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Sample records for amphipod gammarus tigrinus

  1. High fecundity and predation pressure of the invasive Gammarus tigrinus cause decline of indigenous gammarids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänes, Holger; Kotta, Jonne; Herkül, Kristjan

    2015-11-01

    The North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus is one of the most aggressive invaders recently expanding its distribution in the European waters. The species was detected in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in 2003 and has rapidly expanded its distribution ever since. This invasive amphipod has been notably successful in shallow, soft and mixed bottom habitats becoming one of the most abundant gammarid colonizing such environments. This study carried out two experiments: (1) an outdoor aquarium experiment to assess interspecific competition among the invasive G. tigrinus and the native Gammarus duebeni and compare their reproductive potential, and (2) an in situ meshbag experiment to determine the effect of adult G. tigrinus and native gammarids on juvenile gammarid amphipods. These demonstrated that the adult G. tigrinus had no effects on the adult G. duebeni; however, the invasive amphipod had higher reproductive potential compared to the native species such as G. duebeni. Moreover, almost all adult gammarids exerted a significant predation pressure on juvenile amphipods. Thus, the combined effect of predation on juvenile amphipods and large brood production of G. tigrinus could be plausible explanations describing increased abundance of G. tigrinus and decrease of local gammarid populations in the north-eastern Baltic Sea but plausibly in similar shallow water habitats in other seas.

  2. Microplastics affect assimilation efficiency in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Blarer, Pascal; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    An important issue in assessing microplastics is whether this newly emerging type of pollution affects freshwater invertebrates. This study was designed to examine the interactions between the amphipod Gammarus fossarum and two types of microplastics. To determine the ingestion and egestion of polyamide (PA) fibres (500 × 20 μm), amphipods were exposed to four concentrations (100, 540, 2680, 13,380 PA fibres cm(-2) base area of glass beakers) and four exposure times (0.5, 2, 8, 32 h) as well as four post-exposure times (1, 2, 4, 16 h). We demonstrate a positive correlation between concentration and ingestion of PA fibres. Fibres were found in the gut after 0.5 h of exposure. Egestion was rapid and the digestive tract was empty 16 h after exposure ended. To investigate whether polystyrene (PS) beads (1.6 μm) can be taken up in the epithelial cells of the gut and the midgut glands, four concentrations (500, 2500, 12,500, 60,000 PS beads mL(-1)) were tested. Cryosections exhibited fluorescent PS beads only within the gut lumen. In a 28-day feeding experiment with both, fibres and beads, we studied the amphipod's feeding rate, assimilation efficiency and wet weight change. The exposure to PA fibres (2680 PA fibres cm(-2) base area of glass beakers) significantly reduced the assimilation efficiency of the animals. While both tested polymer types are ingested and egested, PA fibres can impair the health and ecological functions of freshwater amphipods under continuous exposure.

  3. Amylase Variation in the Salt Marsh Amphipod, GAMMARUS PALUSTRIS

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Richard; Borowsky, Betty; Milani, Haleh; Greenberg, Pietra

    1985-01-01

    There are two common alleles at the Amylase-2 locus in populations of Gammarus palustris, the salt marsh amphipod. Intensive sampling of individuals from two localities at Jamaica Bay revealed a consistent pattern of heterozygote deficiency.—Five possible sources of heterozygote deficiency were examined in this study. Four of them—selection against heterozygotes, null alleles at the locus, assortative mating for amylase genotype and inbreeding—are inconsistent with the evidence and are rejected. The fifth possibility, Wahlund effects due to genetic differentiation of the population, is tentatively accepted. Although there is no direct evidence for differentiation within this population, separate populations along the Eastern seaboard are highly differentiated in a nonclinal pattern. Furthermore, the Wahlund hypothesis is consistent with observations on differences in degree of deficiency exhibited among collections at Jamaica Bay.—Animals from this population exhibit feeding preferences correlated with genotype. Given the choice of two green algae, Enteromorpha or Ulva, the frequency of the slow allele among individuals choosing Enteromorpha was higher than among those choosing Ulva. This suggests that the animals assort themselves in the field into subpopulations with different allelic frequencies. This assortment could contribute to the maintenance of the polymorphism and to the observed heterozygote deficiency. We hypothesize that genotype influences behavior in this system through the action of enzyme on substrate, which determines the nature of the oligosaccharide pool liberated early in amylolysis. PMID:17246300

  4. Responses of the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni (crustacea) to saline sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Johnson, I.

