once-flowthrough system at 37 °C. Biofilm generation was identified by argentation. Biofilm morphology of standard P. aeruginosa strain (PAO-1) and QS systems deficient strains (PDO100, rhlI deficient strain; PAO-JP1, lasI deficient strain; and PAO-MW1, rhlI and lasI deficient strain) were observed by optical microscope. The expression of ampC in PAO1, PAO1 with QS inhibitor (furanone C-30) and the QS deficient strains before and after induced by antibiotics were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The biofilms of PAO-1 and PDO100 were much thicker and denser than that of PAO-JP1 and PAO-MW1. Being induced by antibiotics, the expression of ampC in PAO1 and PDO100 was significantly higher than that in PAO-MW1 and PAO-JP1. With the effect of furanone C-30, the expression of ampC in PAO1 induced by antibiotics was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. QS system, especially the las system, plays an important role in both biofilm formation and antimicrobials induced ampC expression and furanone C-30 is a potent inhibitor for P. aeruginosa QS system.

  19. Control of biodegradative threonine dehydratase inducibility by cyclic AMP in energy-restricted Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A T; Egan, R M; Lewis, B

    1978-01-01

    To explain the requirement for anaerobic conditions in the induction of biodegradative L-threonine dehydratase in Escherichia coli, Crookes strain, measurements of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were made during aerobic and anaerobic growth and upon an aerobic-to-anaerobic transition. Internal cAMP levels were similar (5 to 10 muM) throughout exponential growth, whether aerobic or anaerobic, but only during anaerobiosis was threonine dehydratase synthesized. When an exponentially growing aerobic culture was made anaerobic, a sharp increase in internal cAMP was noted, reaching 300 muM within 10 min and declining thereafter to normal anaerobic levels. Threonine dehydratase synthesis was detected immediately after the attainment of peak cAMP levels and continued for several generations. A similar pattern but with less accumulation of cAMP and less threonine dehydratase production was also noted upon treatment of an aerobically growing culture with KCN. Pyruvate addition at the time of anaerobic shock severely affected both cAMP accumulation and threonine dehydratase synthesis; however, externally added cAMP could partially counter the pyruvate effect on enzyme synthesis. The conclusion was reached that conditions which resulted in a temporary energy deficit brought about the major accumulation of cAMP, and this elevated level served as a signal for initiation of threonine dehydratase synthesis to supply energy by the nonoxidative degradation of threonine. PMID:211115

  20. A plant triterpenoid, avicin D, induces autophagy by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z-X; Liang, J; Haridas, V; Gaikwad, A; Connolly, F P; Mills, G B; Gutterman, J U

    2007-11-01

    Avicins, a family of plant triterpene electrophiles, can trigger apoptosis-associated tumor cell death, and suppress chemical-induced carcinogenesis by its anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and antioxidant properties. Here, we show that tumor cells treated with benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartic acid (O-methyl)-fluoro-methylketone, an apoptosis inhibitor, and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) apoptosis-resistant cells can still undergo cell death in response to avicin D treatment. We demonstrate that this non-apoptotic cell death is mediated by autophagy, which can be suppressed by chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, and by specific knockdown of autophagy-related gene-5 (Atg5) and Atg7. Avicin D decreases cellular ATP levels, stimulates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase activity. Suppression of AMPK by compound C and dominant-negative AMPK decreases avicin D-induced autophagic cell death. Furthermore, avicin D-induced autophagic cell death can be abrogated by knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a key mediator linking AMPK to mTOR inhibition, suggesting that AMPK activation is a crucial event targeted by avicin D. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of avicins by triggering autophagic cell death.

  1. Uric acid-dependent inhibition of AMP kinase induces hepatic glucose production in diabetes and starvation: evolutionary implications of the uricase loss in hominids.

    PubMed

    Cicerchi, Christina; Li, Nanxing; Kratzer, James; Garcia, Gabriela; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Hunter, Brandi; Rivard, Christopher J; Sautin, Yuri Y; Gaucher, Eric A; Johnson, Richard J; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Reduced AMP kinase (AMPK) activity has been shown to play a key deleterious role in increased hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetes, but the mechanism whereby this occurs remains unclear. In this article, we document that another AMP-dependent enzyme, AMP deaminase (AMPD) is activated in the liver of diabetic mice, which parallels with a significant reduction in AMPK activity and a significant increase in intracellular glucose accumulation in human HepG2 cells. AMPD activation is induced by a reduction in intracellular phosphate levels, which is characteristic of insulin resistance and diabetic states. Increased gluconeogenesis is mediated by reduced TORC2 phosphorylation at Ser171 by AMPK in these cells, as well as by the up-regulation of the rate-limiting enzymes PEPCK and G6Pc. The mechanism whereby AMPD controls AMPK activation depends on the production of a specific AMP downstream metabolite through AMPD, uric acid. In this regard, humans have higher uric acid levels than most mammals due to a mutation in uricase, the enzyme involved in uric acid degradation in most mammals, that developed during a period of famine in Europe 1.5 × 10(7) yr ago. Here, working with resurrected ancestral uricases obtained from early hominids, we show that their expression on HepG2 cells is enough to blunt gluconeogenesis in parallel with an up-regulation of AMPK activity. These studies identify a key role AMPD and uric acid in mediating hepatic gluconeogenesis in the diabetic state, via a mechanism involving AMPK down-regulation and overexpression of PEPCK and G6Pc. The uricase mutation in the Miocene likely provided a survival advantage to help maintain glucose levels under conditions of near starvation, but today likely has a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnès; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J; Rider, Mark H; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-06-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta(CaMKKbeta), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKbeta inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Nicotine induces negative energy balance through hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Whittle, Andrew J; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; López, Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Smokers around the world commonly report increased body weight after smoking cessation as a major factor that interferes with their attempts to quit. Numerous controlled studies in both humans and rodents have reported that nicotine exerts a marked anorectic action. The effects of nicotine on energy homeostasis have been mostly pinpointed in the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms controlling its action are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its effect on energy balance. Here we demonstrate that nicotine-induced weight loss is associated with inactivation of hypothalamic AMPK, decreased orexigenic signaling in the hypothalamus, increased energy expenditure as a result of increased locomotor activity, increased thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and alterations in fuel substrate utilization. Conversely, nicotine withdrawal or genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus reversed nicotine-induced negative energy balance. Overall these data demonstrate that the effects of nicotine on energy balance involve specific modulation of the hypothalamic AMPK-BAT axis. These targets may be relevant for the development of new therapies for human obesity.

  4. Early methyl donor deficiency alters cAMP signaling pathway and neurosteroidogenesis in the cerebellum of female rat pups

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah; Dreumont, Natacha; Willekens, Jérèmy; Canabady-Rochelle, Laetitia; Jeannesson, Elise; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Early deficiency of the methyl donors folate and vitamin B12 produces hyperhomocysteinemia and cognitive and motor disorders in 21-day-old rat pups from dams fed a diet deficient in methyl donors during gestation and lactation. These disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and altered synaptic plasticity in cerebellum. We aimed to investigate whether these disorders could be related to impaired expression of neurosteroidogenesis-associated proteins, key regulator receptors, and some steroid content in the cerebellum. The methyl donor deficiency produced a decreased concentration of folate and vitamin B12, along with accumulation of homocysteine in Purkinje cells in both sexes, whereas the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio was reduced only in females. The transcription level and protein expression of StAR, aromatase, ERα, ERβ, and LH receptors were decreased only in females, with a marked effect in Purkinje cells, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Consistently, reduced levels of estradiol and pregnenolone were measured in cerebellar extracts of females only. The decreased expression levels of the transcriptional factors CREB, phospho-CREB, and SF-1, the lesser increase of cAMP concentration, and the lower level of phospho-PKC in the cerebellum of deficient females suggest that the activation of neurosteroidogenesis via cAMP-mediated signaling pathways associated with LHR activation would be altered. In conclusion, a gestational methyl donor deficiency impairs neurosteroidogenesis in cerebellum in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:25294213

  5. Tetramethylpyrazine protects against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats by reversing the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Dong

    2013-09-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine is used in the treatment of many neurological diseases because of its neuroprotective effect. Here, we demonstrate that administration of tetramethylpyrazine effectively reverses memory deficits induced by scopolamine. Moreover, tetramethylpyrazine preserves postsynaptic protein synthesis and restores cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway signaling deficits. Our study not only explores the actions of tetramethylpyrazine on synapses, but also provides novel evidence for the possible therapeutic use of tetramethylpyrazine in dementia.

  6. Involvement of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in leptin-induced sympathetic nerve activation.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, leptin released from the white adipose tissue acts on the central nervous system to control feeding behavior, cardiovascular function, and energy metabolism. Central leptin activates sympathetic nerves that innervate the kidney, adipose tissue, and some abdominal organs in rats. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential in the intracellular signaling pathway involving the activation of leptin receptors (ObRb). We investigated the potential of AMPKα2 in the sympathetic effects of leptin using in vivo siRNA injection to knockdown AMPKα2 in rats, to produce reduced hypothalamic AMPKα2 expression. Leptin effects on body weight, food intake, and blood FFA levels were eliminated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. Leptin-evoked enhancements of the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney, brown and white adipose tissues were attenuated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. To check whether AMPKα2 was specific to sympathetic changes induced by leptin, we examined the effects of injecting MT-II, a melanocortin-3 and -4 receptor agonist, on the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney and adipose tissue. MT-II-induced sympatho-excitation in the kidney was unchanged in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. However, responses of neural activities involving adipose tissue to MT-II were attenuated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. These results suggest that hypothalamic AMPKα2 is involved not only in appetite and body weight regulation but also in the regulation of sympathetic nerve discharges to the kidney and adipose tissue. Thus, AMPK might function not only as an energy sensor, but as a key molecule in the cardiovascular, thermogenic, and lipolytic effects of leptin through the sympathetic nervous system.

  7. Gliadins induce TNFalpha production through cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activation in intestinal cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed

    Laparra Llopis, José Moisés; Sanz Herranz, Yolanda

    2010-06-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gliadins. In this study the effects of two gliadin-derived peptides (PA2, PQPQLPYPQPQLP and PA9, QLQPFPQPQLPY) on TNFalpha production by intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and whether these effects were related to protein kinase A (PKA) and/or -C (PKC) activities have been evaluated. Caco-2 cell cultures were challenged with several sets of gliadin peptides solutions (0.25 mg/mL), with/without different activators of PKA or PKC, bradykinin (Brdkn) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). The gliadin-derived peptides assayed represent the two major immunodominant epitopes of the peptide 33-mer of alpha-gliadin (56-88) (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF). Both peptides induced the TNFalpha production triggering the inflammatory cell responses, the PA2 being more effective. The addition of the peptides in the presence of dibutyril cyclic AMP (cAMP), Brdkn or PDTC, inhibited the TNFalpha production. The PKC-activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-diacetate additionally increased the PA2- and PA9-induced TNFalpha production. These results link the gliadin-derived peptides induced TNFalpha production through cAMP-dependent PKA activation, where ion channels controlling calcium influx into cells could play a protective role, and requires NF-kappaB activation.

  8. Panaxynol induces neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells via cAMP- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Nie, Bao-Ming; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Lu, Yang

    2006-01-05

    Panaxynol, a polyacetylene ((3R)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol; syn. falcarinol), was isolated from the lipophilic fractions of Panax notoginseng, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. In the present study, we reported the neurotrophic effects of panaxynol on PC12D cells and mechanism involved in neurite outgrowth of the cells. Panaxynol could morphologically promote neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells, concentration-dependently reduce cell division and up-regulate molecular marker (MAP1B) expression in PC12D cells. Panaxynol induces the elevation of intracellular cAMP in PC12D cells. The neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells induced by panaxynol could be inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor RpcAMPS and by MAP kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor U0126. These observations reveal that panaxynol could induce the differentiation of PC12D cells in a process similar to but distinct from that of NGF and the panaxynol's effects were via cAMP- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms.

  9. Modulation of PC12 cell viability by forskolin-induced cyclic AMP levels through ERK and JNK pathways: an implication for L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in nigrostriatal dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun Hong; Park, Hyun Jin; Shin, Keon Sung; Choi, Hyun Sook; Kai, Masaaki; Lee, Myung Koo

    2012-07-01

    The intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) increase in response to cytotoxic concentrations of L-DOPA in PC12 cells, and forskolin that induces intracellular cAMP levels either protects PC12 cells from L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity or enhances cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. This study investigated the effects of cAMP induced by forskolin on cell viability of PC12 cells, relevant to L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in Parkinson's disease therapy. The low levels of forskolin (0.01 and 0.1 μM)-induced cAMP increased dopamine biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation, and induced transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 within 1 h. However, at the high levels of forskolin (1.0 and 10 μM)-induced cAMP, dopamine biosynthesis and TH phosphorylation did not increase, but rapid differentiation in neurite-like formation was observed with a steady state. The high levels of forskolin-induced cAMP also induced sustained increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation within 0.25-6 h and then led to apoptosis, which was apparently mediated by JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation. Multiple treatment of PC12 cells with nontoxic L-DOPA (20 μM) for 4-6 days induced neurite-like formation and decreased intracellular dopamine levels by reducing TH phosphorylation. These results suggest that the low levels of forskolin-induced cAMP increased dopamine biosynthesis in cell survival via transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the high levels of forskolin-induced cAMP induced differentiation via sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then led to apoptosis. Taken together, the intracellular levels of cAMP play a dual role in cell survival and death through the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways in PC12 cells.

  10. Hyperactivation of NF-κB via the MEK signaling is indispensable for the inhibitory effect of cAMP on DNA damage-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kloster, Martine M; Naderi, Elin H; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Heidi K; Naderi, Soheil

    2011-04-21

    With cAMP signaling having a profound inhibitory effect on DNA damage-induced apoptosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells, understanding how this signaling pathway affects the survival capacity of the cell has important implications for cancer therapy. We have recently shown that p53 is critical for the inhibitory effect of cAMP on genotoxic agents-mediated apoptosis in BCP-ALLs. Here, we show that elevation of cAMP levels in cells exposed to DNA damage enhances the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB by accelerating the phosphorylation of IKKβ and thereby phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, we show that the ability of cAMP to potentiate the ionizing radiation-induced activation of NF-κB requires the activity of MEK. Importantly, pharmacological or genetic ablation of NF-κB reversed the inhibitory effect of cAMP on DNA damage-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that, in addition to p53, cAMP relies on the activity of NF-κB to provide cells with a survival advantage in the face of DNA damage. Collectively, our results uncover a novel and important interaction between the cAMP and NF-κB pathways that may have implications for the targeted treatment of lymphoid malignancies, such as BCP-ALL, in which aberrant NF-κB activity functions as a driving force for treatment resistance.

  11. Manassantin A inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production by down-regulating the gene expressions of MITF and tyrosinase in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Won-Hee; Roh, Eunmiri; Seo, Chang-Seob; Son, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung Ho; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Jung, Sang-Hun; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2011-09-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is inducible in response to cAMP through the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and plays a pivotal role in the melanocyte-specific expression of tyrosinase or tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs) for melanin biosynthesis. Manassantin A from Saururus chinensis inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Here, we focused on molecular basis of the antimelanogenic activity. Manassantin A consistently inhibited the cAMP elevator 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)- or dibutyryl cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 cells or in melan-a melanocytes by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase or TRP1 gene. Moreover, manassantin A suppressed MITF induction through IBMX-activated CREB pathway, directly inhibiting the Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB. However, manassantin A did not affect IBMX-increased cAMP levels in these cells but also other cAMP-dependent melanogenic pathways through post-translational modifications of MITF. This putative molecular mechanism of manassantin A in the inhibition of melanin production suggests its pharmacological potential in skin hyperpigmentation.

  12. One-day treatment of small molecule 8-bromo-cyclic AMP analogue induces cell-based VEGF production for in vitro angiogenesis and osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kevin W-H; Kan, Ho Man; Gagnon, Keith A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2016-10-01

    Small molecule-based regenerative engineering is emerging as a promising strategy for regenerating bone tissue. Small molecule cAMP analogues have been proposed as novel biofactors for bone repair and regeneration and, while promising, the effect that these small molecules have on angiogenesis, a critical requirement for successful bone regeneration, is still unclear. Our previous research demonstrated that the small molecule cAMP analogue 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) was able to promote initial osteoblast adhesion on a polymeric scaffold via cAMP signalling cascades. Here, we report that 8-Br-cAMP is capable of inducing in vitro cell-based VEGF production for angiogenesis promotion. We first demonstrated that treating osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells with 8-Br-cAMP for 1 day significantly increased VEGF production and secretion. We then demonstrated that 8-Br-cAMP-induced cell-secreted VEGF is biologically active and may promote angiogenesis, as evidenced by increased human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) migration and tubule formation. In addition, treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 8-Br-cAMP for as short as a single day resulted in enhanced ALP activity as well as matrix mineralization, demonstrating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. A short-term 8-Br-cAMP treatment also addresses the concern of non-specific cytotoxicity, as our data indicate that a 1-day 8-Br-cAMP treatment scheme supports cellular proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells as well as HUVECs. While the major concern associated with small molecule drugs is the risk of non-specific cytotoxicity, the short exposure treatment outlined in this paper provides a very promising strategy to mitigate the risk associated with small molecules. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Downstream molecular events in the altered profiles of lysophosphatidic acid-induced cAMP in senescent human diploid fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ik Soon; Rhim, Ji Heon; Park, Sang Chul; Yeo, Eui Ju

    2006-04-30

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid growth factor that acts through G-protein-coupled receptors. Previously, we demonstrated an altered profile of LPA-dependent cAMP content during the aging process of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). In attempts to define the molecular events associated with the age-dependent changes in cAMP profiles, we determined the protein kinase A (PKA) activity, phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and the protein expression of CRE-regulatory genes, c-fos and COX-2 in young and senescent HDFs. We observed in senescent cells, an increase in mRNA levels of the catalytic subunit a of PKA and of the major regulatory subunit Ialpha. Senescence-associated increase of cAMP after LPA treatment correlated well with increased CREB phosphorylation accompanying activation of PKA in senescent cells. In senescent cells, after LPA treatment, the expression of c-fos and COX-2 decreased initially, followed by an increase. In young HDFs, CREB phosphorylation decreased following LPA treatment, and both c-fos and COX-2 protein levels increased rapidly. CRE-luciferase assay revealed higher basal CRE-dependent gene expression in young HDFs compared to senescent HDFs. However, LPA-dependent slope of luciferase increased more rapidly in senescent cells than in young cells, presumably due to an increase of LPA-induced CREB phosphorylation. CRE-dependent luciferase activation was abrogated in the presence of inhibitors of PKC, MEK1, p38MAPK, and PKA, in both young and senescent HDFs. We conclude that these kinase are coactivators of the expression of CRE-responsive genes in LPA-induced HDFs and that their changed activities during the aging process contribute to the final expression level of CRE-responsive genes.

  14. Efficient and robust differentiation of endothelial cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells via lineage control with VEGF and cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Ikuno, Takeshi; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Yamamizu, Kohei; Yoshioka, Miki; Minakata, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Yamashita, Jun K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood vessels are essential components for many tissues and organs. Thus, efficient induction of endothelial cells (ECs) from human pluripotent stem cells is a key method for generating higher tissue structures entirely from stem cells. We previously established an EC differentiation system with mouse pluripotent stem cells to show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential to induce ECs and that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synergistically enhances VEGF effects. Here we report an efficient and robust EC differentiation method from human pluripotent stem cell lines based on a 2D monolayer, serum-free culture. We controlled the direction of differentiation from mesoderm to ECs using stage-specific stimulation with VEGF and cAMP combined with the elimination of non-responder cells at early EC stage. This “stimulation-elimination” method robustly achieved very high efficiency (>99%) and yield (>10 ECs from 1 hiPSC input) of EC differentiation, with no purification of ECs after differentiation. We believe this method will be a valuable technological basis broadly for regenerative medicine and 3D tissue engineering. PMID:28288160

  15. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Y J; Kim, S J; Danielpour, D; O'Reilly, M A; Kim, K Y; Myers, C E; Trepel, J B

    1992-01-01

    The standard therapy for advanced prostate cancer is androgen ablation. Despite transitory responses, hormonally treated patients ultimately relapse with androgen-independent disease that is resistant to further hormonal manipulation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines. We report here that elevation of intracellular cAMP markedly inhibits the growth of the hormone-refractory cell line PC-3. To examine the mechanism of cAMP action in PC-3 cells, we tested the effect of the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2-cAMP) on the regulation of the potent negative growth factor transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Bt2-cAMP selectively induced the secretion of TGF-beta 2 and not TGF-beta 1 by PC-3 cells. This TGF-beta 2 was shown to be bioactive by using the CCL-64 mink lung cell assay. TGF-beta 1 was not activated despite being present at 3-fold higher concentrations than TGF-beta 2. Northern analysis showed that Bt2-cAMP induced an increase in the five characteristic TGF-beta 2 transcripts and had no effect on the level of TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 3 transcripts. TGF-beta 2 induction was only weakly enhanced by cycloheximide and was completely inhibited by actinomycin D. These data show that Bt2-cAMP induces the expression of active TGF-beta 2 by PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells, suggesting a new approach to the treatment of prostate cancer and a new molecular mechanism of cAMP action. Images PMID:1373503

  16. 8-Cl-cAMP antagonizes mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell growth stimulation induced by epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Budillon, A; Gennaro, E Di; Caraglia, M; Barbarulo, D; Abbruzzese, A; Tagliaferri, P

    1999-01-01

    The growth factor-activated mitogenic pathways are often disregulated in tumour cells and, therefore, they can provide specific molecular targets for novel anti-tumour approaches. 8-Chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP), a synthetic cAMP analogue, is a novel anti-tumour agent that has recently undergone clinical evaluation. We investigated the effects of 8-CI-cAMP on the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGF receptor (EGF-R) signalling in human epidermoid cancer KB cells, which are responsive to the mitogenic stimulus of EGF. We found that the growth-promoting activity of EGF was completely abolished when EGF treatment was performed in combination with 8-CI-cAMP. The inhibition of the EGF-induced proliferation by 8-CI-cAMP was paralleled by the blockade of the EGF-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK-1 and ERK-2. Conversely, we found an increase of EGF-R expression and EGF-R tyrosine phosphorylation when KB cells were growth inhibited by 8-Cl-cAMP. Moreover, the activity of Raf-1 and MEK-1 protein kinases, the activators upstream MAPK in the phosphorylation cascade induced by EGF, was not modified in 8-Cl-cAMP-treated cells. We concluded that the impairment of KB cell response to EGF, induced by 8-Cl-cAMP, resides in the specific inhibition of MAPK/ERKs activity while the function of the upstream elements in the EGF-R signalling is preserved. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584873

  17. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zequn; Li, Shasha; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Pengyi; Huang, Jianguo; He, Guangyuan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that sesamin, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil, is a novel skin-tanning compound. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Moreover, sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. Consistent with these results, sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, but not by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89. These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which was, in turn, due to the activation of cAMP signaling.

  18. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p < 0.001); (2) a significant decrease in the occurrence of leukocyte infiltration and mild hemorrhage; (3) a significant reduction in the presence of serum Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, p < 0.001) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, p < 0.001); and (4) a significant inhibition in the Nuclear Factor -κappaB (NF-κB) activity (p < 0.001). AMP-induced hypothermia could inhibit acute inflammation reaction and protect the synovial tissue against acute injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide induces activation of insulin signaling pathway via AMP-dependent kinase in podocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rogacka, Dorota; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activates the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake in podocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces time-dependent changes in AMPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhances insulin signaling pathways via AMPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation of glucose uptake is AMPK-dependent. -- Abstract: Podocytes are cells that form the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. Insulin signaling in podocytes is critical for normal kidney function. Insulin signaling is regulated by oxidative stress and intracellular energy levels. We cultured rat podocytes to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on the phosphorylation of proximal and distal elements of insulin signaling. We also investigated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced intracellular changes in the distribution of protein kinase B (Akt). Western blots showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (100 {mu}M) induced rapid, transient phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS1), and Akt with peak activities at 5 min ({Delta} 183%, P < 0.05), 3 min ({Delta} 414%, P < 0.05), and 10 min ({Delta} 35%, P < 0.05), respectively. Immunostaining cells with an Akt-specific antibody showed increased intensity at the plasma membrane after treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibited phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; peak activity at 10 min; {Delta} -32%, P < 0.05) and stimulated phosphorylation of the AMP-dependent kinase alpha subunit (AMPK{alpha}; 78% at 3 min and 244% at 10 min). The stimulation of AMPK was abolished with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C (100 {mu}M, 2 h). Moreover, Compound C significantly reduced the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on IR phosphorylation by about 40% (from 2.07 {+-} 0.28 to 1.28 {+-} 0.12, P < 0.05). In addition, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased glucose uptake in podocytes

  20. Hypoxic regulation of lactate dehydrogenase A. Interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and cAMP response elements.

    PubMed

    Firth, J D; Ebert, B L; Ratcliffe, P J

    1995-09-08

    The oxygen-regulated control system responsible for the induction of erythropoietin (Epo) by hypoxia is present in most (if not all) cells and operates on other genes, including those involved in energy metabolism. To understand the organization of cis-acting sequences that are responsible for oxygen-regulated gene expression, we have studied the 5' flanking region of the mouse gene encoding the hypoxically inducible enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH). Deletional and mutational analysis of the function of mouse LDH-reporter fusion gene constructs in transient transfection assays defined three domains, between -41 and -84 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site, which were crucial for oxygen-regulated expression. The most important of these, although not capable of driving hypoxic induction in isolation, had the consensus of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) site, and cross-competed for the binding of HIF-1 with functionally active Epo and phosphoglycerate kinase-1 sequences. The second domain was positioned close to the HIF-1 site, in an analogous position to one of the critical regions in the Epo 3' hypoxic enhancer. The third domain had the motif of a cAMP response element (CRE). Activation of cAMP by forskolin had no effect on the level of LDH mRNA in normoxia, but produced a magnified response to hypoxia that was dependent upon the integrity of the CRE, indicating an interaction between inducible factors binding the HIF-1 and CRE sites.

  1. NICER elements: a family of nerve growth factor-inducible cAMP-extinguishable retrovirus-like elements.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, K O; Minsk, B; Wagner, J A

    1990-01-01

    We have shown previously that the transcription of the gene designated d5 is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells and that this NGF induction is repressed by cAMP. In this paper we demonstrate that d5 is a member of a gene family that contains several hundred members, which is closely related to retroviruses and retrotransposons, as demonstrated by the following observations: (i) the original d5 cDNA hybridized to numerous restriction fragments in genomic DNA; (ii) d5 cDNA hybridized to genomic clones with various intensities, and genomic clones can be isolated with a frequency suggesting that this family includes several hundred members; and (iii) there were minor sequence variations in four independently isolated cDNA clones that were homologous to d5 cDNA. Primer extension studies show that initiation of the 5.7-kilobase d5 mRNA(s) occurs at a unique site relative to a synthetic primer. The 5' end of the cDNA sequence was homologous to Rasheed rat sarcoma virus; and a genomic clone contained several elements that are typical of a long terminal repeat (LTR), including a CCAAT box, a TATA box, a primer binding site, a poly(A) addition signal, and a poly(A) addition site. Furthermore, there is a LTR at the 3' end of at least one of the genes in this family, and there appeared to be a four-base duplication at the probable site of integration into host DNA. Since several members of this family retain responses to NGF and cAMP, we conclude that the regulatory elements present in the LTR have been conserved in many members of this family. We have named this family of genes the NICER elements because they are a family of NGF-inducible cAMP-extinguishable retrovirus-like elements. Images PMID:2160077

  2. Low-threshold exocytosis induced by cAMP-recruited CaV3.2 (alpha1H) channels in rat chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Giancippoli, A; Novara, M; de Luca, A; Baldelli, P; Marcantoni, A; Carbone, E; Carabelli, V

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the functional role of CaV3 channels in triggering fast exocytosis in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs). CaV3 T-type channels were selectively recruited by chronic exposures to cAMP (3 days) via an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac)-mediated pathway. Here we show that cAMP-treated cells had increased secretory responses, which could be evoked even at very low depolarizations (-50, -40 mV). Potentiation of exocytosis in cAMP-treated cells did not occur in the presence of 50 microM Ni2+, which selectively blocks T-type currents in RCCs. This suggests that the "low-threshold exocytosis" induced by cAMP is due to increased Ca2+ influx through cAMP-recruited T-type channels, rather than to an enhanced secretion downstream of Ca2+ entry, as previously reported for short-term cAMP treatments (20 min). Newly recruited T-type channels increase the fast secretory response at low voltages without altering the size of the immediately releasable pool. They also preserve the Ca2+ dependence of exocytosis, the initial speed of vesicle depletion, and the mean quantal size of single secretory events. All this indicates that cAMP-recruited CaV3 channels enhance the secretory activity of RCCs at low voltages by coupling to the secretory apparatus with a Ca2+ efficacy similar to that of already existing high-threshold Ca2+ channels. Finally, using RT-PCRs we found that the fast inactivating low-threshold Ca2+ current component recruited by cAMP is selectively associated to the alpha1H (CaV3.2) channel isoform.

  3. microRNA-208a in an early stage myocardial infarction rat model and the effect on cAMP-PKA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gao; Yan, Zhang; Li, Chuanchuan; Hou, Yuemei

    2016-08-01

    The expression level of microRNA-208a (miR-208a) in a rat model with myocardial infarction and the effect of cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in early stage of myocardial infarction in rats were investigated. The early myocardial infarction model was established in 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery, and 12 rats were selected as the control group (sham operation group). Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was conducted to detect the expression levels of miR-208a in the myocardium of and the expression levels of miR‑208a in the serum of rats in the two groups. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the expression levels of cAMP-PKA protein in the rat tissues in the two groups. After stimulating high levels of miR‑208a expression in human myocardial cells (HCM), western blot analysis was used to detect the cAMP-PKA protein levels. The expression levels of miR‑208a in myocardial tissues in rats with myocardial infarction were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression levels of miR‑208a in the early stage of myocardial infarction rats were also significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The level of cAMP-PKA protein in myocardial tissue in rats with chronic myocardial infarction was also significantly higher. Transfection of human myocardial cells with miR‑208a analogue significantly increased the cAMP-PKA protein levels in human myocardial cells. In conclusion, the over-expression of miR-208a in myocardial infarction tissue and the high levels of this miRNA in the serum, may be involved in the process of myocardial infarction by influencing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in myocardial cells.

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase supports the NGF-induced viability of human HeLa cells to glucose starvation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Luo; Bo, Wan; Li, Ruwei; Chen, Xinya; Wang, Yingli; Jun, Zhou; Yu, Long

    2010-07-01

    As an important cellular energy regulation kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been demonstrated as a key molecule in the development of tolerance to nutrient starvation. Activation of AMPK includes the phosphorylation of Thr172 of the alpha-subunit. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally isolated for its ability to stimulate both survival and differentiation in peripheral neurons, but many investigations have shown that the NGF also plays an important role in survival, growth and invasion of many human cancers. In this study, we used CCK-8 cell viability assay to find that NGF could facilitate the viability of HeLa cells following glucose deprivation while not in glucose-normal control groups. This effect of NGF-induced viability promotion to glucose starvation can be suppressed by Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed that AMPKalpha1/alpha2 Thr172 phosphorylation level in HeLa cells was up-regulated after NGF treatment under glucose starvation, and Compound C was able to reduce the AMPKalpha1/alpha2 Thr172 phosphorylation level which was up-regulated by NGF in HeLa cells. Taken together, these results indicate that AMP-activated protein kinase supports the NGF-induced viability of human HeLa cells to glucose starvation.

  5. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-06-18

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0-24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner.

  6. Ecklonia cava Polyphenol Has a Protective Effect against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in a Cyclic AMP-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Haruka; Goto, Mayu; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Ecklonia cava polyphenol (ECP) treatment suppressed ethanol-induced increases in hepatocyte death by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining intracellular glutathione levels. Here, we examined the effects of ECP on the activities of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and their regulating mechanisms in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Isolated hepatocytes were incubated with or without 100 mM ethanol. ECP was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide. ECP was added to cultured cells that had been incubated with or without ethanol. The cells were incubated for 0–24 h. In cultured hepatocytes, the ECP treatment with ethanol inhibited cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity, which is related to the production of ROS when large quantities of ethanol are oxidized. On the other hand, ECP treatment with ethanol increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These changes in activities of CYP2E1 and ADH were suppressed by treatment with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. ECP treatment with ethanol enhanced cyclic AMP concentrations compared with those of control cells. ECP may be a candidate for preventing ethanol-induced liver injury via regulating alcohol metabolic enzymes in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. PMID:26096275

  7. p-Hydroxylcinnamaldehyde induces the differentiation of oesophageal carcinoma cells via the cAMP-RhoA-MAPK signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Zhao, Lian-mei; Yang, Xing-xiao; Shan, Ya-nan; Cui, Wen-xuan; Chen, Liang; Shan, Bao-en

    2016-01-01

    p-Hydroxylcinnamaldehyde (CMSP) has been identified as an inhibitor of the growth of various cancer cells. However, its function in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterize the differentiation effects of CMSP, as well as its mechanism in the differentiation of ESCC Kyse30 and TE-13 cells. The function of CMSP in the viability, colony formation, migration and invasion of Kyse30 and TE-13 cells was determined by MTS, colony-formation, wound healing and transwell assays. Western blotting and pull-down assays were used to investigate the effect of CMSP on the expression level of malignant markers of ESCC, as well as the activity of MAPKs, RhoA and GTP-RhoA in Kyse30 and TE-13 cells. We found that CMSP could inhibit proliferation and migration and induce Kyse30 and TE-13 cell differentiation, characterized by dendrite-like outgrowth, decreased expression of tumour-associated antigens, as well as the decreased expression of malignant markers. Furthermore, increased cAMP, p-P38 and decreased activities of ERK, JNK and GTP-RhoA, were detected after treatment with CMSP. These results indicated that CMSP induced the differentiation of Kyse30 and TE-13 cells through mediating the cAMP-RhoA-MAPK axis, which might provide new potential strategies for ESCC treatment. PMID:27501997

  8. Effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sugio, K.; Daly, J.W.

    1984-01-09

    The effects of forskolin analogs, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and 8-bromo cyclic AMP on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin were investigated using (/sup 125/I) bovine serum albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA). Forskolin, forskolin 7-ethyl carbonate and 7-desacetylforskolin, which are potent activators of adenylate cyclase, greatly potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The phosphodiesterase inhibitors, ZK 627ll, dipyridamole, HL 725, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation and inhibited and prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. 8-Bromo cyclic AMP in the doses of 0.01 to 1 ..mu..g potentiated the bradykinin-induced plasma exudation, but had no effect at doses of 10 and 100 ..mu..g. 8-bromo cyclic AMP at all doses significantly inhibited the prostaglandin E/sub 1/-induced response. The results suggest that the effects of forskolin and its analogs on plasma exudations induced with bradykinin and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ in rat skin derive from activation of cyclic AMP-generating systems.

  9. Complementation of growth defect in an ampC deletion mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R E; Weiner, J H

    1993-12-15

    beta-Lactamase genes of class-A (Rtem) and class-C (ampC) were placed under control of an inducible tac-promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli. Expression of RTEM had no observable effect on the growth properties of E. coli strains HB101 (ampC+) or MI1443 (delta ampC). E. coli MI1443 exhibited a decline in growth rate at mid-exponential phase which could be delayed by expression of AmpC at early-exponential phase. AmpC expression otherwise inhibited growth, particularly during the transition into exponential phase where growth was prevented altogether. We suggest that the AmpC beta-lactamase, but not RTEM, may have an additional cellular function as a peptidoglycan hydrolase.

  10. Sp1 Upregulates cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Expression During Retinoic Acid-Induced Mucous Differentiation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Soo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Koo, Ja Seok

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response-element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that is differentially regulated in cells of various types. We recently reported that RA rapidly activates CREB without using retinoic acid (RA) receptors RAR and RXR in normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells. However, little is known about RA’s role in the physiologic regulation of CREB expression in the early mucous differentiation of NHTBE cells. Here, we report that RA upregulated CREB gene expression and that using 5′-serial deletion promoter analysis and mutagenesis analyses, two Sp1-binding sites located at nucleotides −217 and −150, which flank the transcription initiation site, were essential for RA induction of CREB gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that CREs located at nucleotides −119 and −98 contributed to basal promoter activity. Interestingly, RA also upregulated Sp1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous Sp1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased RA-induced CREB gene expression. However, the converse was not true: knockdown of CREB using CREB siRNA did not affect RA-induced Sp1 gene expression. We conclude that RA upregulates CREB gene expression during the early stage of NHTBE cell differentiation and that RA-inducible Sp1 plays a major role in upregulating human CREB gene expression. This result implies that cooperation of these two transcription factors play a crucial role in mediating early events of normal mucous cell differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:17937658

  11. RGS17, an Overexpressed Gene in Human Lung and Prostate Cancer, Induces Tumor Cell Proliferation Through the Cyclic AMP-PKA-CREB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    James, Michael A.; Lu, Yan; Liu, Yan; Vikis, Haris G.; You, Ming

    2009-01-01

    We have identified RGS17 as a commonly induced gene in lung and prostate tumors. Through microarray and gene expression analysis, we show that expression of RGS17 is up-regulated in 80% of lung tumors, and also up-regulated in prostate tumors. Through knockdown and overexpression of RGS17 in tumor cells, we show that RGS17 confers a proliferative phenotype and is required for the maintenance of the proliferative potential of tumor cells. We show through exon microarray, transcript analysis, and functional assays that RGS17 promotes cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-responsive gene expression, increases cAMP levels, and enhances forskolin-mediated cAMP production. Furthermore, inhibition of cAMP-dependent kinase prevents tumor cell proliferation, and proliferation is partially rescued by RGS17 overexpression. In the present study, we show a role for RGS17 in the maintenance of tumor cell proliferation through induction of cAMP signaling and CREB phosphorylation. The prevalence of the induction of RGS17 in tumor tissues of various types further implicates its importance in the maintenance of tumor growth. PMID:19244110

  12. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on the odorant-induced cAMP level in HEK293 cells expressing the olfactory receptor.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Hwang, Jin-Teak; Sung, Mi-Jeong; Wang, Shuaiyu; Munkhtugs, Davaatseren; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Luteolin is a flavonoid in many fruits and vegetables. Although luteolin has important biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective activities, little is known about the functions of luteolin in the olfactory system. Various odorants can be detected and distinguished by using several molecular processes, including the binding of odorants to odorant receptors, activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), changes of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca(2+) levels in olfactory sensory neurons, as well as changes in membrane potentials and the transmission of electric signals to the brain. Because AC-cAMP signal transduction plays a pivotal role in the olfactory system, we evaluated the effects of luteolin on the AC-cAMP pathway that had been stimulated by the odorant eugenol. We demonstrated that eugenol caused an upregulation of the cAMP level and the phosphorylation of phosphokinase A (PKA, a downstream target of cAMP) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing the murine eugenol receptor. This upregulation significantly decreased in the presence of luteolin, suggesting that luteolin inhibited the odorant-induced production of cAMP and affected the downstream phosphorylation of PKA.

  13. DNA-induced conformational changes in cyclic AMP receptor protein: detection and mapping by a protein footprinting technique using multiple chemical proteases.

    PubMed

    Baichoo, N; Heyduk, T

    1999-07-02

    Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a regulator of transcription in Escherichia coli which mediates its activity by binding specific DNA sequences in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner. The interaction of CRP with specific DNA was probed by a protein footprinting technique using chemical proteases of different charge, size, and hydrophobicity. The experimental data were compared with known crystal structures of cAMP-CRP and cAMP-CRP-DNA complexes to determine a correlation between the structure of the complexes, the nature of the chemical protease and protein cleavage patterns. In addition, such comparison allowed us to determine if DNA binding in solution induced conformational changes in the protein not apparent in the crystal structure. In the cAMP-CRP-DNA complex, both the protections and the enhancements of proteolytic cleavage were observed outside of the known CRP-DNA interface, suggesting that CRP undergoes a conformational change upon binding DNA. Among the observed changes, the most interesting were those around the B alpha-helix and beta-strand 8, since this region overlaps with the activation region 2 which CRP uses for protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase. DNA-induced changes were observed also in the region involved in CRP-CytR interaction and in CRP intersubunit contact regions. These data suggest that binding of DNA in solution induces conformational changes in CRP which can be transmitted via intersubunit contacts to regions of the protein involved in interactions with other members of transcriptional machinery.

  14. Unpredictable chronic mild stress induces anxiety and depression-like behaviors and inactivates AMP-activated protein kinase in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shenghua; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Victor; Kong, Jiming; He, Jue; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-08-12

    The unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model was developed based upon the stress-diathesis hypothesis of depression. Most effects of UCMS can be reversed by antidepressants, demonstrating a strong predictive validity of this model for depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects induced by UCMS remain incompletely understood. Increasing evidence has shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates intracellular energy metabolism and is especially important for neurons because neurons are known to have small energy reserves. Abnormalities in the AMPK pathway disturb normal brain functions and synaptic integrity. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of UCMS on a battery of different tests measuring anxiety and depression-like behaviors in female C57BL/6N mice after 4 weeks of UCMS exposure. Stressed mice showed suppressed body weight gain, heightened anxiety, and increased immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. These results are representative of some of the core symptoms of depression. Simultaneously, we observed decrease of synaptic proteins in the cortex of mice subjected to UCMS, which is associated with decreased levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Our findings suggest that AMPKα inactivation might be a mechanism by which UCMS causes anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice.

  15. Forskolin-inducible cAMP pathway negatively regulates T-cell proliferation by uncoupling the interleukin-2 receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Georgialina; Ross, Jeremy A; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; Kirken, Robert A

    2013-03-08

    Cytokine-mediated regulation of T-cell activity involves a complex interplay between key signal transduction pathways. Determining how these signaling pathways cross-talk is essential to understanding T-cell function and dysfunction. In this work, we provide evidence that cross-talk exists between at least two signaling pathways: the Jak3/Stat5 and cAMP-mediated cascades. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (Fsk) significantly increased intracellular cAMP levels and reduced proliferation of the human T-cells via inhibition of cell cycle regulatory genes but did not induce apoptosis. To determine this inhibitory mechanism, effects of Fsk on IL-2 signaling was investigated. Fsk treatment of MT-2 and Kit 225 T-cells inhibited IL-2-induced Stat5a/b tyrosine and serine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding activity. Fsk treatment also uncoupled IL-2 induced association of the IL-2Rβ and γc chain, consequently blocking Jak3 activation. Interestingly, phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that Fsk-treated cells resulted in elevated serine phosphorylation of Jak3 but not Stat5, suggesting that Fsk can negatively regulate Jak3 activity possibly mediated through PKA. Indeed, in vitro kinase assays and small molecule inhibition studies indicated that PKA can directly serine phosphorylate and functionally inactivate Jak3. Taken together, these findings suggest that Fsk activation of adenylate cyclase and PKA can negatively regulate IL-2 signaling at multiple levels that include IL-2R complex formation and Jak3/Stat5 activation.

  16. Song-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein in the songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, H; Wada, K; Maekawa, M; Watsuji, T; Hagiwara, M

    1999-05-15

    We have investigated the participation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the response of the songbird brain to a natural auditory stimulus, a conspecific song. The cells in the two song control nuclei, the higher vocal center (HVC) and area X of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), were intensely stained with an anti-CREB monoclonal antibody. Double-labeling studies showed that CREB immunoreactivity was detected only in area X-projecting neurons in the HVC. The cloned CREB cDNA from zebra finches (zCREB) is highly homologous to mammalian delta CREB. Phosphorylation of zCREB at Ser119 in area X-projecting HVC neurons was induced by hearing tape-recorded conspecific songs of zebra finches, but not by birdsongs of another species or white noise. These results raise the possibility that zCREB plays a crucial role in the sensory process of song learning.

  17. Stimulation of deep somatic tissue with capsaicin produces long-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hypoalgesia that depends on early activation of the cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A

    2002-07-01

    Pain and hyperalgesia from deep somatic tissue (i.e., muscle and joint) are processed differently from that from skin. This study examined differences between deep and cutaneous tissue allodynia and the role of cAMP in associated behavioral changes. Capsaicin was injected into the plantar aspect of the skin, plantar muscles of the paw, or ankle joint, and responses to mechanical and heat stimuli were assessed until allodynia resolved. Capsaicin injected into skin resulted in a secondary mechanical allodynia and heat hypoalgesia lasting approximately 3 hr. In contrast, capsaicin injection into muscle or joint resulted in a long-lasting bilateral (1-4 weeks) mechanical allodynia with a simultaneous unilateral heat hypoalgesia. The pattern and degree of inflammation were similar when capsaicin was injected into skin, muscle, or joint, with peak increases 24 hr after injection. Heat hypoalgesia that occurs after injection into deep tissue was reversed by spinal blockade of adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA). Interestingly, mechanical allodynia was reversed if adenylate cyclase or PKA inhibitors were administered spinally 24 hr, but not 1 week, after injection of capsaicin. Spinally administered 8-bromo-cAMP resulted in a similar pattern, with heat hypoalgesia and mechanical allodynia occurring simultaneously. Thus, injection of capsaicin into deep tissues results in a longer-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hypoalgesia compared with injection of capsaicin into skin. The mechanical allodynia depends on early activation of the cAMP pathway during the first 24 hr but is independent of the cAMP pathway by 1 week after injection of capsaicin.

  18. ATP-Induced Inflammasome Activation and Pyroptosis Is Regulated by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Qing-Bing; Wei, Hong-Xia; Li, Chen-Guang; Liang, Yi-Dan; Xu, Li-Hui; Bai, Wen-Jing; Pan, Hao; He, Xian-Hui; Ouyang, Dong-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by bacteria and host cells during bacterial infection as well as sterile tissue injury, acting as an inducer of inflammasome activation. Previous studies have shown that ATP treatment leads to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. However, it is unclear whether AMPK signaling has been involved in the regulation of ATP-induced inflammasome activation and subsequent pyroptosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate this issue in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages. Our results showed that AMPK signaling was activated in murine macrophages upon ATP treatment, which was accompanied by inflammasome activation and pyroptosis as evidenced by rapid cell membrane rupture as well as mature interleukin (IL)-1β and active caspase-1p10 release. The ATP-induced inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were markedly suppressed by an AMPK inhibitor compound C or small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα, but could be greatly enhanced by metformin (a well-known AMPK agonist). Importantly, metformin administration increased the mortality of mice with bacterial sepsis, which was likely because metformin treatment enhanced the systemic inflammasome activation as indicated by elevated serum and hepatic IL-1β levels. Collectively, these data indicated that the AMPK signaling positively regulated ATP-induced inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in macrophages, highlighting the possibility of AMPK-targeting therapies for inflammatory diseases involving inflammasome activation. PMID:28018360

  19. A cAMP and Ca2+ coincidence detector in support of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in mouse pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guoxin; Chepurny, Oleg G; Rindler, Michael J; Collis, Leon; Chepurny, Zina; Li, Wen-hong; Harbeck, Mark; Roe, Michael W; Holz, George G

    2005-01-01

    The blood glucose-lowering hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates cAMP production, promotes Ca2+ influx, and mobilizes an intracellular source of Ca2+ in pancreatic β cells. Here we provide evidence that these actions of GLP-1 are functionally related: they reflect a process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) that requires activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the Epac family of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (cAMPGEFs). In rat insulin-secreting INS-1 cells or mouse β cells loaded with caged Ca2+ (NP-EGTA), a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exendin-4) is demonstrated to sensitize intracellular Ca2+ release channels to stimulatory effects of cytosolic Ca2+, thereby allowing CICR to be generated by the uncaging of Ca2+ (UV flash photolysis). This sensitizing action of exendin-4 is diminished by an inhibitor of PKA (H-89) or by overexpression of dominant negative Epac. It is reproduced by cell-permeant cAMP analogues that activate PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP) or Epac (8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP) selectively. Depletion of Ca2+ stores with thapsigargin abolishes CICR, while inhibitors of Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine and heparin) attenuate CICR in an additive manner. Because the uncaging of Ca2+ fails to stimulate CICR in the absence of cAMP-elevating agents, it is concluded that there exists in β cells a process of second messenger coincidence detection, whereby intracellular Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors) monitor a simultaneous increase of cAMP and Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that second messenger coincidence detection of this type may explain how GLP-1 interacts with β cell glucose metabolism to stimulate insulin secretion. PMID:15860526

  20. Regulation of cAMP-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, Period1, and MKP-1 gene expression by mitogen-activated protein kinases in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chansard, Mathieu; Iwahana, Eiko; Liang, Jian; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2005-10-03

    In rodent pineal glands, sympathetic innervation, which leads to norepinephrine release, is a key process in the circadian regulation of physiology and certain gene expressions. It has been shown that gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat), circadian clock gene Period1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphtase-1 (MKP-1), is controlled mainly by a norepinephrine-beta-adrenergic receptor-cAMP signaling cascade in the rat pineal gland. To further dissect the signaling cascades that regulate those gene expressions, we examined whether MAPKs are involved in cAMP-induced gene expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that one of the three MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was expressed in the pineal, and was phosphorylated by cAMP analogue stimulation with a peak 20 min after start of the stimulation, in vitro. A specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), but not its negative control (N1-Methyl-1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), significantly reduced cAMP-stimulated Aa-Nat, Period1, and MKP-1 mRNA levels. Although another MAPK, p38(MAPK), has also been shown to be activated by cAMP stimulation, a p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole, HCl), showed no effect on cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 mRNA levels; whereas SB203580, but not its negative analogue SB202474 (4-Ethyl-2(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4'-pyridyl)-IH-imidazole, DiHCl), significantly reduced cAMP-induced MKP-1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our data suggest that cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 are likely to be mediated by activation of JNK, whereas MKP-1 may be mediated by both p38(MAPK) and JNK activations.