    Soon after the openiing of the Looe sewage treatment works (Cornwall, southwest England) in 1973, it became colonized by the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni Liljeborg. The works is unusual as it operates with saline sewage and has a tidally-based pattern of salinity fluctuation (S=13 to 34). Various responses of this unique amphipod population (sewage amphipods) have been compared with G. duebeni from the adjacent Looe River estuary (estuarine amphipods) in an attempt to identify long-term responses to sewage. Sewage amphipods were significantly smaller than their estuarine equivalents; the sewage population was biased significantly to males, whereas the sex ratio of the estuarine population significantly favours females. Compared with the estuary, the consistently lower oxygen levels in the works were reflected in significant differences in metabolism. Sewage amphipods maintained high levels of activity under hypoxia ( e.g. swimming), and the higher survival and lower rates of lactic acid accumulation under anoxia than estuarine individuals. In addition, sewage amphipods recovered more rapidly from anoxia and had a lower critical oxygen tension (p c) than estuarine amphipods. Sewage amphipods are exposed to higher levels of heavy metals associated with the domestic sewage and zinc concentrations are particularly elevated in the works. Exposure to elevated zinc concentrations resulted in similar patterns of body zinc uptake for sewage and estuarine Gammarus at high (30) and low (10) salinity, with zinc regulation apparently occuring to an external threshold of 200 γmgZn·dm -3. No consistent interpopulational differences in the effect ofzinc on zinc uptake or on osmoregulation have been identified. However, sewage amphipods had higher survival at all zinc/salinity combinations compared with estuarine individuals. These indicate that sewage amphipods are adapted to the unusual combination of conditions prevailing in the treatment works and, if reproductive

  5. Phylogeography and environmental diversification of a highly adaptable marine amphipod, Gammarus duebeni.

    PubMed

    Rock, J; Ironside, J; Potter, T; Whiteley, N M; Lunt, D H

    2007-07-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogeographic population structure in the gammarid amphipod, Gammarus duebeni, were investigated across its broad latitudinal distribution in the NE and NW Atlantic by analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence. Gammarus duebeni has exceptional tolerance of salinity change and inhabits environments ranging from marine to freshwater. The longstanding debate on whether there are distinct marine and freshwater subspecies was assessed by sampling populations from sites characterized by different salinities. Our sequence data demonstrates that there are two major lineages, with little internal geographic structuring. Evidence is provided to suggest a pre-glacial divergence of these two clades, involving segregation between a region historically associated with the freshwater form and the majority of the marine localities on both sides of the Atlantic. A modern contact zone between the marine and freshwater forms is proposed in western Britain.

  6. Seasonal drift and feeding periodicity during summer of the amphipod, Gammarus psuedolimnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Downstream drift of aquatic invertebrates is an important ecological process that varies temporally. Seasonal patterns of diel drift and diel feeding periodicity during summer of the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were examined in a small stream in central New York. Seasonal trends in drift were similar with peak drift occurring from 2000 to 0400 h. Very little drift occurred during the day. Feeding intensity of G. pseudolimnaeus was greatest from 2000 to 0400 h and was significantly greater than at 0400 to 0800 h and 0800 to 1200 h. Previous research on feeding periodicity of this species found no evidence of periods of increased food consumption. Conflicting results between this study and earlier studies may be due to sampling drifting versus non-drifting amphipods.

  7. Distribution of Amphipods (Gammarus nipponensis Ueno) Among Mountain Headwater Streams with Different Legacies of Debris Flow Occurrence

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand the impacts of debris flows on the distribution of an amphipod with limited dispersal ability in the context of stream networks, we surveyed the presence of Gammarus nipponensis in 87 headwater streams with different legacies of debris flow occurrence within an 8.5-...

  8. Distribution of Amphipods (Gammarus nipponensis Ueno) Among Mountain Headwater Streams with Different Legacies of Debris Flow Occurrence

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand the impacts of debris flows on the distribution of an amphipod with limited dispersal ability in the context of stream networks, we surveyed the presence of Gammarus nipponensis in 87 headwater streams with different legacies of debris flow occurrence within an 8.5-...

  9. Acute marine sediment toxicity: a potential new test with the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    PubMed

    Costa, F O; Correia, A D; Costa, M H

    1998-01-01

    Although amphipod toxicity tests have been successfully used in the United States to assess coastal sediment toxicity, few tests have been developed with European species. The authors have been working with the amphipod Gammarus locusta, a widely spread species along European coastal areas that is particularly abundant in the Portuguese Sado estuary. This amphipod fulfills the most important requirements of a test species. It can be easily reproduced in laboratory and it is tolerant to a broad range of sediment types. A series of tests demonstrated its sensitivity to copper and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) in the sediment (LC50 = 6.8 mg Cu/dry kg, 0.9% total volatile solids; LC50 = 60.5 micrograms HCH/dry kg, 2% total volatile solids) and to some heavily contaminated field sediments. After assessment of the species sensitivity to several noncontaminant variables, an experimental protocol was designed to conduct acute sediment toxicity tests that are briefly described. Proposed is a 10-day static toxicity test at 15 degrees C and 33-34/1000 salinity, with laboratory-produced juveniles and mortality as the endpoint. General assay performance is identical to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine amphipods. The results previously obtained revealed a strong potential for this amphipod to be used in toxicological testing. Considering the wide geographic distribution of this species and its amenability for culturing, it may be an alternative or complementary test for ecotoxicological studies in other European coastal systems where the existing tests cannot be applied or do not offer a definitive solution.

  10. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauton, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta, which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1-7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene) and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene). The data show that the growth and survival rate of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the expression of the hsp70 gene. However, there was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which indicated a possible disruption to oxidative metabolic processes. It was concluded that future predicted changes in sea water pH may have subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal and marine species which may be overlooked in studies of whole organism response.

  11. Salinity modulates thermotolerance, energy metabolism and stress response in amphipods Gammarus lacustris

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchagina, Kseniya P.; Lubyaga, Yulia A.; Shatilina, Zhanna; Bedulina, Daria; Gurkov, Anton; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V.; Baduev, Boris; Kondrateva, Elizaveta S.; Gubanov, Mikhail; Zadereev, Egor; Sokolova, Inna

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase) and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate). Amphipods from a freshwater population were more sensitive to the thermal challenge, showing higher mortality during acute and gradual temperature change compared to their counterparts from a saline lake. A more thermotolerant population from a saline lake had high activity of antioxidant enzymes. The energy limitations of the freshwater population (indicated by low baseline glucose levels, downward shift of the critical temperature of aerobic metabolism and inability to maintain steady-state ATP levels during warming) was observed, possibly reflecting a trade-off between the energy demands for osmoregulation under the hypo-osmotic condition of a freshwater environment and protection against temperature stress. PMID:27896024

  12. Effects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96 h have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem.

  13. Proteogenomics of Gammarus fossarum to Document the Reproductive System of Amphipods*

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Judith; Geffard, Olivier; Imbert, Gilles; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Chaumot, Arnaud; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Because of their ecological importance, amphipod crustacea are employed worldwide as test species in environmental risk assessment. Although proteomics allows new insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the stress response, such investigations are rare for these organisms because of the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. Here, we propose a proteogenomic approach for identifying specific proteins of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum, a keystone species in European freshwater ecosystems. After deep RNA sequencing, we created a comprehensive ORF database. We identified and annotated the most relevant proteins detected through a shotgun tandem mass spectrometry analysis carried out on the proteomes from three major tissues involved in the organism's reproductive function: the male and female reproductive systems, and the cephalon, where different neuroendocrine glands are present. The 1,873 mass-spectrometry-certified proteins represent the largest crustacean proteomic resource to date, with 218 proteins being lineage specific. Comparative proteomics between the male and female reproductive systems indicated key proteins with strong sexual dimorphism. Protein expression profiles during spermatogenesis at seven different stages highlighted the major gammarid proteins involved in the different facets of reproduction. PMID:25293947

  14. Life history of the amphipod Gammarus locusta in the Sado estuary (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Filipe O.; Costa, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    A 2-year study was conducted on the life history of the amphipod Gammarus locusta (L.) in the Sado estuary, which comprised the analysis of distribution, abundance, dynamics and reproduction. Sampling was performed monthly at low tide by collecting the macroalgae within a 0.25-m 2 area. G. locusta is distributed along the euhaline and polihaline areas of the Sado estuary and it is usually found among macroalgae and under small stones. The lowest and highest population densities were recorded in the first and last quarter of the year, respectively. The density fluctuations were tightly coupled with the algal biomass, particularly Ulva sp. The females are iteroparous and reproduce for the first time when they reach 6-mm total length. Comparatively to other gammaridean amphipods, G. locusta has a high fecundity. Reproduction takes place throughout the year. The population is semi-annual and the reproductive cycle is of the multivoltine type. The sum of these characteristics revealed an adaptive type `r' strategy. These results are in general agreement with the current models of latitudinal variations in gammaridean life histories.