  1. Transcriptional regulation induced by cAMP elevation in mouse Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Daniela; Zeis, Thomas; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, Schwann cell development is regulated by a variety of signals. Some of the aspects of Schwann cell differentiation can be reproduced in vitro in response to forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator elevating intracellular cAMP levels. Herein, the effect of forskolin treatment was investigated by a comprehensive genome-wide expression study on primary mouse Schwann cell cultures. Additional to myelin-related genes, many so far unconsidered genes were ascertained to be modulated by forskolin. One of the strongest differentially regulated gene transcripts was the transcription factor Olig1 (oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1), whose mRNA expression levels were reduced in treated Schwann cells. Olig1 protein was localized in myelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells within the sciatic nerve as well as in primary Schwann cells, proposing it as a novel transcription factor of the Schwann cell lineage. Data analysis further revealed that a number of differentially expressed genes in forskolin-treated Schwann cells were associated with the ECM (extracellular matrix), underlining its importance during Schwann cell differentiation in vitro. Comparison of samples derived from postnatal sciatic nerves and from both treated and untreated Schwann cell cultures showed considerable differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro, allowing us to separate Schwann cell autonomous from tissue-related changes. The whole data set of the cell culture microarray study is provided to offer an interactive search tool for genes of interest. PMID:24641305

  2. Intraocular elevation of cyclic AMP potentiates ciliary neurotrophic factor-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qi; Yip, Henry K; Zhao, Robert C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Harvey, Alan R

    2003-01-01

    In vitro, cyclic AMP (cAMP) elevation alters neuronal responsiveness to diffusible growth factors and myelin-associated inhibitory molecules. Here we used an established in vivo model of adult central nervous system injury to investigate the effects of elevated cAMP on neuronal survival and axonal regeneration. We studied the effects of intraocular injections of neurotrophic factors and/or a cAMP analogue (CPT-cAMP) on the regeneration of axotomized rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve autografts. Elevation of cAMP alone did not significantly increase RGC survival or the number of regenerating RGCs. Ciliary neurotrophic factor increased RGC viability and axonal regrowth, the latter effect substantially enhanced by coapplication with CPT-cAMP. Under these conditions over 60% of surviving RGCs regenerated their axons. Neurotrophin-4/5 injections also increased RGC viability, but there was reduced long-distance axonal regrowth into grafts, an effect partially ameliorated by cAMP elevation. Thus, cAMP can act cooperatively with appropriate neurotrophic factors to promote axonal regeneration in the injured adult mammalian central nervous system.

  3. The Extract of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Yeon; Chung, SaeYeon; Kim, Soon Re; Lee, Ji-Hye; Seo, Hye-Sook; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigated whether the extract of six herbal medicines (OB-1) has an inhibitory effect on obesity. High-fat diet-(HFD-) induced rats and controls were treated with 40 mg/100 g body weight of OB-1 or saline once a day for 5 weeks. After significant changes in body weight were induced, OB-1 and saline were administered to each subgroup of HFD and control groups for additional 5 weeks. No statistically significant decrease of body weight in OB-1-treated rats was found compared to controls. However, OB-1-treated rats were found to be more active in an open-field test and have a reduction in the size of adipocytes compared to controls. We observed no changes in the mRNA expressions of leptin and adiponectin from adipocytes between OB-1- and saline-treated rats with HFD-induced obesity group. However, OB-1 treatments were shown to be inversely correlated with accumulation of lipid droplets in liver tissue, suggesting that OB-1 could inhibit a lipid accumulation by blocking the pathway related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was significantly increased in OB-1-treated rats with HFD compared to controls. These results suggest that OB-1 has no direct antiobesity effect and, however, could be a regulator of cellular metabolism. PMID:23533517

  4. Metformin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates phenylephrine-mediated contraction of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-05-11

    The aim of the present study is to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms by which activation of LKB1-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by metformin regulates vascular smooth muscle contraction. The essential ability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to contract and relax in response to an elevation and reduction in intravascular pressure is necessary for appropriate blood flow regulation. Thus, vessel contraction is a critical mechanism for systemic blood flow regulation. In cultured rat VSMCs, AMPK activation through LKB1 by metformin-inhibited phenylephrine-mediated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphorylation (p-MLC). Conversely, inhibition of AMPK and LKB1 reversed phenylephrine-induced MLCK and p-MLC phosphorylation. Measurement of the tension trace in rat aortic rings also showed that the effect of AMPK activation by metformin decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction. Metformin inhibited PE-induced p-MLC and α-smooth muscle actin co-localization. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK by LKB1 decreases VSMC contraction by inhibiting MLCK and p-MLC, indicating that induction by the AMPK-LKB1 pathway may be a new therapeutic target to lower high blood pressure.

  5. Activation of PPARβ/δ prevents hyperglycaemia-induced impairment of Kv7 channels and cAMP-mediated relaxation in rat coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Morales-Cano, Daniel; Moreno, Laura; Barreira, Bianca; Briones, Ana M; Pandolfi, Rachele; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Callejo, Maria; Mondejar-Parreño, Gema; Cortijo, Julio; Salaices, Mercedes; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Cogolludo, Angel

    2016-10-01

    PPARβ/δ activation protects against endothelial dysfunction in diabetic models. Elevated glucose is known to impair cAMP-induced relaxation and Kv channel function in coronary arteries (CA). Herein, we aimed to analyse the possible protective effects of the PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 on the hyperglycaemic-induced impairment of cAMP-induced relaxation and Kv channel function in rat CA. As compared with low glucose (LG), incubation under high glucose (HG) conditions attenuated the relaxation induced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin in CA and this was prevented by GW0742. The protective effect of GW0742 was supressed by a PPARβ/δ antagonist. In myocytes isolated from CA under LG, forskolin enhanced Kv currents and induced hyperpolarization. In contrast, when CA were incubated with HG, Kv currents were diminished and the electrophysiological effects of forskolin were abolished. These deleterious effects were prevented by GW0742. The protective effects of GW0742 on forskolin-induced relaxation and Kv channel function were confirmed in CA from type-1 diabetic rats. In addition, the differences in the relaxation induced by forskolin in CA incubated under LG, HG or HG + GW0742 were abolished by the Kv7 channel inhibitor XE991. Accordingly, GW0742 prevented the down-regulation of Kv7 channels induced by HG. Finally, the preventive effect of GW0742 on oxidative stress and cAMP-induced relaxation were overcome by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA). Our results reveal that the PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 prevents the impairment of the cAMP-mediated relaxation in CA under HG. This protective effect was associated with induction of PDK4, attenuation of oxidative stress and preservation of Kv7 channel function.

  6. RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) depletes nutrients, inducing phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengcheng; Hao, Chuncheng; Shao, RuPing; Fang, Bingliang; Correa, Arlene M; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Roth, Jack A; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Swisher, Stephen G; Pataer, Apar

    2015-05-10

    We have demonstrated that RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and its downstream protein p-eIF2α are independent prognostic markers for overall survival in lung cancer. In the current study, we further investigate the interaction between PKR and AMPK in lung tumor tissue and cancer cell lines. We examined PKR protein expression in 55 frozen primary lung tumor tissues by Western blotting and analyzed the association between PKR expression and expression of 139 proteins on tissue samples examined previously by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) from the same 55 patients. We observed that biomarkers were either positively (phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase(T172) [p-AMPK]) or negatively (insulin receptor substrate 1, meiotic recombination 11, ATR interacting protein, telomerase, checkpoint kinase 1, and cyclin E1) correlated with PKR. We further confirmed that induction of PKR with expression vectors in lung cancer cells causes activation of the AMPK protein independent of the LKB1, TAK1, and CaMKKβ pathway. We found that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which increases AMP levels and decreases ATP levels, causing AMPK phosphorylation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting AMPK expression with compound C or siRNA enhanced PKR-mediated cell death. We next explored the combination of PKR and p-AMPK expression in NSCLC patients and observed that expression of p-AMPK predicted a poor outcome for adenocarcinoma patients with high PKR expression and a better prognosis for those with low PKR expression. These findings were consistent with our in vitro results. AMPK might rescue cells facing metabolic stresses, such as ATP depletion caused by PKR. Our data indicate that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which induces the phosphorylation of AMPK. AMPK might act as a protective response to metabolic stresses, such as nutrient deprivation.

  7. Functions for the cAMP/Epac/Rap1 Signaling Pathway in Low-Dose Endothelial Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II-Induced Opening of Blood-Tumor Barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Bai; Liu, Yun-Hui; Xue, Yi-Xue; Wang, Ping; Liu, Li-Bo; Yao, Yi-Long; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that low-dose endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) induces blood-tumor barrier (BTB) hyperpermeability via both paracellular and transcellular pathways. In a recent study, we revealed that cAMP/PKA-dependent and cAMP/PKA-independent signaling pathways are both involved in EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. The present study further investigated the exact mechanisms through which the cAMP/PKA-independent signaling pathway affects EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. In an in vitro BTB model, low-dose EMAP-II (0.05 nM) induced a significant decrease in Rap1 activity in RBMECs. Pretreatment with forskolin to elevate intracellular cAMP concentration completely blocked EMAP-II-induced Rap1 inactivation. Epac/Rap1 activation by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly prevented EMAP-II-induced activation of RhoA/ROCK. Furthermore, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP pretreatment significantly inhibited EMAP-II-induced decreases in TEER and increases in HRP flux. Pretreatment also significantly prevented EMAP-II-induced changes in MLC phosphorylation, actin cytoskeleton arrangement, and expression and distribution of ZO-1 in RBMECs. This study demonstrates that the cAMP/Epac/Rap1 signaling cascade is a crucial pathway in EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy mediated the protective effect of sonic hedgehog pathway on oxygen glucose deprivation-induced injury of cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qing; Yang, Ya; Qin, Yuan; He, Yan-Hua; Chen, Kui-Xiang; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Gui-Ping; Luo, Jian-Dong

    2015-02-13

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has been reported to protect cardiomyocytes in myocardial infarction (MI), but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we provide evidence that Shh pathway induces cardiomyocytes survival through AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy. Shh pathway agonist SAG increased the expression of LC3-II, and induced the formation of autophagosomes in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) 1 h and 4 h. Moreover, SAG induced a profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, and then directly phosphorylated and activated the downstream autophagy initiator Ulk1, independent of the autophagy suppressor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1. Taken together, our results have shown that Shh activates AMPK-dependent autophagy in cardiomyocytes under OGD, suggesting a role of autophagy in Shh-induced cellular protection.

  9. Activation of Autophagic Flux against Xenoestrogen Bisphenol-A-induced Hippocampal Neurodegeneration via AMP kinase (AMPK)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Yadav, Anuradha; Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Tripathi, Anurag; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Ratan Singh; Shukla, Shubha; Parmar, Devendra; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The human health hazards related to persisting use of bisphenol-A (BPA) are well documented. BPA-induced neurotoxicity occurs with the generation of oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and cognitive dysfunctions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of the effects of BPA on autophagy and association with oxidative stress and apoptosis are still elusive. We observed that BPA exposure during the early postnatal period enhanced the expression and the levels of autophagy genes/proteins. BPA treatment in the presence of bafilomycin A1 increased the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1 and also potentiated GFP-LC3 puncta index in GFP-LC3-transfected hippocampal neural stem cell-derived neurons. BPA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis were mitigated by a pharmacological activator of autophagy (rapamycin). Pharmacological (wortmannin and bafilomycin A1) and genetic (beclin siRNA) inhibition of autophagy aggravated BPA neurotoxicity. Activation of autophagy against BPA resulted in intracellular energy sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, increased phosphorylation of raptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and decreased phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser-757), and silencing of AMPK exacerbated BPA neurotoxicity. Conversely, BPA exposure down-regulated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by phosphorylation of raptor as a transient cell's compensatory mechanism to preserve cellular energy pool. Moreover, silencing of mTOR enhanced autophagy, which further alleviated BPA-induced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. BPA-mediated neurotoxicity also resulted in mitochondrial loss, bioenergetic deficits, and increased PARKIN mitochondrial translocation, suggesting enhanced mitophagy. These results suggest implication of autophagy against BPA-mediated neurodegeneration through involvement of AMPK and mTOR pathways. Hence, autophagy, which arbitrates cell survival and demise during stress conditions, requires further assessment to be

  10. Bavachalcone-induced manganese superoxide dismutase expression through the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yanqi; Ling, Shuang; Duan, Ju; Ma, Jing; Ni, Rongzhen; Xu, Jin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been suggested as a major etiological factor in cardiovascular diseases. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an essential antioxidant mitochondrial enzyme. Although polyphenols can induce MnSOD expression, their mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the effect of bavachalcone, a bioactive compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia, on MnSOD protein expression and explored whether this effect is mediated through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Our data showed that bavachalcone enhanced the luciferase activity of the MnSOD promoter and increased MnSOD mRNA and protein expressions. Moreover, bavachalcone suppressed the mitochondrial superoxide production in endothelial cells. Conversely, bavachalcone stimulated liver kinase B1 and AMPKα phosphorylation. mRNA interference by using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) of AMPK inhibited bavachalcone-induced MnSOD expression. A-769662, an AMPK activator, also stimulated AMPK activity and increased MnSOD expression. Furthermore, AMPK knockdown by shRNA-AMPK reversed the inhibitory effects of bavachalcone on mitochondrial superoxide production in endothelial cells. These findings indicate that bavachalcone can protect the endothelial function by increasing AMPK activity and MnSOD expression and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. .

  11. MicroRNA-181a-mediated downregulation of AC9 protein decreases intracellular cAMP level and inhibits ATRA-induced APL cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, L K; Xu, G P; Pan, X R; Lou, Y J; Zou, Q P; Xia, D; Yan, W W; Zhang, Y T; Jia, P M; Tong, J H

    2014-04-10

    AC9 is one of the adenylate cyclase (AC) isoforms, which catalyze the conversion of ATP to cAMP, an important second messenger. We previously found that the integration of cAMP/PKA pathway with nuclear receptor-mediated signaling was required during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced maturation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Here we showed that AC9 could affect intracellular cAMP level and enhance the trans-activity of retinoic acid receptor. Knockdown of AC9 in APL cell line NB4 could obviously inhibit ATRA-induced differentiation. We also demonstrated that miR-181a could decrease AC9 expression by targeting 3'UTR of AC9 mRNA, finally controlling the production of intracellular cAMP. The expression of miR-181a itself could be inhibited by CEBPα, probably accounting for the differential expression of miR-181a in NB4 and ATRA-resistant NB4-R1 cells. Moreover, we found that AC9 expression was relatively lower in newly diagnosed or relapsed APL patients than in both complete remission and non-leukemia cases, closely correlating with the leukemogenesis of APL. Taken together, our studies revealed for the first time the importance of miR-181a-mediated AC9 downregulation in APL. We also suggested the potential value of AC9 as a biomarker in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of leukemia.

  12. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the insulin-induced activation of the nitric oxide synthase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Christian; Fichtlscherer, Birgit; Kemp, Bruce E; Fisslthaler, Beate; Busse, Rudi

    2003-11-01

    Little is known about the signaling cascades that eventually regulate the activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in platelets. Here, we investigated the effects of insulin on the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS in washed human platelets and in endothelial cells. Insulin activated the protein kinase Akt in cultured endothelial cells and increased the phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser(1177) but failed to increase endothelial cyclic GMP levels or to elicit the relaxation of endothelium-intact porcine coronary arteries. In platelets, insulin also elicited the activation of Akt as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS and initiated NO production which was associated with increased cyclic GMP levels and the inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation. The insulin-induced inhibition of aggregation was accompanied by a decreased Ca(2+) response to thrombin and was also prevented by N(omega) nitro-L-arginine. In platelets, but not in endothelial cells, insulin induced the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic stress-sensing kinase which was sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin and the AMPK inhibitor iodotubercidin. Moreover, the insulin-mediated inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation was prevented by iodotubercidin. Insulin-independent activation of the AMPK using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, increased platelet eNOS phosphorylation, increased cyclic GMP levels and attenuated platelet aggregation. These results highlight the differences in the signal transduction cascade activated by insulin in endothelial cells and platelets, and demonstrate that insulin stimulates the formation of NO in human platelets, in the absence of an increase in Ca(2+), by acti-vating PI3-K and AMPK which phosphorylates eNOS on Ser(1177).

  13. 14-Deoxyandrographolide alleviates ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Samir; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandhopadhyay, Sukdeb; Sen, Gargi; Biswas, Tuli

    2014-03-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a traditional medicinal plant of Ayurveda. It grows widely in Asia and is prescribed in the treatment of liver diseases. Here we have investigated the beneficial role of 14-deoxyandrographolide (14-DAG), a bioactive diterpenoid from AP, against alcoholic steatosis in rats. 14-DAG was extracted from aerial parts (leaves and stems) of AP. Rats were fed with ethanol for 8 weeks. Animals were treated with 14-DAG during the last 4 weeks of ethanol treatment. In vitro studies were undertaken in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line culture. Hepatosteatosis was assessed from histopathological studies of liver sections. Acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and triglyceride contents were determined using commercially available kits. Fatty acid synthesis was evaluated from incorporation of 1-(14)C acetate. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis were monitored with immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies. Ethanol exposure led to hepatotoxicity, as evident from the marked enhancement in the levels of AST and ALT. The values decreased almost to control levels in response to 14-DAG treatment. Results showed that ethanol feeding induced deactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that led to enhanced lipid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation, culminating in hepatic fat accumulation. Treatment with 14-DAG activated AMPK through induction of cyclic AMP-protein kinase A pathway. Activation of AMPK was followed by down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase, leading to suppression of lipogenesis. This was associated with up-regulation of sirtuin 1 and depletion of malonyl-CoA, in favor of increased fatty acid oxidation. 14-DAG controlled ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis by interfering with dysregulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our results indicated that 14-DAG was capable of preventing the development of fatty liver through AMPK

  14. Elevation of cAMP Levels Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in Pre- B ALL NALM- 6 Cells Through Induction of BAD Phosphorylation and Inhibition of P53 Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Kazemi, Ahmad; Kashiri, Meysam; Safa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the molecular mechanisms of cAMP action against DNA damage-induced apoptosis can be useful to improve the efficacy of DNA damaging therapeutic agents. Considering the critical role of bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) and p53 proteins in DNA damage -induced apoptosis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on these proteins in doxorubicin-treated pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) NALM-6 cells.The pre-B ALL cell line NALM-6 was cultured and treated with doxorubicin in combination with or without cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining and MTT assay. For evaluation of apoptosis, annexin-V staining by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay were used. Protein expression of p53, BAD and phoshorylated BAD was detected by western blotting analysis.cAMP-increasing agents diminished the doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity in NALM-6 cells as indicated by the viability assays. Annexin-V apoptosis assay showed that the cAMP-elevating agents decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced caspase-3 activity was attenuated in the presence of cAMP-increasing agents. Western blot results revealed the reduced expression of p53 protein in cells treated with combination of cAMP-elevating agents and doxorubicin in contrast to cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Expression of total BAD protein was not affected by doxorubicin and cAMP-elevating agents. However, phosphorylation of BAD protein was induced in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents. Our study suggests that elevated cAMP levels inhibit doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through induction of BAD phosphorylation and abrogation of p53 accumulation.

  15. Nicotinamide ameliorates palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes via cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway-dependent Sirt1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaxin; Dou, Xiaobing; Li, Songtao; Zhang, Ximei; Zeng, Yong; Song, Zhenyuan

    2015-11-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM) is the amide of nicotinic acid and a predominant precursor for NAD(+) biosynthesis via the salvage pathway. Sirt1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, playing an important role in regulating cellular functions. Although hepatoprotective effect of NAM has been reported, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. ER stress, induced by saturated fatty acids, in specific palmitate, plays a pathological role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study aims to determine the effect of NAM on palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes and to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind. Both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate (conjugated to BSA at a 2:1 M ratio), NAM, or their combination for different durations. Cellular NAD(+) level, Sirt1 expression/activity, ER stress, as well as cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway activation were determined. NAM increased Sirt1 expression and enzymatic activity, which contributes to the ameliorative effect of NAM on palmitate-triggered ER stress. NAM increased intracellular NAD(+) level in hepatocytes, however, blocking the salvage pathway, a pathway for NAD(+) synthesis from NAM, only partially prevented NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation while completely prevented NAD+ increase in response to NAM. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that NAM elevated intracellular cAMP level via suppressing PDE activity, leading to downstream PKA and CREB activation. Importantly, cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway blockade abolished not only NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation, but also its protective effect against ER stress. Our results demonstrate that NAM protects hepatocytes against palmitate-induced ER stress in hepatocytes via upregulating Sirt1. Activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway plays a key role in NAM-induced Sirt1 upregulation.

  16. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase activity is increased in adipose tissue of northern elephant seal pups during prolonged fasting-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Viscarra, Jose A; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-06-01

    Northern elephant seals endure a 2- to 3-month fast characterized by sustained hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and increased plasma cortisol and free fatty acids, conditions often seen in insulin-resistant humans. We had previously shown that adipose Glut4 expression and 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity increase and plasma glucose decreases in fasting seals suggesting that AMPK activity contributes to glucose regulation during insulin-resistant conditions. To address the hypothesis that AMPK activity increases during fasting-induced insulin resistance, we performed glucose tolerance tests (GTT) on early (n=5) and late (n=8)-fasted seal pups and compared adipose tissue expression of insulin signaling proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and AMPK, in addition to plasma adiponectin, leptin, cortisol, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels. Fasting was associated with decreased glucose clearance, plasma insulin and adiponectin, and intracellular insulin signaling, as well as increased plasma cortisol and NEFAs, supporting the suggestion that seals develop insulin resistance late in the fast. The expression of Glut4 and VAMP2 increased (52 and 63% respectively) with fasting but did not change significantly during the GTT. PPARγ and phosphorylated AMPK did not change in the early fasted seals, but increased significantly (73 and 50% respectively) in the late-fasted seals during the GTT. Increased AMPK activity along with the reduction in the activity of insulin-signaling proteins supports our hypothesis that AMPK activity is increased following the onset of insulin resistance. The association between increased AMPK activity and Glut4 expression suggests that AMPK plays a greater role in regulating glucose metabolism in mammals adapted to prolonged fasting than in non-fasting mammals.

  17. Coenzyme Q10 Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsiao-Ya; Lin, Chih-Pei; Huang, Po-Hsun; Li, Szu-Yuan; Chen, Jia-Shiong; Lin, Feng-Yen; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antiapoptosis enzyme, is stored in the mitochondria of cells. We investigated whether CoQ10 can attenuate high glucose-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) apoptosis and clarified its mechanism. EPCs were incubated with normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) enviroment for 3 days, followed by treatment with CoQ10 (10 μM) for 24 hr. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, and JC-1 assay were examined. The specific signal pathways of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), eNOS/Akt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also assessed. High glucose reduced EPC functional activities, including proliferation and migration. Additionally, Akt/eNOS activity and NO production were downregulated in high glucose-stimulated EPCs. Administration of CoQ10 ameliorated high glucose-induced EPC apoptosis, including downregulation of caspase 3, upregulation of Bcl-2, and increase in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, treatment with CoQ10 reduced reactive oxygen species, enhanced eNOS/Akt activity, and increased HO-1 expression in high glucose-treated EPCs. These effects were negated by administration of AMPK inhibitor. Transplantation of CoQ10-treated EPCs under high glucose conditions into ischemic hindlimbs improved blood flow recovery. CoQ10 reduced high glucose-induced EPC apoptosis and dysfunction through upregulation of eNOS, HO-1 through the AMPK pathway. Our findings provide a potential treatment strategy targeting dysfunctional EPC in diabetic patients. PMID:26682233

  18. Glabridin induces glucose uptake via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Keisuke; Yamashita, Yoko; Zhang, Tianshun; Nakagawa, Kaku; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-05

    The present study demonstrates that glabridin, a prenylated isoflavone in licorice, stimulates glucose uptake through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in L6 myotubes. Treatment with glabridin for 4h induced glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Glabridin needed at least 4h to increase glucose uptake, while it significantly decreased glycogen and increased lactic acid within 15 min. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK by Compound C suppressed the glabridin-induced glucose uptake, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt inhibition by LY294002 and Akt1/2 inhibitor, respectively, did not. Furthermore, glabridin induced AMPK phosphorylation, and siRNA for AMPK completely abolished glabridin-induced glucose uptake. We confirmed that glabridin-rich licorice extract prevent glucose intolerance accompanied by the AMPK-dependent GLUT4 translocation in the plasma membrane of mice skeletal muscle. These results indicate that glabridin may possess a therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and hyperglycemia, by modulating glucose metabolism through AMPK in skeletal muscle cells.

  19. Intermittent hypoxic exposure during light phase induces changes in cAMP response element binding protein activity in the rat CA1 hippocampal region: water maze performance correlates.

    PubMed

    Goldbart, A; Row, B W; Kheirandish, L; Schurr, A; Gozal, E; Guo, S Z; Payne, R S; Cheng, Z; Brittian, K R; Gozal, D

    2003-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, a characteristic feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with time-dependent apoptosis and spatial learning deficits in the adult rat. The mechanisms underlying such neurocognitive deficits remain unclear. Activation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor mediates critical components of neuronal survival and memory consolidation in mammals. CREB phosphorylation and DNA binding, as well as the presence of apoptosis in the CA1 region of the hippocampus were examined in Sprague-Dawley male rats exposed to IH. Spatial reference task learning was assessed with the Morris water maze. IH induced significant decreases in Ser-133 phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) without changes in total CREB, starting as early as 1 h IH, peaking at 6 h-3 days, and returning toward normoxic levels by 14-30 days. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry for pCREB and Neu-N (a neuronal marker) confirmed these findings. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 (cC3) in the CA1, a marker of apoptosis, peaked at 3 days and returned to normoxic values at 14 days. Initial IH-induced impairments in spatial learning were followed by partial functional recovery starting at 14 days of IH exposure. We postulate that IH elicits time-dependent changes in CREB phosphorylation and nuclear binding that may account for decreased neuronal survival and spatial learning deficits in the adult rat. We suggest that CREB changes play an important role in the neurocognitive morbidity of SDB patients.

  20. cAMP-induced Epac-Rap activation inhibits epithelial cell migration by modulating focal adhesion and leading edge dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Karen S; Raaijmakers, Judith H; Bruinsma, Wytse; Bos, Johannes L; de Rooij, Johan

    2008-06-01

    Epithelial cell migration is a complex process crucial for embryonic development, wound healing and tumor metastasis. It depends on alterations in cell-cell adhesion and integrin-extracellular matrix interactions and on actomyosin-driven, polarized leading edge protrusion. The small GTPase Rap is a known regulator of integrins and cadherins that has also been implicated in the regulation of actin and myosin, but a direct role in cell migration has not been investigated. Here, we report that activation of endogenous Rap by cAMP results in an inhibition of HGF- and TGFbeta-induced epithelial cell migration in several model systems, irrespective of the presence of E-cadherin adhesion. We show that Rap activation slows the dynamics of focal adhesions and inhibits polarized membrane protrusion. Importantly, forced integrin activation by antibodies does not mimic these effects of Rap on cell motility, even though it does mimic Rap effects in short-term cell adhesion assays. From these results, we conclude that Rap inhibits epithelial cell migration, by modulating focal adhesion dynamics and leading edge activity. This extends beyond the effect of integrin affinity modulation and argues for an additional function of Rap in controlling the migration machinery of epithelial cells.

  1. Adiponectin protects the rats liver against chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury through AMP-activated protein kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenxiao; Zhang, Qiang; Dong, Yanbin; Ding, Ning; Huang, Hanpeng; Zhu, Xianji; Hutchinson, Sean; Gao, Xingya; Zhang, Xilong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on the liver, the associated mechanisms and the potential therapeutic roles of adiponectin (Ad). Sixty rats were randomly assigned to four groups: the normal control (NC), NC and Ad supplement (NC + Ad), CIH, and CIH and Ad supplement (CIH + Ad) groups. The rats in the CIH and CIH + Ad groups were exposed to a hypoxic environment for 4 months. Rats in the NC + Ad and CIH + Ad groups were also treated with an intravenous injection of Ad (10 ug), twice a week. The plasma levels of hepatic enzymes, serum triglyceride, liver triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and hepatic cell apoptosis in hepatic tissue, were higher in the CIH group than in the NC and NC + Ad groups. However, the Ad supplementation in the CIH + Ad group rescued the hepatic tissue insult by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. In conclusion, Ad could protect against CIH-induced hepatic injury partly through the AMPK pathway. PMID:27678302

  2. cAMP-induced actin cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits MKL1-dependent expression of the chemotactic and pro-proliferative factor, CCN1

    PubMed Central

    Duggirala, Aparna; Kimura, Tomomi E.; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Johnson, Jason L.; Wu, Yih-Jer; Newby, Andrew C.; Bond, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular cAMP concentration has numerous vascular protective effects that are in part mediated via actin cytoskeleton-remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we investigated whether cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling modulates VSMC behaviour by inhibiting expression of CCN1. In cultured rat VSMC, CCN1-silencing significantly inhibited BrdU incorporation and migration in a wound healing assay. Recombinant CCN1 enhanced chemotaxis in a Boyden chamber. Adding db-cAMP, or elevating cAMP using forskolin, significantly inhibited CCN1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro; transcriptional regulation was demonstrated by measuring pre-spliced CCN1 mRNA and CCN1-promoter activity. Forskolin also inhibited CCN1 expression in balloon injured rat carotid arteries in vivo. Inhibiting RhoA activity, which regulates actin-polymerisation, by cAMP-elevation or pharmacologically with C3-transferase, or inhibiting its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, significantly inhibited CCN1 expression. Conversely, expression of constitutively active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on CCN1 mRNA. Furthermore, CCN1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by inhibiting actin-polymerisation with latrunculin B or increased by stimulating actin-polymerisation with Jasplakinolide. We next tested the role of the actin-dependent SRF co-factor, MKL1, in CCN1 expression. Forskolin inhibited nuclear translocation of MKL1 and binding of MKL1 to the CCN1 promoter. Constitutively-active MKL1 enhanced basal promoter activity of wild-type but not SRE-mutated CCN1; and prevented forskolin inhibition. Furthermore, pharmacological MKL-inhibition with CCG-1423 significantly inhibited CCN1 promoter activity as well as mRNA and protein expression. Our data demonstrates that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling regulates expression of CCN1 through MKL1: it highlights a novel cAMP

  3. cAMP-induced actin cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits MKL1-dependent expression of the chemotactic and pro-proliferative factor, CCN1.

    PubMed

    Duggirala, Aparna; Kimura, Tomomi E; Sala-Newby, Graciela B; Johnson, Jason L; Wu, Yih-Jer; Newby, Andrew C; Bond, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Elevation of intracellular cAMP concentration has numerous vascular protective effects that are in part mediated via actin cytoskeleton-remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression. However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we investigated whether cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling modulates VSMC behaviour by inhibiting expression of CCN1. In cultured rat VSMC, CCN1-silencing significantly inhibited BrdU incorporation and migration in a wound healing assay. Recombinant CCN1 enhanced chemotaxis in a Boyden chamber. Adding db-cAMP, or elevating cAMP using forskolin, significantly inhibited CCN1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro; transcriptional regulation was demonstrated by measuring pre-spliced CCN1 mRNA and CCN1-promoter activity. Forskolin also inhibited CCN1 expression in balloon injured rat carotid arteries in vivo. Inhibiting RhoA activity, which regulates actin-polymerisation, by cAMP-elevation or pharmacologically with C3-transferase, or inhibiting its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, significantly inhibited CCN1 expression. Conversely, expression of constitutively active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on CCN1 mRNA. Furthermore, CCN1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by inhibiting actin-polymerisation with latrunculin B or increased by stimulating actin-polymerisation with Jasplakinolide. We next tested the role of the actin-dependent SRF co-factor, MKL1, in CCN1 expression. Forskolin inhibited nuclear translocation of MKL1 and binding of MKL1 to the CCN1 promoter. Constitutively-active MKL1 enhanced basal promoter activity of wild-type but not SRE-mutated CCN1; and prevented forskolin inhibition. Furthermore, pharmacological MKL-inhibition with CCG-1423 significantly inhibited CCN1 promoter activity as well as mRNA and protein expression. Our data demonstrates that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling regulates expression of CCN1 through MKL1: it highlights a novel cAMP

  4. 17beta-estradiol potently suppresses cAMP-induced insulin-like growth factor-I gene activation in primary rat osteoblast cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, T. L.; Ji, C.; Shu, H.; Casinghino, S.; Crothers, K.; Rotwein, P.; Centrella, M.

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key factor in bone remodeling. In osteoblasts, IGF-I synthesis is enhanced by parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through cAMP-activated protein kinase. In rats, estrogen loss after ovariectomy leads to a rise in serum IGF-I and an increase in bone remodeling, both of which are reversed by estrogen treatment. To examine estrogen-dependent regulation of IGF-I expression at the molecular level, primary fetal rat osteoblasts were co-transfected with the estrogen receptor (hER, to ensure active ER expression), and luciferase reporter plasmids controlled by promoter 1 of the rat IGF-I gene (IGF-I P1), used exclusively in these cells. As reported, 1 microM PGE2 increased IGF-I P1 activity by 5-fold. 17beta-Estradiol alone had no effect, but dose-dependently suppressed the stimulatory effect of PGE2 by up to 90% (ED50 approximately 0.1 nM). This occurred within 3 h, persisted for at least 16 h, required ER, and appeared specific, since 17alpha-estradiol was 100-300-fold less effective. By contrast, 17beta-estradiol stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent reporter expression by up to 10-fold. 17beta-Estradiol also suppressed an IGF-I P1 construct retaining only minimal promoter sequence required for cAMP-dependent gene activation, but did not affect the 60-fold increase in cAMP induced by PGE2. There is no consensus ERE in rat IGF-I P1, suggesting novel downstream interactions in the cAMP pathway that normally enhances IGF-I expression in skeletal cells. To explore this, nuclear extract from osteoblasts expressing hER were examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the atypical cAMP response element in IGF-I P1. Estrogen alone did not cause DNA-protein binding, while PGE2 induced a characteristic gel shift complex. Co-treatment with both hormones caused a gel shift greatly diminished in intensity, consistent with their combined effects on IGF-I promoter activity. Nonetheless, hER did not bind

  5. Hypertonicity-induced transmitter release at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions is partly mediated by integrins and cAMP/protein kinase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Grinnell, Alan D.; Kidokoro, Yoshiaki

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of quantal transmitter release increases upon application of hypertonic solutions. This effect bypasses the Ca(2+) triggering step, but requires the presence of key molecules involved in vesicle fusion, and hence could be a useful tool for dissecting the molecular process of vesicle fusion. We have examined the hypertonicity response at neuromuscular junctions of Drosophila embryos in Ca(2+)-free saline. Relative to wild-type, the response induced by puff application of hypertonic solution was enhanced in a mutant, dunce, in which the cAMP level is elevated, or in wild-type embryos treated with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, while protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors decreased it. The response was also smaller in a mutant, DC0, which lacks the major subunit of PKA. Thus the cAMP/PKA cascade is involved in the hypertonicity response. Peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), which inhibit binding of integrins to natural ligands, reduced the response, whereas a peptide containing the non-binding sequence Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE) did not. A reduced response persisted in a mutant, myospheroid, which expresses no integrins, and the response in DC0 was unaffected by RGD peptides. These data indicate that there are at lease two components in the hypertonicity response: one that is integrin mediated and involves the cAMP/PKA cascade, and another that is not integrin mediated and does not involve the cAMP/PKA cascade.

  6. Mapping cyclic nucleotide-induced conformational changes in cyclicAMP receptor protein by a protein footprinting technique using different chemical proteases.

    PubMed

    Baichoo, N; Heyduk, T

    1999-03-01

    CyclicAMP receptor protein (CRP) regulates transcription of numerous genes in Escherichia coli. Both cAMP and cGMP bind CRP, but only cAMP induces conformational changes that dramatically increase the specific DNA binding activity of the protein. We have shown previously that our protein footprinting technique is sensitive enough to detect conformational changes in CRP by cAMP [Baichoo N, Heyduk T. 1997. Biochemistry 36:10830-10836]. In this work, conformational changes in CRP induced by cAMP and cGMP binding were mapped and quantitatively analyzed by protein footprinting using iron complexed to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ([Fe-DTPA]2-), iron complexed to ethylenediaminediacetic acid ([Fe-EDDA]), iron complexed to desferrioxamine mesylate ([Fe-HDFO]+), and copper complexed to o-phenanthroline ([(OP)2Cu]+) as proteases. These chemical proteases differ in size, charge, and hydrophobicity. Binding of cAMP to CRP resulted in changes in susceptibility to cleavage by all four proteases. Cleavage by [Fe-EDDA] and [Fe-DTPA]2- of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in the DNA-binding F alpha-helix, the interdomain hinge, and the ends of the C alpha-helix, which is involved in intersubunit interactions. [Fe-EDDA] and [Fe-DTPA]2- also detected reductions in cleavage in the D and E alpha-helices, which are involved in DNA recognition. Cleavage by [Fe-HDFO]+ of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in beta-strand 8, the B alpha-helix, as well as in parts of the F and C alpha-helices. [Fe-HDFO]+ also detected protections from cleavage in beta-strands 4 to 5 and their intervening loop, beta-strand 7, which is part of the nucleotide binding pocket, as well as in the D and E alpha-helices. Cleavage by [(OP)2Cu]+ of CRP-cAMP detected hypersensitivities in beta-strands 9 and 11 as well as in the D and E alpha-helices. [(OP)2Cu]+ also detected protections in the C alpha-helix , the interdomain hinge, and beta-strands 2-7. Binding of cGMP to CRP resulted in changes in

  7. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Niu, Guomin; Yin, Songmei; Xie, Shuangfeng; Li, Yiqing; Nie, Danian; Ma, Liping; Wang, Xiuju; Wu, Yudan

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expressions, and induces human leukemia HL-60 cell apoptosis. In order to investigate the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, we used flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis. The expressions of LKB1, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and Cox-2 protein were detected in HL-60 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by western blot. The expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin. The expressions of p-AMPK were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Then, the expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin alone or quercetin + Compound C. It was found that there was no significant difference in LKB1 between PBMCs and HL-60. p-AMPK in PBMCs was higher than that in HL-60, while Cox-2 was lower. After culture of HL-60 with quercetin, p-AMPK was increased, Cox-2 was decreased, but LKB1 remained unchanged. After culture of HL-60 with Compound C, p-AMPK was decreased. There was no significant difference in LKB1 between the quercetin-alone and the quercetin + Compound C groups. p-AMPK decreased more significantly, while Cox-2 increased more significantly in the quercetin + Compound C groups than those in the quercetin-alone groups. Taken together, these findings suggested that quercetin activates AMPK expression in HL-60 cells independent of LKB1 activation, inhibits Cox-2 expression by activating AMPK, and further regulates the Bcl-2-dependent pathways of apoptosis to exert its anti-leukemia effect.

  8. Chrysophanic Acid Suppresses Adipogenesis and Induces Thermogenesis by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha In vivo and In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hara; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Yunu; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kim, Su-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA. CA reduced weight gain in HFD-induced obese mice. They also decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of adipogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. Furthermore, when co-treated with Compound C, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, the action of CA on AMPKα was nullified in both types of adipocytes, indicating the multi-controlling effect of CA was partially via the AMPKα pathway. Given all together, these results indicate that CA can ameliorate obesity by controlling the adipogenic and thermogenic pathway at the same time. On these bases, we suggest the new potential of CA as an anti-obese pharmacotherapy. PMID:28008317

  9. Chrysophanic Acid Suppresses Adipogenesis and Induces Thermogenesis by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha In vivo and In vitro.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hara; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Yunu; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Kim, Su-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA. CA reduced weight gain in HFD-induced obese mice. They also decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of adipogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. Furthermore, when co-treated with Compound C, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, the action of CA on AMPKα was nullified in both types of adipocytes, indicating the multi-controlling effect of CA was partially via the AMPKα pathway. Given all together, these results indicate that CA can ameliorate obesity by controlling the adipogenic and thermogenic pathway at the same time. On these bases, we suggest the new potential of CA as an anti-obese pharmacotherapy.

  10. The Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Induces Liver Cell Proliferation and Is Phosphorylated by AMP Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Viswakarma, Navin; Jia, Yuzhi; Bai, Liang; Gao, Qian; Lin, Bingliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Misra, Parimal; Rana, Ajay; Jain, Sanjay; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2013-01-01

    Mediator, a large multisubunit protein complex, plays a pivotal role in gene transcription by linking gene-specific transcription factors with the preinitiation complex and RNA polymerase II. In the liver, the key subunit of the Mediator complex, Med1, interacts with several nuclear receptors and transcription factors to direct gene-specific transcription. Conditional knock-out of Med1 in the liver showed that hepatocytes lacking Med1 did not regenerate following either partial hepatectomy or treatment with certain nuclear receptor activators and failed to give rise to tumors when challenged with carcinogens. We now report that the adenovirally driven overexpression of Med1 in mouse liver stimulates hepatocyte DNA synthesis with enhanced expression of DNA replication, cell cycle control, and liver-specific genes, indicating that Med1 alone is necessary and sufficient for liver cell proliferation. Importantly, we demonstrate that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important cellular energy sensor, interacts with, and directly phosphorylates, Med1 in vitro at serine 656, serine 756, and serine 796. AMPK also phosphorylates Med1 in vivo in mouse liver and in cultured primary hepatocytes and HEK293 and HeLa cells. In addition, we demonstrate that PPARα activators increase AMPK-mediated Med1 phosphorylation in vivo. Inhibition of AMPK by compound C decreased hepatocyte proliferation induced by Med1 and also by the PPARα activators fenofibrate and Wy-14,643. Co-treatment with compound C attenuated PPARα activator-inducible fatty acid β-oxidation in liver. Our results suggest that Med1 phosphorylation by its association with AMPK regulates liver cell proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, most likely as a downstream effector of PPARα and AMPK. PMID:23943624

  11. The effects of forskolin and rolipram on cAMP, cGMP and free fatty acid levels in diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Doseyici, S; Mehmetoglu, I; Toker, A; Yerlikaya, F H; Erbay, E

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. We investigated the effects of forskolin and rolipram in the diet of animals in which obesity had been induced. We used 50 female albino Wistar rats that were assigned randomly into five groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, high fat diet; group 3, high fat diet + forskolin; group 4, high fat diet + rolipram; and group 5, high fat diet + rolipram + forskolin. The rats were fed for 10 weeks and rolipram and forskolin were administered during last two weeks. The animals were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained. Serum cAMP, cGMP and free fatty acids (FFA) levels were measured using ELISA assays. We also measured weight gain during the 10 week period. cAMP and FFA levels of groups 3, 4 and 5 were significantly higher than those of groups 1 and 2. We found no significant differences in serum cGMP levels among the groups. The weight gain in groups 3, 4 and 5 was significantly less than for group 2. We also found that the weight gain in group 5 was significantly less than in groups 3 and 4. We found that both forskolin and rolipram stimulated lipolysis and inhibited body weight increase by increasing cAMP levels. Also, combination therapy using the two agents may be more effective in preventing diet induced obesity than either agent alone. We found also that these agents did not effect cellular cGMP levels in diet induced obesity.

  12. Vasopressin induces dopamine release and cyclic AMP efflux from the brain of water-deprived rats: inhibitory effect of vasopressin V2 receptor-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, M G; Handa, R K; Stephen, P M; Bapna, J S

    1998-01-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin (AVP) is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system. It acts as an excitatory transmitter in the CNS and plays an important physiological role in water and electrolyte homeostasis. However, water deprivation has been shown to induce changes in the levels of monoamines, but there is little knowledge about the influence of AVP on monoamine levels after water deprivation. In this study, we investigated the effect of AVP and its receptor antagonists on alterations in dopamine (DA) release and cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) efflux from rat brain slices following water deprivation. Striatal brain slices (500 microm thick) were incubated in a medium with or without AVP (0. 1-1.0 microM) for 30 min. After 2 h of washout in normal medium, high KCl (40 mM)-evoked DA release and cAMP efflux from the rat brain slices were examined. In the brain slices of euhydrated animals, treatment with AVP slightly altered DA release and cAMP efflux from the brain. This increase in DA release and cAMP efflux was not significantly affected by the addition of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin (20 microM), to the incubation medium or either by a V1 or V2 AVP receptor antagonist. In contrast, AVP significantly increased the DA release and enhanced the cAMP efflux from the brain slices of water-deprived animals. The AVP-induced increase of brain response in the water-deprived animals was significantly attenuated by a V2 receptor antagonist, partially by calcineurin, but not by a V1 receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that AVP may play a role in water-deprivation-induced DA release and cAMP efflux, which is possibly mediated through the activation of the V2 receptor. The V2 receptor action is attenuated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent dephosphorlyation of some cellular proteins critical for signal transduction.

  13. Characterization of a DNA-damage-recognition protein from F9 teratocarcinoma cells, which is inducible by retinoic acid and cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Chao, C C; Sun, N K; Lin-Chao, S

    1993-02-15

    A nuclear protein that recognizes u.v.-damaged DNA was detected in extracts from murine F9 embryonic stem cells using a DNA-binding assay. The nuclear-protein-binding activity was increased in cells after treatment with retinoic acid/dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), with optimum induction at 6 days. In vitro treatment of nuclear extracts with agents that affect protein conformation (such as urea, Nonidet P40 and Ca2+) slightly modulated the damage-recognition activity. Furthermore, treatment of nuclear extracts with phosphatase dramatically inhibited the binding activity. In addition, damaged-DNA recognition of the nuclear extracts was effectively inhibited by damaged double- and single-stranded DNA. The expression of the nuclear protein with similar characteristics was abundant in HeLa cells and was increased in drug- or u.v.-resistant cells. The findings suggest that the recognition of a u.v.-DNA adduct is modulated, at least in part, by an activity that is induced during retinoic acid/dbcAMP-induced differentiation. These results also imply that the identified damage-recognition protein may be important for the sensitivity or resistance of mammalian cells to DNA damage.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A.; Kellezi, Holti; Risis, Steve; Frøsig, Christian; Vienberg, Sara G.; Treebak, Jonas T.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p < 0.05) protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n = 13–15), but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n = 12–13) mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p = 0.051; n = 6). To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n = 7–8) and AMPK α2 KD (n = 7–9) mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR). Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg) resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p < 0.05) and MnSOD (p < 0.01) in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n = 9–10). Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p < 0.01) and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p < 0.05). Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training. PMID:25852572

  15. The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits DNA damage repair by decreasing XRCC1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system decreases XRCC1 expression by promoting its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of XRCC1 degradation by cAMP signaling system is mediated by Epac1. -- Abstract: Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G{alpha}sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G{alpha}sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following {gamma}-ray irradiation. From

  16. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Norihisa

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  17. Signaling transcript profile of the asexual intraerythrocytic development cycle of Plasmodium falciparum induced by melatonin and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Rozanski, Andrei; Parreira, Kleber S.; Moraes, Miriam S.; Martins, David C.; Hashimoto, Ronaldo F.; Galante, Pedro A.F.; Garcia, Célia R.S.