  15. Proteogenomics of Gammarus fossarum to document the reproductive system of amphipods.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Geffard, Olivier; Imbert, Gilles; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Chaumot, Arnaud; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Because of their ecological importance, amphipod crustacea are employed worldwide as test species in environmental risk assessment. Although proteomics allows new insights into the molecular mechanisms related to the stress response, such investigations are rare for these organisms because of the lack of comprehensive protein sequence databases. Here, we propose a proteogenomic approach for identifying specific proteins of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum, a keystone species in European freshwater ecosystems. After deep RNA sequencing, we created a comprehensive ORF database. We identified and annotated the most relevant proteins detected through a shotgun tandem mass spectrometry analysis carried out on the proteomes from three major tissues involved in the organism's reproductive function: the male and female reproductive systems, and the cephalon, where different neuroendocrine glands are present. The 1,873 mass-spectrometry-certified proteins represent the largest crustacean proteomic resource to date, with 218 proteins being lineage specific. Comparative proteomics between the male and female reproductive systems indicated key proteins with strong sexual dimorphism. Protein expression profiles during spermatogenesis at seven different stages highlighted the major gammarid proteins involved in the different facets of reproduction.

  16. The subtle effects of sea water acidification on the amphipod Gammarus locusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauton, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Williams, J.

    2009-08-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the survival, growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three different levels of pH in nominal range 8.1-7.6. Growth rate was estimated from weekly measures of body length. At sexual maturity the amphipods were sacrificed and assayed for changes in the expression of genes coding for a heat shock protein (hsp70 gene) and the metabolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh gene). The data show that the growth and survival of this species is not significantly impacted by a decrease in sea water pH of up to 0.5 units. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that there was no significant effect of growth in acidified sea water on the sustained expression of the hsp70 gene. There was a consistent and significant increase in the expression of the gapdh gene at a pH of ~7.5 which, when combined with observations from other workers, suggests that metabolic changes may occur in response to acidification. It is concluded that sensitive assays of tissue physiology and molecular biology should be routinely employed in future studies of the impacts of sea water acidification as subtle effects on the physiology and metabolism of coastal marine species may be overlooked in conventional gross "end-point" studies of organism growth or mortality.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Cryptic Species Diversity in European Freshwater Amphipods (Gammarus fossarum) as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Baumgartner, Caroline; Keller, Irene

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand and protect ecosystems, local gene pools need to be evaluated with respect to their uniqueness. Cryptic species present a challenge in this context because their presence, if unrecognized, may lead to serious misjudgement of the distribution of evolutionarily distinct genetic entities. In this study, we describe the current geographical distribution of cryptic species of the ecologically important stream amphipod Gammarus fossarum (types A, B and C). We use a novel pyrosequencing assay for molecular species identification and survey 62 populations in Switzerland, plus several populations in Germany and eastern France. In addition, we compile data from previous publications (mainly Germany). A clear transition is observed from type A in the east (Danube and Po drainages) to types B and, more rarely, C in the west (Meuse, Rhone, and four smaller French river systems). Within the Rhine drainage, the cryptic species meet in a contact zone which spans the entire G. fossarum distribution range from north to south. This large-scale geographical sorting indicates that types A and B persisted in separate refugia during Pleistocene glaciations. Within the contact zone, the species rarely co-occur at the same site, suggesting that ecological processes may preclude long-term coexistence. The clear phylogeographical signal observed in this study implies that, in many parts of Europe, only one of the cryptic species is present. PMID:21909373

  18. Chronic effects of triclocarban in the amphipod Gammarus locusta: Behavioural and biochemical impairment.

    PubMed

    Barros, Susana; Montes, Rosa; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Santos, Miguel M; Neuparth, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC), a common antimicrobial agent widely used in many household and personal care products, has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Due to its high lipophilicity and persistence in the aquatic ecosystems, TCC is of emerging environmental concern. Despite the frequently reported detection of TCC in the environment and significant uncertainties about its long term effects on aquatic ecosystems, few studies have addressed the chronic effects of TCC in aquatic organisms at ecologically relevant concentrations. Therefore, we aimed at testing a broad range of biological responses in the amphipod Gammarus locusta following a chronic (60 days) exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TCC (100, 500 and 2500ng/L). This work integrated biochemical markers of oxidative stress (catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) with several key ecological endpoints, i.e. behaviour, survival, individual growth and reproduction. Significant alterations were observed in all biochemical markers. While AChE showed a dose-response curve (with a significant increased activity at a TCC concentration of 2500ng/L), oxidative stress markers did not follow a dose-response curve, with significant increase at 100 and/or 500ng/L and a decreased activity in the highest concentration (2500ng/L). The same effect was observed in the females' behavioural response, whereas males' behaviour was not affected by TCC exposure. The present study represents a first approach to characterize the hazard of TCC to crustaceans.

  19. Is fatter fitter? Body storage and reproduction in ten populations of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus minus.

    PubMed

    Glazier, D S

    2000-02-01

    Relationships between body storage (estimated as fat content and residuals of body mass regressed against body length) and offspring investment [brood mass, brood size (number of embryos per brood) and embryo mass] were examined within and among populations of the amphipod Gammarus minus in ten cold springs in central Pennsylvania, USA. Two major hypotheses and six corollary hypotheses were tested. Total reproductive investment (brood mass and brood size) was usually strongly positively correlated with maternal body length and body storage both within and among populations. These positive associations between reproductive and somatic investments are expected if individual variation in resource acquisition exceeds that of resource allocation. That is, individuals or populations that are able to acquire more resources should also be able to allocate more resources to both reproduction and somatic reserves than those acquiring fewer resources. This hypothesis is consistent with evidence showing that individual differences in body storage in G. minus and other amphipods are related to differences in resource acquisition. Positive associations between reproductive and somatic investments do not mean that energy costs of reproduction do not exist in G. minus. Evidence for reproductive energy costs included the lower body-fat contents of brooding versus nonbrooding females and the relatively low body mass per length of females who had just deposited eggs in their brood pouch. Unlike brood mass and brood size, individual embryo mass was usually unrelated to maternal body length and body storage. This pattern is largely consistent with optimal offspring investment theory, which predicts that offspring size should be insensitive to variation in parental resource status. However, in contrast to theory, embryo mass increased in winter when brooding females were significantly "fatter", presumably due to the availability of autumn-shed leaf food. This seasonal change in

  20. Parasites, pathogens and commensals in the "low-impact" non-native amphipod host Gammarus roeselii.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Jamie; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina; Stebbing, Paul D; Dunn, Alison M; Grabowski, Michał; Rachalewski, Michał; Stentiford, Grant D

    2017-04-20

    Whilst vastly understudied, pathogens of non-native species (NNS) are increasingly recognised as important threats to native wildlife. This study builds upon recent recommendations for improved screening for pathogens in NNS by focusing on populations of Gammarus roeselii in Chojna, north-western Poland. At this location, and in other parts of continental Europe, G. roeselii is considered a well-established and relatively 'low-impact' invader, with little understanding about its underlying pathogen profile and even less on potential spill-over of these pathogens to native species. Using a combination of histological, ultrastructural and phylogenetic approaches, we define a pathogen profile for non-native populations of G. roeselii in Poland. This profile comprised acanthocephalans (Polymorphus minutus Goese, 1782 and Pomphorhynchus sp.), digenean trematodes, commensal rotifers, commensal and parasitic ciliated protists, gregarines, microsporidia, a putative rickettsia-like organism, filamentous bacteria and two viral pathogens, the majority of which are previously unknown to science. To demonstrate potential for such pathogenic risks to be characterised from a taxonomic perspective, one of the pathogens, a novel microsporidian, is described based upon its pathology, developmental cycle and SSU rRNA gene phylogeny. The novel microsporidian Cucumispora roeselii n. sp. displayed closest morphological and phylogenetic similarity to two previously described taxa, Cucumispora dikerogammari (Ovcharenko & Kurandina, 1987), and Cucumispora ornata Bojko, Dunn, Stebbing, Ross, Kerr & Stentiford, 2015. In addition to our discovery extending the host range for the genus Cucumispora Ovcharenko, Bacela, Wilkinson, Ironside, Rigaud & Wattier, 2010 outside of the amphipod host genus Dikerogammarus Stebbing, we reveal significant potential for the co-transfer of (previously unknown) pathogens alongside this host when invading novel locations. This study highlights the importance of

  1. Metabolic activity and behavior of the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus and two common Central European gammarid species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii): Low metabolic rates may favor the invader.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jochen; Ortmann, Christian; Wetzel, Markus A; Koop, Jochen H E

    2016-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is one of the most successful invaders in Central European rivers. Contrary to studies on its ecology, ecophysiological studies comparing the species' physiological traits are scarce. In this context, in particular the metabolic activity of the invasive species has rarely been considered and, moreover, the few existing studies on this species report strongly deviating results. The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic activity and behavior of D. villosus and other common European amphipod species (Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii) in relation to temperatures covering the thermal regime of the invaded habitats. Based on direct calorimetric measurements of metabolic heat dissipation at three temperature levels (5°C, 15°C and 25°C), we found the routine metabolic rate of D. villosus to be significantly lower than that of the other studied gammarid species at the medium temperature level. The estimated resting metabolic rate indicated a similar trend. At 5°C and 25°C, both routine and resting metabolic rate did not differ between species. Compared to G. fossarum and G. roeselii, D. villosus exhibited lower locomotor activity at the low and medium temperatures (5°C and 15°C). In contrast, its locomotor activity increased at the high experimental temperature (25°C). G. fossarum and G. roeselii were apparently more active than D. villosus at all studied temperatures. We conclude that D. villosus has both physiological and behavioral adaptations that lead to a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure, which is assumed to be beneficial and might contribute to its invasive success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of an estrogenic sewage treatment plant effluent on life-history traits of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ilona; Oehlmann, Jörg; Oetken, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to upgrade sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the last decades, STPs are still a major source for the contamination of surface waters, including emerging pollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Because many of these substances are not completely removed in conventional STPs they are regularly detected in surface waters where they have the potential to affect local macroinvertebrate communities. The objective of the current work was to investigate the impact of an estrogenic wastewater effluent on the key life-history traits of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. G. pulex was exposed in artificial indoor flow-channels under constant conditions to different wastewater concentrations (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%). In parallel the estrogenic activity of wastewater samples was determined using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estrogenic activities in the STP effluent were up to 38.6 ng/L estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Amphipods exhibited an increasing body length with increasing wastewater concentrations. Furthermore, we observed a shift of the sex ratio in favour of females, a significantly increased fraction of brooding females and increased fecundity indices with increasing wastewater concentrations. The increased body length is likely to be attributed to the additional nutrient supply while the occurrence of EDCs in the wastewater is the probable cause for the altered sex ratio and fecundity in exposed Gammarus cohorts.