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest parasite among all species. This parasite possesses the ability to sense molecules, including melatonin (MEL) and cAMP, and modulate its cell cycle accordingly. MEL synchronizes the development of this malaria parasite by activating several cascades, including the generation of the second messenger cAMP. Therefore, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis in P. falciparum erythrocytic stages (ring, trophozoite and schizont) treated with MEL and cAMP. To investigate the expression profile of P. falciparum genes regulated by MEL and cAMP, we performed RNA-Seq analysis in three P. falciparum strains (control, 3D7; protein kinase 7 knockout, PfPK7-; and PfPK7 complement, PfPK7C). In the 3D7 strain, 38 genes were differentially expressed upon MEL treatment; however, none of the genes in the trophozoite (T) stage PfPK7- knockout parasites were differentially expressed upon MEL treatment for 5 hours compared to untreated controls, suggesting that PfPK7 may be involved in the signaling leading to differential gene expression. Moreover, we found that MEL modified the mRNA expression of genes encoding membrane proteins, zinc ion-binding proteins and nucleic acid-binding proteins, which might influence numerous functions in the parasite. The RNA-Seq data following treatment with cAMP show that this molecule modulates different genes throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle, namely, 75, 101 and 141 genes, respectively, in the ring (R), T and schizont (S) stages. Our results highlight P. falciparum's perception of the external milieu through the signaling molecules MEL and cAMP, which are able to drive to changes in gene expression in the parasite. PMID:28050233

  18. Ferulic acid prevents LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4B and stimulates the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Hong, Qian; Tan, Hong-ling; Xiao, Cheng-rong; Gao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) isozymes are involved in different functions, depending on their patterns of distribution in the brain. The PDE4 subtypes are distributed in different inflammatory cells, and appear to be important regulators of inflammatory processes. In this study we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a plant component with strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) in PC12 cells, which in turn regulated cellular cAMP levels and the cAMP/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway in the cells. Methods: PC12 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 8 h, and the changes of F-actin were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured suing ELISA kits, and PDE4B-specific enzymatic activity was assessed with a PDE4B assay kit. The mRNA levels of PDE4B were analyzed with Q-PCR, and the protein levels of CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) were determined using immunoblotting. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to identify the interaction between PDE4B2 and FA. Results: Treatment of PC12 cells with LPS induced thick bundles of actin filaments appearing in the F-actin cytoskeleton, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with FA (10–40 μmol/L) or with a PDE4B inhibitor rolipram (30 μmol/L). Pretreatment with FA dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β in PC12 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with FA dose-dependently attenuated the LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4 activity in PC12 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with FA decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of the PDE4B mRNA, and reversed LPS-induced down-regulation of CREB and pCREB in PC12 cells. The molecular docking results revealed electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between FA and PDE4B2. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of FA in PC12 cells might be conferred through inhibition of LPS-induced

  19. Activation of the cAMP transduction cascade contributes to the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A

    1997-11-01

    1. The spinal role of the cAMP transduction cascade in nociceptive processing was investigated in awake behaving rats (male, Sprague-Dawley) by activating or inhibiting this pathway spinally. Microdialysis fibres were implanted into the dorsal horn to infuse drugs directly to the spinal cord. 2. Animals, without peripheral tissue injury, were tested for responses to repeated applications (10 trials) of von Frey filaments and threshold to mechanical stimulation before and after infusion of 8-bromo-cAMP. In this group of animals treated spinally with 8-br-cAMP (1-10 mM) a dose-dependent hyperalgesia and allodynia were produced. This was manifested as an increased number of responses to 10 trials of von Frey filaments (10, 50, 150, 250 mN) and a decrease in mechanical threshold. 3. A second series of experiments studied the manipulation of the cAMP pathway spinally in a model of tissue injury induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin. Animals were either pre- or post-treated spinally with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, tetrahydrofuryl adenine (THFA) or the protein kinase A inhibitor, myrosilated protein kinase (14-22) amide (PKI). Injection of capsaicin resulted in an increased number of responses to repeated applications of von Frey filaments and a decrease in threshold to mechanical stimuli outside the site of injection, secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. 4. Pre-treatment with either THFA (1 mM) or PKI (5 mM) had no effect on the capsaicin-evoked secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia. 5. In contrast, post-treatment spinally with THFA (0.01-1 mM) or PKI (0.05-50 mM) dose-dependently reduced the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia produced by capsaicin injection. Furthermore, the mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia blocked by the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, THFA (1 mM), was reversed by infusion of 8-bromo-cAMP (0.01-10 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. 6. Thus, this study demonstrates that activation of the cAMP transduction cascade at the spinal

  20. Role of Calmodulin-Calmodulin Kinase II, cAMP/Protein Kinase A and ERK 1/2 on Aeromonas hydrophila-Induced Apoptosis of Head Kidney Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Khatri, Preeti; Raman, Rajagopal; Bhatia, Himanshi; Datta, Malabika; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2014-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca2+) and its dependent protease calpain in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis has been reported. Here, we report the pro-apoptotic involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg) in the process. We observed significant increase in CaM levels in A. hydrophila-infected HKM and the inhibitory role of BAPTA/AM, EGTA, nifedipine and verapamil suggested CaM elevation to be Ca2+-dependent. Our studies with CaM-specific siRNA and the CaM inhibitor calmidazolium chloride demonstrated CaM to be pro-apoptotic that initiated the downstream expression of CaMKIIg. Using the CaMKIIg-targeted siRNA, specific inhibitor KN-93 and its inactive structural analogue KN-92 we report CaM-CaMKIIg signalling to be critical for apoptosis of A. hydrophila-infected HKM. Inhibitor studies further suggested the role of calpain-2 in CaMKIIg expression. CaMK Kinase (CaMKK), the other CaM dependent kinase exhibited no role in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. We report increased production of intracellular cAMP in infected HKM and our results with KN-93 or KN-92 implicate the role of CaMKIIg in cAMP production. Using siRNA to PKACA, the catalytic subunit of PKA, anti-PKACA antibody and H-89, the specific inhibitor for PKA we prove the pro-apoptotic involvement of cAMP/PKA pathway in the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila. Our inhibitor studies coupled with siRNA approach further implicated the role of cAMP/PKA in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). We conclude that the alteration in intracellular Ca2+ levels initiated by A. hydrophila activates CaM and calpain-2; both pathways converge on CaMKIIg which in turn induces cAMP/PKA mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation leading to caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of infected HKM. PMID:24763432

  1. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) induces vascular relaxation by activating Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Kamishima, Tomoko; Barrett-Jolley, Richard; Quayle, John M; Dart, Caroline

    2013-10-15

    Vasodilator-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a central mechanism governing arterial relaxation but is incompletely understood due to the diversity of cAMP effectors. Here we investigate the role of the novel cAMP effector exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in mediating vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. In myography experiments, the Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-AM (5 μM, subsequently referred to as 8-pCPT-AM) elicited a 77.6 ± 7.1% relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted arteries over a 5 min period (mean ± SEM; n = 6). 8-pCPT-AM induced only a 16.7 ± 2.4% relaxation in arteries pre-contracted with high extracellular K(+) over the same time period (n = 10), suggesting that some of Epac's relaxant effect relies upon vascular cell hyperpolarization. This involves Ca(2+)-sensitive, large-conductance K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel opening as iberiotoxin (100 nM) significantly reduced the ability of 8-pCPT-AM to reverse phenylephrine-induced contraction (arteries relaxed by only 35.0 ± 8.5% over a 5 min exposure to 8-pCPT-AM, n = 5; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM increased Ca(2+) spark frequency in Fluo-4-AM-loaded mesenteric myocytes from 0.045 ± 0.008 to 0.103 ± 0.022 sparks s(-1) μm(-1) (P < 0.05) and reversibly increased both the frequency (0.94 ± 0.25 to 2.30 ± 0.72 s(-1)) and amplitude (23.9 ± 3.3 to 35.8 ± 7.7 pA) of spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) recorded in isolated mesenteric myocytes (n = 7; P < 0.05). 8-pCPT-AM-activated STOCs were sensitive to iberiotoxin (100 nM) and to ryanodine (30 μM). Current clamp recordings of isolated myocytes showed a 7.9 ± 1.0 mV (n = 10) hyperpolarization in response to 8-pCPT-AM that was sensitive to iberiotoxin (n = 5). Endothelial disruption suppressed 8-pCPT-AM-mediated relaxation in phenylephrine-contracted arteries (24.8 ± 4.9% relaxation after 5 min of exposure, n = 5; P < 0.05), as did apamin and TRAM-34, blockers of Ca(2+)-sensitive, small- and

  2. The V-ATPase is expressed in the choroid plexus and mediates cAMP-induced intracellular pH alterations.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henriette L; Păunescu, Teodor G; Matchkov, Vladimir; Barbuskaite, Dagne; Brown, Dennis; Damkier, Helle H; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH influences brain interstitial pH and, therefore, brain function. We hypothesized that the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) expresses the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) as an acid extrusion mechanism in the luminal membrane to counteract detrimental elevations in CSF pH. The expression of mRNA corresponding to several V-ATPase subunits was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis of CPE cells (CPECs) isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized the V-ATPase primarily in intracellular vesicles with only a minor fraction in the luminal microvillus area. The vesicles did not translocate to the luminal membrane in two in vivo models of hypocapnia-induced alkalosis. The Na(+)-independent intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from acidification was studied in freshly isolated clusters of CPECs. At extracellular pH (pHo) 7.4, the cells failed to display significant concanamycin A-sensitive pHi recovery (i.e., V-ATPase activity). The recovery rate in the absence of Na(+) amounted to <10% of the pHi recovery rate observed in the presence of Na(+) Recovery of pHi was faster at pHo 7.8 and was abolished at pHo 7.0. The concanamycin A-sensitive pHi recovery was stimulated by cAMP at pH 7.4 in vitro, but intraventricular infusion of the membrane-permeant cAMP analog 8-CPT-cAMP did not result in trafficking of the V-ATPase. In conclusion, we find evidence for the expression of a minor fraction of V-ATPase in the luminal membrane of CPECs. This fraction does not contribute to enhanced acid extrusion at high extracellular pH, but seems to be activated by cAMP in a trafficking-independent manner.

  3. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Adenine Alleviates TNF-Alpha-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Fang; Young, Guang-Huar; Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Jang, Hyun-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Chen; Nong, Jing-Yi; Chen, Po-Ku; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Han-Min

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling system plays a key role in cellular stress by repressing the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) system. Previous studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory role of AMPK involves activation by adenine, but the mechanism that allows adenine to produce these effects has not yet been elucidated. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), adenine was observed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK in both a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as its downstream target acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC). Adenine also attenuated NF-κB targeting of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs following tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) treatment. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AMPK α1 in HUVECs attenuated the adenine-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory role of adenine is mediated by AMPK. Following the knockdown of adenosyl phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) in HUVECs, adenine supplementation failed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Similarly, the expression of a shRNA against APRT nullified the anti-inflammatory effects of adenine in HUVECs. These results suggested that the role of adenine as an AMPK activator is related to catabolism by APRT, which increases the cellular AMP levels to activate AMPK.

  4. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Adenine Alleviates TNF-Alpha-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiun-Tsai; Jang, Hyun-Hwa; Chen, Chin-Chen; Nong, Jing-Yi; Chen, Po-Ku; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Han-Min

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling system plays a key role in cellular stress by repressing the inflammatory responses induced by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) system. Previous studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory role of AMPK involves activation by adenine, but the mechanism that allows adenine to produce these effects has not yet been elucidated. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), adenine was observed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK in both a time- and dose-dependent manner as well as its downstream target acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACC). Adenine also attenuated NF-κB targeting of gene expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs following tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) treatment. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against AMPK α1 in HUVECs attenuated the adenine-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α, thereby suggesting that the anti-inflammatory role of adenine is mediated by AMPK. Following the knockdown of adenosyl phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) in HUVECs, adenine supplementation failed to induce the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. Similarly, the expression of a shRNA against APRT nullified the anti-inflammatory effects of adenine in HUVECs. These results suggested that the role of adenine as an AMPK activator is related to catabolism by APRT, which increases the cellular AMP levels to activate AMPK. PMID:26544976

  5. cAMP and in vivo hypoxia induce tob, ifr1, and fos expression in erythroid cells of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Stefanie; Offenhäuser, Nina; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2002-04-01

    During avian embryonic development, terminal erythroid differentiation occurs in the circulation. Some of the key events, such as the induction of erythroid 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), carbonic anhydrase (CAII), and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) synthesis are oxygen dependent (Baumann R, Haller EA, Schöning U, and Weber M, Dev Biol 116: 548-551, 1986; Dragon S and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 280: R870-R878, 2001; Dragon S, Carey C, Martin K, and Baumann R, J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon S, Glombitza S, Götz R, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon S, Hille R, Götz R, and Baumann R, Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Million D, Zillner P, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 261: R1188-R1196, 1991) in an indirect way: hypoxia stimulates the release of norepinephrine (NE)/adenosine into the circulation (Dragon et al., J Exp Biol 202: 2787-2795, 1999; Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996). This leads via erythroid beta-adrenergic/adenosine A(2) receptor activation to a cAMP signal inducing several proteins in a transcription-dependent manner (Dragon et al., Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R982-R989, 1996; Dragon et al., Blood 91: 3052-3058, 1998; Glombitza S, Dragon S, Berghammer M, Pannermayr M, and Baumann R, Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol 271: R973-R981, 1996). To understand how the cAMP-dependent processes are initiated, we screened an erythroid cDNA library for cAMP-regulated genes. We detected three genes that were strongly upregulated (>5-fold) by cAMP in definitive and primitive red blood cells. They are homologous to the mammalian Tob, Ifr1, and Fos proteins. In addition, the genes are induced in the intact embryo during short-term hypoxia. Because the genes are regulators of proliferation and differentiation in other cell types, we suggest that cAMP

  6. Metformin induces up-regulation of blood-brain barrier functions by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Matsumoto, Junichi; Machida, Takashi; Kaneshima, Shuji; Matsuo, Mai; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Takeshige, Yuki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2013-04-19

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs frequently in CNS diseases and injuries. Few drugs have been developed as therapeutic candidates for facilitating BBB functions. Here, we examined whether metformin up-regulates BBB functions using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBECs). Metformin, concentration- and time-dependently increased transendothelial electrical resistance of RBEC monolayers, and decreased RBEC permeability to sodium fluorescein and Evans blue albumin. These effects of metformin were blocked by compound C, an inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK stimulation with an AMPK activator, AICAR, enhanced BBB functions. These findings indicate that metformin induces up-regulation of BBB functions via AMPK activation.

  7. Involvement of cAMP-PKA pathway in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated regulation of acetaldehyde-induced activation of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaru; Wang, He; Lv, Xiongwen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Yang, Yan; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism by which adenosine receptors (ARs)-mediated the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway regulates the activation of acetaldehyde-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Primary HSCs were isolated from SD rats, cultured in vitro, and activated with different concentrations of acetaldehyde at different time points. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to quantify both protein and mRNA levels of the four AR (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R) in rat HSCs. Selective inhibitors of PDEs and the Gi/o protein pathway, general AR agonists, and AR subtype specific agents were used to study the AR signaling. The level of cAMP was measured by radio-immunoassay, and the expression of α-SMA, collagen type I and III, PKA and p-CREB were also detected by Western blotting. Acetaldehyde could significantly promote HSC proliferation, with a maximum stimulatory effect observed at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. All four AR subtypes could be present in rat HSCs, and the mRNA and protein expression levels for A2AR and A1R in much greater abundance than those for A2BR and A3R. The expression of A2AR and A1R was significantly increased in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs as compared with that of control group, whereas the expression of A2BR and A3R remained unaffected by the addition of acetaldehyde. Curiously, there is coupling of A2AR to the Gs-AC signaling, as well as coupling of A1R to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Both the A2AR and A1R antagonists could suppress the activation of HSC, although they have opposing effects on cAMP signal transduction. These results suggested that a combination of cAMP/PKA/CREB signals via A2AR and A1R likely mediate the activation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs, and A1R coupled to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway may be masked by the more predominant A2AR that coupled to the Gs-AC signaling pathway.

  8. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  9. Acute Exposure to Low Glucose Rapidly Induces Endothelial Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Role for AMP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingli; Alexanian, Anna; Ying, Rong; Kizhakekuttu, Tinoy J.; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeanette; Gutterman, David D.; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality. The reasons for this remain unclear and the effects of low glucose exposure on vascular endothelial function remain largely unknown. We endeavored to determine the effects of low glucose on endothelial cells and intact human arterioles. Methods and Results We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to low glucose conditions in a clinically relevant range (40–70 mg/dL) and found rapid and marked reductions in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability (P<0.001). This was associated with concomitantly increased mitochondrial superoxide production (P<0.001) and NO-dependent mitochondrial hyperpolarization (P<0.001). Reduced NO bioavailability was rapid and attributable to reduced eNOS activity and destruction of NO. Low glucose rapidly activated AMP Kinase but physiological activation failed to restore NO bioavailability. Pharmacological AMP Kinase activation led to phosphorylation of eNOS’s Ser633 activation site, reversing the adverse effects of low glucose, and this protective effect was prevented by L-NAME. Intact human arterioles exposed to low glucose demonstrated marked endothelial dysfunction which was prevented by either metformin or TEMPOL. Conclusions Our data suggest that moderate low glucose exposure rapidly impairs NO bioavailability and endothelial function in the human endothelium, and that pharmacological AMP Kinase activation can inhibit this effect in an NO-dependent manner. PMID:22207730

  10. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are associated with transient down-regulation of cAMP and cGMP in the caudate-putamen of hemiparkinsonian rats: reduced synthesis or increased catabolism?

    PubMed

    Sancesario, Giuseppe; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; D'Angelo, Vincenza; Castelli, Valentina; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Sica, Francesco; Martorana, Alessandro; Sorge, Roberto; Cavaliere, Federica; Bernardi, Giorgio; Giorgi, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    Second messenger cAMP and cGMP represent a key step in the action of dopamine that modulates directly or indirectly their synthesis. We aimed to verify whether levodopa-induced dyskinesias are associated with changes of the time course of levodopa/dopamine stimulated cAMP and cGMP levels, and/or with changes of their catabolism by phosphodiesterase activity in rats with experimental hemiparkinsonism. Microdialysis and tissue homogenates of the striatal tissues demonstrated that extracellular and intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels were lower in dyskinetic animals during the increasing phase of dyskinesias compared to eukinetic animals, but cAMP/cGMP levels increased in dyskinetic animals during the phase of decreasing and extinction of dyskinesias. Dyskinesias and the abnormal lowering of striatal cGMP and cAMP after levodopa were prevented by pretreatment with the multipotent drug amantadine, outlining the inverse relationship of cAMP/cGMP to dyskinesias. Moreover, dyskinetic animals showed higher striatal hydrolyzing cGMP-phosphodiesterase but not hydrolyzing cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity, suggesting that low cGMP but not cAMP levels could be due to increased catabolism. However, expressions of isozyme phosphodiesterase-1B and -10A highly and specifically located in the basal ganglia were not changed after levodopa in dyskinetic and eukinetic animals: accordingly, selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-1B and -10A were ineffective on levodopa dyskinesias. Therefore, the isozyme(s) expressing higher cGMP-phosphodiesterase activity in the striatum of dyskinetic animal should be determined. These observations suggest that dopamine-mediated processes of synthesis and/or degradation of cAMP/cGMP could be acutely impaired in levodopa dyskinesias, opening new ways to understanding physiopathology and treatment.

  11. Interrogating cyclic AMP signaling using optical approaches.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jason Y; Falcone, Jeffrey L; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M

    2017-03-01

    Optical reporters for cAMP represent a fundamental advancement in our ability to investigate the dynamics of cAMP signaling. These fluorescent sensors can measure changes in cAMP in single cells or in microdomains within cells as opposed to whole populations of cells required for other methods of measuring cAMP. The first optical cAMP reporters were FRET-based sensors utilizing dissociation of purified regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA, introduced by Roger Tsien in the early 1990s. The utility of these sensors was vastly improved by creating genetically encoded versions that could be introduced into cells with transfection, the first of which was published in the year 2000. Subsequently, improved sensors have been developed using different cAMP binding platforms, optimized fluorescent proteins, and targeting motifs that localize to specific microdomains. The most common sensors in use today are FRET-based sensors designed around an Epac backbone. These rely on the significant conformational changes in Epac when it binds cAMP, altering the signal between FRET pairs flanking Epac. Several other strategies for optically interrogating cAMP have been developed, including fluorescent translocation reporters, dimerization-dependent FP based biosensors, BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer)-based sensors, non-FRET single wavelength reporters, and sensors based on bacterial cAMP-binding domains. Other newly described mammalian cAMP-binding proteins such as Popdc and CRIS may someday be exploited in sensor design. With the proliferation of engineered fluorescent proteins and the abundance of cAMP binding targets in nature, the field of optical reporters for cAMP should continue to see rapid refinement in the coming years.

  12. Enhancement by lithium of cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed gene transcription conferred by TORC on the CREB basic leucine zipper domain

    PubMed Central

    Böer, Ulrike; Eglins, Julia; Krause, Doris; Schnell, Susanne; Schöfl, Christof; Knepel, Willhart

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the action of lithium salts in the treatment of bipolar disorder is not well understood. As their therapeutic action requires chronic treatment, adaptive neuronal processes are suggested to be involved. The molecular basis of this are changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors such as CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein). CREB contains a transactivation domain, in which Ser119 is phosphorylated upon activation, and a bZip (basic leucine zipper domain). The bZip is involved in CREB dimerization and DNA-binding, but also contributes to CREB transactivation by recruiting the coactivator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB). In the present study, the effect of lithium on CRE (cAMP response element)/CREB-directed gene transcription was investigated. Electrically excitable cells were transfected with CRE/CREB-driven luciferase reporter genes. LiCl (6 mM or higher) induced an up to 4.7-fold increase in 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated CRE/CREB-directed transcription. This increase was not due to enhanced Ser119 phosphorylation or DNA-binding of CREB. Also, the known targets inositol monophosphatase and GSK3β (glycogen-synthase-kinase 3β) were not involved as specific GSK3β inhibitors and inositol replenishment did not mimic and abolish respectively the effect of lithium. However, lithium no longer enhanced CREB activity when the CREB-bZip was deleted or the TORC-binding site inside the CREB-bZip was specifically mutated (CREB-R300A). Otherwise, TORC overexpression conferred lithium responsiveness on CREB-bZip or the CRE-containing truncated rat somatostatin promoter. This indicates that lithium enhances cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed transcription, conferred by TORC on the CREB-bZip. We thus support the hypothesis that lithium salts modulate CRE/CREB-dependent gene transcription and suggest the CREB coactivator TORC as a new molecular target of lithium. PMID:17696880

  13. cAMP/PKA Pathways and S56 Phosphorylation Are Involved in AA/PGE2-Induced Increases in rNaV1.4 Current

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hua; Fang, Yan-Jia; Liu, Dong-Dong; Chen, Ping; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites are important second messengers for ion channel modulation. The effects of extracellular application of AA and its non-metabolized analogue on muscle rNaV1.4 Na+ current has been studied, but little is known about the effects of intracellular application of AA on this channel isoform. Here, we report that intracellular application of AA significantly augmented the rNaV1.4 current peak without modulating the steady-state activation and inactivation properties of the rNaV1.4 channel. These results differed from the effects of extracellular application of AA on rNaV1.4 current. The effects of intracellular AA were mimicked by prostaglandin E2 but not eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), the non-metabolized analogue of AA, and were eliminated by treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors, flufenamic acid, or indomethacin. AA/PGE2-induced activation of rNaV1.4 channels was mimicked by a cAMP analogue (db-cAMP) and eliminated by a PKA inhibitor, PKAi. Furthermore, inhibition of EP2 and EP4 (PGE2 receptors) with AH6809 and AH23848 reduced the intracellular AA/PGE2-induced increase of rNaV1.4 current. Two mutated channels, rNaV1.4S56A and rNaV1.4T21A, were designed to investigate the role of predicted phosphorylation sites in the AA/PGE2–mediated regulation of rNaV1.4 currents. In rNaV1.4S56A, the effects of intracellular db-cAMP, AA, and PGE2 were significantly reduced. The results of the present study suggest that intracellular AA augments rNaV1.4 current by PGE2/EP receptor-mediated activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway, and that the S56 residue on the channel protein is important for this process. PMID:26485043

  14. Helicobacter pylori Induces miR-155 in T Cells in a cAMP-Foxp3-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fehri, Lina; Koch, Manuel; Belogolova, Elena; Khalil, Hany; Bolz, Christian; Kalali, Behnam; Mollenkopf, Hans J.; Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Karlas, Alexander; Schneider, Thomas; Churin, Yuri; Gerhard, Markus; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the most severe clinical outcomes of life-long infections with Helicobacter pylori is the development of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma - diseases often associated with an increase of regulatory T cells. Understanding H. pylori-driven regulation of T cells is therefore of crucial clinical importance. Several studies have defined mammalian microRNAs as key regulators of the immune system and of carcinogenic processes. Hence, we aimed here to identify H. pylori-regulated miRNAs, mainly in human T cells. MicroRNA profiling of non-infected and infected human T cells revealed H. pylori infection triggers miR-155 expression in vitro and in vivo. By using single and double H. pylori mutants and the corresponding purified enzymes, the bacterial vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tested positive for their ability to regulate miR-155 and Foxp3 expression in human lymphocytes; the latter being considered as the master regulator and marker of regulatory T cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of the Foxp3 transcription factor in T cells abolished miR-155 expression. Using adenylate cyclase inhibitors, the miR-155 induction cascade was shown to be dependent on the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Furthermore, we found that miR-155 directly targets the protein kinase A inhibitor α (PKIα) mRNA in its 3′UTR, indicative of a positive feedback mechanism on the cAMP pathway. Taken together, our study describes, in the context of an H. pylori infection, a direct link between Foxp3 and miR-155 in human T cells and highlights the significance of cAMP in this miR-155 induction cascade. PMID:20209161

  15. Compartmentalized accumulation of cAMP near complexes of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes to drug-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Ren, Aixia; Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Woodrooffe, Koryse; Schuetz, John D; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; de Jonge, Hugo R; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Buddington, Randal K; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such as the anti-colon cancer drug irinotecan and an anti-retroviral used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). These drugs activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid secretion by inhibiting MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux. Binding of drugs to MRP4 augments the formation of MRP4-CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes that is mediated via scaffolding protein PDZK1. Importantly, HIV patients on AZT treatment demonstrate augmented MRP4-CFTR complex formation in the colon, which defines a novel paradigm of drug-induced diarrhea.

  16. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase induce expression of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kihyuk; Ochi, Eisuke; Song, Hongsun; Nakazato, Koichi

    2015-10-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. We previously found that levels of Forkhead box proteins, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius increased after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Eccentric muscle contractions (ECs), defined as elongation of muscle under tension, were used for inducing EIMD. The objective of this study was to clarify whether AMPK participates in activation and expression of FoxO proteins and myostatin in rat gastrocnemius muscle after EIMD. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into the following three groups; CON (n = 6), 180ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 180°/s; n = 6), and 30ECs group (ankle angular velocity, 30°/s; n = 6). 20 ECs were conducted with percutaneous electrical stimulation of gastrocnemius and simultaneous forced dorsiflexion of ankle joint (from 0° to 45°). To evaluate activation of AMPK, we measured the phosphorylated states of AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase. For evaluation of the direct relationships of AMPK and other proteins, we also examined contents of FoxOs and myostatin with stimulation of L6 myotube with AMPK agonist, 5 -aminoimidazole -4 -carboxamide -1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Western blotting was employed for protein analysis. Significant torque deficit was only observed in the 180ECs, suggesting EIMD. We also observed that phosphorylated AMPKα was induced in response to 180ECs (p < 0.01 vs. CON). Additionally, the level of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase was significantly higher in response to 180ECs and 30ECs. The phosphorylated states of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin expression were increased significantly in response to 180ECs. Furthermore, treatment of L6 myotubes with AICAR showed similar tendencies to that observed in in vivo gastrocnemius muscle treated with 180ECs. Therefore, we conclude that activation of AMPK plays a key role in increasing the level of FoxO1, FoxO3a

  17. Modulation of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line by cyclic AMP. Ig secretion and phosphatidylcholine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, W.T.; Patke, C.L.; Gilliam, E.B.; Rosenblatt, H.M.; Barron, K.S.; Orson, F.M.

    1988-09-01

    A transformed human B cell line, LA350, was found to be sensitive to cAMP-elevating agents by responding with rapid (0 to 2 h) severalfold elevations of intracellular cAMP to treatment with cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP (all p less than 0.001). These cAMP-elevating agents also produced significant inhibitions of subsequent (48 to 72 h) Ig secretion by the same B cells as measured by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for IgM (both p less than 0.001). PMA- and IBMX-treated cells were particularly responsive to the effects of cholera toxin, showing a doubling of cAMP content and profound decrease in Ig production (p less than 0.001). Because our previous studies had correlated activation of the metabolic turnover of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction of membrane phospholipids with enhanced Ig secretion, we examined the sensitivity of PC metabolism to cAMP in control and PMA-stimulated cells. Formation of PC was found to be inhibited by forskolin and IBMX (both p less than 0.002) but breakdown of PC was stimulated (p less than 0.001). These findings imply that as the enzymatic products of PC, choline phosphate and diacylglycerol, are depleted due to the combined effects of cAMP upon synthesis and turnover of PC, there is a decrease in Ig secretion. Since diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it appears reasonable that Ig secretion is at least partially regulated by cAMP-responsive alterations in PC metabolism produced by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation. We conclude that the early cAMP-sensitive changes in PC metabolism in this activated B cell line may signal for subsequent alterations in Ig secretion.

  18. Escherichia coli exports cyclic AMP via TolC.

    PubMed

    Hantke, Klaus; Winkler, Karin; Schultz, Joachim E

    2011-03-01

    In Escherichia coli more than 180 genes are regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. However, more than 90% of cAMP that is made by intracellular adenylyl cyclases is found in the culture medium. How is cAMP exported from E. coli? In a tolC mutant, 0.03 mM IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) was sufficient to induce β-galactosidase compared to 0.1 mM IPTG in the parent strain. In a cya mutant unable to produce cAMP about 1 mM extracellular cAMP was required to induce β-galactosidase, whereas in a cya tolC mutant 0.1 mM cAMP was sufficient. When cAMP in E. coli cya was generated intracellularly by a recombinant, weakly active adenylyl cyclase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, the critical level of cAMP necessary for induction of maltose degradation was only achieved in a tolC mutant and not in the parent strain. Deletion of a putative cAMP phosphodiesterase of E. coli, CpdA, resulted in a slightly similar, yet more diffuse phenotype. The data demonstrate that export of cAMP via TolC is a most efficient way of E. coli to lower high concentrations of cAMP in the cell and maintain its sensitivity in changing metabolic environments.

  19. Defect-Related Luminescent Hydroxyapatite-Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via an ATP-Induced cAMP/PKA Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Cuimiao; Sun, Jiadong; Feng, Weipei; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-05-11

    Novel defect-related hydroxyapatite (DHAP), which combines the advantages of HAP and defect-related luminescence, has the potential application in tissue engineering and biomedical area, because of its excellent capability of monitoring the osteogenic differentiation and material biodegradation. Although the extracellular mechanism of DHAP minerals and PO4(3-) functioning in osteogenic differentiation has been widely studied, the intracellular molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) mediates osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is not clear. We examined a previously unknown molecular mechanism through which PO4(3-) promoted osteogenesis of BMSCs with an emphasis on adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-induced cAMP/PKA pathway. Our studies showed that DHAP could be uptaken into lysosome, in which PO4(3-) was released from DHAP, because of the acid environment of lysosome. The released PO4(3-) interacted with ADP to form ATP, and then degraded into adenosine, an ATP metabolite, which interacted with A2b adenosine receptor to activate the cAMP/PKA pathway, resulting in the high expression of osteogenesis-related genes, such as Runx2, BMP-2, and OCN. These findings first revealed the function of ATP-metabolism in bone physiological homeostasis, which may be developed to cure bone metabolic diseases.

  20. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-12-15

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling.

  1. cAMP signaling by anthrax edema toxin induces transendothelial cell tunnels, which are resealed by MIM via Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Maddugoda, Madhavi P; Stefani, Caroline; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Saarikangas, Juha; Torrino, Stéphanie; Janel, Sebastien; Munro, Patrick; Doye, Anne; Prodon, François; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Goossens, Pierre L; Lafont, Frank; Bassereau, Patricia; Lappalainen, Pekka; Brochard, Françoise; Lemichez, Emmanuel

    2011-11-17

    RhoA-inhibitory bacterial toxins, such as Staphylococcus aureus EDIN toxin, induce large transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels that rupture the host endothelium barrier and promote bacterial dissemination. Host cells repair these tunnels by extending actin-rich membrane waves from the TEM edges. We reveal that cyclic-AMP signaling produced by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) also induces TEM formation, which correlates with increased vascular permeability. We show that ET-induced TEM formation resembles liquid dewetting, a physical process of nucleation and growth of holes within a thin liquid film. We also identify the cellular mechanisms of tunnel closure and reveal that the I-BAR domain protein Missing in Metastasis (MIM) senses de novo membrane curvature generated by the TEM, accumulates at the TEM edge, and triggers Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization, which induces actin-rich membrane waves that close the TEM. Thus, the balance between ET-induced TEM formation and resealing likely determines the integrity of the host endothelium barrier.

  2. Prophylactic Melatonin Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Aged Rats through Hippocampal Melatonin Receptor 2 - cAMP Response Element Binding Signalling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Yang, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Rong, Xiaoying; Qian, Min; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-01

    Melatonin exerts many physiological effects via melatonin receptors, among which the melatonin-2 receptor (MT2 ) plays a critical role in circadian rhythm disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. A melatonin replacement strategy has been tested previously, and MT2 was a critical target during the process. cAMP response element binding (CREB) is an essential transcription factor for memory formation and could be involved in MT2 signalling. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic melatonin on inhaled anaesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment, and to determine whether the protective effects of melatonin are dependent on MT2 and downstream CREB signalling in the hippocampus of aged rats. The results showed that prophylactic melatonin attenuated isoflurane-induced decreases in plasma/hippocampal melatonin levels and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Furthermore, 4P-PDOT, a selective MT2 antagonist, blocked the protective effects of melatonin on isoflurane-induced decreases in both hippocampal MT2 expression and downstream CREB phosphorylation. And 4P-PDOT blocked the attenuation of melatonin on isoflurane-induced memory impairment. Collectively, the results suggest that the protective effects of prophylactic melatonin are dependent on hippocampal MT2 -CREB signalling, which could be a potential therapeutic target for anaesthetic-induced cognitive impairment.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster in insulin-secreting β-cells by cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator 1 and salt-inducible kinases.

    PubMed

    Malm, Helena Anna; Mollet, Inês G; Berggreen, Christine; Orho-Melander, Marju; Esguerra, Jonathan Lou S; Göransson, Olga; Eliasson, Lena

    2016-03-15

    MicroRNAs are central players in the control of insulin secretion, but their transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate cAMP-mediated transcriptional regulation of the miR-212/miR-132 cluster and involvement of further upstream proteins in insulin secreting β-cells. cAMP induced by forskolin+IBMX or GLP-1 caused increased expression of miR-212/miR-132, and elevated phosphorylation of cAMP-response-element-binding-protein (CREB)/Activating-transcription-factor-1 (ATF1) and Salt-Inducible-Kinases (SIKs). CyclicAMP-Regulated Transcriptional Co-activator-1 (CRTC1) was concomitantly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus. Silencing of miR-212/miR-132 reduced, and overexpression of miR-212 increased, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Silencing of CRTC1 expression resulted in decreased insulin secretion and miR-212/miR-132 expression, while silencing or inhibition of SIKs was associated with increased expression of the microRNAs and dephosphorylation of CRTC1. CRTC1 protein levels were reduced after silencing of miR-132, suggesting feed-back regulation. Our data propose cAMP-dependent co-regulation of miR-212/miR-132, in part mediated through SIK-regulated CRTC1, as an important factor for fine-tuned regulation of insulin secretion.

  4. High glucose-induced barrier impairment of human retinal pigment epithelium is ameliorated by treatment with Goji berry extracts through modulation of cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Barbara; Capuzzo, Antonio; Forlani, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelium cells were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying blood-retinal barrier disruption under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The treatment with 25 mM glucose caused a rapid drop in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), which was reversed by the addition of either a methanolic extract from Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries or its main component, taurine. Intracellular cAMP levels increased concurrently with the high glucose-induced TEER decrease, and were correlated to an increased activity of the cytosolic isoform of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase. The treatment with plant extract or taurine restored control levels. Data are discussed in view of a possible prevention approach for diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Immunization with Tc52 or its amino terminal domain adjuvanted with c-di-AMP induces Th17+Th1 specific immune responses and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Marina N.; Cazorla, Silvia I.; Schulze, Kai; Ebensen, Thomas; Guzmán, Carlos A.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.

    2017-01-01

    The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52) adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG), or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG). All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant: Tc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP, CTc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG, NTc52+CpG, developed significantly higher anti-Tc52 IgG titers than controls. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 showed the highest Tc52-specific IgA titers in nasal lavages. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant developed a strong specific cellular immune response in splenocytes and lymph node cells with significant differences for groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52. These groups also showed high levels of Tc52-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ producing cells, while NTc52+CpG group only showed significant difference with control in IFN-γ producing cells. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 developed predominantly a Th17 and Th1immune response, whereas for NTc52+CpG it was a dominant Th1 response. It was previously described that αGC-PEG inhibits Th17 differentiation by activating NKT cells. Thus, in this work we have also included a group immunized with both adjuvants (NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG) with the aim to modulate the Th17 response induced by c-di-AMP. This group showed a significant reduction in the number of Tc52-specific IL-17 producing splenocytes, as compared to the group NTc52+c-di-AMP, which has in turn

  6. Immunization with Tc52 or its amino terminal domain adjuvanted with c-di-AMP induces Th17+Th1 specific immune responses and confers protection against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marina N; Cazorla, Silvia I; Schulze, Kai; Ebensen, Thomas; Guzmán, Carlos A; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2017-02-01

    The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52) adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG), or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG). All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant: Tc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP, CTc52+c-di-AMP, NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG, NTc52+CpG, developed significantly higher anti-Tc52 IgG titers than controls. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 showed the highest Tc52-specific IgA titers in nasal lavages. All groups immunized with the recombinant proteins plus adjuvant developed a strong specific cellular immune response in splenocytes and lymph node cells with significant differences for groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52. These groups also showed high levels of Tc52-specific IL-17 and IFN-γ producing cells, while NTc52+CpG group only showed significant difference with control in IFN-γ producing cells. Groups immunized with c-di-AMP and Tc52, NTc52 or CTc52 developed predominantly a Th17 and Th1immune response, whereas for NTc52+CpG it was a dominant Th1 response. It was previously described that αGC-PEG inhibits Th17 differentiation by activating NKT cells. Thus, in this work we have also included a group immunized with both adjuvants (NTc52+c-di-AMP+αGC-PEG) with the aim to modulate the Th17 response induced by c-di-AMP. This group showed a significant reduction in the number of Tc52-specific IL-17 producing splenocytes, as compared to the group NTc52+c-di-AMP, which has in turn

  7. Dictyostelium discoideum lipids modulate cell-cell cohesion and cyclic AMP signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, D R; Luo, C S; Phillips, J C

    1991-01-01

    During Dictyostelium discoideum development, cell-cell communication is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced cAMP synthesis and secretion (cAMP signaling) and cell-cell contact. Cell-cell contact elicits cAMP secretion and modulates the magnitude of a subsequent cAMP signaling response (D. R. Fontana and P. L. Price, Differentiation 41:184-192, 1989), demonstrating that cell-cell contact and cAMP signaling are not independent events. To identify components involved in the contact-mediated modulation of cAMP signaling, amoebal membranes were added to aggregation-competent amoebae in suspension. The membranes from aggregation-competent amoebae inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested, while the membranes from vegetative amoebae exhibited a concentration-dependent enhancement or inhibition of cAMP signaling. Membrane lipids inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested. The lipids abolished cAMP signaling by blocking cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. The membrane lipids also inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion at concentrations comparable to those which inhibited cAMP signaling. The phospholipids and neutral lipids decreased cohesion and inhibited the cAMP signaling response. The glycolipid/sulfolipid fraction enhanced cohesion and cAMP signaling. Caffeine, a known inhibitor of cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation, inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion. These studies demonstrate that endogenous lipids are capable of modulating amoeba-amoeba cohesion and cAMP-induced activation of the adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that cohesion may modulate cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. Because the complete elimination of cohesion is accompanied by the complete elimination of cAMP signaling, these results further suggest that cohesion may be necessary for cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation in D. discoideum. PMID:1846024

  8. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 attenuates PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anuran; Wu, Bian; Chen, Mian; Conte, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been previously shown to attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. We sought to investigate the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in mediating the effects of the aspirin-triggered epimer 17R-RvD1 (AT-RvD1) on VSMC migration. Methods VSMCs were harvested from human saphenous veins. VSMCs were analyzed for intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity after exposure to AT-RvD1. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced migration and cytoskeletal changes in VSMCs were observed through scratch, Transwell, and cell shape assays in the presence or absence of a PKA inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cAMP). Further investigation of the pathways involved in AT-RvD1 signaling was performed by measuring Rac1 activity, vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and paxillin translocation. Finally, we examined the role of RvD1 receptors (GPR32 and ALX/FPR2) in AT-RvD1 induced effects on VSMC migration and PKA activity. Results Treatment with AT-RvD1 induced a significant increase in cAMP levels and PKA activity in VSMCs at 5 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. AT-RvD1 attenuated PDGF-induced VSMC migration and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These effects were attenuated by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP, suggesting cAMP/PKA involvement. Treatment of VSMC with AT-RvD1 inhibited PDGF-stimulated Rac1 activity, increased VASP phosphorylation, and attenuated paxillin localization to focal adhesions; these effects were negated by the addition of Rp-8-Br-cAMP. The effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration and PKA activity were attenuated by blocking ALX/FPR2, suggesting an important role of this G-protein coupled receptor. Conclusions Our results suggest that AT-RvD1 attenuates PDGF-induced VSMC migration via ALX/FPR2 and cAMP/PKA. Interference with Rac1, VASP and paxillin function appear to mediate the downstream effects

  9. Prostaglandin E2 induces chloride secretion through crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Thomas, Sheela V; Kathpalia, Paru P; Chen, Yu; Pao, Alan C

    2014-02-01

    Under conditions of high dietary salt intake, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is increased in the collecting duct and promotes urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion; however, the molecular mechanisms by which PGE2 increases NaCl excretion in this context have not been clearly defined. We used the mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD)-K2 cell line to characterize mechanisms underlying PGE2-regulated NaCl transport. When epithelial Na(+) channels were inhibited, PGE2 exclusively stimulated basolateral EP4 receptors to increase short-circuit current (Isc(PGE2)). We found that Isc(PGE2) was sensitive to inhibition by H-89 and CFTR-172, indicating that EP4 receptors signal through protein kinase A to induce Cl(-) secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Unexpectedly, we also found that Isc(PGE2) was sensitive to inhibition by BAPTA-AM (Ca(2+) chelator), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (inositol triphosphate receptor blocker), and flufenamic acid (FFA) [Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CACC) inhibitor], suggesting that EP4 receptors also signal through Ca(2+) to induce Cl(-) secretion via CACC. Additionally, we observed that PGE2 stimulated an increase in Isc through crosstalk between cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling; BAPTA-AM or 2-APB inhibited a component of Isc(PGE2) that was sensitive to CFTR-172 inhibition; H-89 inhibited a component of Isc(PGE2) that was sensitive to FFA inhibition. Together, our findings indicate that PGE2 activates basolateral EP4 receptors and signals through both cAMP and Ca(2+) to stimulate Cl(-) secretion in IMCD-K2 cells. We propose that these signaling pathways, and the crosstalk between them, may provide a concerted mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion under conditions of high dietary NaCl intake.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 induces chloride secretion through crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Thomas, Sheela V.; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of high dietary salt intake, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is increased in the collecting duct and promotes urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion; however, the molecular mechanisms by which PGE2 increases NaCl excretion in this context have not been clearly defined. We used the mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD)-K2 cell line to characterize mechanisms underlying PGE2-regulated NaCl transport. When epithelial Na+ channels were inhibited, PGE2 exclusively stimulated basolateral EP4 receptors to increase short-circuit current (IscPGE2). We found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by H-89 and CFTR-172, indicating that EP4 receptors signal through protein kinase A to induce Cl− secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Unexpectedly, we also found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (inositol triphosphate receptor blocker), and flufenamic acid (FFA) [Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitor], suggesting that EP4 receptors also signal through Ca2+ to induce Cl− secretion via CACC. Additionally, we observed that PGE2 stimulated an increase in Isc through crosstalk between cAMP and Ca2+ signaling; BAPTA-AM or 2-APB inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to CFTR-172 inhibition; H-89 inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to FFA inhibition. Together, our findings indicate that PGE2 activates basolateral EP4 receptors and signals through both cAMP and Ca2+ to stimulate Cl− secretion in IMCD-K2 cells. We propose that these signaling pathways, and the crosstalk between them, may provide a concerted mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion under conditions of high dietary NaCl intake. PMID:24284792

  11. Regulatory effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Fan, Rong; Lu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Chang; Xu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xie; Liu, Panpan; Yan, Shuangquan; Chen, Chun; Wang, Liangxing

    2014-06-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in cardiovascular protection. It can inhibit arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and cardiac fibroblast collagen synthesis induced by anoxia. However, the role of AMPK-dependent signalling cascades in the pulmonary vascular system is currently unknown. This study aims to determine the effects of AMPK on pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling induced by hypoxia in rats using in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo study: pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodelling were found in hypoxic rats. Meanwhile, AMPKα1 and phosphorylated AMPKα1 were increased markedly in pulmonary arterioles and lung tissues. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure, index of right ventricular hypertrophy and parameters of pulmonary vascular remodelling, including vessel wall area/total area, density of nuclei in medial smooth muscle cells, and thickness of the medial smooth muscle cell layer were markedly suppressed by AICAR, an AMPK agonist. In vitro study: the expression of AMPKα1 and phosphorylated AMPKα1 was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions. The effects of PASMC proliferation stimulated by hypoxia were reinforced by treatment with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR inhibited the proliferation of PASMCs stimulated by hypoxia. These findings suggest that AMPK is involved in the formation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vessel remodelling. Up-regulating AMPK can contribute to decreasing pulmonary vessel remodelling and pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia.

  12. Regulation of mitochondrial poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase activation by the β-adrenoceptor/cAMP/protein kinase A axis during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Brunyanszki, Attila; Olah, Gabor; Coletta, Ciro; Szczesny, Bartosz; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the regulation of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) system during oxidative stress in U937 monocytes. Oxidative stress induced an early (10 minutes) mitochondrial DNA damage, and concomitant activation of PARP1 in the mitochondria. These early events were followed by a progressive mitochondrial oxidant production and nuclear PARP1 activation (by 6 hours). These processes led to a functional impairment of mitochondria, culminating in cell death of mixed (necrotic/apoptotic) type. β-Adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol or inhibition of its downstream cAMP/PKA signaling attenuated, while β-adrenoceptor agonists and cAMP/PKA activators enhanced, the oxidant-mediated PARP1 activation. In the presence of cAMP, recombinant PKA directly phosphorylated recombinant PARP1 on serines 465 (in the automodification domain) and 782 and 785 (both in the catalytic domain). Inhibition of the β-adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA axis protected against the oxidant-mediated cell injury. Propranolol also suppressed PARP1 activation in peripheral blood leukocytes during bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation in mice. We conclude that the activation of mitochondrial PARP1 is an early, active participant in oxidant-induced cell death, which is under the control of β-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis through the regulation of PARP1 activity by PARP1 phosphorylation.

  13. 24-hydroxyursolic acid from the leaves of the Diospyros kaki (Persimmon) induces apoptosis by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prem; Oh, Won-Keun; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Cho, Sung Dae; Choi, Hong Seok

    2010-05-01

    There are multiple lines of evidence that persimmon extract and its constituents have potent antitumor activity against human cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of 24-hydroxyursolic acid, a triterpenoid found in persimmon, on antitumor activities are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that 24-hydroxyursolic acid inhibited cell proliferation, strongly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mediated critical anticancer effects by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression in HT-29 cells. In addition, 24-hydroxyursolic acid induced cellular apoptosis by activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15. It also strongly induced DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells and thereby significantly inhibited colony formation of HT-29 cells in soft agar. In addition, 24-hydroxyursolic acid blocked the EGF-induced ERKs phosphorylation and led to the inhibition of AP-1 activity and cell transformation in JB6 CL41 cells. Collectively, these findings are the first to reveal a molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic action of 24-hydroxyursolic acid and might account for the reported chemopreventive and chemotherapic effects of persimmon extracts.

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits TGF-β-, angiotensin II-, aldosterone-, high glucose-, and albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Ja Seon; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Soon Bae; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Sang Koo

    2013-03-15

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a novel mechanism that promotes renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), angiotensin II, aldosterone, high glucose, and urinary albumin are well-known causes of EMT and renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed EMT induced by the above agents in tubular epithelial cells. All experiments were performed using HK-2 cells. Protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Exposure of tubular cells to TGF-β (10 ng/ml), angiotensin II (1 μM), aldosterone (100 nM), high glucose (30 mM), and albumin (5 mg/ml) for 5 days induced EMT, as shown by upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin and downregulation of E-cadherin. ROS and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression were increased, and antioxidants such as tiron and N-acetylcysteine inhibited EMT induction. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed EMT induction through inhibition of ROS via induction of heme oxygenase-1 and endogenous antioxidant thioredoxin. An AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and AMPK small interfering RNA blocked the effect of metformin, and another AMPK activator [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β riboside (AICAR)] exerted the same effects as metformin. In conclusion, AMPK activation might be beneficial in attenuating the tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by TGF-β, angiotensin II, aldosterone, high glucose, and urinary albumin.

  15. Betulin binds to melanocortin receptors and antagonizes alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induced cAMP generation in mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Muceniece, Ruta; Saleniece, Kristine; Riekstina, Una; Krigere, Liga; Tirzitis, Gunars; Ancans, Janis

    2007-01-01

    Betulin is a principal component of birch bark and is known to possess a broad range of biological activities, including antiinflammatory, antiviral and anticancer actions. The present study was carried out in vitro to clarify the influence of betulin on melanocortin (MC) receptor-ergic signalling by using COS-7 cells transfected with corresponding human MC receptor DNA. The results showed that betulin binds to the human melanocortin MC1, three to five receptors with selectivity to the MC1 subtype (K(i) value 1.022 +/- 0.115 microM). Betulin binds to the MC receptors with the following potency order-MC > MC3 > MC5 > MC4. Betulin itself does not stimulate cAMP generation, however, it slightly antagonizes alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-induced cAMP accumulation in the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F1. As a water-insoluble substance, betulin was dissolved in DMSO therefore DMSO competition with the labelled ligand NDP-MSH for the binding to the MC receptors was tested in the identical experimental set-up. We found that DMSO competes for binding to all the MC receptor subtypes, at 20% concentration and above. Selectivity for one or another receptor subtype was not observed. We have demonstrated for the first time, the ability of the plant compound betulin to bind to the MC receptors. One may suggest MC receptor MC1 subtype as the essential target for the antimelanoma action of betulin and its structurally close molecules such as betulinic acid. Moreover, we have found a new non-peptide small molecule MC mimetic, that is betulin. Thus, we report a new chemical motif for the binding to the MC receptors that could be used as a template for the search of more selective MC mimetics.

  16. The stellate vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype is induced by IL-1β via the secretion of PGE2 and subsequent cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activation.