  3. The southwestern Carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex.

    PubMed

    Copilaş-Ciocianu, Denis; Petrusek, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European distribution area as well as from each other. Given the Tertiary age of many freshwater Gammarus species, we hypothesize that the southwestern Carpathian populations reflect a relict distribution pattern. We used two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 32 localities to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate the timings of divergence among southwestern Carpathian and non-Carpathian lineages. Cryptic diversity was evaluated from mitochondrial markers by employing phylogenetic and distance-based methods. We distinguished at least 16 cryptic microendemic taxa, some of them coexisting, distributed in the southwestern Carpathians in a mosaic-like pattern. These lineages form a monophyletic group together with several lineages from southeastern Europe. Estimated divergence times indicate a Middle Miocene origin of this clade, with many deep splits dating back to more than 10 Ma. This time frame corresponds with a period of intense geological subsidence in the region that gave birth to the Pannonian Basin. We conclude that subsidence could have been an important driver of diversification in freshwater Gammarus and that the southwestern Carpathians represent an ancient centre of diversity for these crustaceans.

  4. Habitat segregation mediates predation by the benthic fish Cottus gobio on the exotic amphipod species Gammarus roeseli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldonski, Nicolas; Lagrue, Clément; Motreuil, Sébastien; Rigaud, Thierry; Bollache, Loïc

    2008-09-01

    Predation is often considered as one of the most important biotic factor determining the success of exotic species. The freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli has widely colonized Western Europe, where it is frequently found in sympatry with the native species ( Gammarus pulex). Previous laboratory experiments revealed that G. roeseli may have an advantage over G. pulex through differential predation by native fish (brown trout). Morphological anti-predator defences (spines) were found responsible for lower rates of predation on the invasive G. roeseli. Here, using both field surveys and laboratory experiments, we tested if a differential of predation exists with other fish predators naturally encountered by gammarids. The main predators present in our field site were nocturnal benthic feeders (mainly bullheads, Cottus gobio). Fish diet analysis showed that, compared to its global availability in the river, G. roeseli was less consumed than G. pulex. In the field, however, G. roeseli was found mainly in the aquatic vegetation whereas G. pulex was found in all habitat types. Laboratory experiments in microcosms revealed that G. roeseli was less prone to predation by C. gobio only when vegetation was present. Depending on the type of predator, the differential of predation could therefore be mediated by antipredator behaviour, and a better usage of refuges, rather than by morphological defences.

  5. Sublethal effects of copper on some biological traits of the amphipod Gammarus aequicauda reared under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Prato, E; Parlapiano, I; Biandolino, F

    2013-10-01

    The common and widespread copper contamination in marine coastal environments make toxicity data necessary to assess the aquatic hazard and risk of this metal. In the present study, the sublethal effects of copper on survival, growth and reproduction of Gammarus aequicauda were investigated. Amphipods were exposed for 77d to 2 nominal copper concentrations (50, 100 μg L(-1)). Survival was the most sensitive measure of effect and was significantly reduced, especially during early life stage (juveniles). Growth of amphipods was also negatively affected by copper and the growth impairment in G. aequicauda increases with increasing metal concentration. The reproductive traits were impaired by each of the copper concentrations, even if there were not any significant differences between control and copper treatments. The size at maturity increased with increasing copper, so the smallest ovigerous females in the control and copper treatments were 0.83 mm and 1.35 mm head length, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the brood size and the body size of the female in all treatments, whilst the fecundity (n°juveniles/female) decreased in the order control, 50 and 100 μg Cu L(-1). Copper demonstrates chronic toxicity to G. aequicauda at realistic environmental concentrations. The results of this study entail that the understanding of chronic toxicity of a substance, especially on population level effects, is crucial to assess the long-term effect of the substance in the ecosystem.

  6. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: I. Biochemical endpoints.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Filipe O; Lima, Gláucia; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    We report on biomarker responses conducted as part of a multi-level assessment of the chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments to the amphipod Gammarus locusta. A companion article accounts for organism and population-level effects. Five moderately contaminated sediments from two Portuguese estuaries, Sado and Tagus, were assessed. Three of them were muddy and two were sandy sediments. The objective was to assess sediments that were not acutely toxic. Three of the sediments met this criterion, the other two were diluted (50% and 75%) with clean sediment until acute toxicity was absent. Following 28-d exposures, the amphipods were analysed for whole-body metal bioaccumulation, metallothionein induction (MT), DNA strand breakage (SB) and lipid peroxidation (LP). Two of the muddy sediments did not cause chronic toxicity. These findings were consistent with responses at organism and population levels that showed higher growth rates and improvement of reproductive traits for amphipods exposed to these two sediments. Two other sediments, one muddy and one sandy, exhibited pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting SB, MT induction (in muddy sediment), survival and reproduction. Potential toxicants involved in these effects were identified. The last sandy sediment exhibited some loss of DNA integrity, however growth was also enhanced. Present results, together with the organism/population-level data, and also benthic communities information, were analysed under a weight-of-evidence approach. By providing evidence of exposure (or lack of it) to contaminants in sediments, the biomarkers here applied assisted in distinguishing toxicants' impacts in test organisms from the confounding influence of other geochemical features of the sediments.

  7. Temporal Community Structure in Two Gregarines (Rotundula gammari and Heliospora longissima) Co-Infecting the Amphipod Gammarus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Rita L; Sukhdeo, Michael V K

    2017-02-01

    This study surveyed gregarine parasites that infect the amphipod, Gammarus fasciatus , to investigate temporal dynamics in infracommunity structure. We sampled a population of hosts for 2 yr from the north branch of the Raritan River in New Jersey. These hosts were infected with 2 direct life cycle gregarine parasites, Rotundula gammari and Heliospora longissima. Infections were separated temporally, with the prevalence of R. gammari peaking within the amphipod population in the fall (prevalence = 78% year 1 and 97% year 2) and H. longissima peaking in early spring (prevalence = 41% year 1 and 52% year 2). Increases in host population density did not significantly correlate with the abundance of these 2 parasites. However, H. longissima abundance was positively correlated with host body weight while R. gammari showed no significant relationship. The mean body mass of amphipods infected with H. longissima was 20.7 ± 1. 2 mg, and with R. gammari 8.1 ± 0.2 mg, which suggests a sized-based infection pattern. Mixed species infections were infrequent with an overall prevalence of 4.6%. When both gregarine species co-infected the same host, the R. gammari but not the H. longissima infrapopulation size was significantly lower when compared to single-species infections, suggesting asymmetric interactions. We conclude that the observed temporal patterns of infection by the 2 parasites are driven by a seasonal change in host demographics and size-dependent infections. We argue that specificity for host developmental stages may have arisen as a mechanism to avoid overlap between these gregarine species.

  8. Unexpected toxic interactions in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) exposed to binary copper and nickel mixtures.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jérémie; Crini, Grégorio; Degiorgi, François; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    To document the toxicity of copper and nickel in binary mixtures, freshwater amphipods Gammarus pulex were exposed to the metals given independently or as mixtures. Toxicity to Cu alone was relatively high: 96-h LC10 and LC50 were found at 91 and 196 μg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity to Ni alone was very low, with 96-h LC10 and LC50 of 44,900 and 79,200 μg L(-1), respectively. Mixture toxicities were calculated from single toxicity data using conventional models. Modeled toxicity was then compared with the measured toxicity of the binary mixture. Two kinds of mixtures were tested. Type I mixtures were designed as combinations of Cu and Ni given at the same effect concentrations, when taken independently, to identify possible interactions between copper and nickel. In type II mixtures, Cu concentrations varied from 0 to 600 μg L(-1) while the nickel concentration was kept constant at 500 μg L(-1) to mimic conditions of industrial wastewater discharges. Ni and Cu showed synergic effects in type I mixtures while type II mixtures revealed antagonistic effects. Low doses of Ni reduced Cu toxicity towards G. pulex. These results show that even for simple binary mixtures of contaminants with known chemistry and toxicity, unexpected interactions between the contaminants may occur. This reduces the reliability of conventional additivity models.