    PubMed

    Blirando, Karl; Blaise, Régis; Gorodnaya, Natalia; Rouxel, Clotilde; Meilhac, Olivier; Vincent, Pierre; Limon, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Atherosclerosis development is associated with morphological changes to intimal cells, leading to a stellate cell phenotype. In this study, we aimed to determine whether and how key pro-atherogenic cytokines present in atherosclerotic plaques (IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ) could induce this phenotype, as these molecules are known to trigger the transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We found that, IL-1β was the only major inflammatory mediator tested capable of inducing a stellate morphology in VSMCs. This finding was confirmed by staining for F-actin and vinculin at focal adhesions, as these two markers were disrupted only by IL-1β. We then investigated the possible association of this IL-1β-dependent change in morphology with an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]), using the FRET-based biosensor for cAMP (T)Epac(VV). Experiments in the presence of IL-1β or medium conditioned by IL-1β-treated VSMCs and pharmacological tools demonstrated that the long-term increase in intracellular cAMP concentration was induced by the secretion of an autocrine/paracrine mediator, prostaglandin E₂(PGE₂), acting through the EP4 receptor. Finally, by knocking down the expression of the regulatory subunit PKAR1α, thereby reproducing the effects of IL-1β and PGE₂ on VSMCs, we demonstrated the contribution of PKA activity to the observed behavior of VSMCs.

  17. Adiponectin Inhibits LPS-Induced HMGB1 Release through an AMP Kinase and Heme Oxygenase-1-Dependent Pathway in RAW 264 Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaede, Ryuji; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory mediator that exaggerates septic symptoms. Adiponectin, an adipokine, has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible effects of adiponectin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced HMGB1 release are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of full length adiponectin on HMGB1 release in LPS-stimulated RAW 264 macrophage cells. Treatment of the cells with LPS alone significantly induced HMGB1 release associated with HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol. However, prior treatment with adiponectin suppressed LPS-induced HMGB1 release and translocation. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin- (IL-) 10 similarly suppressed LPS-induced HMGB1 release. Adiponectin treatment decreased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression and increased heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1 mRNA expression without inducing IL-10 mRNA, while IL-10 treatment decreased TLR2 and HMGB1 mRNA expression and increased the expression of IL-10 and HO-1 mRNA. Treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP completely prevented the suppression of HMGB1 release by adiponectin but only partially inhibited that induced by IL-10. Treatment with compound C, an AMP kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, abolished the increase in HO-1 expression and the suppression of HMGB1 release mediated by adiponectin. In conclusion, our results indicate that adiponectin suppresses HMGB1 release by LPS through an AMPK-mediated and HO-1-dependent IL-10-independent pathway. PMID:27313399

  18. Short-chain fatty acids activate AMP-activated protein kinase and ameliorate ethanol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Elhaseen E; Masclee, Ad A; Dekker, Jan; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Jonkers, Daisy M

    2013-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to promote intestinal barrier function, but their protective effects against ethanol-induced intestinal injury and underlying mechanisms remain essentially unknown. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of SCFAs on ethanol-induced barrier dysfunction and to examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a possible mechanism using Caco-2 monolayers. The monolayers were treated apically with butyrate (2, 10, or 20 mmol/L), propionate (4, 20, or 40 mmol/L), or acetate (8, 40, or 80 mmol/L) for 1 h before ethanol (40 mmol/L) for 3 h. Barrier function was analyzed by measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Distribution of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, and filamentous-actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence. Metabolic stress was determined by measuring oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and ATP using dichlorofluorescein diacetate, dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and bioluminescence assay, respectively. AMPK was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and its activity was assessed by a cell-based ELISA. Exposure to ethanol significantly impaired barrier function compared with controls (P < 0.0001), disrupted TJ and F-actin cytoskeleton integrity, and induced metabolic stress. However, pretreatment with 2 mmol/L butyrate, 4 mmol/L propionate, and 8 mmol/L acetate significantly alleviated the ethanol-induced barrier dysfunction, TJ and F-actin disruption, and metabolic stress compared with ethanol-exposed monolayers (P < 0.0001). The promoting effects on barrier function were abolished by inhibiting AMPK using either compound C or siRNA. These observations indicate that SCFAs exhibit protective effects against ethanol-induced barrier disruption via AMPK activation, suggesting a potential for SCFAs as prophylactic and/or therapeutic factors against ethanol-induced

  19. C1q/TNF-related protein-9 inhibits cytokine-induced vascular inflammation and leukocyte adhesiveness via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Yu Mi; Lee, Yoo La; Seol, So Mi; Yoon, Hae Kyeong; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-01-05

    Although recent studies have reported cardioprotective effects of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), the closet adiponectin paralog, its role on cytokine-induced endothelial inflammation is unknown. We investigated whether CTRP9 prevented inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules and a chemokine in the vascular endothelial cell. We used human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) to examine the effects of CTRP9 on NF-κB activation and the expression of NF-κB-mediated genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was used as a representative proinflammatory cytokine. In an adhesion assay using THP-1 cells, CTRP9 reduced TNFα-induced adhesion of monocytes to HAECs. Treatment with CTRP9 significantly decreased TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1. In addition, treatment with CTRP9 significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the downstream target of AMPK. The inhibitory effect of CTRP9 on the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MCP-1 and monocyte adhesion to HAECs was abolished after transfection with an AMPKα1-specific siRNA. Our study is the first to demonstrate that CTRP9 attenuates cytokine-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells mediated by AMPK activation.

  20. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) confers drug resistance against DNA damaging agents via PKAIA in CML cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling-Yi; Kan, Wai-Ming

    2017-01-05

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates many vital functions such as metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and death. Depending on cell types and stimulators, cAMP could either promote or attenuate cell death. cAMP signal can be transduced by protein kinase A (PKA) and/or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC). In CML cells, cAMP may suppress their proliferation and enhance their differentiation. However, the role of cAMP on DNA damaging agent toxicity and the mechanism involved has not been studied. In this study, we studied the effect of cAMP on the sensitivity of CML cells to DNA damaging agents. We observed that forskolin (FSK) and dibutyryl-cAMP (DBcAMP) decreased cisplatin and etoposide-induced cell death in K562 cells. Moreover, PKA activator prevented K562 cells from DNA damaging agent-induced cell death while EPAC activator had no effect. Furthermore, we found that the PKA subtype, PKAIA, was involved in cAMP-attenuated resistance in K562 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that increased cAMP level confers CML cells to acquire a novel mechanism against DNA damaging agent toxicity via PKAIA. Thus, PKAIA inhibitor may be helpful in overcoming the resistance to DNA damaging agents in CML cells.

  1. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Attenuates High Salt-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-Wan; Li, Xin-Yuan; Liu, Hui-Bin; Wang, Zi-Rui; Hu, Qing-Qing; Li, Yu-Xia; Song, Bin-Lin; Lou, Jie; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Ma, He-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the endothelial cells. To test whether high salt affects the NO production via regulation of endothelial ENaC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated in solutions containing either normal or high sodium (additional 20 mM NaCl). Our data showed that high sodium treatment significantly increased α-, β-, and γ-ENaC expression levels in HUVECs. Using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that high sodium treatment significantly increased ENaC open probability (P O ). Moreover, nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser 1177) levels and NO production were significantly decreased by high sodium in HUVECs; the effects of high sodium on eNOS phosphorylation and NO production were inhibited by a specific ENaC blocker, amiloride. Our results showed that high sodium decreased AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. On the other hand, metformin, an AMPK activator, prevented high sodium-induced upregulation of ENaC expression and P O . Moreover, metformin prevented high salt-induced decrease in NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest that high sodium stimulates ENaC activation by negatively modulating AMPK activity, thereby leading to reduction in eNOS activity and NO production in endothelial cells.

  2. α-Terpineol induces fatty liver in mice mediated by the AMP-activated kinase and sterol response element binding protein pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Sim, Woo-Cheol; Choi, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The use of herbal medicines in disease prevention and treatment is growing rapidly worldwide, without careful consideration of safety issues. α-Terpineol is a monoterpene alcoholic component of Melaleuca alternifolia, Salvia officinalis and Carthamus tinctorius that is used widely as a flavor and essential oil in food. The present study showed that α-terpineol induces fatty liver via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR-sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) pathway. α-Terpineol-treated hepatocytes had significantly increased neutral lipid accumulation. α-Terpineol suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, and increased p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and SREBP-1 activation. It also increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with LXRE-tk-Luc and SRE-tk-Luc. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by co-treatment with rapamycin or co-transfection with dominant negative p70S6K blocked completely the effects of α-terpineol. α-Terpineol oral administration to mice for 2weeks led to decreased AMPK phosphorylation and increased SREBP-1 activation in the liver, followed by hepatic lipid accumulation. Conversely, rapamycin co-treatment reversed α-terpineol-induced SREBP-1 activation and fatty liver in mice. These data provide evidence that α-terpineol causes fatty liver, an effect mediated by the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP-1 pathway.

  3. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Attenuates High Salt-Induced Activation of Epithelial Sodium Channels (ENaC) in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Yuan; Hu, Qing-Qing; Ma, He-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is expressed in the endothelial cells. To test whether high salt affects the NO production via regulation of endothelial ENaC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated in solutions containing either normal or high sodium (additional 20 mM NaCl). Our data showed that high sodium treatment significantly increased α-, β-, and γ-ENaC expression levels in HUVECs. Using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that high sodium treatment significantly increased ENaC open probability (PO). Moreover, nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (Ser 1177) levels and NO production were significantly decreased by high sodium in HUVECs; the effects of high sodium on eNOS phosphorylation and NO production were inhibited by a specific ENaC blocker, amiloride. Our results showed that high sodium decreased AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in endothelial cells. On the other hand, metformin, an AMPK activator, prevented high sodium-induced upregulation of ENaC expression and PO. Moreover, metformin prevented high salt-induced decrease in NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. These results suggest that high sodium stimulates ENaC activation by negatively modulating AMPK activity, thereby leading to reduction in eNOS activity and NO production in endothelial cells. PMID:27635187

  4. Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Inhibits Collagen-Induced [Ca(2+)]i Mobilization via cAMP-Dependent Phosphorylation of Inositol 1, 4, 5-Trisphosphate Receptor in Human Platelets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Yu, Young-Bin; Kang, Hyo-Chan; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we prepared cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha, and investigated the effect of CE-WIB801C on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 175 μg/ml. CE-WIB801C increased cAMP level more than cGMP level, but inhibited collagen-elevated [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased the CE-WIB801C-downregulated [Ca(2+)]i level in a dose dependent manner, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-induced inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibition of [Ca(2+)]i mobilization by CE-WIB801C is resulted from the cAMP/A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R. CE-WIB801C suppressed TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS). These results suggest that the inhibition of TXA2 production by WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. In this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C with cAMP-dependent Ca(2+)-antagonistic antiplatelet effects may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  5. Cordycepin-Enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris Inhibits Collagen-Induced [Ca2+]i Mobilization via cAMP-Dependent Phosphorylation of Inositol 1, 4, 5-Trisphosphate Receptor in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Yu, Young-Bin; Kang, Hyo-Chan; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we prepared cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha, and investigated the effect of CE-WIB801C on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 175 μg/ml. CE-WIB801C increased cAMP level more than cGMP level, but inhibited collagen-elevated [Ca2+]i mobilization and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased the CE-WIB801C-downregulated [Ca2+]i level in a dose dependent manner, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-induced inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization by CE-WIB801C is resulted from the cAMP/A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R. CE-WIB801C suppressed TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS). These results suggest that the inhibition of TXA2 production by WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. In this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C with cAMP-dependent Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effects may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:25009703

  6. The Role of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase and AMP-Activated Kinase in the Rapid Estrogenic Attenuation of Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Garrett S.; Peng, Kelly C.; Wagner, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine the involvement of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the estrogenic antagonism of the cannabinoid regulation of energy homeostasis. Food intake and body weight were evaluated in ovariectomized female guinea pigs treated s.c. with estradiol benzoate (EB) or its sesame oil vehicle, or the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 or its cremephor/ethanol/0.9% saline vehicle. AMPK catalytic subunit, PI3K p85α regulatory subunit and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression was assessed via quantitative RT-PCR in microdissected hypothalamic tissue. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices. Both EB and AM251 decreased food intake and weight gain, and increased AMPKα1, AMPKα2 and PI3K p85α gene expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus. 17β-Estradiol rapidly and markedly attenuated the decreases in glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency caused by the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in POMC neurons. This rapid estrogenic diminution of cannabinoid-induced decreases in mEPSC frequency was blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 and the PI3K inhibitor PI 828, the latter of which also prevented the AM251-induced increase in mEPSC frequency. In addition, the AMPK activator metformin reversed the EB-induced decreases in food intake and weight gain and restored the ability of WIN 55,212-2 to reduce mEPSC frequency. These data reveal that estrogens physiologically antagonize cannabinoid-induced changes in appetite and POMC neuronal activity by activating PI3K and inhibiting AMPK. As such, they provide insight into the neuroanatomical substrates and signal transduction mechanisms upon which these counter-regulatory factors converge in the control of energy homeostasis.

  7. Aspirin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Jin Young; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation was greater in VSMC from SHR than WKY. {yields} Aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMC from SHR. {yields} Low basal AMPK phosphorylation in SHR elicits increased VSMC proliferation. {yields} Inhibition of AMPK restored decreased VSMC proliferation by aspirin in SHR. {yields} Aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effect through AMPK activation in VSMC from SHR. -- Abstract: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), used to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation. However, mechanisms responsible for aspirin-induced growth inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether aspirin may exert therapeutic effects via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from wistar kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aspirin increased AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in VSMCs from WKY and SHR, but with greater efficacy in SHR. In SHR, a low basal phosphorylation status of AMPK resulted in increased VSMC proliferation and aspirin-induced AMPK phosphorylation inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and AMPK siRNA reduced the aspirin-mediated inhibition of VSMC proliferation, this effect was more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. In VSMCs from SHR, aspirin increased p53 and p21 expression and inhibited the expression of cell cycle associated proteins, such as p-Rb, cyclin D, and cyclin E. These results indicate that in SHR VSMCs aspirin exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of AMPK phosphorylation.

  8. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α2 in Neutrophils Regulates Vascular Repair via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and a Network of Proteins Affecting Metabolism and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Malik, Randa; Zippel, Nina; Frömel, Timo; Heidler, Juliana; Zukunft, Sven; Walzog, Barbara; Ansari, Nariman; Pampaloni, Francesco; Wingert, Susanne; Rieger, Michael A.; Wittig, Ilka; Fisslthaler, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is stimulated by hypoxia, and although the AMPKα1 catalytic subunit has been implicated in angiogenesis, little is known about the role played by the AMPKα2 subunit in vascular repair. Objective: To determine the role of the AMPKα2 subunit in vascular repair. Methods and Results: Recovery of blood flow after femoral artery ligation was impaired (>80%) in AMPKα2−/− versus wild-type mice, a phenotype reproduced in mice lacking AMPKα2 in myeloid cells (AMPKα2ΔMC). Three days after ligation, neutrophil infiltration into ischemic limbs of AMPKα2ΔMC mice was lower than that in wild-type mice despite being higher after 24 hours. Neutrophil survival in ischemic tissue is required to attract monocytes that contribute to the angiogenic response. Indeed, apoptosis was increased in hypoxic neutrophils from AMPKα2ΔMC mice, fewer monocytes were recruited, and gene array analysis revealed attenuated expression of proangiogenic proteins in ischemic AMPKα2ΔMC hindlimbs. Many angiogenic growth factors are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induction was attenuated in AMPKα2-deficient cells and accompanied by its enhanced hydroxylation. Also, fewer proteins were regulated by hypoxia in neutrophils from AMPKα2ΔMC mice. Mechanistically, isocitrate dehydrogenase expression and the production of α-ketoglutarate, which negatively regulate hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stability, were attenuated in neutrophils from wild-type mice but remained elevated in cells from AMPKα2ΔMC mice. Conclusions: AMPKα2 regulates α-ketoglutarate generation, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stability, and neutrophil survival, which in turn determine further myeloid cell recruitment and repair potential. The activation of AMPKα2 in neutrophils is a decisive event in the initiation of vascular repair after ischemia. PMID:27777247

  9. Cyclic AMP regulation of the human glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit gene is mediated by an 18-base-pair element

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, B.J.; Bokar, J.A.; Virgin, J.B.; Vallen, E.A.; Milsted, A.; Nilson, J.H.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP regulates transcription of the gene encoding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the choriocarcinoma cells (BeWo). To define the sequences required for regulation by cAMP, the authors inserted fragments from the 5' flanking region of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene into a test vector containing the simian virus 40 early promoter (devoid of its enhancer) linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Results from transient expression assays in BeWo cells indicated that a 1500-base-pair (bp) fragment conferred cAMP responsiveness on the CAT gene regardless of position or orientation of the insert relative to the viral promoter. A subfragment extending from position -169 to position -100 had the same effect on cAMP-induced expression. Furthermore, the entire stimulatory effect could be achieved with an 18-bp synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a direct repeat between position -146 and -111. In the absence of cAMP, the ..cap alpha..-subunit 5' flanking sequence also enhanced transcription from the simian virus 40 early promoter. They localized this enhancer activity to the same -169/-100 fragment containing the cAMP response element. The 18-bp element alone, however, had no effect on basal expression. Thus, this short DNA sequence serves as a cAMP response element and also functions independently of other promoter-regulatory elements located in the 5' flanking sequence of the ..cap alpha..-subunit gene.

  10. Intracellular mechanisms involved in copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Cu-GnRH) complex-induced cAMP/PKA signaling in female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Alina; Zielinska-Gorska, Marlena; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Siawrys, Gabriela; Baran, Marta; Kotarba, Grzegorz; Biernacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone molecule (Cu-GnRH) is a GnRH analog, which preserves its amino acid sequence, but which contains a Cu(2+) ion stably bound to the nitrogen atoms including that of the imidazole ring of Histidine(2). A previous report indicated that Cu-GnRH was able to activate cAMP/PKA signaling in anterior pituitary cells in vitro, but raised the question of which intracellular mechanism(s) mediated the Cu-GnRH-induced cAMP synthesis in gonadotropes. To investigate this mechanism, in the present study, female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro were pretreated with 0.1 μM antide, a GnRH antagonist; 0.1 μM cetrorelix, a GnRH receptor antagonist; 0.1 μM PACAP6-38, a PAC-1 receptor antagonist; 2 μM GF109203X, a protein kinase C inhibitor; 50 mM PMA, a protein kinase C activator; the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 (30 μM) and KT5720 (60 nM); factors affecting intracellular calcium activity: 2.5 mM EGTA; 2 μM thapsigargin; 5 μM A23187, a Ca(2+) ionophore; or 10 μg/ml cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. After one of the above pretreatments, cells were incubated in the presence of 0.1 μM Cu-GnRH for 0.5, 1, and 3 h. Radioimmunoassay analysis of cAMP confirmed the functional link between Cu-GnRH stimulation and cAMP/PKA signal transduction in rat anterior pituitary cells, demonstrating increased intracellular cAMP, which was reduced in the presence of specific PKA inhibitors. The stimulatory effect of Cu-GnRH on cAMP production was partly dependent on GnRH receptor activation. In addition, an indirect and Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism might be involved in intracellular adenylate cyclase stimulation. Neither activation of protein kinase C nor new protein synthesis was involved in the Cu-GnRH-induced increase of cAMP in the rat anterior pituitary primary cultures. Presented data indicate that conformational changes of GnRH molecule resulting from cooper ion coordination affect specific pharmacological properties of Cu

  11. Coordination between proteasome impairment and caspase activation leading to TAU pathology: neuroprotection by cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, M J; Huang, Q; Figueiredo-Pereira, M E

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main component of NFTs is TAU, a highly soluble microtubule-associated protein. However, when TAU is cleaved at Asp421 by caspases it becomes prone to aggregation leading to NFTs. What triggers caspase activation resulting in TAU cleavage remains unclear. We investigated in rat cortical neurons a potential coordination between proteasome impairment and caspase activation. We demonstrate that upon proteasome inhibition, the early accumulation of detergent-soluble ubiquitinated (SUb) proteins paves the way to caspase activation and TAU pathology. This occurs with two drugs that inhibit the proteasome by different means: the product of inflammation prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) and epoxomicin. Our results pinpoint a critical early event, that is, the buildup of SUb proteins that contributes to caspase activation, TAU cleavage, TAU/Ub-protein aggregation and neuronal death. Furthermore, to our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that elevating cAMP in neurons with dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or the lipophilic peptide PACAP27 prevents/diminishes caspase activation, TAU cleavage and neuronal death induced by PGJ2, as long as these PGJ2-induced changes are moderate. db-cAMP also stimulated proteasomes, and mitigated proteasome inhibition induced by PGJ2. We propose that targeting cAMP/PKA to boost proteasome activity in a sustainable manner could offer an effective approach to avoid early accumulation of SUb proteins and later caspase activation, and TAU cleavage, possibly preventing/delaying AD neurodegeneration. PMID:22717581

  12. Raloxifene induces autophagy-dependent cell death in breast cancer cells via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Eun; Kim, Yunha; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Kim, Sung-Bae; Suh, Nayoung; Lee, Jung Shin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Koh, Jae-Young; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER), and exhibits potent anti-tumor and autophagy-inducing effects in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism of raloxifene-induced cell death and autophagy is not well-established. So, we analyzed mechanism underlying death and autophagy induced by raloxifene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment with raloxifene significantly induced death in MCF-7 cells. Raloxifene accumulated GFP-LC3 puncta and increased the level of autophagic marker proteins, such as LC3-II, BECN1, and ATG12-ATG5 conjugates, indicating activated autophagy. Raloxifene also increased autophagic flux indicators, the cleavage of GFP from GFP-LC3 and only red fluorescence-positive puncta in mRFP-GFP-LC3-expressing cells. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), suppressed the level of LC3-II and blocked the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta. Moreover, siRNA targeting BECN1 markedly reversed cell death and the level of LC3-II increased by raloxifene. Besides, raloxifene-induced cell death was not related to cleavage of caspases-7, -9, and PARP. These results indicate that raloxifene activates autophagy-dependent cell death but not apoptosis. Interestingly, raloxifene decreased the level of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activated the AMPK/ULK1 pathway. However it was not suppressed the AKT/mTOR pathway. Addition of ATP decreased the phosphorylation of AMPK as well as the accumulation of LC3-II, finally attenuating raloxifene-induced cell death. Our current study demonstrates that raloxifene induces autophagy via the activation of AMPK by sensing decreases in ATP, and that the overactivation of autophagy promotes cell death and thereby mediates the anti-cancer effects of raloxifene in breast cancer cells.

  13. Directed evolution of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein at the cAMP pocket.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Sanjiva M; Hicks, Matt N; Park, Jin; Brooks, Cory L; Serate, Jose; Saunders, Cameron V; Grover, Simranjeet K; Goto, Joy J; Lee, Jin-Won; Youn, Hwan

    2015-10-30

    The Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) requires cAMP binding to undergo a conformational change for DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. Two CRP residues, Thr(127) and Ser(128), are known to play important roles in cAMP binding through hydrogen bonding and in the cAMP-induced conformational change, but the connection between the two is not completely clear. Here, we simultaneously randomized the codons for these two residues and selected CRP mutants displaying high CRP activity in a cAMP-producing E. coli. Many different CRP mutants satisfied the screening condition for high CRP activity, including those that cannot form any hydrogen bonds with the incoming cAMP at the two positions. In vitro DNA-binding analysis confirmed that these selected CRP mutants indeed display high CRP activity in response to cAMP. These results indicate that the hydrogen bonding ability of the Thr(127) and Ser(128) residues is not critical for the cAMP-induced CRP activation. However, the hydrogen bonding ability of Thr(127) and Ser(128) was found to be important in attaining high cAMP affinity. Computational analysis revealed that most natural cAMP-sensing CRP homologs have Thr/Ser, Thr/Thr, or Thr/Asn at positions 127 and 128. All of these pairs are excellent hydrogen bonding partners and they do not elevate CRP activity in the absence of cAMP. Taken together, our analyses suggest that CRP evolved to have hydrogen bonding residues at the cAMP pocket residues 127 and 128 for performing dual functions: preserving high cAMP affinity and keeping CRP inactive in the absence of cAMP.

  14. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  15. Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production via activating amp-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Li; Xu, Ying; Shen, Jie

    2014-07-08

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD), which damages vascular endothelial cells to cause systemic vasculitis. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of cordycepin on TNFα expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and ex vivo cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of KD patients. We found that cordycepin significantly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression and production in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs)). Meanwhile, cordycepin alleviated TNFα production in KD patients' PBMCs. PBMCs from healthy controls had a much lower level of basal TNF-α content than that of KD patients. LPS-induced TNF-α production in healthy controls' PBMCs was also inhibited by cordycepin. For the mechanism study, we discovered that cordycepin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in both KD patients' PBMCs and LPS-stimulated macrophages, which mediated cordycepin-induced inhibition against TNFα production. AMPK inhibition by its inhibitor (compound C) or by siRNA depletion alleviated cordycepin's effect on TNFα production. Further, we found that cordycepin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in LPS-stimulate RAW 264.7 cells or healthy controls' PBMCs. PBMCs of KD patients showed higher basal level of ROS and NF-κB activation, which was also inhibited by cordycepin co-treatment. In conclusion, our data showed that cordycepin inhibited TNFα production, which was associated with AMPK activation as well as ROS and NF-κB inhibition. The results of this study should have significant translational relevance in managing this devastating disease.

  16. AMPED Program Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Gur, Ilan

    2016-07-12

    An overview presentation about ARPA-E's AMPED program. AMPED projects seek to develop advanced sensing, control, and power management technologies that redefine the way we think about battery management. Energy storage can significantly improve U.S. energy independence, efficiency, and security by enabling a new generation of electric vehicles. While rapid progress is being made in new battery materials and storage technologies, few innovations have emerged in the management of advanced battery systems. AMPED aims to unlock enormous untapped potential in the performance, safety, and lifetime of today's commercial battery systems exclusively through system-level innovations, and is thus distinct from existing efforts to enhance underlying battery materials and architectures.

  17. AMPED Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan

    2014-03-04

    An overview presentation about ARPA-E's AMPED program. AMPED projects seek to develop advanced sensing, control, and power management technologies that redefine the way we think about battery management. Energy storage can significantly improve U.S. energy independence, efficiency, and security by enabling a new generation of electric vehicles. While rapid progress is being made in new battery materials and storage technologies, few innovations have emerged in the management of advanced battery systems. AMPED aims to unlock enormous untapped potential in the performance, safety, and lifetime of today's commercial battery systems exclusively through system-level innovations, and is thus distinct from existing efforts to enhance underlying battery materials and architectures.

  18. Activation of SIRT1 Attenuates Klotho Deficiency-Induced Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension by Enhancing AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Diansa; Zuo, Zhong; Tian, Jing; Ali, Quaisar; Lin, Yi; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-11-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. This study was designed to investigate the role of SIRT1, an important deacetylase, and its relationship with Klotho, a kidney-derived aging-suppressor protein, in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness and hypertension. We found that the serum level of Klotho was decreased by ≈45% in patients with arterial stiffness and hypertension. Interestingly, Klotho haplodeficiency caused arterial stiffening and hypertension, as evidenced by significant increases in pulse wave velocity and blood pressure in Klotho-haplodeficient (KL(+/-)) mice. Notably, the expression and activity of SIRT1 were decreased significantly in aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells in KL(+/-) mice, suggesting that Klotho deficiency downregulates SIRT1. Treatment with SRT1720 (15 mg/kg/d, IP), a specific SIRT1 activator, abolished Klotho deficiency-induced arterial stiffness and hypertension in KL(+/-) mice. Klotho deficiency was associated with significant decreases in activities of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in aortas, which were abolished by SRT1720. Furthermore, Klotho deficiency upregulated NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production, increased collagen expression, and enhanced elastin fragmentation in the media of aortas. These Klotho deficiency-associated changes were blocked by SRT1720. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence that Klotho deficiency downregulates SIRT1 activity in arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Pharmacological activation of SIRT1 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for arterial stiffness and hypertension.

  19. Stimulation of StAR expression by cAMP is controlled by inhibition of highly inducible SIK1 via CRTC2, a co-activator of CREB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Takemori, Hiroshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2015-06-15

    In mouse steroidogenic cells the activation of cholesterol metabolism is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Here, we visualized a coordinated regulation of StAR transcription, splicing and post-transcriptional processing, which are synchronized by salt inducible kinase (SIK1) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2). To detect primary RNA (pRNA), spliced primary RNA (Sp-RNA) and mRNA in single cells, we generated probe sets by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods allowed us to address the nature of StAR gene expression and to visualize protein-nucleic acid interactions through direct detection. We show that SIK1 represses StAR expression in Y1 adrenal and MA10 testis cells through inhibition of processing mediated by CRTC2. Digital image analysis matches qPCR analyses of the total cell culture. Evidence is presented for spatially separate accumulation of StAR pRNA and Sp-RNA at the gene loci in the nucleus. These findings establish that cAMP, SIK and CRTC mediate StAR expression through activation of individual StAR gene loci.

  20. RXRα ligand Z-10 induces PML-RARα cleavage and APL cell apoptosis through disrupting PML-RARα/RXRα complex in a cAMP-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhang, Weidong; Ren, Gaoang; Ling, Xiaobin; Huang, Fengyu; Xie, Peizhen; Su, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Zhou, Hu

    2017-01-25

    The major oncogenic driver of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the fusion protein PML-RARα originated from the chromosomal translocation t(15;17). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide cure most patients by directly targeting PML-RARα. However, major issues including the resistance of ATRA and arsenic therapy still remain in APL clinical management. Here we showed that compound Z-10, a nitro-ligand of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), strongly promoted the cAMP-independent apoptosis of both ATRA- sensitive and resistant NB4 cells via the induction of caspase-mediated PML-RARα degradation. RXRα was vital for the stability of both PML-RARα and RARα likely through the interactions. The binding of Z-10 to RXRα dramatically inhibited the interaction of RXRα with PML-RARα but not with RARα, leading to Z-10's selective induction of PML-RARα but not RARα degradation. Z-36 and Z-38, two derivatives of Z-10, had improved potency of inducing PML-RARα reduction and NB4 cell apoptosis. Hence, RXRα ligand Z-10 and its derivatives could target both ATRA- sensitive and resistant APL cells through their distinct acting mechanism, and are potential drug leads for APL treatment.

  1. Interplay of the E box, the cyclic AMP response element, and HTF4/HEB in transcriptional regulation of the neurospecific, neurotrophin-inducible vgf gene.

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, G; Pennuto, M; Illi, B; Canu, N; Filocamo, G; Trani, E; Rinaldi, A M; Possenti, R; Mandolesi, G; Sirinian, M I; Jucker, R; Levi, A; Nasi, S

    1997-01-01

    vgf is a neurotrophin response-specific, developmentally regulated gene that codes for a neurosecretory polypeptide. Its transcription in neuronal cells is selectively activated by the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3, which induce survival and differentiation, and not by epidermal growth factor. We studied a short region of the rat vgf promoter which is essential for its regulated expression. A cyclic AMP response element (CRE) within this region is necessary for NGF induction of vgf transcription. Two sites upstream of CRE, an E box and a CCAAT sequence, bind nuclear protein complexes and are involved in transcriptional control. The E box has a dual role. It acts as an inhibitor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, together with a second E box located downstream, and as a stimulator in the NGF-responsive cell line PC12. By expression screening, we have isolated the cDNA for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, a homolog of the HTF4/HEB E protein, that specifically binds the vgf promoter E box. The E protein was present in various cell lines, including PC12 cells, and was a component of a multiprotein nuclear complex that binds the promoter in vitro. The E box and CRE cooperate in binding to this complex, which may be an important determinant for neural cell-specific expression. PMID:9032251

  2. Chronic Glutathione Depletion Confers Protection against Alcohol-induced Steatosis: Implication for Redox Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Singh, Surendra; Matsumoto, Akiko; Manna, Soumen K.; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Golla, Srujana; Murphy, Robert C.; Dong, Hongbin; Song, Byoung-Joon; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is not well established. However, oxidative stress and associated decreases in levels of glutathione (GSH) are known to play a central role in ALD. The present study examines the effect of GSH deficiency on alcohol-induced liver steatosis in Gclm knockout (KO) mice that constitutively have ≈15% normal hepatic levels of GSH. Following chronic (6 week) feeding with an ethanol-containing liquid diet, the Gclm KO mice were unexpectedly found to be protected against steatosis despite showing increased oxidative stress (as reflected in elevated levels of CYP2E1 and protein carbonyls). Gclm KO mice also exhibit constitutive activation of liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and nuclear factor-erythroid 2–related factor 2 target genes, and show enhanced ethanol clearance, altered hepatic lipid profiles in favor of increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and concordant changes in expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In summary, our data implicate a novel mechanism protecting against liver steatosis via an oxidative stress adaptive response that activates the AMPK pathway. We propose redox activation of the AMPK may represent a new therapeutic strategy for preventing ALD. PMID:27403993

  3. Inflammatory Role of ROS-Sensitive AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in the Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by airway exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in airways, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airway diseases. The cause-effect relationship for these events remains unclear. We investigated the inflammatory role of ROS-sensitive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in IH-induced airway hypersensitivity mediated by lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) in rats. Conscious rats were exposed to room air (RA) or IH with or without treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant), Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), ibuprofen (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or their vehicles. Immediately after exposure (24 h), we found that intravenous capsaicin, phenylbiguanide, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked augmented LVCF-mediated apneic responses and LVCF afferent responses in rats subjected to IH exposure in comparison with those in RA rats. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF responses decreased at 6 h after and vanished at 12 h after the termination of IH exposure. The potentiating effect of IH on LVCF-mediated apneic and LVCF afferent responses was significantly attenuated by treatment with NAC, compound C, or ibuprofen, but not by their vehicles. Further biochemical analysis revealed that rats exposed to IH displayed increased lung levels of lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress), AMPK phosphorylation (an index of AMPK activation), and prostaglandin E2 (a cyclooxygenase metabolite), compared with those exposed to RA. IH-induced increase in lipid peroxidation was considerably suppressed by treatment with NAC but not by compound C or ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation was totally abolished by NAC or compound C but not by ibuprofen. IH-induced increase in prostaglandin E2 was considerably prevented by any of these three inhibitor treatments. The vehicles of these inhibitors exerted no significant effect on the three IH-induced responses. These

  4. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; O’Mahony, Fiona; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yip, Tiffany Wai-Nga; Carter, Derek; Irnaten, Mustapha; Harvey, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl− secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl− secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K+ current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K+ channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl− conductance or basolateral Na+–K+-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl− secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl− secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K+ recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway. PMID:21747769

  5. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  6. Cyclic AMP Modulation of Estrogen-Induced Effects: A Novel Mechanism for Hormonal Resistance in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated proteins: possible mediators of hormone-induced tran...cells. Nucleic Ac- ids Res 19:6595-6602 42. Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated...the estrogen re- ceptor. EMBO J 14:3741-3751 26. Halachmi S, Marden E, Martin G, MacKay H, Abbon- danza C, Brown M 1994 Estrogen receptor-associated

  7. Synergistic effects of cyclic AMP and nerve growth factor on neurite outgrowth and microtubule stability of PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The outgrowth of neurites from rat PC12 cells stimulated by combined treatment of nerve growth factor (NGF) with cAMP is significantly more rapid and extensive than the outgrowth induced by either factor alone. We have compared the responses of PC12 cells under three different growth conditions, NGF alone, cAMP alone, and combined treatment, with respect to surface morphology, rapidity of neurite outgrowth, and stability of neurite microtubules, to understand the synergistic action of NGF and cAMP on PC12. Surface events at early times in these growth conditions varied, suggesting divergent pathways of action of NGF and cAMP. This suggestion is strongly supported by the finding that cells exposed to saturating levels of dibutyryl cAMP without substantial neurite outgrowth initiated neurites within 5 min of NGF. This response has been adopted as a convenient assay for NGF. Neurites that regenerated in the three growth conditions showed marked differences in stability to treatments that depolymerize microtubules. The results indicate that microtubules in cells treated with both NGF and cAMP are significantly more stable than in either growth factor alone. We suggest that a shift of the assembly equilibrium favoring tubulin assembly is a necessary prerequisite for the initiation of neurites by PC12. PMID:2982887

  8. An E-box/M-CAT hybrid motif and cognate binding protein(s) regulate the basal muscle-specific and cAMP-inducible expression of the rat cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain gene.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M P; Gupta, M; Zak, R

    1994-11-25

    Expression of the cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) genes is regulated developmentally and by numerous epigenetic factors. Here we report the identification of a cis-regulatory element and cognate nuclear binding protein(s) responsible for cAMP-induced expression of the rat cardiac alpha-MHC gene. By Northern blot analysis, we found that, in primary cultures of fetal rat heart myocytes, the elevation of intracellular levels of cAMP results in up-regulation of alpha-MHC and down-regulation of beta-MHC mRNA expression. This effect of cAMP was dependent upon the basal level of expression of both MHC transcripts and was sensitive to cycloheximide. In transient expression analysis employing a series of alpha-MHC/CAT constructs, we identified a 31-base pair fragment located in the immediate upstream region (-71 to -40), which confers both muscle-specific and cAMP-inducible expression of the gene. Within this 31-base pair fragment there are two regions, an AT-rich portion and a hybrid motif which contains overlapping sequences of E-box and M-CAT binding sites (GGCACGTGGAATG). By substitution mutation analysis, both elements were found important for the basal muscle-specific expression; however, the cAMP-inducible expression of the gene is conferred only by the E-box/M-CAT hybrid motif (EM element). Using mobility gel shift competition assay, immunoblotting, and UV-cross-linking analyses, we found that a protein binding to the EM element is indistinguishable from the transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) in terms of sequence recognition, molecular mass, and immunoreactivity. Methylation interference and point mutation analyses indicate that, besides M-CAT sequences, center CG dinucleotides of the E-box motif CACGTG are essential for protein binding to the EM element and for its functional activity. Furthermore, our data also show that, in addition to TEF-1, another HF-1a-related factor may be recognized by the alpha-MHC gene EM element. These results are first to

  9. Increased expression and secretion of r-Gsp protein, rat counterpart of complement C1s precursor, during cyclic AMP-induced differentiation in rat C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masanori; Nakashima, Shigeru; Banno, Yoshiko; Yamada, Jun; Sawada, Motoshi; Yoshimura, Shin ichi; Kaku, Yasuhiko; Iwama, Toru; Shinoda, Jun; Sakai, Noboru

    2002-10-15

    The gene, termed r-gsp, was originally isolated during identification of differentiation-associated molecules in rat C6 glial cells. Its mRNA expression was markedly increased during cAMP-induced glial cell differentiation. The deduced amino acid sequence of r-gsp was homologous to those of complement C1s precursors of hamsters and humans. In the present study, we raised anti-peptide antibody against r-Gsp protein and analyzed its change during cAMP-induced differentiation. The 90-kDa r-Gsp protein increased time-dependently and reached the maximal level ( approximately 7.6-fold increase) at 24 h in response to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and theophylline. Moreover, it was secreted into the medium and then was cleaved to form disulfide-linked fragments, one of which was 30 kDa, similar to C1s, suggesting its processing in the extracellular space. In fact, the partially purified r-Gsp from culture medium was cleaved by active human C1r to form a 30-kDa polypeptide. Moreover, secreted r-Gsp protein cleaved human C4alpha to yield C4alpha' and associated with human serum C1-esterase inhibitor, strongly suggesting that r-Gsp protein is rat C1s. However, in C6 cells overexpressing r-Gsp, their morphology and proliferation rate were similar to those in parent C6 cells. These results suggest that r-Gsp protein could not induce glial differentiation alone, and suggest that r-Gsp protein was secreted as a proenzyme and processed in culture medium. Its possible role in glial cell differentiation will be discussed.

  10. Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenyuan; Deaciuc, Ion; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Song, Ming; Chen, Theresa; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig J

    2007-10-01

    Although simple steatosis was originally thought to be a pathologically inert histological change, fat accumulation in the liver may play a critical role not only in disease initiation, but also in the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Therefore, prevention of fat accumulation in the liver may be an effective therapy for multiple stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Promising beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on human NAFLD have been reported in some pilot clinical studies; however, data related to betaine therapy in NAFLD are limited. In this study, we examined the effects of betaine on fat accumulation in the liver induced by high-sucrose diet and evaluated mechanisms by which betaine could attenuate or prevent hepatic steatosis in this model. Male C57BL/6 mice weighing 20 +/- 0.5 g (means +/- SE) were divided into four groups (8 mice per group) and started on one of four treatments: standard diet (SD), SD+betaine, high-sucrose diet (HS), and HS + betaine. Betaine was supplemented in the drinking water at a concentration of 1% (wt/vol) (anhydrous). Long-term feeding of high-sucrose diet to mice caused significant hepatic steatosis accompanied by markedly increased lipogenic activity. Betaine significantly attenuated hepatic steatosis in this animal model, and this change was associated with increased activation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and attenuated lipogenic capability (enzyme activities and gene expression) in the liver. Our findings are the first to suggest that betaine might serve as a therapeutic tool to attenuate hepatic steatosis by targeting the hepatic AMPK system.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase is required for exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1 translocation to subsarcolemmal mitochondria in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brennan K; Mukai, Kazutaka; Lally, James S; Maher, Amy C; Gurd, Brendon J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L; Holloway, Graham P

    2013-03-15

    In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist as two subcellular populations known as subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria. SS mitochondria preferentially respond to exercise training, suggesting divergent transcriptional control of the mitochondrial genomes. The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) have been implicated in the direct regulation of the mitochondrial genome in mice, although SS and IMF differences may exist, and the potential signalling events regulating the mitochondrial content of these proteins have not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the potential for PGC-1α and Tfam to translocate to SS and IMF mitochondria in human subjects, and performed experiments in rodents to identify signalling mechanisms regulating these translocation events. Acute exercise in humans and rats increased PGC-1α content in SS but not IMF mitochondria. Acute exposure to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-ribofuranoside in rats recapitulated the exercise effect of increased PGC-1α protein within SS mitochondria only, suggesting that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling is involved. In addition, rendering AMPK inactive (AMPK kinase dead mice) prevented exercise-induced PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria, further suggesting that AMPK plays an integral role in these translocation events. In contrast to the conserved PGC-1α translocation to SS mitochondria across species (humans, rats and mice), acute exercise only increased mitochondrial Tfam in rats. Nevertheless, in rat resting muscle PGC-1α and Tfam co-immunoprecipate with α-tubulin, suggesting a common cytosolic localization. These data suggest that exercise causes translocation of PGC-1α preferentially to SS mitochondria in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  12. Quercetin activates AMP-activated protein kinase by reducing PP2C expression protecting old mouse brain against high cholesterol-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-Mei; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Shan, Qun; Zheng, Zi-Hui; Liu, Chan-Min; Wang, Yong-Jian

    2010-10-01

    It is known that a high-cholesterol diet induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and beta-amyloid (Abeta) accumulation in mouse brain, resulting in neurodegenerative changes. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to possess numerous biological activities beneficial to health. Our previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin protects mouse brain against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage. Against this background, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on high-cholesterol-induced neurotoxicity in old mice and explored its potential mechanism. Our results showed that oral administration of quercetin significantly improved the behavioural performance of high-cholesterol-fed old mice in both a step-through test and the Morris water maze task. This is at least in part caused by decreasing ROS and protein carbonyl levels and restoring Cu--Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) activity. Furthermore, quercetin also significantly activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via down-regulation of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), which reduced the integral optical density (IOD) of activated microglia cells and CD11b expression, down-regulated iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and decreased IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha expression in the brains of high-cholesterol-fed old mice through the suppression of NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation. Moreover, AMPK activation significantly increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and reduced fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the brains of high-cholesterol-fed old mice, which reduced cholesterol levels, down-regulated cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) and beta-amyloid converting enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression, decreased eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation, and lowered Abeta deposits. However, the neuroprotective effect of quercetin was weakened by intraperitoneal

  13. TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-induced iNOS expression increased by prostaglandin E2 in rat primary astrocytes via EP2-evoked cAMP/PKA and intracellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Han-Yun; Mak, Oi-Tong; Yang, Chung-Shi; Liu, Yu-Peng; Fang, Kuan-Ming; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2007-01-15

    Astrocytes, the most abundant glia in the central nervous system (CNS), produce a large amount of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in response to proinflammatory mediators after CNS injury. However, it is unclear whether PGE(2) has a regulatory role in astrocytic activity under the inflamed condition. In the present work, we showed that PGE(2) increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma (T/I) in astrocytes. Pharmacological and RNA interference approaches further indicated the involvement of the receptor EP2 in PGE(2)-induced iNOS upregulation in T/I-treated astrocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and gel mobility shift assays also demonstrated that PGE(2) increased iNOS transcription through EP2-induced cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. Consistently, the effect of EP2 was significantly attenuated by the PKA inhibitor KT-5720 and partially suppressed by the inhibitor (SB203580) of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which serves as one of the downstream components of the PKA-dependent pathway. Interestingly, EP2-mediated PKA signaling appeared to increase intracellular Ca(2+) release through inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor activation, which might in turn stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) activation to promote iNOS production in T/I-primed astrocytes. By analyzing the expression of astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we found that PGE(2) alone only triggered the EP2-induced cAMP/PKA/p38MAPK signaling pathway in astrocytes. Collectively, PGE(2) may enhance T/I-induced astrocytic activation by augmenting iNOS/NO production through EP2-mediated cross-talk between cAMP/PKA and IP3/Ca(2+) signaling pathways.

  14. Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, α Subunit and cAMP-Response Element Binding Protein 1 in Synergistic Release of Interleukin 8 by Prostaglandin E2 and Nickel in Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Fabisiak, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have linked exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with acute respiratory infection and chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that soluble nickel (Ni), a common component of PM, alters the release of CXC chemokines from cultured human lung fibroblasts (HLF) in response to microbial stimuli via a pathway dependent on disrupted prostaglandin (PG)E2 signaling. The current study sought to identify the molecular events underlying Ni-induced alterations in PGE2 signaling and its effects on IL-8 production. PGE2 synergistically enhances Ni-induced IL-8 release from HLF in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of PGE2 were mimicked by butaprost and PGE1-alcohol and inhibited with antagonists AH6809 and L-161,982, indicating PGE2 signals via PGE2 receptors 2 and 4. PGE2 and forskolin stimulated cAMP, but it was only in the presence of Ni-induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A) that these agents stimulated IL-8 release. The Ni-induced HIF1A DNA binding was enhanced by PGE2 and mediated, in part, by activation of p38 MAPK. Negation of cAMP-response element binding protein 1 or HIF1A using short interfering RNA blocked the synergistic interactions between Ni and PGE2. The results of the current study provide novel information on the ability of atmospheric hypoxia-mimetic metals to disrupt the release of immune-modulating chemokines by HLF in response to PGE2. Moreover, in the presence of HIF1A, cAMP-mediated signaling pathways may be altered to exacerbate inflammatory-like processes in lung tissue, imparting a susceptibility of PM-exposed populations to adverse respiratory health effects. PMID:23526216

  15. Involvement of mTOR and Regulation by AMPK in Early Iodine Deficiency-Induced Thyroid Microvascular Activation.

    PubMed

    Craps, J; Joris, V; De Jongh, B; Sonveaux, P; Horman, S; Lengelé, B; Bertrand, L; Many, M-C; Colin, I M; Gérard, A-C

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) induces TSH-independent microvascular activation in the thyroid via the reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We hypothesized the additional involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a positive regulator of this pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a negative feedback regulator to explain the transient nature of ID-induced microvascular changes under nonmalignant conditions. mTOR and AMPK involvement was investigated using an in vitro model (human thyrocytes in primary cultures) and 2 murine models of goitrogenesis (normal NMRI and RET-PTC mice [a papillary thyroid cancer model]). In NMRI mice, ID had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR. However, rapamycin inhibited ID-induced thyroid blood flow and VEGF protein expression. In the RET-PTC model, ID strongly increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K, whereas rapamycin completely inhibited the ID-induced increase in p70S6K phosphorylation, thyroid blood flow, and VEGF-A expression. In vitro, although ID increased p70S6K phosphorylation, the ID-stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor/VEGF pathway was inhibited by rapamycin. Activation of AMPK by metformin inhibited ID effects both in vivo and in vitro. In AMPK-α1 knockout mice, the ID-induced increase in thyroid blood flow and VEGF-A protein expression persisted throughout the treatment, whereas both parameters returned to control values in wild-type mice after 4 days of ID. In conclusion, mTOR is required for early ID-induced thyroid microvascular activation. AMPK negatively regulates this pathway, which may account for the transient nature of ID-induced TSH-independent vascular effects under benign conditions.

  16. Different effect of prostaglandin E2 on B-cell activation by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2: selective inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced antibody response through increases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K.; Ono, S.; Takahama, Y.; Hirayama, F.; Hirano, H.; Itoh, K.; Dobashi, K.; Murakami, S.; Katoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Hamaoka, T.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on murine B-cell activation induced by two distinct B-cell differentiation factors, B151-TRF1/IL-5 and B151-TRF2, were examined. A final differentiation of unprimed B cells into IgM-producing cells induced by B151-TRF2 was markedly inhibited by PGE2 at physiological concentrations (around 10-8 M), whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-induced antibody responses of unprimed as well as activated B cells were not affected by PGE2, even at 10-6 M. B-cell responses induced by B151-TRF2-like factors from autoimmune-prone MRL/1pr mice were also inhibited by PGE2. Biphasic increases in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were induced by culturing B cells with 10-6 or 10-8 M PGE2: rapid increases within 8 min and delayed increases around 16 hr. The direct addition of dibutyryl cAMP to cultures of B cells resulted in marked inhibition of antibody responses when stimulated with B151-TRF2 but not with B151-TRF1/IL-5. The B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses were also inhibited by cAMP-elevating reagents such as forskolin, cholera toxin and theophyline. Furthermore, 2′, 5′-dideoxyadenosine, which is an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, prevented the PGE2-mediated cAMP accumulation in unprimed B cells as well as the PGE2-mediated inhibition of B151-TRF2-induced B-cell responses when added at the initiation of culture. These results suggest that PGE2 inhibits B151-TRF2-induced antibody responses through the activation of adenylate cyclase and subsequent accumulation of intracellular cAMP, whereas B151-TRF1/IL-5-responsive B cells are resistant to the inhibitory effect of PGE2 and cAMP. PMID:2553585

  17. Antibiotic therapy for inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: what are the alternatives to carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides?

    PubMed

    Harris, P N A; Ferguson, J K

    2012-10-01

    Some bacteria that possess chromosomally determined AmpC β-lactamases may express these enzymes at a high level following exposure to β-lactams, either by induction or selection for derepressed mutants. This may lead to clinical failure even if an isolate initially tests susceptible in vitro, a phenomenon best characterised by third-generation cephalosporin therapy for Enterobacter bacteraemia or meningitis. Several other Enterobacteriaceae, such as Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Providencia spp. and Morganella morganii (often termed the 'ESCPM' group), may also express high levels of AmpC. However, the risk of clinical failure with β-lactams that test susceptible in vitro is less clear in these species than for Enterobacter. Laboratories frequently do not report β-lactam or β-lactamase inhibitor combination drug susceptibilities for ESCPM organisms, encouraging alternative therapy with quinolones, aminoglycosides or carbapenems. However, quinolones and carbapenems present problems with selective pressure for multiresistant organisms, and aminoglycosides with potential toxicity. The risk of emergent AmpC-mediated resistance for non-Enterobacter spp. appears rare in clinical studies. Piperacillin/tazobactam may remain effective and may be less selective for AmpC derepressed mutants than cephalosporins. The potential roles for agents such as cefepime or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are also discussed. Clinical studies that better define optimal treatment for this group of bacteria are required.

  18. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to

  19. cAMP and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Federica; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier S.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for metabolic adaptation. cAMP signaling and PKA phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins have just started to be investigated, and the presence of cAMP-generating enzymes and PKA inside mitochondria is still controversial. Here, we discuss the role of cAMP in regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics through protein phosphorylation and the evidence for soluble adenylyl cyclase as the source of cAMP inside mitochondria. PMID:23636265

  20. The characteristics of hepatic Gsα-cAMP axis in HSHF diet-fed obese insulin resistance rats and genetic diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Nina; Wei, Chen; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lili

    2017-03-04

    Stimulatory G protein α-subunit (Gsα) mediated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal is required for elevated hepatic glucose production (HGP) in diabetic patients. However, it remains obscure of the exact characteristics of hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis (including Gsα, glucagon receptor, β2-adrenergic receptor, cAMP, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In current study, we investigated the changing characteristics of hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis and blood glucose in high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF)-diet-induced IR wistar rats and db/db diabetic mice. As expected, the HSHF-diet rats were characterized by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance. According to a threshold (1.7) of HOMA-R, the process of IR in HSHF-diet rats could be divided into slight and high IR stages, with the week-23 as the cut-off point. In early slight IR stage, key molecules expressions of hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis in HSHF-diet rats were up-regulated with significantly elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 18 to 23 weeks. Unexpectedly, in high IR stage, hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis was recovered comparatively to that of normal chow-diet rats, and no significant differences in FBG levels were found. However, in diabetic db/db mice, up-regulation of hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis was responsible for its severely increased fasting hyperglycaemia. Our data revealed a positive correlation between hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis and FBG in slight IR stage of HSHF-diet rats and diabetic db/db mice. The current finding thus suggested hepatic Gsα-cAMP signal axis plays a central role in regulating of FBG during the occurrence and development of T2DM.

  1. Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Protects against 1,3-Dichloro-2-Propanol-Induced Reduction of Progesterone by Up-regulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes and cAMP Level in Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianxia; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Cuijuan; Hu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Xinwei; Ou, Shiyi; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Jiao, Rui; Bai, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a food processing contaminant and has been shown to perturb male reproductive function. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin antioxidant, is reported to have protective effects on many organs. However, it remains unclear whether C3G protects against chemical-induced reproductive toxicity. The present study was therefore to investigate the intervention of C3G on 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity in R2C Leydig cells. Results demonstrated that C3G inhibited the 1,3-DCP-induced cytotoxicity and cell shape damage with the effective doses being ranging from 10 to 40 μmol/L. In addition, 1,3-DCP (2 mmol/L) exposure significantly increased the ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential damage ratio, leading to a decrease in progesterone production, while C3G intervention reduced the ROS level, and increased the progesterone production after 24 h treatment. Most importantly, C3G intervention could up-regulate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It was concluded that C3G is effective in reducing 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity via activating steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP level.

  2. Cyanidin-3-O-Glucoside Protects against 1,3-Dichloro-2-Propanol-Induced Reduction of Progesterone by Up-regulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes and cAMP Level in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianxia; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Cuijuan; Hu, Yunfeng; Jiang, Xinwei; Ou, Shiyi; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong; Jiao, Rui; Bai, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a food processing contaminant and has been shown to perturb male reproductive function. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin antioxidant, is reported to have protective effects on many organs. However, it remains unclear whether C3G protects against chemical-induced reproductive toxicity. The present study was therefore to investigate the intervention of C3G on 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity in R2C Leydig cells. Results demonstrated that C3G inhibited the 1,3-DCP-induced cytotoxicity and cell shape damage with the effective doses being ranging from 10 to 40 μmol/L. In addition, 1,3-DCP (2 mmol/L) exposure significantly increased the ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential damage ratio, leading to a decrease in progesterone production, while C3G intervention reduced the ROS level, and increased the progesterone production after 24 h treatment. Most importantly, C3G intervention could up-regulate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. It was concluded that C3G is effective in reducing 1,3-DCP-induced reproductive toxicity via activating steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP level. PMID:27867356

  3. Cyclic AMP Effectors Regulate Myometrial Oxytocin Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Yulia, Angela; Singh, Natasha; Lei, Kaiyu; Sooranna, Suren R; Johnson, Mark R

    2016-11-01

    The factors that initiate human labor are poorly understood. We have tested the hypothesis that a decline in cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) function leads to the onset of labor. Initially, we identified myometrial cAMP/PKA-responsive genes (six up-regulated and five down-regulated genes) and assessed their expression in myometrial samples taken from different stages of pregnancy and labor. We found that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) was one of the cAMP-repressed genes, and, given the importance of OTR in the labor process, we studied the mechanisms involved in greater detail using small interfering RNA, chemical agonists, and antagonists of the cAMP effectors. We found that cAMP-repressed genes, including OTR, increased with the onset of labor. Our in vitro studies showed that cAMP acting via PKA reduced OTR expression but that in the absence of PKA, cAMP acts via exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) to increase OTR expression. In early labor myometrial samples, PKA levels and activity declined and Epac1 levels increased, perhaps accounting for the increase in myometrial OTR mRNA and protein levels at this time. In vitro exposure of myometrial cells to stretch and IL-1β increased OTR levels and reduced basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP and PKA activity, as judged by phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein levels, but neither stretch nor IL-1β had any effect on PKA or EPAC1 levels. In summary, there is a reduction in the activity of the cAMP/PKA pathway with the onset of human labor potentially playing a critical role in regulating OTR expression and the transition from myometrial quiescence to activation.

  4. Cyclic AMP is sufficient for triggering the exocytic recruitment of aquaporin-2 in renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Dorothea; Krylov, Andrey; Hahm, Daniel; Hagen, Volker; Rosenthal, Walter; Pohl, Peter; Maric, Kenan

    2003-01-01

    The initial response of renal epithelial cells to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an increase in cyclic AMP. By applying immunofluorescence, cell membrane capacitance and transepithelial water flux measurements we show that cAMP alone is sufficient to elicit the antidiuretic cellular response in primary cultured epithelial cells from renal inner medulla, namely the transport of aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-bearing vesicles to, and their subsequent fusion with, the plasma membrane (AQP2 shuttle). The AQP2 shuttle is evoked neither by AVP-independent Ca2+ increases nor by AVP-induced Ca2+ increases. However, clamping cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations below resting levels at 25 nM inhibited exocytosis. Exocytosis was confined to a slow monophasic response, and readily releasable vesicles were missing. Analysis of endocytic capacitance steps revealed that cAMP does not decelerate the retrieval of AQP2 from the plasma membrane. Our data suggest that cAMP initiates an early step, namely the transport of AQP2-bearing vesicles towards the plasma membrane, and do not support a regulatory function for Ca2+ in the AQP2 shuttle. PMID:12524527

  5. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-15

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells.

  6. Metformin inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced growth and VEGF expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by suppressing AGEs receptor expression via AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Takeuchi, M; Yamagishi, S

    2013-05-01

    Metformin use has been reported to decrease breast cancer incidence and mortality in diabetic patients. We have previously shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction stimulate growth and/or migration of pancreatic cancer and melanoma cells. However, effects of metformin on AGEs-RAGE axis in breast cancers remain unknown. We examined here whether and how metformin could block the AGEs-induced growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured with an electron coupling reagent WST-1 based colorimetric assay. Gene expression level was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. AGEs significantly increased cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells, which was completely prevented by the treatment with 0.01 or 0.1 mM metformin or anti-RAGE antibodies. Furthermore, metformin at 0.01 mM completely suppressed the AGEs-induced upregulation of RAGE and VEGF mRNA levels in MCF-7 cells. An inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase, compound C significantly blocked the growth-inhibitory and RAGE and VEGF suppressing effects of metformin in AGEs-exposed MCF-7 cells. Our present study suggests that metformin could inhibit the AGEs-induced growth and VEGF expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by suppressing RAGE gene expression via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Metformin may protect against breast cancer expansion in diabetic patients by blocking the AGEs-RAGE axis.

  7. Overproduction of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase blocks the differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, M N; Driscoll, D; Mutzel, R; Part, D; Williams, J; Véron, M

    1989-01-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum extracellular cAMP is known to act as a chemotractant and as an inducer of cellular differentiation. However, its intracellular role as a second messenger remains obscure. We have constructed a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA encoding the regulatory subunit (R) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase fused to the promoter and N-terminal-proximal sequences of a Dictyostelium actin gene. Stable transformants, containing multiple copies of this gene, overproduce the R subunit which accumulates prematurely relative to the endogenous protein. These transformants fail to aggregate. Detailed analysis has shown that they are blocked at interphase, the period prior to aggregation, and that they are severely defective in most responses to cAMP including the induction of gene expression. Our observations suggest that intracellular cAMP acts, presumably by activation of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, to facilitate early development. Images PMID:2551673

  8. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  9. 1,N6-etheno-AMP and 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxy-AMP as probes of the activator site of glycogen phosphorylase from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbunder, B; Morange, M; Buc, H

    1976-01-01

    Both 1,N6-etheno-AMP and 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxy-AMP bind at the AMP site of phosphorylase b (1,4-alpha-D-glucan:orthophosphate alpha-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.1). Etheno-AMP induces the same activation as AMP, about 30-fold higher than the activation induced by etheno-dAMP. The fluorescence of etheno-AMP and etheno-dAMP is associated with the base moiety; therefore, when free in solution, the two derivatives have identical fluorescence properties. However, when bound to phosphorylase, the fluorescence of etheno-AMP is quenched more efficiently than the fluorescence of etheno-dAMP. This difference between the fluorescence properties of the bound nucleotides suggests that a modification in the ribose ring affects the position of the adenine in the AMP site of phosphorylase b. The observed quenching may be due to a stacking interaction between an aromatic residue and the base moiety of the bound nucleotide. PMID:1066682

  10. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  11. “cAMP Sponge”: A Buffer for Cyclic Adenosine 3′, 5′-Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Moyer, Mary Pat; Curci, Silvana; Hofer, Aldebaran M.

    2009-01-01

    Background While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). Methods/Principal Findings Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIβ of protein kinase A (PKA). Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named “cAMP sponge”) was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. Conclusions This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events. PMID:19888343

  12. Regulation of histamine- and UTP-induced increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins (1,3,4,5)P4 and Ca2+ by cyclic AMP in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sipma, H; Duin, M; Hoiting, B; den Hertog, A; Nelemans, A

    1995-01-01

    1. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors with UTP or histamine H1-receptors with histamine gave rise to the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4) in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. 2. Stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors or histamine H1-receptors caused an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, consisting of an initial peak, representing the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a sustained phase representing Ca2+ influx. 3. The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated Ca(2+)-entry mechanism was more sensitive to UTP than Ca(2+)-mobilization (EC50: 3.3 microM +/- 0.4 microM vs 55.1 microM +/- 9.2 microM), in contrast to these processes activated by histamine H1-receptors (EC50: 5.8 microM +/- 0.6 microM vs 3.1 microM +/- 0.5 microM). 4. Pre-stimulation of cells with several adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevating agents, reduced the histamine H1-receptor-mediated formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Forskolin completely inhibited Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation (IC50: 158 +/- 24 nM) whereas Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 formation was inhibited by only 45% (IC50: 173 +/- 16 nM). The P2U-purinoceptor-mediated production of these inositol phosphates was not affected by cyclic AMP. 5. Forskolin and isoprenaline reduced the histamine-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+, as measured in Ca2+ containing medium and in nominally Ca(2+)-free medium but did not change the UTP-induced increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+. 6. These results clearly demonstrate that cyclic AMP differentially regulates components of the histamine induced phospholipase C signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, cyclic AMP does not affect the phospholipase C pathway activated by stimulation of P2U-purinoceptors in DDT1 MF-2 cells.

  13. GLP-1(28-36) improves β-cell mass and glucose disposal in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and activates cAMP/PKA/β-catenin signaling in β-cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijuan; Wang, Zhaoxia; Ip, Wilfred; Chiang, Yu-Ting; Xiong, Xiaoquan; Chai, Tuanyao; Xu, Catherine; Wang, Qinghua; Jin, Tianru

    2013-06-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the COOH-terminal fragment of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a nonapeptide GLP-1(28-36)amide, attenuates diabetes and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. However, the effect of this nonapeptide in pancreatic β-cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that in a streptozotocin-induced mouse diabetes model, GLP-1(28-36)amide improved glucose disposal and increased pancreatic β-cell mass and β-cell proliferation. An in vitro investigation revealed that GLP-1(28-36)amide stimulates β-catenin (β-cat) Ser(675) phosphorylation in both the clonal INS-1 cell line and rat primary pancreatic islet cells. In INS-1 cells, the stimulation was accompanied by increased nuclear β-cat content. GLP-1(28-36)amide was also shown to increase cellular cAMP levels, PKA enzymatic activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor-1 (ATF-1) phosphorylation. Furthermore, GLP-1(28-36)amide treatment enhanced islet insulin secretion and increased the growth of INS-1 cells, which was associated with increased cyclin D1 expression. Finally, PKA inhibition attenuated the effect of GLP-1(28-36)amide on β-cat Ser(675) phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression in the INS-1 cell line. We have thus revealed the beneficial effect of GLP-1(28-36)amide in pancreatic β-cells in vitro and in vivo. Our observations suggest that GLP-1(28-36)amide may exert its effect through the PKA/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  14. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Alasbahi, R H; Melzig, M F

    2012-01-01

    Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-1alpha,6beta,9alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP. The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin--as a cAMP activator--for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles. 2) Studies on the role of cAMP activation and inhibition to understand the pathogenesis (e.g. thyroid autoimmune disorders, leukocyte signal transduction defect in depression, acute malaria infection, secretory dysfunction in inflammatory diseases) as well as its possibly beneficial role for curing diseases such as the regulation of coronary microvascular NO production after heart failure, the attenuation of the development or progression of fibrosis in the heart and lungs, the augmentation of myo-protective effects of ischemic preconditioning especially in the failing hearts after myocardial infarction, the stimulation of the regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells, the curing of glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, the reducing of cyst formation early in the polycystic kidney disease, and the management of autoimmune disorders by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis. 3) Studies on the role of cAMP in the mechanism of actions of a number of drugs and substances such as the effect of the

  15. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F. Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD. PMID:25919700

  16. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  17. Prunetin signals via G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30(GPER1): Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP-mediated activation of MAPK signaling induces Runx2 expression in osteoblasts to promote bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kainat; Pal, Subhashis; Yadav, Manisha; Maurya, Rakesh; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2015-12-01

    Prunetin is found in red clover and fruit of Prunus avium (red cherry). The effect of prunetin on osteoblast function, its mode of action and bone regeneration in vivo were investigated. Cultures of primary osteoblasts, osteoblastic cell line and HEK293T cells were used for various in vitro studies. Adult female rats received drill-hole injury at the femur diaphysis to assess the bone regenerative effect of prunetin. Prunetin at 10nM significantly (a) increased proliferation and differentiation of primary cultures of osteoblasts harvested from rats and (b) promoted formation of mineralized nodules by bone marrow stromal/osteoprogenitor cells. At this concentration, prunetin did not activate any of the two nuclear estrogen receptors (α and β). However, prunetin triggered signaling via a G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR30/GPER1, and enhanced cAMP levels in osteoblasts. G15, a selective GPR30 antagonist, abolished prunetin-induced increases in osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and intracellular cAMP. In osteoblasts, prunetin up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) protein through cAMP-dependent Erk/MAP kinase activation that ultimately resulted in the up-regulation of GPR30. Administration of prunetin at 0.25mg/kg given to rats stimulated bone regeneration at the site of drill hole and up-regulated Runx2 expression in the fractured callus and the effect was comparable to human parathyroid hormone, the only clinically used osteogenic therapy. We conclude that prunetin promotes osteoinduction in vivo and the mechanism is defined by signaling through GPR30 resulting in the up-regulation of the key osteogenic gene Runx2 that in turn up-regulates GPR30.

  18. Resveratrol induces AMPK-dependent MDR1 inhibition in colorectal cancer HCT116/L-OHP cells by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling and suppressing cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Long; Ni, Zhenhua; Sun, Jian; Gao, Hong; Cheng, Zhuoan; Xu, Jianhua; Yin, Peihao

    2015-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound found in foods and beverages, has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its potent chemopreventive and anti-tumor effects. In this study, the effects of resveratrol on the expression of P-glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (P-gp/MDR1), and the underlying molecular mechanisms, were investigated in oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HCT116/L-OHP). Resveratrol downregulated MDR1 protein and mRNA expression levels and reduced MDR1 promoter activity. It also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, suggesting that resveratrol can reverse multi-drug resistance by downregulating MDR1 expression and reducing drug efflux. Resveratrol treatment also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, reduced phosphorylation levels of IκBα, and reduced nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65. Moreover, downregulation of MDR1 expression and promoter activity was mediated by resveratrol-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation were reversed by AMPKα siRNA transfection. We found that the transcriptional activity of cAMP-responsive element (CRE) was inhibited by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on MDR1 expression in HCT116/L-OHP cells were closely associated with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and CREB activation in an AMPK-dependent manner.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein and neuropeptide Y decline as early as middle age in the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S; Shetty, Geetha A; Shetty, Ashok K

    2005-10-01

    The hippocampus is very susceptible to aging. Severely diminished dentate neurogenesis at middle age is one of the most conspicuous early changes in the aging hippocampus, which is likely linked to an early decline in the concentration of neurotrophic factors and signaling proteins that influence neurogenesis. We analyzed three proteins that are well-known to promote dentate neurogenesis and learning and memory function in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields of young, middle-aged and aged F344 rats. These include the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the transcription factor phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and the neuropeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY). The BDNF was analyzed via ELISA and BDNF immunohistochemistry, the p-CREB through densitometric analysis of p-CREB immunopositive cells, and the NPY via stereological counting of NPY-immunopositive interneurons. We provide new evidence that the BDNF concentration, the p-CREB immunoreactivity and the number of NPY immunopositive interneurons decline considerably by middle age in both dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. However, both BDNF concentration and NPY immunopositive interneuron numbers exhibit no significant decrease between middle age and old age. In contrast, the p-CREB immunoreactivity diminishes further during this period, which is also associated with reduced BDNF immunoreaction within the soma of dentate granule cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these results suggest that severely dampened dentate neurogenesis observed at middle age is linked at least partially to reduced concentrations of BDNF, p-CREB and NPY, as each of these proteins is a positive regulator of dentate neurogenesis. Dramatically diminished CREB phosphorylation (and persistently reduced levels of BDNF and NPY) at old age may underlie the learning and memory impairments observed during senescence.

  20. Activated cAMP receptors switch encystation into sporulation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoshinori; Morio, Takahiro; James, John L; Prescott, Alan R; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Schaap, Pauline

    2009-04-28

    Metazoan embryogenesis is controlled by a limited number of signaling modules that are used repetitively at successive developmental stages. The development of social amoebas shows similar reiterated use of cAMP-mediated signaling. In the model Dictyostelium discoideum, secreted cAMP acting on 4 cAMP receptors (cARs1-4) coordinates cell movement during aggregation and fruiting body formation, and induces the expression of aggregation and sporulation genes at consecutive developmental stages. To identify hierarchy in the multiple roles of cAMP, we investigated cAR heterogeneity and function across the social amoeba phylogeny. The gene duplications that yielded cARs 2-4 occurred late in evolution. Many species have only a cAR1 ortholog that duplicated independently in the Polysphondylids and Acytostelids. Disruption of both cAR genes of Polysphondylium pallidum (Ppal) did not affect aggregation, but caused complete collapse of fruiting body morphogenesis. The stunted structures contained disorganized stalk cells, which supported a mass of cysts instead of spores; cAMP triggered spore gene expression in Ppal, but not in the cAR null mutant, explaining its sporulation defect. Encystation is the survival strategy of solitary amoebas, and lower taxa, like Ppal, can still encyst as single cells. Recent findings showed that intracellular cAMP accumulation suffices to trigger encystation, whereas it is a complementary requirement for sporulation. Combined, the data suggest that cAMP signaling in social amoebas evolved from cAMP-mediated encystation in solitary amoebas; cAMP secretion in aggregates prompted the starving cells to form spores and not cysts, and additionally organized fruiting body morphogenesis. cAMP-mediated aggregation was the most recent innovation.

  1. Hydrogen-rich water attenuates amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity through upregulation of Sirt1-FoxO3a by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Li; Huang, Wen-Nung; Li, Hsin-Hua; Huang, Chien-Ning; Hsieh, Sam; Lai, Copper; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2015-10-05

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are identified in cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous evidence suggests Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is linked to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The accumulation of Aβ-induced ROS leads to increased mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptotic cell death. This suggests antioxidant therapies may be beneficial for preventing ROS-related diseases such as AD. Recently, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been proven effective in treating oxidative stress-induced disorders because of its ROS-scavenging abilities. However, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby HRW prevents neuronal death are still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the putative pathways by which HRW protects against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that HRW directly counteracts oxidative damage by neutralizing excessive ROS, leading to the alleviation of Aβ-induced cell death. In addition, HRW also stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent pathway, which upregulates forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a) downstream antioxidant response and diminishes Aβ-induced mitochondrial potential loss and oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that HRW may have potential therapeutic value to inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  2. Activation of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord contributes toward induction and maintenance of bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Qin; Liu, Su; He, Duan-Duan; Liu, Yue-Peng; Song, Xue-Jun

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) signaling in the development of bone cancer pain in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (N=48) were divided randomly into four groups: sham (n=8), tumor cell implantation (TCI) (n=16), TCI+saline (n=8), and TCI+PKA inhibitor (n=16). Bone cancer-induced pain behaviors - thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia - were tested at postoperative days -3, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. A PKA inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS (1 mmol/l/20 μl), was injected intrathecally on postoperative days 3, 4, and 5 (early phase) or 7, 8, and 9 postoperative days (late phase). The expression of PKA mRNA in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The concentration of cAMP and activity of PKA in DRG and spinal cord were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TCI treatment induced significant pain behaviors, manifested as thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Spinal administration of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMPS during the early phase and late phase significantly delayed or reversed, respectively, TCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. TCI treatment also led to obvious tumor growth and bone destruction. The level of PKA mRNA in the DRG, as well as the concentration of cAMP and the activity of PKA, in both the DRG and spinal cord were significantly increased after TCI treatment (P<0.01). We conclude that the inhibition of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway may reduce bone cancer pain.

  3. Cell-cell contact mediates cAMP secretion in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Fontana, D R; Price, P L; Phillips, J C

    1991-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3':5' monophosphate (cAMP) and cell-cell contact regulate developmental gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum. Developing D. discoideum amoebae synthesize and secrete cAMP following the binding of cAMP to their surface cAMP receptor, a response called cAMP signaling. We have demonstrated two responses of developing D. discoideum amoebae to cell-cell contact. Cell-cell contact elicits cAMP secretion and alters the amount of cAMP secreted in a subsequent cAMP signaling response. Depending upon experimental conditions, bacterial-amoebal contact and amoebal-amoebal contact can enhance or diminish the amount of cAMP secreted during a subsequent cAMP signaling response. We have hypothesized that cell-cell contact regulates D. discoideum development by altering cellular and extracellular levels of cAMP. To begin testing this hypothesis, these responses were further characterized. The two responses to cell-cell contact are independent, i.e., they can each occur in the absence of the other. The responses to cell-cell contact also have unique temperature dependences when compared to each other, cAMP signaling, and phagocytosis. This suggests that these four responses have unique steps in their transduction mechanisms. The secretion of cAMP in response to cell-cell contact appears to be a non-specific response; contact between D. discoideum amoebae and Enterobacter aerogenes, latex beads, or other amoebae elicits cAMP secretion. Despite the apparent similarities of the effects of bacterial-amoebal and amoebal-amoebal contact on the cAMP signaling response, this contact-induced response appears to be specific. Latex beads addition does not alter the magnitude of a subsequent cAMP signaling response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved.

  5. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  6. Early Determinants of H2O2-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Boulden, Beth M.; Widder, Julian D.; Allen, Jon C.; Smith, Debra A.; Al-Baldawi, Ruaa N.; Harrison, David G.; Dikalov, Sergey I.; Jo, Hanjoong; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can stimulate nitric oxide (NO•) production from the endothelium by transient activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). With continued or repeated exposure, NO• production is reduced, however. We investigated the early determinants of this decrease in NO• production. Following an initial H2O2 exposure, endothelial cells responded by increasing NO• production measured electrochemically. NO• concentrations peaked by 10 min with a slow reduction over 30 min. The decrease in NO• at 30 min was associated with a 2.7 fold increase O2•− production (p<0.05) and a 14 fold reduction of the eNOS cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, p<0.05). Used as a probe for endothelial dysfunction, the integrated NO• production over 30 min upon repeat H2O2 exposure was attenuated by 2.1 fold (p=0.03). Endothelial dysfunction could be prevented by BH4 cofactor supplementation, by scavenging O2•− or peroxynitrite (ONOO−), or by inhibiting the NADPH oxidase. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging did not have an effect. In summary, early H2O2-induced endothelial dysfunction was associated with a decreased BH4 level and increased O2•− production. Dysfunction required O2•−, ONOO−, or a functional NADPH oxidase. Repeated activation of the NADPH oxidase by ROS may act as a feed forward system to promote endothelial dysfunction. PMID:16895801

  7. cAMP enhances BMP2-signaling through PKA and MKP1-dependent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghayor, Chafik; Ehrbar, Martin; Miguel, Blanca San; Graetz, Klaus W.; Weber, Franz E.

    2009-04-03

    Recent studies suggest that the elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the activation of the protein kinase A regulate BMP-induced osteogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the enhancing effect of cAMP on BMP2 signaling were not completely revealed. In this study we investigated the effect of elevated cAMP level and PKA activation on the BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation in pluripotent C2C12 cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity and its mRNA were consistently induced by BMP2 treatment. The pretreatment of C2C12 cells with Forskolin, a cAMP generating agent, dbcAMP, an analogue of cAMP, or IBMX (3-isobutyl 1-methyl xanthine), and a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases elicited further activation of alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, elevated intracellular cAMP level increased BMP2-induced MKP1. On the other hand, BMP2-induced Erk phosphorylation (p44/p42) and cell proliferation were suppressed in the presence of cAMP. Thus, cAMP might enhance BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation by a MKP1-Erk-dependent mechanism.

  8. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  9. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  10. Perfluorododecanoic acid-induced steroidogenic inhibition is associated with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and reactive oxygen species in cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhimin; Feng, Yixing; Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Hongxia; Ding, Lina; Dai, Jiayin

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) can be detected in environmental matrices and human serum and has been shown to inhibit testicular steroidogenesis in rats. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the toxic effects of PFDoA remain unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanism of steroidogenesis inhibition by PFDoA and to identify the molecular target of PFDoA in Leydig cells. The effects of PFDoA on steroid synthesis in Leydig cells were assessed by radioimmunoassay. The expression of key genes and proteins in steroid biosynthesis was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels were determined using bioluminescence assays. PFDoA inhibited adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1) and primary rat Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, PFDoA (1-100 microM) did not exhibit effects on cell viability and cellular ATP levels in mLTC-1 cells. PFDoA inhibited steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) promoter activity and StAR expression at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels but did not affect mRNA levels of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, or 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in cAMP-stimulated mLTC-1 cells. PFDoA treatment also resulted in increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and H(2)O(2). After excessive ROS and H(2)O(2) were eliminated in PFDoA-treated mLTC-1 cells by MnTMPyP (a superoxide dismutase analog), progesterone production was partially restored and StAR mRNA and protein levels were partially recovered. These data show that PFDoA inhibits steroidogenesis in cAMP-stimulated Leydig cells by reducing the expression of StAR through a model of action involving oxidative stress.

  11. Cyclic AMP and the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Mats; Harvey, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a brief review of studies that have reported therapeutic benefits of elevated cAMP on plasticity and regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). We also provide new data on the cellular mechanisms by which elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) promotes cytokine driven regeneration of adult CNS axons, using the visual system as the experimental model. cAMP is a second messenger for many intracellular signalling pathways. Elevation of cAMP in the eye by intravitreal injection of the cell permeant analogue (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; CPT-cAMP), when added to recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF), significantly enhances rCNTF-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafted onto transected optic nerve. This effect is mediated to some extent by protein kinase A (PKA) signalling, but CPT-cAMP also acts via PI3K/Akt signalling to reduce suppressor of cytokine signalling protein 3 (SOCS3) activity in RGCs. Another target for cAMP is the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), which can also mediate cAMP-induced axonal growth. Here we describe some novel results and discuss to what extent the pro-regenerative effects of CPT-cAMP on adult RGCs are mediated via Epac as well as via PKA-dependent pathways. We used the established PN-optic nerve graft model and quantified the survival and regenerative growth of adult rat RGCs after intravitreal injection of rCNTF in combination with a selective activator of PKA and/or a specific activator of Epac. Viable RGCs were identified by βIII-tubulin immunohistochemistry and regenerating RGCs retrogradely labelled and quantified after an injection of fluorogold into the distal end of the PN grafts, 4 weeks post-transplantation. The specific agonists of either PKA or Epac were both effective in enhancing the effects of rCNTF on RGC axonal regeneration, but interestingly, injections

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.0005). Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p < 0.009). In injured segments high cholesterol diet resulted in lower recorded fluorescence emission at 440 - 460 nm (p < 0.001) associated with the increase in intimal thickness. Spectra from uninjured elastic aorta (aortic arch and thoracic aorta) had greater fluorescence intensity at 380 - 445 nm than muscular (abdominal) aorta (p < 0.01), therefore, only spectra from injured and uninjured segments of corresponding areas of the aorta were compared. The conclusion is: (1) Early intimal proliferative changes after angioplasty can be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. (2) Spectra from elastic thoracic aorta differ significantly from the spectra of muscular abdominal aorta.

  13. Fraxetin Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Activation of Akt/Nrf2 or AMP-activated Protein Kinase α/Nrf2 Pathway in HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin), a coumarin derivative, has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. A number of recent observations suggest that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibits inflammation and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we determined the effect of fraxetin on HO-1 expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes and investigated its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Cell viability was measured by the MTS test. The induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fraxetin was evaluated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Results Fraxetin upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HO-1. Incubation with fraxetin induced the localization of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the nucleus and increased the antioxidant response element-reporter gene activity. Fraxetin also induced the phosphorylation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and diminished the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog, a negative regulator of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt and AMPKα abrogated fraxetin-induced expression of HO-1 and nuclear localization of Nrf2. Furthermore, fraxetin generated ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Fraxetin induces HO-1 expression through activation of Akt/Nrf2 or AMPKα/Nrf2 pathway in HaCaT cells. PMID:27722139

  14. Early corticosteroid administration in experimental radiation-induced heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, W.C.; Stryker, J.A.; Abt, A.A.; Chung, C.K.; Whitesell, L.; Zelis, R.

    1980-02-01

    The ability of dexamethasone (DEX) to reduce the severity of the late stage of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) was assessed in 25 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits served as unirradiated controls (CONT). In Group A, seven rabbits received intravenous DEX prior to irradiation and every 24 hours for three consecutive days. DEX was not administered to the eight rabbits in Group B. At 100 days postirradiation, the severity of the late state was determined by microscopic examination (MICRO) for myocardial fibrosis and determination of myocardial hydroxyproline content (MHP). Myocardial fibrosis was evident in groups A (40%) and B (80%) while none was present in CONT by MICRO. One rabbit in Group B with no fibrosis by MICRO had abnormally increased MHP. MHP was significantly increased in Groups A and B, as compared to CONT (p < 0.01). In addition to less fibrosis by MICRO, Group A demonstrated a significant reduction of MHP when compared to Group B (p < 0.05). Determination of MHP may be superior to MICRO in the detection of the late stage of RIHD. Also, early DEX administration appears to reduce myocardial collagen content (fibrosis) in this experimental model.

  15. Catechin inhibits Candida albicans dimorphism by disrupting Cek1 phosphorylation and cAMP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hideo; Tamura, Muneaki; Imai, Kenichi; Ishigami, Tomohiko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-03-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that undergoes dimorphism (transformation from a yeast form to a hyphal form), wherein, the yeast form is identified as a disseminating form that plays a critical role in the early stages of Candida disease progression, while the hyphal form is found to exert additional pathogenicity by adapting to various environmental conditions. Here, we elucidated the effects of catechin on C. albicans hyphal formation. Flow cytometry analysis showed catechin inhibited FCS-induced hyphal formation. Moreover, hypha-specific gene expression in MAP kinase cascade and cAMP pathway was decreased ascribable to catechin. Furthermore, through Western blotting and cAMP synthesis analysis, we found catechin obstructs Cek1 phosphorylation in MAP kinase cascade and suppresses cAMP synthesis. These results suggest that catechin possesses anti-dimorphism activity by interfering with in vitro signal transduction. Similarly, this highlights the possible application of catechin in clinical therapy for the management and prevention of candidosis.

  16. A High-Concentrate Diet Induced Milk Fat Decline via Glucagon-Mediated Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Cao, Yang; Xie, Zhenglu; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet to meet lactation demands; however, long-term concentrate feeding is unhealthy and decreases milk fat. Therefore, we investigated the effects of liver lipid metabolism on milk fat synthesis. Ten lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly into HC and LC (low-concentrate) diet groups. After 20 weeks of feeding, milk fat declined, and lipopolysaccharide levels in the jugular, portal, and hepatic veins increased in the HC group. Liver consumption and release of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) into the bloodstream also decreased. AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) was up-regulated significantly in the livers of the HC-fed cows. The HC diet also up-regulated the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and its downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1,2 (CPT-1, CPT-2), liver-fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO). The HC diet increased blood glucagon (GC) levels, and liver glucagon receptor (GCGR) expression was elevated. Cumulatively, a long-term HC diet decreased plasma concentrations of NEFA via the GC/GCGR-AMPK-PPARα signalling pathway and reduced their synthesis in the liver. The decreased NEFA concentration in the blood during HC feeding may explain the decline in the milk fat of lactating cows. PMID:28287130

  17. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression through 5'-AMP activated protein kinase/Surtuin 1-Krüpple like factor 2 pathway and modulate blood pressure in ouabain induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaopei; Liu, Xiangju; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Shaohua; Gao, Haiqing

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE) belonging to polyphenols, possess various biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis, etc. GSPE is potential in regulating endothelial function. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In this study, by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knocking down, we proved that GSPE increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in human umbilical vessel cells (HUVECs) in vitro, which was attributed to its transcription factor Krüpple like factor 2 (KLF2) induction. Furthermore, GSPE activate 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increase surtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein level, critical for KLF2 induction. We also illuminated the role of GSPE in hypertension treatment. By chronic administration of GSPE in ouabain induced hypertensive rats model, we access the effect of GSPE on blood pressure regulation and the possible mechanisms involved. After 5 weeks feeding, GSPE significantly block the ouabain induced blood pressure increase. The aortic NO production impaired by ouabain was improved. In conclusion, GSPE increase eNOS expression and NO production in an AMPK/SIRT1 dependent manner through KLF2 induction, and attenuate ouabain induced hypertension.

  18. Experiment definition studies for AMPS Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, H.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical charging of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed in relation to the AMPS Spacelab payload along with an operations research technique for the selection of AMPS Spacelab experiments. Experiments proposed for AMPS include: hydromagnetic wave experiments; bistatic sounder of AMPS wake; and an artificial meteor gun. Experiment objectives and instrument functions are given for all experiments.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Sulfur Mustard Vesicant-Induced Cell Death: Early and Late Cell Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    Mechanisms of Sulfur Mustard Vesicant-Induced Cell Death : Early and late cell responses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...It possess mutagenic, carcinogenic, cytotoxic, vesicating effects, and results in cell death . However, the biomedical mechanism of cell death induced... cell death via apoptosis: • In early stage, It induces JNK activity and then triggers apoptosis pathway. • In late stage, sulphur mustard attacks the

  20. AICAR induces astroglial differentiation of neural stem cells via activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway independently of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yi; Yu, Li-Fang; Pang, Tao; Fang, Lei-Ping; Feng, Xu; Wen, Tie-Qiao; Nan, Fa-Jun; Feng, Lin-Yin; Li, Jia

    2008-03-07

    Neural stem cell differentiation and the determination of lineage decision between neuronal and glial fates have important implications in the study of developmental, pathological, and regenerative processes. Although small molecule chemicals with the ability to control neural stem cell fate are considered extremely useful tools in this field, few were reported. AICAR is an adenosine analog and extensively used to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic "fuel gauge" of the biological system. In the present study, we found an unrecognized astrogliogenic activity of AICAR on not only immortalized neural stem cell line C17.2 (C17.2-NSC), but also primary neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from post-natal (P0) rat hippocampus (P0-NSC) and embryonic day 14 (E14) rat embryonic cortex (E14-NSC). However, another AMPK activator, Metformin, did not alter either the C17.2-NSC or E14-NSC undifferentiated state although both Metformin and AICAR can activate the AMPK pathway in NSC. Furthermore, overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of AMPK in C17.2-NSC was unable to block the gliogenic effects of AICAR. We also found AICAR could activate the Janus kinase (JAK) STAT3 pathway in both C17.2-NSC and E14-NSC but Metformin fails. JAK inhibitor I abolished the gliogenic effects of AICAR. Taken together, these results suggest that the astroglial differentiation effect of AICAR on neural stem cells was acting independently of AMPK and that the JAK-STAT3 pathway is essential for the gliogenic effect of AICAR.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits high glucose-induced matrix protein synthesis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak Joo; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Feliers, Denis; Cavaglieri, Rita C; Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2012-02-10

    Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase β, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase β inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes.

  2. cAMP-independent signal pathways stimulate hyphal morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Salvatore M; Si, Haoyu; Naseem, Shamoon; Groudan, Kevin; Gardin, Justin; Konopka, James B

    2017-03-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can transition from budding to hyphal growth, which promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth into tissues. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP induces hyphal morphogenesis. The failure of cells lacking adenylyl cyclase (cyr1Δ) to form hyphae has suggested that cAMP signaling is essential for hyphal growth. However, cyr1Δ mutants also grow slowly and have defects in morphogenesis, making it unclear whether hyphal inducers must stimulate cAMP, or if normal basal levels of cAMP are required to maintain cellular health needed for hyphal growth. Interestingly, supplementation of cyr1Δ cells with low levels of cAMP enabled them to form hyphae in response to the inducer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), suggesting that a basal level of cAMP is sufficient for stimulation. Furthermore, we isolated faster-growing cyr1Δ pseudorevertant strains that can be induced to form hyphae even though they lack cAMP. The pseudorevertant strains were not induced by CO2 , consistent with reports that CO2 directly stimulates adenylyl cyclase. Mutational analysis showed that induction of hyphae in a pseudorevertant strain was independent of RAS1, but was dependent on the EFG1 transcription factor that acts downstream of protein kinase A. Thus, cAMP-independent signals contribute to the induction of hyphal responses.

  3. Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

  4. Early life exposure to air pollution induces adult cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gorr, Matthew W.; Velten, Markus; Nelin, Timothy D.; Youtz, Dane J.; Sun, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the progression of cardiovascular disease, particularly in susceptible populations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether early life exposure to air pollution causes persistent cardiovascular consequences measured at adulthood. Pregnant FVB mice were exposed to filtered (FA) or concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) during gestation and nursing. Mice were exposed to PM2.5 at an average concentration of 51.69 μg/m3 from the Columbus, OH region for 6 h/day, 7 days/wk in utero until weaning at 3 wk of age. Birth weight was reduced in PM2.5 pups compared with FA (1.36 ± 0.12 g FA, n = 42 mice; 1.30 ± 0.15 g PM2.5, n = 67 P = 0.012). At adulthood, mice exposed to perinatal PM2.5 had reduced left ventricular fractional shortening compared with FA-exposed mice (43.6 ± 2.1% FA, 33.2 ± 1.6% PM2.5, P = 0.001) with greater left ventricular end systolic diameter. Pressure-volume loops showed reduced ejection fraction (79.1 ± 3.5% FA, 35.5 ± 9.5% PM2.5, P = 0.005), increased end-systolic volume (10.4 ± 2.5 μl FA, 39.5 ± 3.8 μl PM2.5, P = 0.001), and reduced dP/dt maximum (11,605 ± 200 μl/s FA, 9,569 ± 800 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.05) and minimum (−9,203 ± 235 μl/s FA, −7,045 ± 189 μl/s PM2.5, P = 0.0005) in PM2.5-exposed mice. Isolated cardiomyocytes from the hearts of PM2.5-exposed mice had reduced peak shortening (%PS, 8.53 ± 2.82% FA, 6.82 ± 2.04% PM2.5, P = 0.003), slower calcium reuptake (τ, 0.22 ± 0.09 s FA, 0.26 ± 0.07 s PM2.5, P = 0.048), and reduced response to β-adrenergic stimulation compared with cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to FA. Histological analyses revealed greater picro-sirius red-positive-stained areas in the PM2.5 vs. FA group, indicative of increased collagen deposition. We concluded that these data demonstrate the detrimental role of early life exposure to ambient particulate air pollution in programming of adult cardiovascular

  5. The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein antisense oligonucleotide induced anti-nociception and decreased the expression of KIF17 in spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Jinhua; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yan; Liu, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds: The cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) plays an important role in neuropathic pain. Kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is involved in long-term memory formation. CREB could increase the level of KIF17 when activated by synaptic input. This study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CREB antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice. Results: CCI surgery decreased thresholds of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia whereas CREB antisense oligonucleotide ODN significantly attenuated these pain behaviors (P < 0.05). CCI significantly induced the protein expression of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) and KIF17, but not KIF5B, in the spinal cord of CCI mice (P < 0.05). Additionally, the mRNA expression of CREB and KIF17 was significantly increased by CCI (P < 0.05). However, CREB antisense ODN significantly decreased the protein expression of pCREB and KIF17 (but not KIF5B), and the mRNA expression of CREB and KIF17 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CREB antisense oligonucleotide ODN may reduce neuropathic pain through targeting CREB and decreasing the expression of pCREB and KIF17. PMID:25664020

  6. S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Do, Minh Truong; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-08-01

    S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a nontoxic garlic compound, has a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this report, we provide evidence that SAC prevented free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. SAC significantly reduced FFA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and subsequent cell death. Also, SAC mitigated total cellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells. SAC significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, SAC down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target genes, including ACC and fatty acid synthase. Use of a specific inhibitor showed that SAC activated AMPK via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and silent information regulator T1. Our results demonstrate that SAC activates AMPK through CaMKK and inhibits SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, SAC has therapeutic potential for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  7. Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) reveals novel mechanisms underlying cAMP-dependent axonal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwen; Tanaka, Kenji F; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji; Koyama, Ryuta

    2016-01-22

    Spatiotemporal regulation of axonal branching and elongation is essential in the development of refined neural circuits. cAMP is a key regulator of axonal growth; however, whether and how intracellular cAMP regulates axonal branching and elongation remain unclear, mainly because tools to spatiotemporally manipulate intracellular cAMP levels have been lacking. To overcome this issue, we utilized photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), which produces cAMP in response to blue-light exposure. In primary cultures of dentate granule cells transfected with PAC, short-term elevation of intracellular cAMP levels induced axonal branching but not elongation, whereas long-term cAMP elevation induced both axonal branching and elongation. The temporal dynamics of intracellular cAMP levels regulated axonal branching and elongation through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), respectively. Thus, using PAC, our study for the first time reveals that temporal cAMP dynamics could regulate axonal branching and elongation via different signaling pathways.

  8. Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) reveals novel mechanisms underlying cAMP-dependent axonal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiwen; Tanaka, Kenji F.; Matsunaga, Shigeru; Iseki, Mineo; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji; Koyama, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of axonal branching and elongation is essential in the development of refined neural circuits. cAMP is a key regulator of axonal growth; however, whether and how intracellular cAMP regulates axonal branching and elongation remain unclear, mainly because tools to spatiotemporally manipulate intracellular cAMP levels have been lacking. To overcome this issue, we utilized photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), which produces cAMP in response to blue-light exposure. In primary cultures of dentate granule cells transfected with PAC, short-term elevation of intracellular cAMP levels induced axonal branching but not elongation, whereas long-term cAMP elevation induced both axonal branching and elongation. The temporal dynamics of intracellular cAMP levels regulated axonal branching and elongation through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), respectively. Thus, using PAC, our study for the first time reveals that temporal cAMP dynamics could regulate axonal branching and elongation via different signaling pathways. PMID:26795422

  9. cAMP signaling prevents podocyte apoptosis via activation of protein kinase A and mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoying; Tao, Hua; Xie, Kewei; Ni, Zhaohui; Yan, Yucheng; Wei, Kai; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang; Gu, Leyi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator), PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP.

  10. cAMP Signaling Prevents Podocyte Apoptosis via Activation of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kewei; Ni, Zhaohui; Yan, Yucheng; Wei, Kai; Chuang, Peter Y.; He, John Cijiang; Gu, Leyi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator), PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP. PMID:24642777

  11. SHC1 sensitizes cancer cells to the 8-Cl-cAMP treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Jeong Seon; Ahn, Young-Ho; Hong, Seung Hwan

    2015-08-07

    8-Chloro-cyclic AMP (8-Cl-cAMP) is a cyclic AMP analog that induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in a broad spectrum of cancer cells. Previously, we found that 8-Cl-cAMP-induced growth inhibition is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). To identify downstream mediators of the 8-Cl-cAMP signaling, we performed co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry using the anti-AMPK or p38 MAPK antibodies. Through this approach, SHC1 was identified as one of the binding partners of p38 MAPK. SHC1 phosphorylation was suppressed by 8-Cl-cAMP in HeLa and MCF7 cancer cells, which was mediated by its metabolites, 8-Cl-adenosine and 8-Cl-ATP; however, 8-Cl-cAMP showed no effect on SHC1 phosphorylation in normal human fibroblasts. SHC1 siRNA induced AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and growth inhibition in cancer cells, and SHC1 overexpression re-sensitized human foreskin fibroblasts to the 8-Cl-cAMP treatment. SHC1 phosphorylation was unaffected by Compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor), which suggests that SHC1 is upstream of AMPK and p38 MAPK in the 8-Cl-cAMP-stimulated signaling cascade. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that SHC1 functions as a sensor during the 8-Cl-cAMP-induced growth inhibition in SHC1-overexpressing cancer cells.

  12. AmpG Inactivation Restores Susceptibility of Pan-β-Lactam-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Laura; Reeve, Thomas M.; Juan, Carlos; Moyá, Bartolomé; Cabot, Gabriel; Vocadlo, David J.; Mark, Brian L.; Oliver, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive AmpC hyperproduction is the most frequent mechanism of resistance to the weak AmpC inducers antipseudomonal penicillins and cephalosporins. Previously, we demonstrated that inhibition of the β-N-acetylglucosaminidase NagZ prevents and reverts this mechanism of resistance, which is caused by ampD and/or dacB (PBP4) mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we compared NagZ with a second candidate target, the AmpG permease for GlcNAc-1,6-anhydromuropeptides, for their ability to block AmpC expression pathways. Inactivation of nagZ or ampG fully restored the susceptibility and basal ampC expression of ampD or dacB laboratory mutants and impaired the emergence of one-step ceftazidime-resistant mutants in population analysis experiments. Nevertheless, only ampG inactivation fully blocked ampC induction, reducing the MICs of the potent AmpC inducer imipenem from 2 to 0.38 μg/ml. Moreover, through population analysis and characterization of laboratory mutants, we showed that ampG inactivation minimized the impact on resistance of the carbapenem porin OprD, reducing the MIC of imipenem for a PAO1 OprD mutant from >32 to 0.5 μg/ml. AmpG and NagZ targets were additionally evaluated in three clinical isolates that are pan-β-lactam resistant due to AmpC hyperproduction, OprD inactivation, and overexpression of several efflux pumps. A marked increase in susceptibility to ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam was observed in both cases, while only ampG inactivation fully restored wild-type imipenem susceptibility. Susceptibility to meropenem, cefepime, and aztreonam was also enhanced, although to a lower extent due to the high impact of efflux pumps on the activity of these antibiotics. Thus, our results suggest that development of small-molecule inhibitors of AmpG could provide an excellent strategy to overcome the relevant mechanisms of resistance (OprD inactivation plus AmpC induction) to imipenem, the only currently available β-lactam not

  13. Cyclic AMP and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    D'Ari, R; Jaffé, A; Bouloc, P; Robin, A

    1988-01-01

    We examined several aspects of cell division regulation in Escherichia coli which have been thought to be controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and its receptor protein (CAP). Mutants lacking adenyl cyclase (cya) or CAP (crp) were rod shaped, not spherical, during exponential growth in LB broth or glucose-Casamino Acids medium, and lateral wall elongation was normal; in broth, stationary-phase cells became ovoid. Cell mass was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, but it remained appropriate for their slower growth rate and thus probably does not reflect early (uncontrolled) septation. The slow growth did not seem to reflect a gross metabolic disorder, since the mutants gave a normal yield on limiting glucose; surprisingly, however, the cya mutant (unlike crp) was unable to grow anaerobically on glucose, suggesting a role for cAMP (but not for CAP) in the expression of some fermentation enzyme. Both cya and crp mutants are known to be resistant to mecillinam, an antibiotic which inhibits penicillin-binding protein 2 (involved in lateral wall elongation) and also affects septation. This resistance does not reflect a lack of PBP2. Furthermore, it was not simply the result of slow growth and small cell mass, since small wild-type cells growing in acetate remained sensitive. The cAMP-CAP complex may regulate the synthesis of some link between PBP2 and the septation apparatus. The ftsZ gene, coding for a cell division protein, was expressed at a higher level in the absence of cAMP, as measured with an ftsZ::lacZ fusion, but the amount of protein per cell, shown by others to be invariable over a 10-fold range of cell mass, was independent of cAMP, suggesting that ftsZ expression is not regulated by the cAMP-CAP complex. Images PMID:2826407

  14. Chrysin abrogates early hepatocarcinogenesis and induces apoptosis in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced preneoplastic nodules in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mahaboob S.; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Niranjali

    2011-02-15

    Flavonoids possess strong anti-oxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. In vitro, chrysin acts as a general anti-oxidant, causes cell cycle arrest and promotes cell death. However, the mechanism by which chrysin inhibits cancer cell growth and the subcellular pathways activated remains poorly understood. Effect of dietary supplementation with chrysin on proliferation and apoptosis during diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced early hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given DEN injections (i.p., 200 mg/kg) three times at a 15 day interval. An oral dose of chrysin (250 mg/kg bodyweight) was given three times weekly for 3 weeks, commencing 1 week after the last dose of DEN. Changes in the mRNA expression of COX-2, NFkB p65, p53, Bcl-xL and {beta}-arrestin-2 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Changes in the protein levels were measured by western blotting. Chrysin administration significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the number and size of nodules formed. Also, a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and {gamma}GT was noticed. Expression of COX-2 and NFkB p65 was significantly reduced whereas that of p53, Bax and caspase 3 increased at the mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, a decrease in levels of {beta}-arrestin and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL was also noted. These findings suggest that chrysin exerts global hepato-protective effect and its chemopreventive activity is associated with p53-mediated apoptosis during early hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Chrysin abrogates early hepatocarcinogenesis and induces apoptosis in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced preneoplastic nodules in rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahaboob S; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Niranjali

    2011-02-15

    Flavonoids possess strong anti-oxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) occurs naturally in many plants, honey, and propolis. In vitro, chrysin acts as a general anti-oxidant, causes cell cycle arrest and promotes cell death. However, the mechanism by which chrysin inhibits cancer cell growth and the subcellular pathways activated remains poorly understood. Effect of dietary supplementation with chrysin on proliferation and apoptosis during diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced early hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given DEN injections (i.p., 200 mg/kg) three times at a 15 day interval. An oral dose of chrysin (250 mg/kg bodyweight) was given three times weekly for 3 weeks, commencing 1 week after the last dose of DEN. Changes in the mRNA expression of COX-2, NFkB p65, p53, Bcl-xL and β-arrestin-2 were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Changes in the protein levels were measured by western blotting. Chrysin administration significantly (P<0.001) reduced the number and size of nodules formed. Also, a significant (P<0.01) reduction in serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γGT was noticed. Expression of COX-2 and NFkB p65 was significantly reduced whereas that of p53, Bax and caspase 3 increased at the mRNA and protein levels. Likewise, a decrease in levels of β-arrestin and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL was also noted. These findings suggest that chrysin exerts global hepato-protective effect and its chemopreventive activity is associated with p53-mediated apoptosis during early hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications.

  17. Improved Long-Term Memory via Enhancing cGMP-PKG Signaling Requires cAMP-PKA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Eva; Puzzo, Daniela; Rutten, Kris; Privitera, Lucia; De Vry, Jochen; Vanmierlo, Tim; Kenis, Gunter; Palmeri, Agostino; D'Hooge, Rudi; Balschun, Detlef; Steinbusch, Harry MW; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Memory consolidation is defined by the stabilization of a memory trace after acquisition, and consists of numerous molecular cascades that mediate synaptic plasticity. Commonly, a distinction is made between an early and a late consolidation phase, in which early refers to the first hours in which labile synaptic changes occur, whereas late consolidation relates to stable and long-lasting synaptic changes induced by de novo protein synthesis. How these phases are linked at a molecular level is not yet clear. Here we studied the interaction of the cyclic nucleotide-mediated pathways during the different phases of memory consolidation in rodents. In addition, the same pathways were studied in a model of neuronal plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP). We demonstrated that cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling mediates early memory consolidation as well as early-phase LTP, whereas cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mediates late consolidation and late-phase-like LTP. In addition, we show for the first time that early-phase cGMP/PKG signaling requires late-phase cAMP/PKA-signaling in both LTP and long-term memory formation. PMID:24813825

  18. Glucose and GLP-1 Stimulate cAMP Production via Distinct Adenylyl Cyclases in INS-1E Insulinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Zippin, Jonathan Hale; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2008-01-01

    In β cells, both glucose and hormones, such as GLP-1, stimulate production of the second messenger cAMP, but glucose and GLP-1 elicit distinct cellular responses. We now show in INS-1E insulinoma cells that glucose and GLP-1 produce cAMP with distinct kinetics via different adenylyl cyclases. GLP-1 induces a rapid cAMP signal mediated by G protein–responsive transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). In contrast, glucose elicits a delayed cAMP rise mediated by bicarbonate, calcium, and ATP-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). This glucose-induced, sAC-dependent cAMP rise is dependent upon calcium influx and is responsible for the glucose-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. These results demonstrate that sAC-generated and tmAC-generated cAMP define distinct signaling cascades. PMID:18695009

  19. Phosphorylation of CREB and mechanical hyperalgesia is reversed by blockade of the cAMP pathway in a time-dependent manner after repeated intramuscular acid injections.

    PubMed

    Hoeger-Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2003-07-02

    Spinal activation of the cAMP pathway produces mechanical hyperalgesia, sensitizes nociceptive spinal neurons, and phosphorylates the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which initiates gene transcription. This study examined the role of the cAMP pathway in a model of chronic muscle pain by assessing associated behavioral changes and phosphorylation of CREB. Bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia of the paw was induced by administering two injections of acidic saline, 5 d apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. Interestingly, the increases in immunoreactivity for CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn occur 24 hr, but not 1 week, after the second injection of acidic saline compared with pH 7.2 intramuscular injections. Spinal blockade of adenylate cyclase prevents the expected increase in p-CREB that occurs after intramuscular acid injection. The reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia by adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A inhibitors spinally follows a similar pattern with reversal at 24 hr, but not 1 week, compared with the vehicle controls. The p-CREB immunoreactivity in the superficial dorsal horn correlates with the mechanical withdrawal threshold such that increases in p-CREB are associated with decreases in threshold. Therefore, activation of the cAMP pathway in the spinal cord phosphorylates CREB and produces mechanical hyperalgesia associated with intramuscular acid injections. The mechanical hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of CREB depend on early activation of the cAMP pathway during the first 24 hr but are independent of the cAMP pathway by 1 week after intramuscular injection of acid.

  20. Impact induced surface heating by planetesimals on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R.; Lammer, H.; Güdel, M.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Odert, P.; Erkaev, N. V.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We investigate the influence of impacts of large planetesimals and small planetary embryos on the early Martian surface on the hydrodynamic escape of an early steam atmosphere that is exposed to the high soft X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) flux of the young Sun. Methods: Impact statistics in terms of number, masses, velocities, and angles of asteroid impacts onto early Mars are determined via n-body integrations. Based on these statistics, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations result in estimates of energy transfer into the planetary surface material and the resulting surface heating. For the estimation of the atmospheric escape rates we applied a soft X-ray and EUV absorption model and a 1D upper atmosphere hydrodynamic model to a magma ocean-related catastrophically outgassed steam atmosphere with surface pressure values of 52 bar H2O and 11 bar CO2. Results: The estimated impact rates and energy deposition onto an early Martian surface can account for substantial heating. The energy influx and conversion rate into internal energy is probably sufficient to keep a shallow magma ocean liquid for an extended period of time. Higher surface temperatures keep the outgassed steam atmosphere longer in vapor form and therefore enhance its escape to space within ~0.6 Myr after its formation.

  1. Impact of AmpC Derepression on Fitness and Virulence: the Mechanism or the Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Gallego, Marcelo; Torrens, Gabriel; Castillo-Vera, Jane; Moya, Bartolomé; Zamorano, Laura; Hultenby, Kjell; Albertí, Sebastián; Mellroth, Peter; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Normark, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the interplay between antibiotic resistance and bacterial fitness and virulence is essential to guide individual treatments and improve global antibiotic policies. A paradigmatic example of a resistance mechanism is the intrinsic inducible chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC from multiple Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major nosocomial pathogen. The regulation of ampC expression is intimately linked to peptidoglycan recycling, and AmpC-mediated β-lactam resistance is frequently mediated by inactivating mutations in ampD, encoding an N-acetyl-anhydromuramyl-l-alanine amidase, affecting the levels of ampC-activating muropeptides. Here we dissect the impact of the multiple pathways causing AmpC hyperproduction on P. aeruginosa fitness and virulence. Through a detailed analysis, we demonstrate that the lack of all three P. aeruginosa AmpD amidases causes a dramatic effect in fitness and pathogenicity, severely compromising growth rates, motility, and cytotoxicity; the latter effect is likely achieved by repressing key virulence factors, such as protease LasA, phospholipase C, or type III secretion system components. We also show that ampC overexpression is required but not sufficient to confer the growth-motility-cytotoxicity impaired phenotype and that alternative pathways leading to similar levels of ampC hyperexpression and resistance, such as those involving PBP4, had no fitness-virulence cost. Further analysis indicated that fitness-virulence impairment is caused by overexpressing ampC in the absence of cell wall recycling, as reproduced by expressing ampC from a plasmid in an AmpG (muropeptide permease)-deficient background. Thus, our findings represent a major step in the understanding of β-lactam resistance biology and its interplay with fitness and pathogenesis. PMID:27795406

  2. Investigation of early plasma evolution induced by ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C; King, Galen B

    2012-07-02

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment(1-11). Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy(1-3) and interferometry(1,4-7). However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number densities within a delay time of 100 picosecond (ps) with respect to the laser pulse peak are still very few, especially for the ultrashort pulse of a duration around 100 femtosecond (fs) and a low power density around 10(14) W/cm(2). Early plasma generated under these conditions has only been captured recently with high temporal and spatial resolutions(12). The detailed setup strategy and procedures of this high precision measurement will be illustrated in this paper. The rationale of the measurement is optical pump-probe shadowgraphy: one ultrashort laser pulse is split to a pump pulse and a probe pulse, while the delay time between them can be adjusted by changing their beam path lengths. The pump pulse ablates the target and generates the early plasma, and the probe pulse propagates through the plasma region and detects the non-uniformity of electron number density. In addition, animations are generated using the calculated results from the simulation model of Ref. (12) to illustrate the plasma formation and evolution with a very high resolution (0.04 ~ 1 ps). Both the experimental method and the simulation method can be applied to a broad range of time frames and laser parameters. These methods can be used to examine the early plasma generated not only from metals, but also from semiconductors and insulators.

  3. Investigation of Early Plasma Evolution Induced by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen B.

    2012-01-01

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment1-11. Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy1-3 and interferometry1,4-7. However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number densities within a delay time of 100 picosecond (ps) with respect to the laser pulse peak are still very few, especially for the ultrashort pulse of a duration around 100 femtosecond (fs) and a low power density around 1014 W/cm2. Early plasma generated under these conditions has only been captured recently with high temporal and spatial resolutions12. The detailed setup strategy and procedures of this high precision measurement will be illustrated in this paper. The rationale of the measurement is optical pump-probe shadowgraphy: one ultrashort laser pulse is split to a pump pulse and a probe pulse, while the delay time between them can be adjusted by changing their beam path lengths. The pump pulse ablates the target and generates the early plasma, and the probe pulse propagates through the plasma region and detects the non-uniformity of electron number density. In addition, animations are generated using the calculated results from the simulation model of Ref. 12 to illustrate the plasma formation and evolution with a very high resolution (0.04 ~ 1 ps). Both the experimental method and the simulation method can be applied to a broad range of time frames and laser parameters. These methods can be used to examine the early plasma generated not only from metals, but also from semiconductors and insulators. PMID:22806170

  4. Regulation of intracellular cyclic AMP in skeletal muscle cells involves the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Costa-Jr, Valter Luiz

    2003-01-01

    This report analyses the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP in primary rat skeletal muscle cultures, after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Isoprenaline, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and forskolin induced a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP that peaked 5 min after onset stimulation. Under stimulation with isoprenaline or CGRP, the intracellular cyclic AMP initial rise was followed by an exponential decline, reaching 46 and 52% of peak levels in 10 min, respectively. Conversely, the forskolin-dependent accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP decreased slowly and linearly, reaching 49% of the peak level in 30 min. The loss of intracellular cyclic AMP from peak levels, induced by direct or receptor-induced activation of AC, was followed by an increase in the extracellular cyclic AMP. This effect was independent on PDEs, since it was obtained in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Besides, in isoprenaline treated cells, the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol reduced both intra- and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP, whereas the organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid reduced exclusively the extracellular accumulation. Together our data show that direct or receptor-dependent activation of skeletal muscle AC results in a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP, despite the continuous presence of the stimulus. The temporal declining of intracellular cyclic AMP was not dependent on the cyclic AMP breakdown but associated to the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment, by an active transport since it was prevented by probenecid. PMID:12642402

  5. Neuronal activity promotes myelination via a cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Malone, Misti; Gary, Devin; Yang, In Hong; Miglioretti, Anna; Houdayer, Thierry; Thakor, Nitish; McDonald, John

    2013-06-01

    Neuronal activity promotes myelination in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular events that mediate activity-dependent myelination are not completely understood. Seven, daily 1 h sessions of patterned electrical stimulation (ESTIM) promoted myelin segment formation in mixed cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs); the increase in myelination was frequency-dependent. Myelin segment formation was also enhanced following exposure of DRGs to ESTIM prior to OL addition, suggesting that ESTIM promotes myelination in a manner involving neuron-specific signaling. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in DRGs were increased three-fold following ESTIM, and artificially increasing cAMP mimicked the ability of ESTIM to promote myelination. Alternatively, inhibiting the cAMP pathway suppressed ESTIM-induced myelination. We used compartmentalized, microfluidic platforms to isolate DRG soma from OLs and assessed cell-type specific effects of ESTIM on myelination. A selective increase or decrease in DRG cAMP levels resulted in enhanced or suppressed myelination, respectively. This work describes a novel role for the cAMP pathway in neurons that results in enhanced myelination.

  6. The cAMP analogs have potent anti-proliferative effects on medullary thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dicitore, Alessandra; Grassi, Elisa Stellaria; Caraglia, Michele; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Gaudenzi, Germano; Hofland, Leo J; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic activation of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene has a main role in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Several lines of evidence suggest that RET function could be influenced by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity. We evaluated the in vitro anti-tumor activity of 8-chloroadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP) and PKA type I-selective cAMP analogs [equimolar combination of the 8-piperidinoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-PIP-cAMP) and 8-hexylaminoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-HA-cAMP) in MTC cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1)]. 8-Cl-cAMP and the PKA I-selective cAMP analogs showed a potent anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. In detail, 8-Cl-cAMP blocked significantly the transition of TT cell population from G2/M to G0/G1 phase and from G0/G1 to S phase and of MZ-CRC-1 cells from G0/G1 to S phase. Moreover, 8-Cl-cAMP induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as demonstrated by FACS analysis for annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. On the other hand, the only effect induced by PKA I-selective cAMP analogs was a delay in G0/G1-S and S-G2/M progression in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells, respectively. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that cAMP analogs, particularly 8-Cl-cAMP, significantly suppress in vitro MTC proliferation and provide rationale for a potential clinical use of cAMP analogs in the treatment of advanced MTC.

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates T cell activation-induced expression of FasL and COX-2 via protein kinase C theta-dependent pathway in human Jurkat T leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Choi, A-Young; Oh, Young Taek; Choe, Wonchae; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug

    2012-06-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, is known to be activated during T cell activation. T cell activation by T cell receptor (TCR) engagement or its pharmacological mimics, PMA plus ionomycin (PMA/Io), induces immunomodulatory FasL and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In this study, we examined the role and mechanisms of AMPK in PMA/Io-induced expression of FasL and COX-2 in Jurkat T human leukemic cells. Inhibition of AMPK by a pharmacological agent, compound C, or AMPKα1 siRNA suppressed expression of FasL and COX-2 mRNAs and proteins in PMA/Io-activated Jurkat cells. It also reduced secretion of FasL protein and prostaglandin E2, a main product of COX-2, in Jurkat cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes activated with PMA/Io or monoclonal anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28. Consistently, inhibition of AMPK blocked promoter activities of FasL and COX-2 in activated Jurkat cells. As protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) is a central molecule for TCR signaling, we examined any possible cross-talk between AMPK and PKCθ in activated T cells. Of particular importance, we found that inhibition of AMPK blocked phosphorylation and activation of PKCθ, suggesting that AMPK is an upstream kinase of PKCθ. Moreover, we showed that AMPK was directly associated with PKCθ and phosphorylated Thr538 of PKCθ in PMA/Io-stimulated Jurkat cells. We also showed that inhibition of PKCθ by rottlerin or dominant negative PKCθ reduced AMPK-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-AT and AP-1 in activated Jurkat cells. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK regulates expression of FasL and COX-2 via the PKCθ and NF-AT and AP-1 pathways in activated Jurkat cells.

  8. cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) and Nuclear Factor κB Mediate the Tamoxifen-induced Up-regulation of Glutamate Transporter 1 (GLT-1) in Rat Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Webb, Anton; Smith, Keisha; Lee, Kyuwon; Son, Deok-Soo; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exerts antagonistic effects on breast tissue and is used to treat breast cancer. Recent evidence also suggests that it may act as an agonist in brain tissue. We reported previously that TX enhanced the expression and function of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in rat astrocytes, an effect that was mediated by TGF-α. To gain further insight into the mechanisms that mediate TX-induced up-regulation of GLT-1 (EAAT2 in humans), we investigated its effect on GLT-1 at the transcriptional level. TX phosphorylated the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and recruited CREB to the GLT-1 promoter consensus site. The effect of TX on astrocytic GLT-1 was attenuated by the inhibition of PKA, the upstream activator of the CREB pathway. In addition, the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity was abolished by the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, TX recruited the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 to the NF-κB binding domain of the GLT-1 promoter. Mutation of NF-κB (triple, −583/-282/-251) or CRE (-308) sites on the GLT-1 promoter led to significant repression of the promoter activity, but neither mutant completely abolished the TX-induced GLT-1 promoter activity. Mutation of both the NF-κB (-583/-282/-251) and CRE (-308) sites led to a complete abrogation of the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our findings establish that TX regulates GLT-1 via the CREB and NF-κB pathways. PMID:23955341

  9. Possible methane-induced polar warming in the early Eocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, L. C.; Walker, James C. G.; Moore, T. C., Jr.; Rea, David K.; Zachos, James C.

    1992-05-01

    Estimates of Eocene wetland areas are considered and it is suggested that the flux of methane may have been substantially greater during the Eocene than at present. Elevated methane concentrations would have enhanced early Eocene global warming and also might have prevented severe winter cooling of polar regions because of the potential of atmospheric methane to promote the formation of optically thick polar stratospheric ice clouds.

  10. Molecular mechanism of telokin-mediated disinhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase and cAMP/cGMP-induced relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Khromov, Alexander S; Momotani, Ko; Jin, Li; Artamonov, Mykhaylo V; Shannon, John; Eto, Masumi; Somlyo, Avril V

    2012-06-15

    Phospho-telokin is a target of elevated cyclic nucleotide concentrations that lead to relaxation of gastrointestinal and some vascular smooth muscles (SM). Here, we demonstrate that in telokin-null SM, both Ca(2+)-activated contraction and Ca(2+) sensitization of force induced by a GST-MYPT1(654-880) fragment inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase were antagonized by the addition of recombinant S13D telokin, without changing the inhibitory phosphorylation status of endogenous MYPT1 (the regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) at Thr-696/Thr-853 or activity of Rho kinase. Cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of force in telokin-null ileum muscle was reduced but not correlated with a change in MYPT1 phosphorylation. The 40% inhibited activity of phosphorylated MYPT1 in telokin-null ileum homogenates was restored to nonphosphorylated MYPT1 levels by addition of S13D telokin. Using the GST-MYPT1 fragment as a ligand and SM homogenates from WT and telokin KO mice as a source of endogenous proteins, we found that only in the presence of endogenous telokin, thiophospho-GST-MYPT1 co-precipitated with phospho-20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain 20 and PP1. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that S13D telokin bound to full-length phospho-MYPT1. Results of a protein ligation assay also supported interaction of endogenous phosphorylated MYPT1 with telokin in SM cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of phospho-telokin is not through modulation of the MYPT1 phosphorylation status but rather it contributes to cyclic nucleotide-induced relaxation of SM by interacting with and activating the inhibited full-length phospho-MYPT1/PP1 through facilitating its binding to phosphomyosin and thus accelerating 20-kDa myosin regulatory light chain dephosphorylation.

  11. Pleiotropic effects of cAMP on germination, antibiotic biosynthesis and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Süsstrunk, U; Pidoux, J; Taubert, S; Ullmann, A; Thompson, C J

    1998-10-01

    In wild-type Streptomyces coelicolor MT1110 cultures, cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) was synthesized throughout the developmental programme with peaks of accumulation both during germination and later when aerial mycelium and actinorhodin were being produced. Construction and characterization of an adenylate cyclase disruption mutant (BZ1) demonstrated that cAMP facilitated these developmental processes. Although pulse-labelling experiments showed that a similar germination process was initiated in BZ1 and MT1110, germ-tube emergence was severely delayed in BZ1 and never occurred in more than 85% of the spores. Studies of growth and development on solid glucose minimal medium (SMMS, buffered or unbuffered) showed that MT1110 and BZ1 produced acid during the first rapid growth phase, which generated substrate mycelium. Thereafter, on unbuffered SMMS, only MT1110 resumed growth and produced aerial mycelium by switching to an alternative metabolism that neutralized its medium, probably by reincorporating and metabolizing extracellular acids. BZ1 was not able to neutralize its medium or produce aerial mycelium on unbuffered SMMS; these defects were suppressed by high concentrations (>1 mM) of cAMP during early growth or on buffered medium. Other developmental mutants (bldA, bldB, bldC, bldD, bldG) also irreversibly acidified this medium. However, these bald mutants were not suppressed by exogenous cAMP or neutralizing buffer. BZ1 also differentiated when it was cultured in close proximity to MT1110, a property observed in cross-feeding experiments between bald mutants and commonly thought to reflect diffusion of a discrete positively acting signalling molecule. In this case, MT1110 generated a more neutral pH environment that allowed BZ1 to reinitiate growth and form aerial mycelium. The fact that actinorhodin synthesis could be induced by concentrations of cAMP (< 20 microM) found in the medium of MT1110 cultures, suggested that it may serve as a

  12. HeLa human cervical cancer cell migration is inhibited by treatment with dibutyryl-cAMP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jiyoung; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates both protein kinase A (PKA) and guanine-nucleotide exchange factor exchange protein directly activated by CAMP (EPAC)-mediated Ras-related Protein1 (RAP1) GTPase that regulates various cellular functions including cell migration. Herein, we investigated whether cAMP-mediated PKA and EPAC1/RAP1 pathways differentially control HeLa cervical cancer cell migration. Although HeLa cell migration was reduced by dibutyryl-cAMP, we observed an increase in cAMP/PKA, cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase, and RAC1-GTPase. HeLa cell migration and RAC1-GTPase were increased by treatment with 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cAMP analogue to activate EPAC-specific signaling pathways. When HeLa cells were treated with H-89, a PKA inhibitor, cell migration was enhanced but RAC1-GTPase was inhibited. In addition, cell migration induced by dibutyryl-cAMP was reversed but the activity of Rac1-GTPase was inhibited by H-89 treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase might inversely control cervical cancer cell migration, although both signaling pathways may up-regulate RAC1-GTPase. It also suggests that cAMP-mediated cancer cell migration was independent of RAC1-GTPase activation.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa global regulator AmpR.

    PubMed

    Caille, Olivier; Zincke, Diansy; Merighi, Massimo; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Kumari, Hansi; Kong, Kok-Fai; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Narasimhan, Giri; Schneper, Lisa; Lory, Stephen; Mathee, Kalai

    2014-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dreaded pathogen in many clinical settings. Its inherent and acquired antibiotic resistance thwarts therapy. In particular, derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase is a common mechanism of β-lactam resistance among clinical isolates. The inducible expression of ampC is controlled by the global LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR. In the present study, we investigated the genetic and structural elements that are important for ampC induction. Specifically, the ampC (PampC) and ampR (PampR) promoters and the AmpR protein were characterized. The transcription start sites (TSSs) of the divergent transcripts were mapped using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR), and strong σ(54) and σ(70) consensus sequences were identified at PampR and PampC, respectively. Sigma factor RpoN was found to negatively regulate ampR expression, possibly through promoter blocking. Deletion mapping revealed that the minimal PampC extends 98 bp upstream of the TSS. Gel shifts using membrane fractions showed that AmpR binds to PampC in vitro whereas in vivo binding was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR). Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis of the AmpR helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif identified residues critical for binding and function (Ser38 and Lys42) and critical for function but not binding (His39). Amino acids Gly102 and Asp135, previously implicated in the repression state of AmpR in the enterobacteria, were also shown to play a structural role in P. aeruginosa AmpR. Alkaline phosphatase fusion and shaving experiments suggest that AmpR is likely to be membrane associated. Lastly, an in vivo cross-linking study shows that AmpR dimerizes. In conclusion, a potential membrane-associated AmpR dimer regulates ampC expression by direct binding.

  14. Structural and Functional Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Global Regulator AmpR

    PubMed Central

    Caille, Olivier; Zincke, Diansy; Merighi, Massimo; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Kumari, Hansi; Kong, Kok-Fai; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Narasimhan, Giri; Schneper, Lisa; Lory, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dreaded pathogen in many clinical settings. Its inherent and acquired antibiotic resistance thwarts therapy. In particular, derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase is a common mechanism of β-lactam resistance among clinical isolates. The inducible expression of ampC is controlled by the global LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR. In the present study, we investigated the genetic and structural elements that are important for ampC induction. Specifically, the ampC (PampC) and ampR (PampR) promoters and the AmpR protein were characterized. The transcription start sites (TSSs) of the divergent transcripts were mapped using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR), and strong σ54 and σ70 consensus sequences were identified at PampR and PampC, respectively. Sigma factor RpoN was found to negatively regulate ampR expression, possibly through promoter blocking. Deletion mapping revealed that the minimal PampC extends 98 bp upstream of the TSS. Gel shifts using membrane fractions showed that AmpR binds to PampC in vitro whereas in vivo binding was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR). Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis of the AmpR helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif identified residues critical for binding and function (Ser38 and Lys42) and critical for function but not binding (His39). Amino acids Gly102 and Asp135, previously implicated in the repression state of AmpR in the enterobacteria, were also shown to play a structural role in P. aeruginosa AmpR. Alkaline phosphatase fusion and shaving experiments suggest that AmpR is likely to be membrane associated. Lastly, an in vivo cross-linking study shows that AmpR dimerizes. In conclusion, a potential membrane-associated AmpR dimer regulates ampC expression by direct binding. PMID:25182487

  15. Cyclic AMP Affects Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development in Prepubertal and Adult Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Heinzmann, Julia; Herrmann, Doris; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Aldag, Patrick; Winkler, Sylke; Pache, Dorit; Baulain, Ulrich; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Niemann, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    High cAMP levels during in vitro maturation (IVM) have been related to improved blastocyst yields. Here, we employed the cAMP/cGMP modulators, forskolin, IBMX, and cilostamide, during IVM to unravel the role of high cAMP in early embryonic development produced from prepubertal and adult bovine oocytes. Oocytes were collected via transvaginal aspiration and randomly assigned to three experimental groups: TCM24 (24h IVM/control), cAMP30 (2h pre-IVM (forskolin-IBMX), 30h IVM-cilostamide), and DMSO30 (Dimethyl Sulfoxide/vehicle control). After IVM, oocytes were fertilized in vitro and zygotes were cultured in vitro to blastocysts. Meiotic progression, cAMP levels, mRNA abundance of selected genes and DNA methylation were evaluated in oocytes. Blastocysts were used for gene expression or DNA methylation analyses. Blastocysts from the cAMP30 groups were transferred to recipients. The cAMP elevation delayed meiotic progression, but developmental rates were not increased. In immature oocytes, mRNA abundance of PRKACA was higher for cAMP30 protocol and no differences were found for PDE3A, SMAD2, ZAR1, PRDX1 and SLC2A8. EGR1 gene was up-regulated in prepubertal cAMP30 immature oocytes and down-regulated in blastocysts from all in vitro treatments. A similar gene expression profile was observed for DNMT3b, BCL2L1, PRDX1 and SLC2A8 in blastocysts. Satellite DNA methylation profiles were different between prepubertal and adult oocytes and blastocysts derived from the TCM24 and DMSO30 groups. Blastocysts obtained from prepubertal and adult oocytes in the cAMP30 treatment displayed normal methylation profiles and produced offspring. These data indicate that cAMP regulates IVM in prepubertal and adult oocytes in a similar manner, with impact on the establishment of epigenetic marks and acquisition of full developmental competency. PMID:26926596

  16. Melatonin reverses flow shear stress-induced injury in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chongxi; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Hu, Wei; Di, Shouyin; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Qin, Zhigang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yan, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shuai; Sun, Yang; Yi, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) are a promising treatment for valvular heart disease, although their application is limited by high flow shear stress (FSS). Melatonin has a wide range of physiological functions and is currently under clinical investigation for expanded applications; moreover, extensive protective effects on the cardiovascular system have been reported. In this study, we investigated the protection conferred by melatonin supplementation against FSS-induced injury in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and elucidated the potential mechanism in this process. Melatonin markedly reduced BMSC apoptotic death in a concentration-dependent manner while increasing the levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), and decreasing those of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and caspase 3. Notably, melatonin exerted its protective effects by upregulating the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which promotes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Further molecular experiments revealed that luzindole, a nonselective antagonist of melatonin receptors, blocked the anti-FSS injury (anti-FSSI) effects of melatonin. Inhibition of AMPK by Compound C also counteracted the protective effects of melatonin, suggesting that melatonin reverses FSSI in BMSCs through the AMPK-dependent pathway. Overall, our findings indicate that melatonin contributes to the amelioration of FSS-induced BMSC injury by activating melatonin receptors and AMPK/ACC signaling. Our findings may provide a basis for the design of more effective strategies that promote the use of TEHCs in patients.

  17. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Yun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Deok-Beom; Kim, Hyunseok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPK α blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK α in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPK α . Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1 α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPK α and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPK α in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPK α and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  18. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Yun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Deok-Beom; Kim, Hyunseok; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Bonglee; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells. PMID:23589723

  19. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces testicular toxicity by upregulation of oxidative stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and deregulation of germ cell development in adult murine testis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Fu, Jianfang; Zhang, Shun; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Nianlin; Cai, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how chemotherapeutic agents mediate testicular toxicity is crucial in light of compelling evidence that male infertility, one of the severe late side effects of intensive cancer treatment, occurs more often than they are expected to. Previous study demonstrated that bortezomib (BTZ), a 26S proteasome inhibitor used to treat refractory multiple myeloma (MM), exerts deleterious impacts on spermatogenesis in pubertal mice via unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that intermittent treatment with BTZ resulted in fertility impairment in adult mice, evidenced by testicular atrophy, desquamation of immature germ cells and reduced caudal sperm storage. These deleterious effects may originate from the elevated apoptosis in distinct germ cells during the acute phase and the subsequent disruption of Sertoli–germ cell anchoring junctions (AJs) during the late recovery. Mechanistically, balance between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and Akt/ERK pathway appeared to be indispensable for AJ integrity during the late testicular recovery. Of particular interest, the upregulated testicular apoptosis and the following disturbance of Sertoli–germ cell interaction may both stem from the excessive oxidative stress elicited by BTZ exposure. We also provided the in vitro evidence that AMPK-dependent mechanisms counteract follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) proliferative effects in BTZ-exposed Sertoli cells. Collectively, BTZ appeared to efficiently prevent germ cells from normal development via multiple mechanisms in adult mice. Employment of antioxidants and/or AMPK inhibitor may represent an attractive strategy of fertility preservation in male MM patients exposed to conventional BTZ therapy and warrants further investigation. - Highlights: • Intermittent treatment with BTZ caused fertility impairment in adult mice. • BTZ treatment elicited apoptosis during early phase of testicular recovery. • Up-regulation of oxidative stress by BTZ treatment

  20. Evidences for involvement of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses to Verticillium toxins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Fan, Ling Wen; Wu, Wei Hua

    2005-08-01

    Although there were reports suggesting the involvement of endogenous cAMP in plant defense signaling cascades, there is no direct evidence supporting this notion yet and the detailed mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we have used pathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Arabidopsis plants as a model system of plant-microb interaction to demonstrate the function of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses. Both V. dahliae inoculation and Verticillium toxins injection induced typical "wilt" symptoms in Arabidopsis seedlings. When either 8-Br-AMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) or salicylic acid (SA) was applied to Arabidopsis, the plants became resistant to V. dahliae toxins. However, addition of 8-Br-AMP did not increase the resistance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants deficient in SA to the toxins, suggesting that cAMP might act upstream of SA in plant defense signaling pathway. Indeed, 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly stimulated the endogenous SA level in plants, whereas DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase dramatically reduced toxin-induced SA increase. Both the endogenous cAMP and SA increased significantly in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with toxins. Furthermore, transcription level of pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene (PR1) was strongly induced by both 8-Br-cAMP and the toxin treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that endogenous cAMP is involved in plant defense responses against Verticillium-secreted toxins by regulating the production of the known signal SA in plant defense pathway.

  1. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  2. Possible methane-induced polar warming in the early Eocene.

    PubMed

    Sloan, L C; Walker, J C; Moore, T C; Rea, D K; Zachos, J C

    1992-05-28

    Reconstructions of early Eocene climate depict a world in which the polar environments support mammals and reptiles, deciduous forests, warm oceans and rare frost conditions. At the same time, tropical sea surface temperatures are interpreted to have been the same as or slightly cooler than present values. The question of how to warm polar regions of Earth without noticeably warming the tropics remains unresolved; increased amounts of greenhouse gases would be expected to warm all latitudes equally. Oceanic heat transport has been postulated as a mechanism for heating high latitudes, but it is difficult to explain the dynamics that would achieve this. Here we consider estimates of Eocene wetland areas and suggest that the flux of methane, an important greenhouse gas, may have been substantially greater during the Eocene than at present. Elevated methane concentrations would have enhanced early Eocene global warming, and also might specifically have prevented severe winter cooling of polar regions because of the potential of atmospheric methane to promote the formation of optically thick, polar stratospheric ice clouds.

  3. AKAP-mediated feedback control of cAMP gradients in developing hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Kirill; Mehta, Sohum; Ramamurthy, Santosh; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Zhou, Feng-Quan; Zhang, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA), classical examples of spatially compartmentalized signaling molecules, are critical axon determinants that regulate neuronal polarity and axon formation, yet little is known about micro-compartmentalization of cAMP and PKA signaling and its role in developing neurons. Here, we revealed that cAMP forms a gradient in developing hippocampal neurons, with higher cAMP levels in more distal regions of the axon compared to other regions of the cell. Interestingly, this cAMP gradient changed according to the developmental stage and depended on proper anchoring of PKA by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAPs increased the cAMP gradient in early-stage neurons and led to enhanced axon elongation. Our results provide new evidence for a local negative-feedback loop, assembled by AKAPs, for the precise control of a growth-stage-dependent cAMP gradient to ensure proper axon growth.

  4. Mitochondrial Respiratory Defect Causes Dysfunctional Lactate Turnover via AMP-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ilkyun; Jang, Mi-jin; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Sang-Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook; Kim, Seyun; Han, Yong-Mahn

    2015-01-01

    A defective mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (DMRC) causes various metabolic disorders in humans. However, the pathophysiology of DMRC in the liver remains unclear. To understand DMRC pathophysiology in vitro, DMRC-induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from dermal fibroblasts of a DMRC patient who had a homoplasmic mutation (m.3398T→C) in the mitochondrion-encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1 (MTND1) gene and that differentiated into hepatocytes (DMRC hepatocytes) in vitro. DMRC hepatocytes showed abnormalities in mitochondrial characteristics, the NAD+/NADH ratio, the glycogen storage level, the lactate turnover rate, and AMPK activity. Intriguingly, low glycogen storage and transcription of lactate turnover-related genes in DMRC hepatocytes were recovered by inhibition of AMPK activity. Thus, AMPK activation led to metabolic changes in terms of glycogen storage and lactate turnover in DMRC hepatocytes. These data demonstrate for the first time that energy depletion may lead to lactic acidosis in the DMRC patient by reduction of lactate uptake via AMPK in liver. PMID:26491018

  5. Biomechanical forces promote blood development through prostaglandin E2 and the cAMP-PKA signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Miguel F; Li, Nan; Lee, Hyun Jung; Adamo, Luigi; Evans, Siobahn M; Willey, Hannah E; Arora, Natasha; Torisawa, Yu-Suke; Vickers, Dwayne A; Morris, Samantha A; Naveiras, Olaia; Murthy, Shashi K; Ingber, Donald E; Daley, George Q; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Wenzel, Pamela L

    2015-05-04

    Blood flow promotes emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the developing embryo, yet the signals generated by hemodynamic forces that influence hematopoietic potential remain poorly defined. Here we show that fluid shear stress endows long-term multilineage engraftment potential upon early hematopoietic tissues at embryonic day 9.5, an embryonic stage not previously described to harbor HSCs. Effects on hematopoiesis are mediated in part by a cascade downstream of wall shear stress that involves calcium efflux and stimulation of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling axis. Blockade of the PGE2-cAMP-PKA pathway in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) abolished enhancement in hematopoietic activity. Furthermore, Ncx1 heartbeat mutants, as well as static cultures of AGM, exhibit lower levels of expression of prostaglandin synthases and reduced phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Similar to flow-exposed cultures, transient treatment of AGM with the synthetic analogue 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2 stimulates more robust engraftment of adult recipients and greater lymphoid reconstitution. These data provide one mechanism by which biomechanical forces induced by blood flow modulate hematopoietic potential.

  6. Early pregnancy failure induced by dibutyltin dichloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Ema, Makoto; Fujii, Sakiko; Ikka, Tsuguo; Matsumoto, Mariko; Hirose, Akihiko; Kamata, Eiichi

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we examined the adverse effects of dibutyltin on initiation and maintenance of pregnancy after maternal administration during early pregnancy in mice. Following successful mating, female ICR mice were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl) at 0, 7.6, 15.2, or 30.4 mg/kg bw/day by gastric intubation on days 0-3 or days 4-7 of pregnancy. Female mice were sacrificed on day 18 of pregnancy, and the pregnancy outcome was determined. After administration of DBTCl on days 0-3, the rate of nonpregnant females and the incidence of preimplantation embryonic loss were significantly increased at 30.4 mg/kg bw/day. The incidences of postimplantation embryonic loss in females given DBTCl on days 0-3 at 15.2 mg/kg and higher and on days 4-7 at 7.6 mg/kg bw/day and higher were increased. No increase in the incidence of fetuses with external malformations was observed after the administration of DBTCl on days 0-3 or days 4-7. A decline in the serum progesterone levels was detected in mice given DBTCl at 30.4 mg/kg bw/day on days 0-3 or days 4-7 of pregnancy. The data show that DBTCl adversely affects the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy when administered during early pregnancy in mice and suggest that the decline in serum progesterone levels is responsible for pregnancy failure.

  7. The regulation of chemotaxis and chemokinesis in Dictyostelium amoebae by temporal signals and spatial gradients of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Vicker, M G

    1994-02-01

    The tactic and kinetic locomotion of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae were examined in cyclic AMP (cAMP) spatial gradient and temporal signal fields. The distributions of migrating cells were examined within 150 microns-thick micropore filters after incubation with different cAMP concentrations, [cAMP], applied in three ways across the fields: as positively or negatively developing gradients, generated either by increasing or decreasing the [cAMP] on one side of the filter, respectively, or as static, linear gradients after negative development. Chemotaxis was only induced by oriented, temporally increasing [cAMP]. Pulses propagated by molecular diffusion or mechanical flow were equally effective. Negatively developing cAMP gradients had no initial effect on cell accumulation. However, if the subsequent static spatial gradient was maintained by an infusion system, some gradients also induced cell accumulation, whose degree and direction depended on the gradient [cAMP]. The basis of this new effect was examined by tracking individual cells by computer-assisted videomicroscopy during locomotion in different [cAMP]. Cells produced a triphasic [cAMP]-dependent response, with optimal cell motility induced by 10-30 nM. The results demonstrate that cell accumulation either up-field or down-field in spatial gradients is governed by the field locations of the attractant concentrations that induce the relative locomotory maxima and minima in the gradient field. Cells perceive the ambient [cAMP], but cannot read the spatial gradient orientation in static or yet steeper regions of developing gradients. Accumulation in static spatial gradients is a function of klino- and orthokinesis, but chemotaxis requires an oriented cAMP pulse or impulse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. cAMP Promotes Cell Migration Through Cell Junctional Complex Dynamics and Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling: Implications in Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; Ryu, Jung Min; Suh, Han Na; Park, Soo Hyun; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Hun; Han, Ho Jae

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells have attracted great interest for their therapeutic capacity in tissue regeneration. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), existing in high concentration at wound sites, mediated various signaling pathways such as cytoskeleton dynamics, cell adhesion, and cell migration in stem cells, which suggest the critical roles of cAMP in the wound healing process through functional regulation of stem cells. However, the mechanisms behind the effect of cAMP on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) motility and its roles on skin wound healing remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, 8-Bromo cAMP-treated mESCs showed significant wound closure and improved neovascularization. Moreover, 8-Bromo cAMP stimulated mESC migration into the wound bed. 8-Bromo cAMP also increased ESC motility in in vitro migration assay. 8-Bromo cAMP induced myosin light chain phosphorylation through Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling, which were involved in 8-Bromo cAMP-induced decrease in expression of junction proteins (connexin 43, E-cadherin, and occludin) at the plasma membrane. Subsequently, 8-Bromo cAMP induced the disruption of cell junctions (including gap junctions, adherens junctions, and tight junctions), which reduced the function of the gap junctions and cell adhesion. In addition, 8-Bromo cAMP-induced Rac1 and Cdc42 activation increased Arp3, TOCA, PAK, and N-WASP expression, but decreased cofilin phosphorylation level, which elicited actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In contrast to the control, 8-Bromo cAMP evoked a substantial migration of cells into the denuded area, which was blocked by the small interfering RNAs of the signaling pathway-related molecules or by inhibitors. In conclusion, cAMP enhanced the migration of mESCs through effective coordination of junctional disruption and actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which increased the wound healing capacity of ESCs.

  9. AMPed Up immunity: how antimicrobial peptides have multiple roles in immune defense

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yuping; Gallo, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are widely expressed and rapidly induced at epithelial surfaces to repel assault from diverse infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Much information suggests that AMPs act by mechanisms that extend beyond their capacity to serve as gene-encoded antibiotics. For example, some AMPs alter the properties of the mammalian membrane or interact with its receptors to influence diverse cellular processes including cytokine release, chemotaxis, antigen presentation, angiogenesis and wound healing. These functions complement their antimicrobial action and favor resolution of infection and repair of damaged epithelia. Opposing this, some microbes have evolved mechanisms to inactivate or avoid AMPs and subsequently become pathogens. Thus, AMPs are multifunctional molecules that have a central role in infection and Inflammation. PMID:19217824

  10. Cyclic AMP Mimics the Anti-ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction by Up-Regulating Sirtuin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhang, Lu; Liang, Yaru; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Zhiyu; Zhang, Lang; Fuji, Ryosuke; Mu, Wei; Li, Liyuan; Jiang, Junjun; Ju, Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-07-08

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays an important role in many biological processes as a second messenger, and cAMP treatment has been reported to extend the lifespan of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Our study showed that exogenous cAMP improved ageing-related phenotypes by increasing the protein level of Sirtuins, which prevented metabolic disorders to mimic the effect of calorie restriction. Experiments in vitro showed that cAMP directly bound to SIRT1 and SIRT3 and consequently increased their activity. These findings suggest that cAMP slows the ageing process and is a good candidate to mimic calorie restriction. Our research provides a promising therapeutic strategy to target metabolic disorder-induced ageing-related diseases.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence.

  12. Bitter melon seed oil-attenuated body fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice is associated with cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation and cell death in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Gou-Chun; Yang, Mei-Fang; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Shu-Han; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chyuan, Jong-Ho; Chao, Pei-Min

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiadiposity effect of bitter melon seed oil (BMSO), which is rich in the cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid. In Expt. 1, C57BL/6J mice were fed a butter-based, high-fat diet [HB; 29% butter + 1% soybean oil (SBO)] for 10 wk to induce obesity. They then continued to receive that diet or were switched to an SBO-based, high-fat diet alone (HS; 30% SBO) or containing bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) (HBM; 15% SBO + 15% BMSO) for 5 wk. The body fat percentage was significantly lower in mice fed the HBM diet (21%), but not the HS diet, compared with mice fed the HB diet. In Expt. 2, mice were fed an SBO-based, high-fat diet containing 0 (HS), 5 (LBM), 10 (MBM), or 15% (HBM) BMSO for 10 wk. In the LBM, MBM, and HBM groups, the body fat percentage was significantly lower by 32, 35, and 65%, respectively, compared with the HS control. The reduction in the HBM group was significantly greater than that in the LBM or MBM group. BMSO administration increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, cAMP-activated protein kinase (PKA), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the white adipose tissue (WAT), suggesting that PKA and leptin signaling might be involved in the BMSO-mediated reduction in lipogenesis and increase in thermogenesis and lipolysis. However, compared with the HS control, the HBM group had a significantly higher TNFα concentration in the WAT accompanied by TUNEL-positive nuclei. We conclude that BMSO is effective in attenuating body fat accumulation through mechanisms associated with PKA activation and programmed cell death in the WAT, but safety concerns need to be carefully addressed.

  13. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  14. Ghrelin Attenuates cAMP-PKA Signaling to Evoke Insulinostatic Cascade in Islet β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dezaki, Katsuya; Damdindorj, Boldbaatar; Sone, Hideyuki; Dyachok, Oleg; Tengholm, Anders; Gylfe, Erik; Kurashina, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Masashi; Kakei, Masafumi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ghrelin reportedly restricts insulin release in islet β-cells via the Gαi2 subtype of G-proteins and thereby regulates glucose homeostasis. This study explored whether ghrelin regulates cAMP signaling and whether this regulation induces insulinostatic cascade in islet β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Insulin release was measured in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets and cAMP production in isolated islets. Cytosolic cAMP concentrations ([cAMP]i) were monitored in mouse MIN6 cells using evanescent-wave fluorescence imaging. In rat single β-cells, cytosolic protein kinase-A activity ([PKA]i) and Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured by DR-II and fura-2 microfluorometry, respectively, and whole cell currents by patch-clamp technique. RESULTS Ghrelin suppressed glucose (8.3 mmol/L)-induced insulin release in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets, and these effects of ghrelin were blunted in the presence of cAMP analogs or adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Glucose-induced cAMP production in isolated islets was attenuated by ghrelin and enhanced by ghrelin receptor antagonist and anti-ghrelin antiserum, which counteract endogenous islet-derived ghrelin. Ghrelin inhibited the glucose-induced [cAMP]i elevation and [PKA]i activation in MIN6 and rat β-cells, respectively. Furthermore, ghrelin potentiated voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channel currents without altering Ca2+ channel currents and attenuated glucose-induced [Ca2+]i increases in rat β-cells in a PKA-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS Ghrelin directly interacts with islet β-cells to attenuate glucose-induced cAMP production and PKA activation, which lead to activation of Kv channels and suppression of glucose-induced [Ca2+]i increase and insulin release. PMID:21788571

  15. Agile manufacturing prototyping system (AMPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.

    1998-05-09

    The Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System (AMPS) is being integrated at Sandia National Laboratories. AMPS consists of state of the industry flexible manufacturing hardware and software enhanced with Sandia advancements in sensor and model based control; automated programming, assembly and task planning; flexible fixturing; and automated reconfiguration technology. AMPS is focused on the agile production of complex electromechanical parts. It currently includes 7 robots (4 Adept One, 2 Adept 505, 1 Staubli RX90), conveyance equipment, and a collection of process equipment to form a flexible production line capable of assembling a wide range of electromechanical products. This system became operational in September 1995. Additional smart manufacturing processes will be integrated in the future. An automated spray cleaning workcell capable of handling alcohol and similar solvents was added in 1996 as well as parts cleaning and encapsulation equipment, automated deburring, and automated vision inspection stations. Plans for 1997 and out years include adding manufacturing processes for the rapid prototyping of electronic components such as soldering, paste dispensing and pick-and-place hardware.

  16. AmpG is required for BlaXc beta-lactamase expression in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. 17.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Chen, Tzu-Fan; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Hu, Rouh-Mei

    2013-03-01

    The chromosomal ampR(Xc) -bla(Xc) module is essential for the β-lactam resistance of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Bla(Xc) β-lactamase is expressed at a high basal level in the absence of an inducer and its expression can be further induced by β-lactam. In enterobacteria, ampG encodes an inner membrane facilitator involved in the recycling of murein degradation compounds. An isogenic ampG mutant (XcampG) of X. campestris pv. campestris str. 17 (Xc17) was constructed to investigate the link between murein recycling and bla(Xc) expression. Our data demonstrate that (1) XcampG is susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics; (2) AmpG(Xc) is essential for expression of bla(Xc) ; (3) AmpGs of Xc17, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (SmKJ) and Escherichia coli DH5α can complement the defect of XcampG; (4) overexpression of AmpG(X) (c) significantly increased bla(Xc) expression; and (5) AmpG(Xc) from Xc17 is able to restore β-lactamase induction of the ampN(Xc) -ampG(Xc) double mutant of SmKJ. In Xc17, ampG(Xc) can be expressed from the promoter residing in the intergenic region of ampN(Xc) -ampG(Xc) and the expression is independent of β-lactam induction. AmpN, which is required for β-lactamases induction in SmKJ, is not required for the β-lactam antibiotic resistance of Xc17.

  17. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Reitz, Margaret M.; Huang, Erick F.; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Martin, Terence E.; Kartha, Sreedharan; Toback, F. Gary

    2005-01-01

    AMP-18, a novel gastric antrum mucosal protein, and a synthetic peptide of amino acids 77-97, have mitogenic and motogenic properties for epithelial cells. The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco2/bbe (C2) cells. Administration of AMP peptide to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury delayed the onset of bloody diarrhea, and reduced weight loss. Treatment of C2 cells with AMP peptide protected monolayers against decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) induced by the oxidant monochloramine, indomethacin, or DSS. A molecular mechanism for these barrier-protective effects was sought by asking if AMP peptide acted on specific tight junction (TJ) proteins. Immunoblots of detergent-insoluble fractions of C2 cells treated with AMP peptide exhibited increased accumulation of specific TJ proteins. Occludin immunoreactivity was also increased in detergent-insoluble fractions obtained from colonic mucosal cells of mice injected with AMP peptide. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (CF) supported the capacity of AMP peptide to enhance accumulation of occludin and ZO-1 in TJ domains of C2 cell monolayers, and together with immunoblot analysis showed that the peptide protected against loss of these TJ proteins following oxidant injury. AMP peptide also protected against a fall in TER during disruption of actin filaments by cytochalasin D, and stabilized perijunctional actin during oxidant injury when assessed by CF. These findings suggest that AMP-18 could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific TJ proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin. PMID:15961882

  18. Complex Regulation Pathways of AmpC-Mediated β-Lactam Resistance in Enterobacter cloacae Complex.

    PubMed

    Guérin, François; Isnard, Christophe; Cattoir, Vincent; Giard, Jean Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC), an opportunistic pathogen causing numerous infections in hospitalized patients worldwide, is able to resist β-lactams mainly by producing the AmpC β-lactamase enzyme. AmpC expression is highly inducible in the presence of some β-lactams, but the underlying genetic regulation, which is intricately linked to peptidoglycan recycling, is still poorly understood. In this study, we constructed different mutant strains that were affected in genes encoding enzymes suspected to be involved in this pathway. As expected, the inactivation of ampC, ampR (which encodes the regulator protein of ampC), and ampG (encoding a permease) abolished β-lactam resistance. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments combined with phenotypic studies showed that cefotaxime (at high concentrations) and cefoxitin induced the expression of ampC in different ways: one involving NagZ (a N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and another independent of NagZ. Unlike the model established for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inactivation of DacB (also known as PBP4) was not responsible for a constitutive ampC overexpression in ECC, whereas it caused AmpC-mediated high-level β-lactam resistance, suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism. Global transcriptomic analysis by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of a dacB deletion mutant confirmed these results. Lastly, analysis of 37 ECC clinical isolates showed that amino acid changes in the AmpD sequence were likely the most crucial event involved in the development of high-level β-lactam resistance in vivo as opposed to P. aeruginosa where dacB mutations have been commonly found. These findings bring new elements for a better understanding of β-lactam resistance in ECC, which is essential for the identification of novel potential drug targets.

  19. Complex Regulation Pathways of AmpC-Mediated β-Lactam Resistance in Enterobacter cloacae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, François; Isnard, Christophe; Giard, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC), an opportunistic pathogen causing numerous infections in hospitalized patients worldwide, is able to resist β-lactams mainly by producing the AmpC β-lactamase enzyme. AmpC expression is highly inducible in the presence of some β-lactams, but the underlying genetic regulation, which is intricately linked to peptidoglycan recycling, is still poorly understood. In this study, we constructed different mutant strains that were affected in genes encoding enzymes suspected to be involved in this pathway. As expected, the inactivation of ampC, ampR (which encodes the regulator protein of ampC), and ampG (encoding a permease) abolished β-lactam resistance. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments combined with phenotypic studies showed that cefotaxime (at high concentrations) and cefoxitin induced the expression of ampC in different ways: one involving NagZ (a N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase) and another independent of NagZ. Unlike the model established for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inactivation of DacB (also known as PBP4) was not responsible for a constitutive ampC overexpression in ECC, whereas it caused AmpC-mediated high-level β-lactam resistance, suggesting a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism. Global transcriptomic analysis by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of a dacB deletion mutant confirmed these results. Lastly, analysis of 37 ECC clinical isolates showed that amino acid changes in the AmpD sequence were likely the most crucial event involved in the development of high-level β-lactam resistance in vivo as opposed to P. aeruginosa where dacB mutations have been commonly found. These findings bring new elements for a better understanding of β-lactam resistance in ECC, which is essential for the identification of novel potential drug targets. PMID:26438498

  20. Early diagnosis of gastric cancer with laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Alexander Y.; Sayenko, Valeriy F.; Denisov, Nikolay A.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Buryi, Alexander N.

    1999-02-01

    Optical biopsy of stomach mucosa was performed afterwards oral administration of encapsulated hyperflav (single dose was chosen to provide 0.1 - 0.15 mg/kg b.w.) A sufficient fluorescence contrast of suspicions versus normal tissue was obtained after incubation time from 4 to 10 hours. Fluorescence was induced by He - Cd laser coupled to fiber optic probe inserted into a biopsy channel of the endoscope. Fluorescent spectra were recorded in the range from 500 nm up to 700 nm with 2 nm resolution. We took two groups of patients with benign and malignant ulcer of the stomach and erosive gastritis. The first group consisted of 59 patients (male/female 36/23) was carried out with optical biopsy of stomach mucosa. The second group consisted of 60 patients (male/female 39/21) was carried out by routine method: gastroscopy and biopsy from 5 - 7 places of macroscopically changed mucosa.

  1. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study, technical summary document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Some 60 instrument candidates and 80 possible science investigations were evaluated. The early analysis emphasized the science aspect in terms of the functional requirements for each of the potential experiments identified by the AMPS science working group. These requirements were then used for the grouping of instruments into practical payloads which would fit the capabilities of the Shuttle/Spacelab. This analysis resulted in the definition of eleven different AMPS configurations. The data were then used to define a typical set of requirements for a flexible AMPS laboratory. The data gathered to this point showed that a planned sequential buildup of the laboratory would be necessary to meet both physical and funding limitations. This led to the definition of five strawman payloads by the science working group, which were used to establish a conceptual laboratory and to define preliminary design of a configuration which could satisfy AMPS needs during the early program period.

  2. Effect of cholera toxin on cAMP levels and Na/sup +/ influx in isolated intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, C.S.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1982-09-01

    Freshly isolated chicken intestinal cells contain approximately 20 pmol adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/mg cellular protein. Incubation with 3 ..mu..g/ml cholera toxin (CT) at 37/sup 0/C induces an elevation of cellular cAMP beginning 10-15 min after initial exposure. The response is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eightfold increase over control levels at steady state. Dibutyryl cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Na/sup +/ influx into the isolated enterocytes. Chlorpromazine completely abolishes the toxin-induced elevation of cAMP in the isolated cells and also reverses the effect on Na/sup +/ entry. The data provide evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal cell Na/sup +/ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na/sup +/ during induction of intestinal secretory activity. Studies on the time-dependent effects of chlorpromazine on both intracellular cAMP concentration and Na/sup +/ influx suggest that the reactivation of the Na/sup +/ transport system after cAMP-induced inhibition is slow relative to the disappearance of cAMP.

  3. A Cell-Autonomous Molecular Cascade Initiated by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Represses Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Houssein S.; Bergeron, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate essential physiological processes, and inadequate levels are associated with various pathological conditions. In testosterone-producing Leydig cells, steroidogenesis is strongly stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) via its receptor leading to increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein, which is essential for the initiation of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis then passively decreases with the degradation of cAMP into AMP by phosphodiesterases. In this study, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated following cAMP-to-AMP breakdown in MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells. Activated AMPK then actively inhibits cAMP-induced steroidogenesis by repressing the expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis, including Star and Nr4a1. Similar results were obtained in Y-1 adrenal cells and in the constitutively steroidogenic R2C cells. We have also determined that maximum AMPK activation following stimulation of steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig cells occurs when steroid hormone production has reached a plateau. Our data identify AMPK as a molecular rheostat that actively represses steroid hormone biosynthesis to preserve cellular energy homeostasis and prevent excess steroid production. PMID:25225331

  4. Dual contradictory roles of cAMP signaling pathways in hydroxyl radical production in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Masamune; Kuriiwa, Fumi; Mukai, Toshiji; Mizukami, Hajime

    2012-03-15

    Studies have suggested that cAMP signaling pathways may be associated with the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined how modifications in cAMP signaling affected the production of hydroxyl radicals in rat striatum using microdialysis to measure extracellular 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), which is a hydroxyl radical adduct of salicylate. Up to 50 nmol of the cell-permeative cAMP mimetic 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) increased 2,3-DHBA in a dose-dependent manner (there was no additional increase in 2,3-DHBA at 100 nmol). Another cAMP mimetic, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), caused a nonsignificant increase in 2,3-DHBA at 50 nmol and a significant decrease at 100 nmol. Up to 20 nmol of forskolin, which is a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, increased 2,3-DHBA, similar to the effect of 8-Br-cAMP; however, forskolin resulted in a much greater increase in 2,3-DHBA. A potent inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), H89 (500 μM), potentiated the 8-Br-cAMP- and forskolin-induced increases in 2,3-DHBA and antagonized the inhibitory effect of 100 nmol of db-cAMP. Interestingly, the administration of 100 nmol of 8-bromo-cGMP alone or in combination with H89 had no significant effect on 2,3-DHBA levels. Doses of 100 nmol of a preferential PKA activator (6-phenyl-cAMP) or a preferential PKA inhibitor (8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothionate, Rp-isomer; Rp-8-Br-cAMPS), which also inhibits the cAMP-mediated activation of Epac (the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP), suppressed or enhanced, respectively, the formation of 2,3-DHBA. Up to 100 nmol of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-cAMP, which is a selective activator of Epac, dose-dependently stimulated the formation of 2,3-DHBA. These findings suggest that cAMP signaling plays contradictory roles (stimulation and inhibition) in the production of hydroxyl radicals in rat striatum by differential actions of Epac and PKA. These roles might contribute to the production of

  5. Fibrinogen depletion in trauma: early, easy to estimate and central to trauma-induced coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be considered a clinical priority in major trauma hemorrhage. PMID:24063404

  6. Fibrinogen depletion in trauma: early, easy to estimate and central to trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Ross; Brohi, Karim

    2013-09-24

    Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be considered a clinical priority in major trauma hemorrhage.

  7. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  8. The inner and outer compartments of mitochondria are sites of distinct cAMP/PKA signaling dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leronni, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent phosphorylation has been reported to exert biological effects in both the mitochondrial matrix and outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). However, the kinetics, targets, and effectors of the cAMP cascade in these organellar domains remain largely undefined. Here we used sensitive FRET-based sensors to monitor cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in different mitochondrial compartments in real time. We found that cytosolic cAMP did not enter the matrix, except during mitochondrial permeability transition. Bicarbonate treatment (expected to activate matrix-bound soluble adenylyl cyclase) increased intramitochondrial cAMP, but along with membrane-permeant cAMP analogues, failed to induce measureable matrix PKA activity. In contrast, the OMM proved to be a domain of exceptionally persistent cAMP-dependent PKA activity. Although cAMP signaling events measured on the OMM mirrored those of the cytosol, PKA phosphorylation at the OMM endured longer as a consequence of diminished control by local phosphatases. Our findings demonstrate that mitochondria host segregated cAMP cascades with distinct functional and kinetic signatures. PMID:23897891

  9. Early Activation of STAT3 Regulates Reactive Astrogliosis Induced by Diverse Forms of Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, James P.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; VanGilder, Reyna L.; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Miller, Diane B.

    2014-01-01

    Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into “reactive” phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT) engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both signal through

  10. cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Li, B; Lin, Z; Huang, E; Liu, A Y

    1991-06-25

    The theme of this study is an evaluation of the involvement of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the regulation of the human heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene promoter. Expression of a highly specific protein inhibitor of PKA (pRSVPKI) inhibited the basal as well as heat- and cadmium-induced expression of the cotransfected pHBCAT, a human hsp 70 promoter-driven reporter gene; this inhibition was dependent on the amount of pRSVPKI used. The effect of an expression vector of the RI regulatory subunit of PKA, pMTREV, was similar to that of pRSVPKI; pMTREV inhibited both the basal as well as the heat-induced expression of pHBCAT. The specificity of effects of these expression vectors was demonstrated by the lack of effect of a mutant PKI gene and by the unaffected expression of a reference gene (pRSV beta gal) under these conditions. Analysis of the effects of dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM), forskolin (10 microM), and 8-Br-cAMP (1 mM) on the transient expression of pHBCAT showed that these cAMP-elevating agents stimulated the hsp 70 promoter activity, whereas cAMP (1 mM) was without effect. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs with truncated or mutated hsp 70 promoter were used to define the cis-acting DNA element(s) that confer this cAMP stimulation; the heat induced (42 degrees C) expression was used as a control. Mutation of the adenovirus transcription factor element (pLSN-40/-26) greatly reduced the basal level of expression; forskolin had little or no effect on this adenovirus transcription factor-minus promoter, although the promoter activity was very heat inducible. The absence of a functional heat shock consensus element (HSE) in the construct pLSPNWT rendered the promoter heat insensitive; this construct was forskolin responsive although the magnitude of this stimulation was reduced when compared with that of a control construct with HSE. These results were corroborated by studies using consensus sequence of ATF (ATFE) and HSE as competitors

  11. PI3K/AKT and Mdm2 activation are associated with inhibitory effect of cAMP increasing agents on DNA damage-induced cell death in human pre-B NALM-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Arman; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Saidpour, Atoosa; Safa, Majid; Bayat, Ahmad Ali; Zand, Hamid

    2015-01-15

    DNA damage response (DDR) consists of both proapoptotic and prosurvival signaling branches. Superiority of each signaling branch determines the outcome of DNA damage: death or allowing the repair. The present authors have previously shown that an increased intracellular level of cAMP disrupts p53-mediated apoptosis in human pre-B NALM-6 cells and inhibition of NF-κB prevents prosurvival effect of cAMP during DNA damage. AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) is a general mediator of survival signaling. AKT signaling inhibits p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. The results of present study showed that cAMP disrupted DNA damage/p53-mediated apoptosis through AKT and subsequent NF-κB activation. These results suggested that AKT may be found as part of a complex with scaffolding proteins, beta-arrestins and PDE4D. cAMP disarticulated the complex through binding to PDE4D compartment. It seems that release of AKT protein potentiated DDR activated pro-survival AKT in NALM-6 cells. Taken together, the present data indicated that regulation of AKT signaling may determine the fate of cells exposed to genotoxic stress.

  12. Aip regulates cAMP signalling and GH secretion in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Formosa, R; Xuereb-Anastasi, A; Vassallo, J

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene have been linked to predisposition to pituitary adenomas. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. AIP interacts with a number of interesting proteins, including members of the cAMP signalling pathway that has been shown to be consistently altered in pituitary tumours. The functional role of Aip was investigated using both over-expression and knock down of Aip in GH3 cells. cAMP signalling and its downstream effectors, including GH secretion, were then investigated. cAMP signalling was analysed using cAMP assays, cAMP-response element-promoter luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR and finally secreted GH quantification. Over-expression of wild-type (WT)-Aip reduced forskolin-induced cAMP signalling at the total cAMP level, luciferase reporter activity and target gene expression, when compared with empty vector and the non-functional R304X mutant. Additionally, GH secretion was reduced in WT-Aip over-expressing GH3 cells treated with forskolin. Knock down of endogenous Aip resulted in increased cAMP signalling but a decrease in GH secretion was also noted. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity using general and selective inhibitors did not completely ablate the effect of Aip on forskolin-augmented cAMP signalling. A mechanism by which Aip acts as a tumour suppressor, by maintaining a low cAMP signalling and concentration, is suggested. Mutations of Aip render the protein incapable of such activity. This effect appears not to be mediated by the AIP-PDE interaction, suggesting the involvement of other interacting partners in mediating this outcome.

  13. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

  14. Gene expression and cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Y; Reich, E

    1985-01-01

    By comparing the 5'-flanking region of the porcine gene for the urokinase form of plasminogen activator with those of other cAMP-regulated genes, we identify a 29-nucleotide sequence that is tentatively proposed as the cAMP-regulatory unit. Homologous sequences are present (i) in the cAMP-regulated rat tyrosine aminotransferase, prolactin, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes and (ii) 5' to the transcription initiation sites of cAMP-regulated Escherichia coli genes. From this we conclude that the expression of cAMP-responsive genes in higher eukaryotes may be controlled, as in E. coli, by proteins that form complexes with cAMP and then show sequence-specific DNA-binding properties. The complex formed by cAMP and the regulatory subunit of the type II mammalian protein kinase might be one candidate for this function. Based on several homologies we suggest that this subunit may have retained both the DNA-binding specificity and transcription-regulating properties in addition to the nucleotide-binding domains of the bacterial cAMP-binding protein. If this were so, dissociation of protein kinase by cAMP would activate two processes: (i) protein phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit and (ii) transcription regulation by the regulatory subunit. PMID:2991882

  15. Histone modifications induced by MDV infection at early cytolytic and latency phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Marek’s disease (MD) is a highly contagious, lymphomatous disease of chickens induced by a herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV) that is the cause of major annual losses to the poultry industry. MD pathogenesis involves multiple stages including an early cytolytic phase and latency, a...

  16. Outward currents in Drosophila larval neurons: dunce lacks a maintained outward current component downregulated by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Delgado, R; Davis, R; Bono, M R; Latorre, R; Labarca, P

    1998-02-15

    Outward current modulation by cAMP was investigated in wild type (wt) and dunce (dnc) Drosophila larval neurons. dnc is deficient in a cAMP phosphodiesterase and has altered memory. Outward current modulation by cAMP was investigated by acute or chronic exposure to cAMP analogs. The analysis included a scrutiny of outward current modulation by cAMP in neurons from the mushroom bodies (mrb). In Drosophila, the mrb are the centers of olfactory acquisition and retention. Based on outward current patterns, neurons were classified into four types. Downmodulation of outward currents induced by acute application of cAMP analogs was reversible and found only in type I and type IV neurons. In the general wt neuron population, approximately half of neurons exhibited cAMP-modulated, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive currents. On the other hand, a significantly larger fraction of mrb neurons in wt (70%) was endowed with cAMP-modulated, 4-AP-sensitive currents. Only 30% of the dnc neurons displayed outward currents modulated by cAMP. The deficit of cAMP-modulated outward currents was most severe in neurons derived from the mrb of dnc individuals. Only 4% of the mrb neurons of dnc were cAMP-modulated. The dnc defect can be induced by chronic exposure of wt neurons to cAMP analogs. These results document for the first time a well defined electrophysiological neuron phenotype in correlation with the dnc defect. Moreover, this study demonstrates that in dnc mutants such a deficiency affects most severely neurons in brain centers of acquisition and retention.

  17. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  18. Sensitivity of GBM cells to cAMP agonist-mediated apoptosis correlates with CD44 expression and agonist resistance with MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Paul M; Filiz, Gulay; Mantamadiotis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    In some cell types, activation of the second messenger cAMP leads to increased expression of proapoptotic Bim and subsequent cell death. We demonstrate that suppression of the cAMP pathway is a common event across many cancers and that pharmacological activation of cAMP in glioblastoma (GBM) cells leads to enhanced BIM expression and apoptosis in specific GBM cell types. We identified the MAPK signaling axis as the determinant of cAMP agonist sensitivity in GBM cells, with high MAPK activity corresponding to cAMP resistance and low activity corresponding to sensitization to cAMP-induced apoptosis. Sensitive cells were efficiently killed by cAMP agonists alone, while targeting both the cAMP and MAPK pathways in resistant GBM cells resulted in efficient apoptosis. We also show that CD44 is differentially expressed in cAMP agonist-sensitive and -resistant cells. We thus propose that CD44 may be a useful biomarker for distinguishing tumors that may be sensitive to cAMP agonists alone or cAMP agonists in combination with other pathway inhibitors. This suggests that using existing chemotherapeutic compounds in combination with existing FDA-approved cAMP agonists may fast track trials toward improved therapies for difficult-to-treat cancers, such as GBM. PMID:27906173

  19. Early nodulin gene expression during Nod factor-induced processes in Vicia sativa.

    PubMed

    Vijn, I; Martinez-Abarca, F; Yang, W C; das Neves, L; van Brussel, A; van Kammen, A; Bisseling, T

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae-secreted Nod factors are able to induce root hair deformation, the formation of nodule primordia and the expression of early nodulin genes in Vicia sativa (vetch). To obtain more insight into the mode of action of Nod factors the expression of early nodulin genes was followed during Nod factor-induced root hair deformation and nodule primordium formation. The results of these studies suggested that the expression of VsENOD5 and VsENOD12 is not required for root hair deformation. In the Nod factor-induced primordia both VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 are expressed in a spatially controlled manner similar to that found in Rhizobium-induced nodule primordia. In contrast, VsENOD5 expression has never been observed in Nod factor-induced primordia, showing that the induction of VsENOD5 and VsENOD12 expression are not coupled. VsENOD5 expression is induced in the root epidermis by Nod factors and in Rhizobium-induced nodule primordia only in cells infected by the bacteria, suggesting that the Nod factor does not reach the inner cortical cells.

  20. Synergistic induction of insulin resistance by endothelin-1 and cAMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chai, Shin-Pei; Fong, Jim C

    2015-10-01

    Both endothelin-1 (ET-1) and cAMP are implicated for inducing insulin resistance. Since we have shown previously that there is a crosstalk between ET-1 and cAMP signaling pathways in regulating glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we extended our investigation in this study on whether they may have a synergistic effect on inducing insulin resistance. Our results showed that it was indeed the case. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, phosphorylation of PKB, IRS-1-associated PI3K, and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation were all inhibited by ET-1 and 8-bromo cAMP in a synergistic manner. IRS-1 protein levels were similarly decreased by ET-1 and 8-bromo cAMP, attributable to suppressed mRNA expression. In addition, after correction for the loss in IRS-1 protein, the inhibition of insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation or IRS-1-associated PI3K was mainly caused by cAMP. Moreover, whereas IRS-2 protein levels were increased by cAMP or ET-1 plus cAMP, insulin-stimulated IRS-2-associated PI3K activities were abolished by both treatments. Furthermore, ET-1 and β-adrenergic agonists had similar synergistic inhibition on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, we have shown that ET-1 and cAMP may synergistically induce insulin resistance in adipocytes via inhibiting IRS-1 expression as well as insulin-stimulated IRS-1/IRS-2 activities.

  1. Cyclic AMP relaxes swine arterial smooth muscle predominantly by decreasing cell Ca2+ concentration.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, N L; Rembold, C M; Richard, H M; Murphy, R A

    1991-01-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate the mechanism of cyclic AMP-dependent arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Cyclic AMP-dependent relaxation has been proposed to result from either (a) a decrease in intracellular [Ca2+] or (b) a decrease in [Ca2+] sensitivity of myosin light chain kinase by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of myosin kinase. 2. We evaluated these proposed mechanisms by examining forskolin-induced changes in aequorin-estimated myoplasmic [Ca2+], [cyclic AMP], myosin phosphorylation and stress generation in agonist-stimulated or KCl-depolarized swine common carotid media tissues. 3. Forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, increased [cyclic AMP] and reduced [Ca2+], myosin phosphorylation and stress in tissues pre-contracted with phenylephrine or histamine. This relaxation was not associated with an alteration of the [Ca2+] sensitivity of phosphorylation, nor the dependence of stress on phosphorylation. 4. Forskolin pre-treatment attenuated, but did not abolish, agonist-induced increases in [Ca2+] and stress. 5. These results suggest that cyclic AMP-induced relaxation of the agonist-stimulated swine carotid media is primarily caused by cyclic AMP-mediated decreases in myoplasmic [Ca2+]. PMID:1654411

  2. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  3. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Acevedo, Ma. Belén; Spear, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade was examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol. PMID:22261437

  4. Crystal structure of a c-di-AMP riboswitch reveals an internally pseudo-dimeric RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a second messenger that is essential for growth and homeostasis in bacteria. A recently discovered c-di-AMP-responsive riboswitch controls the expression of genes in a variety of bacteria, including important pathogens. To elucidate the molecular basis for specific binding of c-di-AMP by a gene-regulatory mRNA domain, we have determined the co-crystal structure of this riboswitch. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals an internally pseudo-symmetric RNA in which two similar three-helix-junction elements associate head-to-tail, creating a trough that cradles two c-di-AMP molecules making quasi-equivalent contacts with the riboswitch. The riboswitch selectively binds c-di-AMP and discriminates exquisitely against other cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP and cyclic-AMP-GMP, via interactions with both the backbone and bases of its cognate second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that global folding of the riboswitch is induced by the two bound cyclic dinucleotides, which bridge the two symmetric three-helix domains. This structural reorganization likely couples c-di-AMP binding to gene expression. PMID:25271255

  5. Cyclic-AMP regulation of calcium-dependent K channels in an insect central neurone.

    PubMed

    David, J A; Pitman, R M

    1996-01-26

    In the cockroach fast coxal depressor motoneurone, either the muscarinic agonist McN-A-343 or dibutyryl cAMP (Db-cAMP) induced a reduction in voltage-dependent outward current. The response to McN is due to suppression of a calcium-dependent potassium current (IK,Ca) produced secondarily to a reduction in voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa). The response to Db-cAMP was investigated in order to establish whether cAMP might mediate the response to McN. ICa was suppressed by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) but not by Db-cAMP. The effects of IBMX were therefore unlikely to be the result of phosphodiesterase inhibition. Since caffeine also suppressed ICa, the observed effect of IBMX is probably due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. IK,Ca, evoked by injection of Ca2+, was reduced by Db-cAMP or forskolin but not by McN. These results indicate that the electrical response to McN in this neurone is not mediated by changes in cAMP.

  6. Early ultrastructural changes in rat duodenal mucosa associated with cysteamine-induced ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, C.J.; Pfeiffer, D.C.; Szabo, S.

    1987-02-01

    The early morphologic sequelae induced by the duodenal ulcerogen, cysteamine, have been studied in rats by transmission electron microscopy. Cysteamine was administered per os at 70 mg/100 g body wt to groups of female rats sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 20, and 24 hr after chemical treatment, and duodenal tissue sampled from the antimesenteric side of the proximal duodenum, where ulcers develop, was studied. Emphasis was placed on early times as our previous scanning electron microscopic data had demonstrated enhanced in situ cellular necrosis and surface cavitation at 2-4 hr after cysteamine treatment. Results indicated intracellular changes as early as 30 min after treatment and prior to damage of the columnar cell microvilli or epithelial tight junctions. A staging of observed cellular degenerative changes suggested early apical endoplasmic reticular swelling and loss of cytoplasmic ground substance, followed later by moderate internal disruption of mitochondria. Through these stages the cell surface microvilli remained morphologically normal. Subsequently, microvilli degenerated and mitochondrial fine structure became severely disrupted and cell contents were expelled. Deeper villous changes such as separation of columnar cells from the lamina propria and alterations of selected elements within the lamina propria were observed. These data suggest that intracellular cytotoxic reactions at the villous tips occur early and may precede the influence of intraluminal damaging factors induced by cysteamine.

  7. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    SciTech Connect

    Kucka, Marek; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Kovacevic, Radmila

    2012-11-15

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazine did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward cAMP

  8. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated but not phorbol ester-stimulated transcription of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tinti, C; Song, B; Cubells, J F; Joh, T H

    1994-09-01

    To define the precise role of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, we performed transient cotransfection analyses of a reporter construct containing the upstream 2,400 bp sequence of the rat TH gene with expression plasmids encoding a heat-stable specific inhibitor of PKA (PKI), a mutant regulatory subunit of PKA, or the catalytic subunit of PKA. Inhibition of PKA activity by expression of either PKI or mutant regulatory subunit blocked cAMP-stimulated induction and reduced basal transcription of the TH-reporter construct. Expression of the catalytic subunit of PKA induced the expression of the TH-reporter construct up to 50-fold in a dose-dependent manner. Primer extension analysis confirmed that PKA-mediated induction of TH-reporter expression occurred at the correct transcription initiation site. Expression of PKI did not affect induction following phorbol ester treatment, suggesting that PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) induce TH transcription by independent mechanisms. Finally, a double mutation within the cAMP response element (CRE) of TH2400-CAT diminished its basal and forskolin-stimulated transcription to the level of the promoterless plasmid, pBLCAT3, but did not alter the induction following treatment with phorbol ester, indicating that the CRE is not required for PKC-mediated transcriptional induction. Our results indicate that PKA, via the CRE, plays a crucial role for basal and cAMP-inducible transcription of the TH gene.

  9. Innate hemocyte responses of Malacosoma disstria larvae (C. Insecta) to antigens are modulated by intracellular cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Gulii, Vladislav; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A

    2009-08-01

    Invertebrate intracellular hemocyte signaling pathways affecting cellular-antigen responses, although defined for molluscs and some arthropods including dipteran insects, is less known for lepidopterans. Hemocytic-antigen responses of the arboreal pest lepidopteran Malacosoma disstria are linked to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A implicating cAMP in cellular hemocyte immune responses. The purpose in the present study was to determine intracellular cAMP effects on larval M. disstria hemocytes adhering to slides and bacteria. Altering adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities as well as cAMP levels in vitro and in vivo changed hemocyte responses to antigens. Quiescent hemocytes had high cAMP levels due to adenylate cyclase activity and possibly low phosphodiesterase (type 4) activity. Antigen contact diminished hemocytic cAMP levels. Inhibiting adenylate cyclase increased hemocyte-antigen and hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion, the latter producing nodules in vivo without bacterial antigens. Inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 4 produced the reverse effects. Pharmacologically increasing intracellular cAMP in attached hemocytes caused many of the cells to detach. Diminished intracellular cAMP changed hemograms in vivo in bacteria-free larvae comparable to changes induced by the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, by producing nodules. Lowering cAMP enhanced also the removal of Xenorhabdus nematophila and B. subtilisin vivo.

  10. Cyclic AMP-modulated phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins in cultured avian myogenic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gard, D L; Lazarides, E

    1982-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin and the muscle tropomyosins were the major protein phosphate acceptors in 8-day-old myotubes incubated for 4 h in medium containing radiolabeled phosphate. The addition of isoproterenol or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (BrcAMP) resulted in a two- to threefold increase in incorporation of 32PO4 into both desmin and vimentin, whereas no changes in the incorporation of 32PO4 into tropomyosin or other cellular proteins were observed. The BrcAMP- or hormonally induced increase in 32PO4 incorporation into desmin and vimentin was independent of protein synthesis and was not caused by stimulation of protein phosphate turnover. In addition, BrcAMP did not induce significant changes in the specific activity of the cellular ATP pool. These data suggest that the observed increase in 32PO4 incorporation represented an actual increase in phosphorylation of the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin. Two-dimensional tryptic analysis of desmin from 8-day-old myotubes revealed five phosphopeptides of which two showed a 7- to 10-fold increase in 32PO4 incorporation in BrcAMP-treated myotubes. Four of the phosphopeptides identified in desmin labeled in vivo were also observed in desmin phosphorylated in vitro by bovine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Although phosphorylation of desmin and vimentin was apparent in myogenic cells at all stages of differentiation, BrcAMP- and isoproterenol-induced increases in phosphorylation of these proteins were restricted to mature myotubes. These data strongly suggest that in vivo phosphorylation of the intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin is catalyzed by the cAMP-dependent protein kinases and that such phosphorylation may be regulated during muscle differentiation. Images PMID:6294504

  11. Cyclic AMP functions as a primary sexual signal in gametes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, S M; Goodenough, U W

    1987-11-01

    When Chlamydomonas reinhardtii gametes of opposite mating type are mixed together, they adhere by a flagella-mediated agglutination that triggers three rapid mating responses: flagellar tip activation, cell wall loss, and mating structure activation accompanied by actin polymerization. Here we show that a transient 10-fold elevation of intracellular cAMP levels is also triggered by sexual agglutination. We further show that gametes of a single mating type can be induced to undergo all three mating responses when presented with exogenous dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). These events are also induced by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous cAMP levels and act synergistically with db-cAMP. Non-agglutinating mutants of opposite mating type will fuse efficiently in the presence of db-cAMP. No activation of mating events is induced by calcium plus ionophores, 8-bromo-cGMP, dibutyryl-cGMP, nigericin at alkaline pH, phorbol esters, or forskolin. H-8, an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase, inhibits mating events in agglutinating cells and antagonizes the effects of cAMP on non-agglutinating cells. Adenylate cyclase activity was detected in both the gamete cell body and flagella, with the highest specific activity displayed in flagellar membrane fractions. The flagellar membrane adenylate cyclase is preferentially stimulated by Mn++, unresponsive to NaF, GTP, GTP gamma S, AlF4-, and forskolin, and is inhibited by trifluoperazine. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity is also present in flagella. Our observations indicate that cAMP is a sufficient initial signal for all of the known mating reaction events in C. reinhardtii, and suggest that the flagellar cyclase and/or phosphodiesterase may be important loci of control for the agglutination-stimulated production of this signal.

  12. Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Haruki; Arai, Satoshi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicators have been poorly developed, with improvement required for dynamic range and brightness. Based on our previous yellow fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator, Flamindo, we developed an improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator named Flamindo2. Flamindo2 has a 2-fold expanded dynamic range and 8-fold increased brightness compared with Flamindo by optimization of linker peptides in the vicinity of the chromophore. We found that fluorescence intensity of Flamindo2 was decreased to 25% in response to cAMP. Live-cell cAMP imaging of the cytosol and nucleus in COS7 cells using Flamindo2 and nlsFlamindo2, respectively, showed that forskolin elevated cAMP levels in each compartment with different kinetics. Furthermore, dual-color imaging of cAMP and Ca2+ with Flamindo2 and a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, R-GECO, showed that cAMP and Ca2+ elevation were induced by noradrenaline in single HeLa cells. Our study shows that Flamindo2, which is feasible for multi-color imaging with other intracellular signaling molecules, is useful and is an alternative tool for live-cell imaging of intracellular cAMP dynamics.

  13. Three Yersinia enterocolitica AmpD Homologs Participate in the Multi-Step Regulation of Chromosomal Cephalosporinase, AmpC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yuhuang; Hao, Huijing; Li, Xu; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Li, Chuchu; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Shihe; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-01-01

    In many gram negative bacilli, AmpD plays a key role in both cell well-recycling pathway and β-lactamase regulation, inactivation of the ampD causes the accumulation of 1,6-anhydromuropeptides, and results in the ampC overproduction. In Yersinia enterocolitica, the regulation of ampC expression may also rely on the ampR-ampC system, the role of AmpD in this species is still unknown. In this study, three AmpD homologs (AmpD1, AmpD2, and AmpD3) have been identified in complete sequence of strain Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica 105.5R(r). To understand the role of three AmpD homologs, several mutant strains were constructed and analyzed where a rare ampC regulation mechanism was observed: low-effective ampD2 and ampD3 cooperate with the high-effective ampD1 in the three levels regulation of ampC expression. Enterobacteriaceae was used to be supposed to regulate ampC expression by two steps, three steps regulation was only observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we first reported that Enterobacteriaceae Y. enterocolitica can also possess a three steps stepwise regulation mechanism, regulating the ampC expression precisely. PMID:27588018

  14. Three Yersinia enterocolitica AmpD Homologs Participate in the Multi-Step Regulation of Chromosomal Cephalosporinase, AmpC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yuhuang; Hao, Huijing; Li, Xu; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Li, Chuchu; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Shihe; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-01-01

    In many gram negative bacilli, AmpD plays a key role in both cell well-recycling pathway and β-lactamase regulation, inactivation of the ampD causes the accumulation of 1,6-anhydromuropeptides, and results in the ampC overproduction. In Yersinia enterocolitica, the regulation of ampC expression may also rely on the ampR-ampC system, the role of AmpD in this species is still unknown. In this study, three AmpD homologs (AmpD1, AmpD2, and AmpD3) have been identified in complete sequence of strain Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica 105.5R(r). To understand the role of three AmpD homologs, several mutant strains were constructed and analyzed where a rare ampC regulation mechanism was observed: low-effective ampD2 and ampD3 cooperate with the high-effective ampD1 in the three levels regulation of ampC expression. Enterobacteriaceae was used to be supposed to regulate ampC expression by two steps, three steps regulation was only observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we first reported that Enterobacteriaceae Y. enterocolitica can also possess a three steps stepwise regulation mechanism, regulating the ampC expression precisely.

  15. A change in liver metabolism but not in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is an early event in ovariectomy-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Mariana; Santos, Anderson T; Barthem, Clarissa S; Louzada, Ruy A N; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Ketzer, Luisa A; Carvalho, Denise P; de Meis, Leopoldo

    2014-08-01

    Menopause is associated with increased visceral adiposity and disrupted glucose homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms related to these metabolic changes are still elusive. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure that may be regulated by sexual steroids, and alterations in glucose homeostasis could precede increased weight gain after ovariectomy. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the metabolic pathways in both the BAT and the liver that may be disrupted early after ovariectomy. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats had increased food efficiency as early as 12 days after ovariectomy, which could not be explained by differences in feces content. Analysis of isolated BAT mitochondria function revealed no differences in citrate synthase activity, uncoupling protein 1 expression, oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis, or heat production in OVX rats. The addition of GDP and BSA to inhibit uncoupling protein 1 decreased oxygen consumption in BAT mitochondria equally in both groups. Liver analysis revealed increased triglyceride content accompanied by decreased levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase in OVX animals. The elevated expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in OVX and OVX + estradiol rats was not associated with alterations in glucose tolerance test or in serum insulin but was coincident with higher glucose disposal during the pyruvate tolerance test. Although estradiol treatment prevented the ovariectomy-induced increase in body weight and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation, it was not able to prevent increased gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, the disrupted liver glucose homeostasis after ovariectomy is neither caused by estradiol deficiency nor is related to increased body mass.

  16. A cardiac mitochondrial cAMP signaling pathway regulates calcium accumulation, permeability transition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Liu, D; Varin, A; Nicolas, V; Courilleau, D; Mateo, P; Caubere, C; Rouet, P; Gomez, A-M; Vandecasteele, G; Fischmeister, R; Brenner, C

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac cytosolic cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates multiple processes, such as beating, contractility, metabolism and apoptosis, little is known yet on the role of this second messenger within cardiac mitochondria. Using cellular and subcellular approaches, we demonstrate here the local expression of several actors of cAMP signaling within cardiac mitochondria, namely a truncated form of soluble AC (sACt) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), and show a protective role for sACt against cell death, apoptosis as well as necrosis in primary cardiomyocytes. Upon stimulation with bicarbonate (HCO3−) and Ca2+, sACt produces cAMP, which in turn stimulates oxygen consumption, increases the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production. cAMP is rate limiting for matrix Ca2+ entry via Epac1 and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter and, as a consequence, prevents mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The mitochondrial cAMP effects involve neither protein kinase A, Epac2 nor the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In addition, in mitochondria isolated from failing rat hearts, stimulation of the mitochondrial cAMP pathway by HCO3− rescued the sensitization of mitochondria to Ca2+-induced MPT. Thus, our study identifies a link between mitochondrial cAMP, mitochondrial metabolism and cell death in the heart, which is independent of cytosolic cAMP signaling. Our results might have implications for therapeutic prevention of cell death in cardiac pathologies. PMID:27100892

  17. Role of cyclic AMP in pulmonary xenobiotic metabolism with special emphasis on benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, V.H.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis was intended to investigate the role of the intracellular regulator, cAMP, on pulmonary xenobiotic metabolism using the well-studied carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as a representative xenobiotic. Lung slices from rats administered N/sup 6/, O/sup 2/', dibutyryl cAMP (DcAMP), theophylline or forskolin, all of which elevated biologically reactive cAMP levels in the lung, showed an increased ability to metabolize (/sup 3/H)-BP. This effect occurred beyond 6 hr following treatment and reached a maximum at 12 hr, at a time when cAMP content had already peaked and returned to basal levels. The perfusion of BP through the isolated lungs of animals administered DcAMP in vivo indicated that the BP metabolites primarily responsible for the cyclic nucleotide-induced increase in metabolism were the 3-hydroxy BP, 9-hydroxy BP, BP 9, 10 diol, BP-glucuronides and BP-glutathione conjugates. Kinetic analysis indicated that the Km component of these reactions was altered without a corresponding change in Vmax, suggesting that elevated pulmonary cAMP content may be affecting the detoxication enzymes, UDP-glucuronyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Studies with pulmonary microsomes from DcAMP-treated animals indicated that the cyclic nucleotide not only enhanced the hydroxylation of BP but also the cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylation of coumarin. This is supported by the fact that DcAMP administration in vivo also enhanced phosphorylation of two classes of nuclear proteins, histones and nuclear acidic proteins, believed to play a role in the transcription of RNA and DNA.

  18. Early olfactory experience induces structural changes in the primary olfactory center of an insect brain.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Giurfa, M; Sandoz, J C; Hourcade, B; Devaud, J M; Farina, W M

    2012-03-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) is the first olfactory center of the insect brain and is constituted of different functional units, the glomeruli. In the AL, odors are coded as spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular activity. In honeybees, olfactory learning during early adulthood modifies neural activity in the AL on a long-term scale and also enhances later memory retention. By means of behavioral experiments, we first verified that olfactory learning between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood induces better retention performances at a late adult stage than the same experience acquired before or after this period. We checked that the specificity of memory for the odorants used was improved. We then studied whether such early olfactory learning also induces long-term structural changes in the AL consistent with the formation of long-term olfactory memories. We also measured the volume of 15 identified glomeruli in the ALs of 17-day-old honeybees that either experienced an odor associated with sucrose solution between the fifth and eighth day of adulthood or were left untreated. We found that early olfactory experience induces glomerulus-selective increases in volume that were specific to the learned odor. By comparing our volumetric measures with calcium-imaging recordings from a previous study, performed in 17-day-old bees subjected to the same treatment and experimental conditions, we found that glomeruli that showed structural changes after early learning were those that exhibited a significant increase in neural activity. Our results make evident a correlation between structural and functional changes in the AL following early olfactory learning.

  19. Structural basis for the mutual antagonism of cAMP and TRIP8b in regulating HCN channel function.

    PubMed

    Saponaro, Andrea; Pauleta, Sofia R; Cantini, Francesca; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Hammann, Christian; Donadoni, Chiara; Hu, Lei; Thiel, Gerhard; Banci, Lucia; Santoro, Bina; Moroni, Anna

    2014-10-07

    cAMP signaling in the brain mediates several higher order neural processes. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels directly bind cAMP through their cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD), thus playing a unique role in brain function. Neuronal HCN channels are also regulated by tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), an auxiliary subunit that antagonizes the effects of cAMP by interacting with the channel CNBD. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual regulation of HCN channel activity by cAMP/TRIP8b, we determined the NMR solution structure of the HCN2 channel CNBD in the cAMP-free form and mapped on it the TRIP8b interaction site. We reconstruct here the full conformational changes induced by cAMP binding to the HCN channel CNBD. Our results show that TRIP8b does not compete with cAMP for the same binding region; rather, it exerts its inhibitory action through an allosteric mechanism, preventing the cAMP-induced conformational changes in the HCN channel CNBD.

  20. Eviprostat activates cAMP signaling pathway and suppresses bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Yao, Jian; Chi, Yuan; Sawada, Norifumi; Araki, Isao; Kitamura, Masanori; Takeda, Masayuki

    2013-06-06

    Eviprostat is a popular phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). At present, the signaling mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are still poorly understood. Given that cAMP has been reported to suppress cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in various pathological situations, we asked whether the effect of Eviprostat could be ascribed to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In the study, exposure of cAMP response element (CRE)-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) (CRE-SEAP)-reporter cells to Eviprostat elevated SEAP secretion, which was associated with an increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), as well as enhanced expression of CRE-regulated protein connexin43, indicating an activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. Consistent with these observations, Eviprostat-induced expression of Cx43 was abolished in the presence of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 or PKA inhibitor H89, whereas it was mimicked by adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin. Further analysis demonstrated that Eviprostat significantly potentiated the effect of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, but not that of PDE4 inhibitor, on CRE activation. Moreover, Eviprostat suppressed PDGF-induced activation of ERK and Akt and inhibited cell proliferation and hillock formation in both mesangial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. Collectively, activation of the cAMP signaling pathway could be an important mechanism by which Eviprostat exerts its therapeutic effects for LUTS.

  1. Reactive oxygen species mediate phorbol ester-stimulated cAMP response in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Taslim, Najla

    2006-08-14

    Recently, we showed that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can cause a direct, PKC-dependent, stimulation of intracellular cAMP in human eosinophils. Since PMA also stimulates the release of reactive oxygen species in these cells, we have investigated whether reactive oxygen species are involved in the cAMP response. Provided eosinophils were incubated for <20 min at 37 degrees C before stimulation, PMA potently stimulated cAMP generation that surpassed that of histamine. Pre-treatment of the cells with the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin, strongly inhibited the cAMP production induced by PMA, but not that induced by histamine. This treatment also strongly inhibited the release of superoxide anions (O(2)(-)). The cAMP response was also inhibited by pre-treatment with the specific peroxide scavenger, ebselen, but not superoxide dismutase, or NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), thus, suggesting the possible involvement of a peroxide rather than O(2)(-) or nitric oxide (NO). These results reveal a novel involvement of intracellular reactive oxygen species in protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent stimulation of cAMP production in human eosinophils.

  2. The effect of hypoxia on PGE2-stimulated cAMP generation in HMEC-1.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Owczarek, Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is generated in various cells, including endothelial cells, and is responsible for various functions, such as vascular relaxation and angiogenesis. Effects of PGE2 are mediated via receptors EP1-EP4, among which EP2 and EP4 are coupled to Gs protein which activates adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP synthesis. The aim of this work was to study the ability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) to synthesize cAMP in the presence of PGE2, and to determine the effect of hypoxia on the PGE2- stimulated cAMP level. It was decided to evaluate the effect of PGE2 on the secretion of VEGF, an inducer of angiogenesis. In summary, our findings show that PGE2 induces cAMP production, but hypoxia may impair PGE2-stimulated activity of the AC-cAMP signaling pathway. These results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of PGE2/EP4/cAMP may be attenuated during ischemia. Furthermore, this study indicates that the pro-angiogenic effect of PGE2 is not associated with VEGF secretion in HMEC-1 cells.

  3. Adenylate cyclase, cyclic AMP and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 in airway smooth muscle: modulation by protein kinase C and growth serum.

    PubMed Central

    Moughal, N; Stevens, P A; Kong, D; Pyne, S; Pyne, N J

    1995-01-01

    Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. We have previously demonstrated that, in order to induce full activation of ERK-2 with bradykinin, it is necessary to obliterate PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. We concluded that the cyclic AMP signal limits the magnitude of ERK-2 activation [Pyne, Moughal, Stevens, Tolan and Pyne (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 611-616]. The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by adenylate cyclase may be an important physiological route for the modulation of early mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, the direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity enables bradykinin to induce DNA synthesis, indicating that the PKC-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase limits entry of cells into the cell cycle. These studies suggest that the mitogenicity of an agonist may be governed, in part, by its ability to stimulate an inhibitory cyclic AMP signal pathway in the cell. The activation of adenylate cyclase by PKC appears to be downstream of phospholipase D. However, in cells that were maintained in growth serum (i.e. were not growth-arrested), bradykinin was unable to elicit a PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP response. The lesion in the signal-response coupling was not at the level of either the receptor or phospholipase D, which remain functionally operative and suggests modification occurs at either PKC or adenylate cyclase itself. These studies are discussed with

  4. Carvedilol Ameliorates Early Diabetic Nephropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, Mohamed A.; Ibrahim, Salwa A.; Amin, Entesar F.; Kamel, Maha Y.; Abdelwahab, Soha A.; Hassan, Magdy K.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy results in end-stage renal disease. On the other hand, carvedilol has been reported to have various pharmacological properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the possible protective effect of carvedilol on streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy and various mechanisms underlie this effect in rats. Single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) was administered to induce early diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats. Oral administration of carvedilol at a dose level of 1 and 10 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks resulted in nephroprotective effect as evident by significant decrease in serum creatinine level, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and kidney index as well as renal levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 with a concurrent increase in creatinine clearance and renal reduced glutathione level compared to diabetic untreated rats. The protective effect of carvedilol was confirmed by renal histopathological examination. The electron microscopic examination indicated that carvedilol could effectively ameliorate glomerular basement membrane thickening and podocyte injury. In conclusion, carvedilol protects rats against streptozotocin-induced early diabetic nephropathy possibly, in part, through its antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities, and ameliorating podocyte injury. PMID:24991534

  5. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates protein

  6. SCAP/SREBP pathway is required for the full steroidogenic response to cyclic AMP

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Albergine, Masami; Van Yserloo, Brian; Golkowski, Martin G.; Ong, Shao-En; Beavo, Joseph A.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2016-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates steroidogenesis largely through a surge in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Steroidogenic rates are also critically dependent on the availability of cholesterol at mitochondrial sites of synthesis. This cholesterol is provided by cellular uptake of lipoproteins, mobilization of intracellular lipid, and de novo synthesis. Whether and how these pathways are coordinated by cAMP are poorly understood. Recent phosphoproteomic analyses of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites in MA10 Leydig cells suggested that cAMP regulates multiple steps in these processes, including activation of the SCAP/SREBP pathway. SCAP [sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein] acts as a cholesterol sensor responsible for regulating intracellular cholesterol balance. Its role in cAMP-mediated control of steroidogenesis has not been explored. We used two CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) knockout approaches to test the role of SCAP in steroidogenesis. Our results demonstrate that SCAP is required for progesterone production induced by concurrent inhibition of the cAMP phosphodiesterases PDE4 and PDE8. These inhibitors increased SCAP phosphorylation, SREBP2 activation, and subsequent expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes, whereas SCAP deficiency largely prevented these effects. Reexpression of SCAP in SCAP-deficient cells restored SREBP2 protein expression and partially restored steroidogenic responses, confirming the requirement of SCAP–SREBP2 in steroidogenesis. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase and isoprenylation attenuated, whereas exogenously provided cholesterol augmented, PDE inhibitor-induced steroidogenesis, suggesting that the cholesterol substrate needed for steroidogenesis is provided by both de novo synthesis and isoprenylation-dependent mechanisms. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel role for LH/cAMP in SCAP

  7. Estradiol increases cAMP in the oviductal secretory cells through a nongenomic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oróstica, María L; Lopez, John; Rojas, Israel; Rocco, Jocelyn; Díaz, Patricia; Reuquén, Patricia; Cardenas, Hugo; Parada-Bustamante, Alexis; Orihuela, Pedro A

    2014-09-01

    In the rat oviduct, estradiol (E2) accelerates egg transport by a nongenomic action that requires previous conversion of E2 to methoxyestrogens via catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT) and activation of estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP3). However, the role of the different oviductal cellular phenotypes on this E2 nongenomic pathway remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of E2 on the levels of cAMP and IP3 in primary cultures of secretory and smooth muscle cells from rat oviducts and determine the mechanism by which E2 increases cAMP in the secretory cells. In the secretory cells, E2 increased cAMP but not IP3, while in the smooth muscle cells E2 decreased cAMP and increased IP3. Suppression of protein synthesis by actinomycin D did not prevent the E2-induced cAMP increase, but this was blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182 780 and the inhibitors of COMT OR 486, G protein-α inhibitory (Gαi) protein pertussis toxin and adenylyl cyclase (AC) SQ 22536. Expression of the mRNA for the enzymes that metabolizes estrogens, Comt, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1 was found in the secretory cells, but this was not affected by E2. Finally, confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2 induced colocalization between ESR1 (ERα) and Gαi in extranuclear regions of the secretory cells. We conclude that E2 differentially regulates cAMP and IP3 in the secretory and smooth muscle cells of the rat oviduct. In the secretory cells, E2 increases cAMP via a nongenomic action that requires activation of COMT and ER, coupling between ESR1 and Gαi, and stimulation of AC.

  8. Depigmenting action of platycodin D depends on the cAMP/Rho-dependent signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eunsun; Hwang, Wangtaek; Kim, Seungbeom; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2011-12-01

    The overproduction and accumulation of melanin in the skin could lead to a pigmentary disorders, such as melasma, freckle, postinflammatory melanoderma and solar lentigo. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of platycodin D (PD) on melanogenesis and its action mechanisms. In this study, we found that PD significantly inhibited melanin synthesis at low concentrations. These effects were further demonstrated by the PD-induced inhibition of cAMP production, phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein and expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and its downstream genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins-1 and Dct/tyrosinase-related proteins-2, suggesting that PD inhibits melanogenesis through the downregulation of cAMP signalling. Furthermore, PD induced significant morphological changes in melanocytes, namely, the retraction of dendrites. A small GTPase assays revealed that PD stimulated an increase in GTP-bound Rho content, one of downstream molecules of cAMP, but not in Rac or CDC42 content. Moreover, a Rho inhibitor (C3 exoenzyme) and a Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632) attenuated the dendrite retraction induced by PD. Taken together, these findings indicate that PD inhibits melanogenesis by inhibiting the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and also suppresses melanocyte dendricity through activation of the Rho signal that is mediated by PD-induced reduction in cAMP production. Therefore, these results suggest that PD exerts its inhibitory effects on melanogenesis and melanocyte dendricity via suppression of cAMP signalling and may be introduced as an inhibitor of hyperpigmentation caused by UV irradiation or pigmented skin disorders.

  9. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced early atherogenic events in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zuraini; Ng, Chin Theng; Fong, Lai Yen; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Hussain, Nor Hayuti Mohd; Ang, Kok Pian; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been effectively used to treat cardiovascular disease. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major lipophilic compound isolated from S. miltiorrhiza, has been reported to possess cardioprotective effects. However, the anti-atherogenic effects of CTS, particularly on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial cell activation, are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of CTS on TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and impaired nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), all of which are early events occurring in atherogenesis. We showed that CTS significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1, and restored nitric oxide production. These observations suggest that CTS possesses anti-inflammatory properties and could be a promising treatment for the prevention of cytokine-induced early atherogenesis.

  10. Membrane remodeling, an early event in benzo[alpha]pyrene-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Huc, Laurence; Catheline, Daniel; Sergent, Odile; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe; Holme, Jorn A.; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Therese; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique

    2010-02-15

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) often serves as a model for mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our previous work suggested a role of membrane fluidity in B[alpha]P-induced apoptotic process. In this study, we report that B[alpha]P modifies the composition of cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in rat liver F258 epithelial cells. The cellular distribution of the ganglioside-GM1 was markedly changed following B[alpha]P exposure. B[alpha]P also modified fatty acid composition and decreased the cholesterol content of cholesterol-rich microdomains. B[alpha]P-induced depletion of cholesterol in lipid rafts was linked to a reduced expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and B[alpha]P-related H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation were involved in the reduced expression of HMG-CoA reductase and in the remodeling of membrane microdomains. The B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling resulted in an intracellular alkalinization observed during the early phase of apoptosis. In conclusion, B[alpha]P altered the composition of plasma membrane microstructures through AhR and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dependent-regulation of lipid biosynthesis. In F258 cells, the B[alpha]P-induced membrane remodeling was identified as an early apoptotic event leading to an intracellular alkalinization.

  11. DR-induced escape of O and C from early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinjin; Tian, Feng; Ni, Yufang; Huang, Xiaomeng

    2017-03-01

    Energetic particles produced in Dissociative recombination (DR) reactions could escape planets with low gravity, such as Mars, if they could overcome collisions with the surrounding background gases. In this work, a 3-D Monte Carlo model is developed to study these photochemical escape processes on early Mars. Although the DR reaction rates of O2+, CO2+, and CO+ increase monotonically with solar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux, the peak of the calculated DR-induced escape rates of O is near 3 × XUV, and the DR-induced escape rates of C increase with XUV until 10 × XUV. The non-monotonic behavior can be explained by the increased column densities of background species in high XUV conditions, which can deflect energetic particles through collisions more efficiently. At 20 × XUV, CO+ DR is the main source of escaping O and C, and the escape of secondary particles could contribute to 30∼40% and 10% of the total escape of O and C respectively. The time-integrated DR-induced escape of O and C is equivalent to 1 m of H2O and 20 mbar of CO2 escaping early Mars since 4.5 billion years ago. The accumulated CO2 loss is much lower than what's needed to explain the carbon isotopic ratios on Mars and much lower than the total CO2 needed to warm up early Mars. If more vigorous escape mechanisms were absent on early Mars, substantial inventories of volatiles have not been detected yet.

  12. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer.

  13. Evaluating the forced oscillation technique in the detection of early smoking-induced respiratory changes

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Alvaro CD; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Melo, Pedro L

    2009-01-01

    Background Early detection of the effects of smoking is of the utmost importance in the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is easy to perform since it requires only tidal breathing and offers a detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. The FOT was recently suggested as an attractive alternative for diagnosing initial obstruction in COPD, which may be helpful in detecting COPD in its initial phases. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to evaluate the ability of FOT to detect early smoking-induced respiratory alterations; and (2) to compare the sensitivity of FOT with spirometry in a sample of low tobacco-dose subjects. Methods Results from a group of 28 smokers with a tobacco consumption of 11.2 ± 7.3 pack-years were compared with a control group formed by 28 healthy subjects using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a questionnaire as a gold standard. The early adverse effects of smoking were adequately detected by the absolute value of the respiratory impedance (Z4Hz), the intercept resistance (R0), and the respiratory system dynamic compliance (Crs, dyn). Z4Hz was the most accurate parameter (Se = 75%, Sp = 75%), followed by R0 and Crs, dyn. The performances of the FOT parameters in the detection of the early effects of smoking were higher than that of spirometry (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that FOT can be used to detect early smoking-induced respiratory changes while these pathologic changes are still potentially reversible. These findings support the use of FOT as a versatile clinical diagnostic tool in aiding COPD prevention and treatment. PMID:19781078

  14. Early Mars serpentinization-derived CH4 reservoirs, H2-induced warming and paleopressure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefière, E.; Lasue, J.; Langlais, B.; Quesnel, Y.

    2016-11-01

    CH4 has been observed on Mars both by remote sensing and in situ during the past 15 yr. It could have been produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed Martian remanent magnetic field. Assuming a cold early Mars, a cryosphere could trap such CH4 as clathrates in stable form at depth. The maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere has been recently estimated to be 2 × 1019 to 2 × 1020 moles of methane. We estimate how large amounts of serpentinization-derived CH4 stored in the cryosphere have been released into the atmosphere during the Noachian and the early Hesperian. Due to rapid clathrate dissociation and photochemical conversion of CH4 to H2, these episodes of massive CH4 release may have resulted in transient H2-rich atmospheres, at typical levels of 10-20% in a background 1-2 bar CO2 atmosphere. The collision-induced heating effect of H2 present in such an atmosphere has been shown to raise the surface temperature above the water freezing point. We show how local and rapid destabilization of the cryosphere can be induced by large events (such as the Hellas Basin or Tharsis bulge formation) and lead to such releases. Our results show that the early Mars cryosphere had a sufficient CH4 storage capacity to have maintained H2-rich transient atmospheres during a total time period up to several million years or tens of million years, having potentially contributed to the formation of valley networks during the Noachian/early Hesperian.

  15. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  16. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells.

  17. Critical Role of Nitric Oxide-cGMP Cascade in the Formation of cAMP-Dependent Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Unoki, Sae

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP pathway plays an essential role in formation of long-term memory (LTM). In some species, the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP pathway has been found to act in parallel and complementary to the cAMP pathway for LTM formation. Here we describe a new role of the NO-cGMP pathway, namely, stimulation of the cAMP pathway to induce LTM. We have…

  18. [beta]1-Adrenoceptor or [alpha]1-Adrenoceptor Activation Initiates Early Odor Preference Learning in Rat Pups: Support for the Mitral Cell/cAMP Model of Odor Preference Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McCann, Jennifer; McLean, John H.

    2006-01-01

    We proposed that mitral cell [beta]1-adrenoceptor activation mediates rat pup odor preference learning. Here we evaluate [beta]1-, [beta]2-, [alpha]1-, and [alpha]2-adrenoceptor agonists in such learning. The [beta]1-adrenoceptor agonist, dobutamine, and the [alpha]1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, induced learning, and both exhibited an…

  19. C++ Coding Standards for the AMP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M; Clarno, Kevin T

    2009-09-01

    This document provides an initial starting point to define the C++ coding standards used by the AMP nuclear fuel performance integrated code project and a part of AMP's software development process. This document draws from the experiences, and documentation [1], of the developers of the Marmot Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Much of the software in AMP will be written in C++. The power of C++ can be abused easily, resulting in code that is difficult to understand and maintain. This document gives the practices that should be followed on the AMP project for all new code that is written. The intent is not to be onerous but to ensure that the code can be readily understood by the entire code team and serve as a basis for collectively defining a set of coding standards for use in future development efforts. At the end of the AMP development in fiscal year (FY) 2010, all developers will have experience with the benefits, restrictions, and limitations of the standards described and will collectively define a set of standards for future software development. External libraries that AMP uses do not have to meet these requirements, although we encourage external developers to follow these practices. For any code of which AMP takes ownership, the project will decide on any changes on a case-by-case basis. The practices that we are using in the AMP project have been in use in the Denovo project [2] for several years. The practices build on those given in References [3-5]; the practices given in these references should also be followed. Some of the practices given in this document can also be found in [6].

  20. Involvement of the Pepper Antimicrobial Protein CaAMP1 Gene in Broad Spectrum Disease Resistance1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, In Sun; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2008-01-01

    Pathogen-inducible antimicrobial defense-related proteins have emerged as key antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in disease resistance in plants. A novel antimicrobial protein gene, CaAMP1 (for Capsicum annuum ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN1), was isolated from pepper (C. annuum) leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Expression of the CaAMP1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves not only during pathogen infection but also after exposure to abiotic elicitors. The purified recombinant CaAMP1 protein possessed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. CaAMP1:smGFP fusion protein was localized mainly in the external and intercellular regions of onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. The virus-induced gene silencing technique and gain-of-function transgenic plants were used to determine the CaAMP1 gene function in plant defense. Silencing of CaAMP1 led to enhanced susceptibility to X. campestris pv vesicatoria and Colletotrichum coccodes infection, accompanied by reduced PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) gene expression. In contrast, overexpression of CaAMP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) conferred broad-spectrum resistance to the hemibiotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, and the fungal necrotrophic pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae and Alternaria brassicicola. CaAMP1 overexpression induced the salicylic acid pathway-dependent genes PR1 and PR5 but not the jasmonic acid-dependent defense gene PDF1.2 during P. syringae pv tomato infection. Together, these results suggest that the antimicrobial CaAMP1 protein is involved in broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogen infection. PMID:18676663

  1. AMP metabolism in the marine bacterium Beneckea natriegens.

    PubMed

    Pickard, M A; Whelihan, J A; Knowles, C J

    1980-05-01

    The catabolism of AMP by preparations from Beneckea natriegens has been reexamined. In the absence of ATP, cell-free extracts catabolized AMP via adenosine to inosine. When ATP was present, adenylate kinase converted AMP to ADP, lowering the rate of AMP catabolism. Particle-free supernatants (225,000 x g) metabolized AMP alone slowly, but adenylate kinase was active when ATP was added. Washed particulate fractions contained AMP nucleotidase activity which converted AMP to adenosine; in the presence of ATP, adenosine formation was reduced by residual adenylate kinase associated with the particulate fraction. IMP was not detected as a metabolite in these experiments.

  2. Effect of cyclic AMP and prostaglandin E2 on the induction of nitric oxide- and prostanoid-forming pathways in cultured rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nüsing, R M; Klein, T; Pfeilschifter, J; Ullrich, V

    1996-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) represents an important cellular signalling molecule. We analysed the effect of dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), a cell-permeable and stable derivative of cAMP, on the regulation and expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, inducible NO synthase and argininosuccinate synthetase. We observed different transcriptional regulation of these enzymes depending on the db-cAMP concentration used. Low concentrations of db-cAMP in the range 10-50 microM elevated levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 mRNA, protein and activity, but not the respective mRNA and protein concentrations of the inducible NO synthase or argininosuccinate synthetase. At higher concentrations a massive induction of the latter two enzymes was also apparent. Expression of prostacyclin synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, secondary enzymes of NO- and prostanoid-forming pathways, was not stimulated by db-cAMP. Prostaglandin E2, known to be an intracellular physiological trigger of cAMP formation, stimulated only cyclooxygenase 2 expression and activity at a concentration of 10 microM, and not inducible NO synthase. The induction of the mRNA for the transcription factors JunB and p65, a component of the NF kappa B complex, by prostaglandin treatment of the cells might be a possible mechanistic explanation for this observation. PMID:8573101

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization and effect on human granulocyte intracellular cAMP levels of abscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Bellotti, Marta; Salis, Annalisa; Grozio, Alessia; Damonte, Gianluca; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Galatini, Andrea; Zocchi, Elena; Benatti, Umberto; Millo, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), in addition to regulating physiological functions in plants, is also produced and released by several mammalian cell types, including human granulocytes, where it stimulates innate immune functions via an increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i). We synthesized several ABA analogs and evaluated the structure-activity relationship, by the systematical modification of selected regions of these analogs. The resulting molecules were tested for their ability to inhibit the ABA-induced increase of [cAMP]i in human granulocytes. The analogs with modified configurations at C-2' and C-3' abrogated the ABA-induced increase of the [cAMP]i and also inhibited several pro-inflammatory effects induced by exogenous ABA on granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, these analogs could be suitable as novel putative anti-inflammatory compounds.

  4. Regulation of cAMP Intracellular Levels in Human Platelets Stimulated by 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Signorello, Maria Grazia; Leoncini, Giuliana

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated that in human platelets the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) decreased dose- and time-dependently cAMP intracellular levels. No effect on cAMP decrease induced by 2-AG was observed in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 as well in platelets pretreated with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 or with aspirin, inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase pathway. An almost complete recovering of cAMP level was measured in platelets pretreated with the specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, milrinone. In platelets pretreated with LY294002 or MK2206, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT pathway, and with U73122, inhibitor of phospholipase C pathway, only a partial prevention was shown. cAMP intracellular level depends on synthesis by adenylate cyclase and hydrolysis by PDEs. In 2-AG-stimulated platelets adenylate cyclase activity seems to be unchanged. In contrast PDEs appear to be involved. In particular PDE3A was specifically activated, as milrinone reversed cAMP reduction by 2-AG. 2-AG enhanced PDE3A activity through its phosphorylation. The PI3K/AKT pathway and PKC participate to this PDE3A phosphorylation/activation mechanism as it was greatly inhibited by platelet pretreatment with LY294002, MK2206, U73122, or the PKC specific inhibitor GF109203X. Taken together these data suggest that 2-AG potentiates its power of platelet agonist reducing cAMP intracellular level.

  5. Actions of neuropoietic cytokines and cyclic AMP in regenerative conditioning of rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yi; Bo, Xuenong; Huang, Wenlong; Xiao, Fang; Zhang, Xinyu; Miao, Tizong; Magoulas, Charalambos; Subang, Maria C; Richardson, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    A conditioning lesion to peripheral axons of primary sensory neurons accelerates regeneration of their central axons in vivo or neurite outgrowth if the neurons are grown in vitro. Previous evidence has implicated neuropoietic cytokines and also cyclic AMP in regenerative conditioning. In experiments reported here, delivery through a lentivirus vector of ciliary neurotrophic factor to the appropriate dorsal root ganglion in rats was sufficient to mimic the conditioning effect of peripheral nerve injury on the regeneration of dorsal spinal nerve root axons. Regeneration in this experimental preparation was also stimulated by intraganglionic injection of dibutyryl cyclic AMP but the effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were not additive. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP injection into the dorsal root ganglion induced mRNAs for two other neuropoietic cytokines, interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor and increased the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 in neuronal nuclei. The in vitro conditioning action of dibutyryl cyclic AMP was partially blocked by a pharmacological inhibitor of Janus kinase 2, a neuropoietic cytokine signaling molecule. We suggest that the beneficial actions of increased cyclic AMP activity on axonal regeneration of primary sensory neurons are mediated, at least in part, through the induction of neuropoietic cytokine synthesis within the dorsal root ganglion.

  6. The Mucosal Adjuvant Cyclic di-AMP Exerts Immune Stimulatory Effects on Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Libanova, Rimma; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic di-nucleotide bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a candidate mucosal adjuvant with proven efficacy in preclinical models. It was shown to promote specific humoral and cellular immune responses following mucosal administration. To date, there is only fragmentary knowledge on the cellular and molecular mode of action of c-di-AMP. Here, we report on the identification of dendritic cells and macrophages as target cells of c-di-AMP. We show that c-di-AMP induces the cell surface up-regulation of T cell co-stimulatory molecules as well as the production of interferon-β. Those responses were characterized by in vitro experiments with murine and human immune cells and in vivo studies in mice. Analyses of dendritic cell subsets revealed conventional dendritic cells as principal responders to stimulation by c-di-AMP. We discuss the impact of the reported antigen presenting cell activation on the previously observed adjuvant effects of c-di-AMP in mouse immunization studies. PMID:24755640

  7. Sustained Early Disruption of Mitochondrial Function Contributes to Arsenic-Induced Prostate Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kulawiec, M; Owens, K M; Singh, A; Singh, K K

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells. Chronic arsenic treatment induced mutations in mitochondrial genes and altered mitochondrial functions. Human non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells continuously cultured for seven months in the presence of 5 µM arsenite showed tumorigenic properties in vitro and induced tumors in SCID mice, which indicated transformation of these cells. Protein and mRNA expression of subunits of mtOXPHOS complex I were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Alterations in complex I, a main site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as increased expression of ROS-producing NOX4 in arsenic-transformed cells suggested a role of oxidative stress in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Whole genome cGH array analyses of arsenic-transformed prostate cells identified extensive genomic instability. Our study revealed mitochondrial dysfunction induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of p53 in arsenic-transformed cells as an underlying mechanism of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomic instability. These studies suggest that early changes in mitochondrial functions are sustained during prolong arsenic exposure. Overall, our study provides evidence that arsenic disruption of mitochondrial function is an early and key step in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells.

  8. Early immunological response to German cockroach frass exposure induces a Th2/Th17 environment.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen; Zhou, Ping; Ledford, John R; Day, Scottie B; Lutfi, Riad; Dienger, Krista; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma; however, the early immune events induced by cockroach leading to the Th2 response are not fully understood. Exposure of naïve mice to German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) was sufficient to induce dendritic cell (DC) recruiting and activating chemokines C-C motif ligand 20, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α into the airways. This corresponded with an increase in myeloid DCs (mDCs) in the airways as well as increased expression of CD80 and CD86 on the mDCs. Plasmacytoid DCs in the lung were unchanged. Levels of IL-5, IL-17A and IL-6 cytokines in whole lung cultures were significantly increased 18 h following GC frass exposure demonstrating the early development of a mixed Th2/Th17 response. In addition, GC frass stimulated the production of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-12p70 from bone marrow-derived mDCs. Adoptive transfer of GC frass-pulsed mDCs induced airway reactivity, airway inflammation as well as eosinophilia and induced a strong Th2/Th17 response in the lung. MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived mDCs did not respond to GC frass treatment, suggesting a functional Toll-like receptor pathway was important to induce the Th2/Th17 response. Together, our data show that GC frass activated the innate immune response to augment DC recruitment and activation of mDCs which promoted robust T cell-skewing cytokines and ultimately drive the development of airway inflammation.

  9. Early embryonic-like cells are induced by downregulating replication-dependent chromatin assembly.

    PubMed

    Ishiuchi, Takashi; Enriquez-Gasca, Rocio; Mizutani, Eiji; Bošković, Ana; Ziegler-Birling, Celine; Rodriguez-Terrones, Diego; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2015-09-01

    Cellular plasticity is essential for early embryonic cells. Unlike pluripotent cells, which form embryonic tissues, totipotent cells can generate a complete organism including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. Cells resembling 2-cell-stage embryos (2C-like cells) arise at very low frequency in embryonic stem (ES) cell cultures. Although induced reprogramming to pluripotency is well established, totipotent cells remain poorly characterized, and whether reprogramming to totipotency is possible is unknown. We show that mouse 2C-like cells can be induced in vitro through downregulation of the chromatin-assembly activity of CAF-1. Endogenous retroviruses and genes specific to 2-cell embryos are the highest-upregulated genes upon CAF-1 knockdown. Emerging 2C-like cells exhibit molecular characteristics of 2-cell embryos and higher reprogrammability than ES cells upon nuclear transfer. Our results suggest that early embryonic-like cells can be induced by modulating chromatin assembly and that atypical histone deposition may trigger the emergence of totipotent cells.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of madecassoside in early stage of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang-Liang; Qu, Rong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lu-Fan; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of madecassoside, isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Centella asiatica, in the rat model of early phase of parkinsonism. During intragastric administrations of madecassoside for 7 days, the rats were injected with MPTP on the 7th day. And for the following 14 days, madecassoside were also administered. On the 14th day, the behavioral tests were assessed after 1h of administration. And then, the rats were sacrificed, substantia nigra and striatum were dissected. The content of DA, MDA, GSH, and Bcl-2/Bax gene expression levels and BDNF protein level was determined. Treatment with madecassoside was found to improve locomotor dysfunction and to protect dopaminergic neuron by antagonizing MPTP induced neurotoxicity. Madecassoside significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine in the striatum. The MDA contents were significantly decreased while the GSH levels, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and protein expression of BDNF were significantly increased in madecassoside treated groups. These results indicated that madecassoside was effective in recovering MPTP-induced early signs of parkinsonism via its neuroprotective effects including reversing the depletion of DA, antioxidant activity, increasing ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing protein expression of BDNF.

  11. Early recognition and management of fabricated or induced illness in children.

    PubMed

    Bass, Christopher; Glaser, Danya

    2014-04-19

    Fabricated or induced illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy) takes place when a caregiver elicits health care on the child's behalf in an unjustified way. Although the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders specifies deception as a perpetrator characteristic, a far wider range is encountered clinically and is included in this Review. We describe the features of fabricated or induced illness, its effect on the child, and the psychosocial characteristics of caregivers and their possible motives. Present evidence suggests that somatoform and factitious disorders are over-represented in caregivers, with possible intergenerational transmission of abnormal illness behaviour from the caregiver to the child. Paediatricians' early recognition of perplexing presentations preceding fabricated or induced illness and their management might obviate the development of this disorder. In cases of fully developed fabricated or induced illness, as well as protection, the child will need help to return to healthy functioning and understand the fabricated or induced illness experience. Management of the perpetrator is largely dependent on their capacity to acknowledge the abusive behaviour and collaborate with helping agencies. If separation is necessary, reunification of mother and child is rare, but can be achieved in selected cases. More collaborative research is needed in this specialty, especially regarding close study of the characteristics of women with somatoform and factitious disorders who involve their children in abnormal illness behaviour. We recommend that general hospitals establish proactive networks including multidisciplinary cooperation between designated staff from both paediatric and adult mental health services.

  12. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances cAMP signal transduction in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the blockade of beta-adrenoceptors would enhance cAMP-mediated signal transduction processes in vivo. The administration of the membrane permeable cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP, 10 micromol/kg, i.v.) produced an increase in heart rate (+27 +/- 2%, P < 0.05), a fall in mean arterial blood pressure (-21 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and falls in hindquarter (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and mesenteric (-32 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) vascular resistances in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) lowered heart rate (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) but did not affect mean arterial blood pressure or vascular resistances. The tachycardia, hypotension and vasodilation produced by 8-CPT-cAMP were exaggerated after administration of propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The nitric oxide-donor, sodium nitroprusside (2 microg/kg, i.v.), produced falls in mean arterial blood pressure and vascular resistances of similar magnitude to those produced by 8-CPT-cAMP. These sodium nitroprusside-induced responses were unaffected by propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Sodium nitroprusside also produced a minor increase in heart rate (+5 +/- 1%, P < 0.05) which was abolished by propranolol. These findings suggest that 8-CPT-cAMP directly increases heart rate and that blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances the potency of cAMP within the heart and vasculature.

  13. Cooperation between cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, T; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, H; Seino, S

    2014-09-01

    Although glucose is physiologically the most important regulator of insulin secretion, glucose-induced insulin secretion is modulated by hormonal and neural inputs to pancreatic β-cells. Most of the hormones and neurotransmitters evoke intracellular signals such as cAMP, Ca²⁺ , and phospholipid-derived molecules by activating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In particular, cAMP is a key second messenger that amplifies insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. The action of cAMP on insulin secretion is mediated by both protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and Epac2A-dependent mechanisms. Many of the proteins expressed in β-cells are phosphorylated by PKA in vitro, but only a few proteins in which PKA phosphorylation directly affects insulin secretion have been identified. On the other hand, Epac2A activates the Ras-like small G protein Rap in a cAMP-dependent manner. Epac2A is also directly activated by various sulfonylureas, except for gliclazide. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analogue, and glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea, synergistically activate Epac2A and Rap1, whereas adrenaline, which suppresses cAMP production in pancreatic β-cells, blocks activation of Epac2A and Rap1 by glibenclamide. Thus, cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea cooperatively activate Epac2A and Rap1. This interaction could account, at least in part, for the synergistic effects of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas in insulin secretion. Accordingly, clarification of the mechanism of Epac2A activation may provide therapeutic strategies to improve insulin secretion in diabetes.

  14. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 4. Part 1, AMPS program specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The AMPS Program Specification delineates the AMPS Program requirements consistent with the resources defined in the AMPS Project Plan. All subsidiary specifications and requirements shall conform to the requirements presented. The requirements hierarchy for the AMPS program is illustrated. A brief description of each of the requirements documents and their intended use is provided.

  15. Short-term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo

    2014-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in 36 four- to six-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both groups showed enhanced late discriminative negativity (LDN) in their trained condition (music group–musical notes; French group–French vowels) and reduced LDN in the untrained condition. These changes reflect improved processing of relevant (trained) sounds, and an increased capacity to suppress irrelevant (untrained) sounds. After one year, training-induced brain changes persisted and new hemispheric changes appeared. Such results provide evidence for the lasting benefit of early intervention in young children. PMID:25346534

  16. Short-term second language and music training induces lasting functional brain changes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both groups showed enhanced late discriminative negativity (LDN) in their trained condition (music group-musical notes; French group-French vowels) and reduced LDN in the untrained condition. These changes reflect improved processing of relevant (trained) sounds, and an increased capacity to suppress irrelevant (untrained) sounds. After 1 year, training-induced brain changes persisted and new hemispheric changes appeared. Such results provide evidence for the lasting benefit of early intervention in young children.

  17. Aortic VCAM-1: an early marker of vascular inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Denys, Anne; Clavel, Gaëlle; Lemeiter, Delphine; Schischmanoff, Olivier; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Semerano, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There are limited experimental data on vascular involvement in arthritis models. To study the link between CVD and inflammation in RA, we developed a model of vascular dysfunction and articular inflammation by collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. We studied the expression of vascular inflammatory markers in CIA with and without concomitant hyperlipidic diet (HD). Collagen-induced arthritis was induced with intradermal injection of chicken type-II collagen followed by a boost 21 days later. Mice with and without CIA were fed a standard diet or an HD for 12 weeks starting from the day of the boost. Arthritis severity was evaluated with a validated clinical score. Aortic mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-17 were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 localization in the aortic sinus was determined by immunohistochemistry. Atherosclerotic plaque presence was assessed in aortas. Collagen-induced arthritis was associated with increased expression of VCAM-1, independent of diet. VCAM-1 overexpression was detectable as early as 4 weeks after collagen immunization and persisted after 15 weeks. The HD induced atheroma plaque formation and aortic iNOS expression regardless of CIA. Concomitant CIA and HD had no additive effect on atheroma or VCAM-1 or iNOS expression. CIA and an HD diet induced a distinct and independent expression of large-vessel inflammation markers in B6 mice. This model may be relevant for the study of CVD in RA.

  18. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  19. Drug-induced liver injury: Towards early prediction and risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications and agents listed as causing liver damage (http://livertox.nih.gov/). As it was the case in the past decade with drug-induced QT prolongation/arrhythmia, there is an urgent unmet clinical need to develop tools for risk assessment and stratification in clinical practice and, in parallel, to improve prediction of pre-clinical models to support regulatory steps and facilitate early detection of liver-specific adverse drug events. Although drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation still remain the mainstay in patient management to minimize occurrence of DILI, especially acute liver failure events, different multidisciplinary attempts have been proposed in 2016 to predict and assess drug-related risk in individual patients; these promising, albeit preliminary, results strongly support the need to pursue this innovative pathway. PMID:28105256

  20. Modulation of iridovirus-induced apoptosis by endocytosis, early expression, JNK, and apical caspase

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnis, Nilesh S.; D'Costa, Susan M.; Paul, Eric R.; Bilimoria, Shaen L.

    2008-01-20

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for the family Iridoviridae, which are large, isometric, cytoplasmic dsDNA viruses. We examined the mechanism of apoptosis induction by CIV. High CIV doses (CIV{sub XS}; 400 {mu}g/ml), UV-irradiated virus (CIV{sub UV}; 10 {mu}g/ml) and CVPE (CIV protein extract; 10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in 60% of treated Choristoneura fumiferana (IPRI-CF-124T) cells. Normal doses of infectious CIV (10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in only 10% of C. fumiferana (CF) cells. Apoptosis was inhibited by Z-IETD-FMK, an apical caspase inhibitor, indicating that CIV-induced apoptosis requires caspase activity. The putative caspase in CF cells was designated Cf-caspase-i. CIV{sub UV} or CVPE enhanced Cf-caspase-i activity by 80% at 24 h relative to mock-treated cells. Since the MAP kinase pathway induces or inhibits apoptosis depending on the context, we used JNK inhibitor SP600125 and demonstrated drastic suppression of CVPE-induced apoptosis. Thus, the JNK signaling pathway is significant for apoptosis in this system. Virus interaction with the cell surface was not sufficient for apoptosis since CIV{sub UV} particles bound to polysterene beads failed to induce apoptosis. Endocytosis inhibitors (bafilomycin or ammonium chloride) negated apoptosis induction by CIV{sub UV}, CIV{sub XS} or CVPE indicating that entry through this mode is required. Given the weak apoptotic response to infectious CIV, we postulated that viral gene expression inhibited apoptosis. CIV infection of cells pretreated with cycloheximide induced apoptosis in 69% of the cells compared to 10% in normal infections. Furthermore, blocking viral DNA replication with aphidicolin or phosphonoacetic acid suppressed apoptosis and Cf-caspase-i activity, indicating that early viral expression is necessary for inhibition of apoptosis, and de novo synthesis of viral proteins is not required for induction. We show for the first time that, in a member of the family Iridoviridae

  1. cyclicAMP and glucocorticoid responsiveness of the rat carbamoylphosphate synthetase gene requires the interplay of upstream regulatory units.

    PubMed

    Schoneveld, Onard J L M; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Stallen, Jan M; Gaemers, Ingrid C; Lamers, Wouter H

    2007-05-01

    Many genes involved in metabolic processes are regulated by glucocorticoids and/or cyclicAMP. The hepatic expression of the urea cycle enzyme carbamoylphosphate-synthetase-I gene (CPS) is regulated at the transcriptional level by both factors. Here, we report that the 5' half of the distal enhancer is necessary and sufficient for full cyclicAMP responsiveness. The cyclicAMP-responsive element (CRE), and FoxA- and C/EBP-binding sites are indispensible for cyclicAMP responsiveness, indicating that these elements make up a cyclicAMP-responsive unit (CRU). In addition to this CRU, the CPS regulatory regions contain two glucocorticoid-response elements (GRE): one in the 3' region of the distal enhancer and one in the proximal enhancer. In presence of the cyclicAMP-responsive region in the distal enhancer, only one of the GREs is required for glucocorticoid-inducible CPS expression, with both GREs acting in an additive fashion to fully confer the inducing effect of glucocorticoids. In contrast, the simultaneous presence of both GREs is required in the absence of the cyclicAMP-responsive region. In this configuration, the distal GRE fully depends on its neighbouring FoxA and C/EBP REs for activity and is, therefore, a glucocorticoid-responsive unit. In conclusion, we show here that the CPS CRU is a bifunctional unit that elicits the cyclicAMP response and, in addition, functions as a glucocorticoid accessory unit to establish a glucocorticoid response from otherwise silent proximal or distal GRUs. Therefore, cyclicAMP and glucocorticoid pathways can induce CPS transcription via overlapping sets of response elements.

  2. Triamcinolone acetonide protects the rat retina from STZ-induced acute inflammation and early vascular leakage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Choi, M Y; Kim, Y S; Park, C H; Lee, J H; Chung, I Y; Yoo, J M; Choi, W S; Cho, G J; Kang, S S

    2007-09-15

    Streptozotocin (STZ) has been commonly used to induce in vivo and in vitro hyperglycemic diabetes and its toxicity leads to inflammation and vascular injury. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA), as an anti-angiogenic/anti-inflammatory drug, is clinically used to improve the visual acuity in neovascular and edematous ocular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TA on early inflammation and vascular leakage in the retina of STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg); only rats with blood glucose levels >13.9 mmol/l 1 day after STZ injection were included in STZ-hyperglycemic group. Sex- and age-matched SD rats injected with buffer were used as the control group. One day before STZ and buffer injection, 2 microl TA (4 mg/ml in saline) and 2 microl saline were intravitreal-injected into the right and the left eyes of rats, respectively. Retinal vascular leakage was measured using the Evans-blue method. Changes in pro-inflammatory target genes, such as tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed by immunoblottings, immunostaining, and ELISA analyses. Vascular hyperleakage and up-regulation of most pro-inflammatory genes peaked within a few days after STZ injection and had recovered. However, these changes were blocked by TA pretreatment. Our data suggest that TA controls STZ-induced early vascular leakage and temporary pro-inflammatory signals in the rat retina.

  3. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  4. Olanzapine-induced early cardiovascular effects are mediated by the biological clock and prevented by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Romo-Nava, Francisco; Buijs, Frederik N; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Benítez-King, Gloria; Basualdo, MariCarmen; Perusquía, Mercedes; Heinze, Gerhard; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-05-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. As one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats. We evaluated the acute effects of olanzapine and melatonin in the biological clock, paraventricular nucleus and autonomic nervous system using immunohistochemistry, invasive cardiovascular measurements, and Western blot. Olanzapine induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SCN followed by the paraventricular nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus indicating a potent induction of parasympathetic tone. The involvement of a SCN-parasympathetic neuronal pathway after olanzapine administration was further documented using cholera toxin-B retrograde tracing and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunohistochemistry. Olanzapine-induced decrease in blood pressure and heart rate confirmed this. Melatonin abolished olanzapine-induced SCN c-Fos immunoreactivity, including the parasympathetic pathway and cardiovascular effects while brain areas associated with olanzapine beneficial effects including the striatum, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens remained activated. In the SCN, olanzapine phosphorylated the GSK-3β, a regulator of clock activity, which melatonin prevented. Bilateral lesions of the SCN prevented the effects of olanzapine on parasympathetic activity. Collectively, results demonstrate the SCN as a key region mediating the early effects of olanzapine on cardiovascular function and show melatonin has opposing and potentially protective effects warranting additional investigation.

  5. Serine214 of Ras2p plays a role in the feedback regulation of the Ras-cAMP pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xiaojia, Bai; Jian, Dong

    2010-06-03

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ras proteins are essential for the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway. A serine to alanine substitution at position 214 in the yeast Ras2p resulted in enhanced sensitivity to heat shock, reduced levels of storage glycogen and enhanced both basal cAMP level and glucose-induced cAMP signal. Further work showed that Ras2(Ala214)p had a higher GTP-binding capability than wild type Ras2p. These results suggested that serine 214 of Ras2p plays a role in the feedback regulation of the Ras-cAMP pathway.

  6. IGFBP-3 Inhibits Cytokine-Induced Insulin Resistance and Early Manifestations of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qing; Kim, Ki Eun; Shin, Hye-Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Woo Jung; Kim, Jung Hyun; Oh, Youngman

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with visceral obesity, insulin resistance and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Visceral fat tissue primarily consists of adipocytes that secrete cytokines leading to a state of systemic inflammation in obese conditions. One of the IGF-independent functions of IGFBP-3 is its role as an anti-inflammatory molecule. Our study in obese adolescents show a decrease in total IGFBP-3 levels and increase in proteolyzed IGFBP-3 in circulation when compared to their normal counterparts and establishes a positive correlation between IGFBP-3 proteolysis and adiposity parameters as well as insulin resistance. In human adipocytes, we show that IGFBP-3 inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity in an IGF-independent manner, thereby restoring the deregulated insulin signaling and negating TNF-α-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. IGFBP-3 further inhibits TNF-α, CRP and high glucose-induced NF-κB activity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and subsequently suppresses monocyte adhesion to HAEC through the IGFBP-3 receptor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that reduced levels of IGFBP-3 in circulation and reduced expression of IGFBP-3 in macrophages in obesity may result in suppression of its anti-inflammatory functions and therefore IGFBP-3 may present itself as a therapeutic for obesity-induced insulin resistance and for events occurring in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:23383064

  7. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity), microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivity), astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining), myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity), ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:26312758

  8. Challenge of human Jurkat T-cells with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin elicits major changes in cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) expression by up-regulating PDE3 and inducing PDE4D1 and PDE4D2 splice variants as well as down-regulating a novel PDE4A splice variant.

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, S; Houslay, M D

    1997-01-01

    The cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and PDE4 isoforms provide the major cAMP-hydrolysing PDE activities in Jurkat T-cells, with additional contributions from the PDE1 and PDE2 isoforms. Challenge of cells with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin led to a rapid, albeit transient, increase in PDE3 activity occurring over the first 45 min, followed by a sustained increase in PDE3 activity which began after approximately 3 h and continued for at least 24 h. Only this second phase of increase in PDE3 activity was blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. After approximately 3 h of exposure to forskolin, PDE4 activity had increased, via a process that could be inhibited by actinomycin D, and it remained elevated for at least a 24 h period. Such actions of forskolin were mimicked by cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cAMP. Forskolin increased intracellular cAMP concentrations in a time-dependent fashion and its action was enhanced when PDE induction was blocked with actinomycin D. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis, using generic primers designed to detect transcripts representing enzymically active products of the four PDE4 genes, identified transcripts for PDE4A and PDE4D but not for PDE4B or PDE4C in untreated Jurkat T-cells. Forskolin treatment did not induce transcripts for either PDE4B or PDE4C; however, it reduced the RT-PCR signal for PDE4A transcripts and markedly enhanced that for PDE4D transcripts. Using RT-PCR primers for PDE4 splice variants, a weak signal for PDE4D1 was evident in control cells whereas, in forskolin-treated cells, clear signals for both PDE4D1 and PDE4D2 were detected. RT-PCR analysis of the PDE4A species indicated that it was not the PDE4A isoform PDE-46 (PDE4A4B). Immunoblotting of control cells for PDE4 forms identified a single PDE4A species of approximately 118 kDa, which migrated distinctly from the PDE4A4B isoform PDE-46, with immunoprecipitation analyses showing that it provided all of the PDE4 activity in control

  9. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca{sup 2+}- and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca{sup 2+} imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum.

  10. Early LPS-induced ERK activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells is dependent on PIP 2 -PLC.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Melina V; Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Giusto, Norma M; Salvador, Gabriela A

    2016-06-01

    This article presents additional data regarding the study "The phospholipase D pathway mediates the inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium" [1]. The new data presented here show that short exposure of RPE cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an early and transient activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This early ERK1/2 activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-phospholipase C (PIP2-PLC). On the contrary, neither the phospholipase D 1 (PLD1) nor the PLD2 inhibition is able to modulate the early ERK1/2 activation induced by LPS in RPE cells.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase—an energy sensor that regulates all aspects of cell function

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, D. Grahame

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of energy status that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. It arose very early during eukaryotic evolution, and its ancestral role may have been in the response to starvation. Recent work shows that the kinase is activated by increases not only in AMP, but also in ADP. Although best known for its effects on metabolism, AMPK has many other functions, including regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and disposal, autophagy, cell polarity, and cell growth and proliferation. Both tumor cells and viruses establish mechanisms to down-regulate AMPK, allowing them to escape its restraining influences on growth. PMID:21937710

  12. Early thyroid hormone-induced gene expression changes in N2a-β neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bedó, Gabriela; Pascual, Angel; Aranda, Ana

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormone has long been known to regulate neural development. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences including even mental retardation. The purpose of this study was to characterize gene expression pattern during thyroid hormone-induced differentiation of neuro-2a β cells in order to select "direct response genes" for further analysis. In this neuroblastoma cell line, thyroid hormone blocks proliferation and induces differentiation. Changes in gene expression level were examined after a T3 treatment of 3 and 24 h using cDNA arrays. Sixteen genes were significantly up-regulated and 79 down-regulated by T3 treatment. Five up-regulated genes not previously described as regulated by thyroid hormone and selected for their putative significance to understand T3 action on cell differentiation, were verified by RT-PCR analysis. The transcription factors Phox2a and basic helix-loop-helix domain containing, class B2 mRNAs exhibited a clear increase after 3- and 24-h treatment. The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor RalGDS was greatly up-regulated after 3-h treatment but not 24 h after. The results suggest an early involvement of these genes in T3 action during neuroblastoma cell differentiation probably mediating later changes in gene expression pattern.

  13. Dynamics of Early Synovial Cytokine Expression in Rodent Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Palmblad, Karin; Erlandsson-Harris, Helena; Tracey, Kevin J.; Andersson, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate pathophysiological events before and during the course of collagen-induced arthritis in Dark Agouti rats, a model for rheumatoid arthritis. Kinetic studies of local cytokine responses were determined using immunohistochemical techniques, quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. We recently reported that the macrophage-pacifying agent CNI-1493 successfully ameliorated collagen-induced arthritis. In the present trial, we investigated the potential of CNI-1493 to down-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Synovial cryosections were analyzed at various time points for the presence of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Unexpectedly, an early simultaneous TNF and IL-1β expression was detected in resident cells in the lining layer, preceding disease onset and inflammatory cell infiltration by >1 week. The predominant cytokine synthesis by synovial (ED1+) macrophages coincided with clinical disease. TNF production greatly exceeded that of IL-1β. CNI-1493 treatment did not affect the early disease-preceding TNF and IL-1β synthesis in the lining layer. However, after disease onset, CNI-1493 intervention resulted in a pronounced reduced IL-1β and in particular TNF expression. Furthermore, CNI-1493 significantly up-regulated synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β and thereby shifted the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the arthritic joint in a beneficial way. PMID:11159186

  14. Transgenic Mouse Model of Ventricular Preexcitation and Atrioventricular Reentrant Tachycardia Induced by an AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Loss-of-Function Mutation Responsible for Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Jasvinder S.; Rajawat, Yadavendra S.; Rami, Tapan G.; Gollob, Michael H.; Wang, Zhinong; Yuan, Ruiyong; Marian, A.J.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Weilbacher, Donald; Taffet, George E.; Davies, Joanna K.; Carling, David; Khoury, Dirar S.; Roberts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background We identified a gene (PRKAG2) that encodes the γ-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with a mutation (Arg302Gln) responsible for familial Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The human phenotype consists of ventricular preexcitation, conduction abnormalities, and cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and Results To elucidate the molecular basis for the phenotype, transgenic mice were generated by cardiac-restricted expression of the wild-type (TGWT) and mutant(TGR302Q) PRKAG2 gene with the cardiac-specific promoter α-myosin heavy chain. ECG recordings and intracardiac electrophysiology studies demonstrated the TGR302Q mice to have ventricular preexcitation (PR interval 10±2 versus 33±5 ms in TGWT, P<0.05) and a prolonged QRS (20±5 versus 10±1 ms in TGWT, P<0.05). A distinct AV accessory pathway was confirmed by electrical and pharmacological stimulation and substantiated by induction of orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia. Enzymatic activity of AMPK in the mutant heart was significantly reduced (0.009±0.003 versus 0.025±0.001 nmol · min−1 · g−1 in nontransgenic mice), presumably owing to the mutation disrupting the AMP binding site. Excessive cardiac glycogen was observed. Hypertrophy was confirmed by increases in heart weight (296 versus 140 mg in TGWT) and ventricular wall thickness. Conclusions We have developed a genetic animal model of WPW that expresses a mutation responsible for a familial form of WPW syndrome with a phenotype identical to that of the human, including induction of supraventricular arrhythmia. The defect is due to loss of function of AMPK. Elucidation of the molecular basis should provide insight into development of the cardiac conduction system and accessory pathways. PMID:15611370

  15. Compartmentalisation of cAMP-dependent signalling in blood platelets: The role of lipid rafts and actin polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Raslan, Zaher; Naseem, Khalid M

    2015-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) inhibits blood platelets through the activation of membrane adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signalling. However, the molecular mechanism controlling cAMP</