  9. Comparison of arsenate and cadmium toxicity in a freshwater amphipod (Gammarus pulex).

    PubMed

    Vellinger, Céline; Parant, Marc; Rousselle, Philippe; Immel, Françoise; Wagner, Philippe; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is largely documented on freshwater organisms while arsenic, especially arsenate, is rarely studied. The kinetic of the LC50s values for both metals was realized on Gammarus pulex. Physiological [i.e. metal concentration in body tissues, bioconcentration factor (BCF)] effects and behavioural responses (via pleopods beats) were investigated after 240-h exposure. Arsenate LC50 value was 100 fold higher than Cd-LC50 value after 240-h exposure, while concentrations in gammarids were similar for both metals at their respective LC50s. BCF decreased with increasing cadmium concentration while BCF remained stable with increasing arsenate concentration. Moreover, BCF was between 148 and 344 times lower for arsenate than cadmium. A significant hypoventilation was observed for cadmium concentrations exceeding or close to the 240h-LC50(Cd), while gammarids hyperventilated for the lowest arsenate concentrations and hypoventilated for the highest arsenate concentrations. We discussed the relationships between potential action mechanisms of these two metals and observed results.

  10. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by the freshwater benthic amphipod Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Khawla; Labadie, Pierre; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2012-07-01

    This study reports on the relationship between polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in water, sediment, and the benthic macroinvertebrate Gammarus pulex, which plays a major ecological role in freshwater ecosystems. Samples were taken in a periurban watershed (near Paris, France), and PBDEs were systematically detected in sediment (≤727 ng g(-1) OC) and G. pulex (≤264 ng g(-1) lipids). PBDEs were also occasionally detected in the water column at low levels (∑ PBDEs < 1.5 ng L(-1)). The log values of bioaccumulation factors were in the range 7.8 ± 0.1-8.3 ± 0.4 L kg(-1) for tetra- and penta-BDEs, which were the only ones quantified in the dissolved phase of river water. Meanwhile, levels of individual tri- to hepta-PBDE congeners in G. pulex generally positively correlated with sediment levels, suggesting an equilibrium situation. Biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of tri-hepta BDEs were congener specific and were in the range 0.5 ± 0.3-2.6 ± 1.2. For several PBDEs, BSAF values deviated from the expected range, likely because of in vivo metabolism.

  11. Effects of low-dosed imidacloprid pulses on the functional role of the caged amphipod Gammarus roeseli in stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Böttger, R; Feibicke, M; Schaller, J; Dudel, G

    2013-07-01

    Effects of two series of imidacloprid pulses on caged amphipods (Gammarus roeseli) and their shredder efficiency for litter decomposition were studied for 70 days as part of a comprehensive stream mesocosm experiment. The duration of each imidacloprid pulse of 12µgL(-1) was 12h. About 250mL cages with an initial stock of 10 adult gammarids together with different conditioned litter substrates were used. Beside alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa), straw (× Triticosecale) was also used in different trials and tested for its suitability to serve as litter substrate. Results from tracer and microprobe measurements approved the suitability of the test system under low-flow condition of 10cms(-1) in the surrounding stream water. Population development followed a logistic growth function with a carrying capacity of 200 Ind cage(-1) for alder and 161 for straw. In the course of the study, the F1 generation reached sexual maturity and F2 offspring appeared. Increased nitrogen contents of gammarid-free trials compared to stocked ones after 70 days indicated that biofilm on both substrates was an important food source for G. roeseli. However, increased shredding activity by gammarids was only detected for alder during the second pulse series. During the remaining time and also for straw, losses of coarse particular organic matter were quite constant and slow indicating the dominance of transport limited decomposition processes on the litter surfaces. No effect of imidacloprid pulses on population levels and litter decomposition could be detected. However, the number of brood carrying females was reduced in the treatments compared to the control groups in the last 3 weeks of the study. In conclusion, repeated low-level and short-term exposition may have adverse long-term effects on G. roeseli in the field with regard to both the population size and the functional role as key shredder.

  12. The Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Mortality of the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus pulex by Interfering with Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Anna-Maija; Hintermeister, Anita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2013-01-01

    If an organism does not feed, it dies of starvation. Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. One of these insecticides is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, a neurotoxic substance acting specifically on the insect nervous system. We show that imidacloprid has the potential to indirectly cause lethality in aquatic invertebrate populations at low, sublethal concentrations by impairing movements and thus feeding. We investigated feeding activity, lipid content, immobility, and survival of the aquatic arthropod Gammarus pulex under exposure to imidacloprid. We performed experiments with 14 and 21 days duration, both including two treatments with two high, one day pulses of imidacloprid and one treatment with a low, constant concentration. Feeding of G. pulex as well as lipid content were significantly reduced under exposure to the low, constant imidacloprid concentration (15 µg/L). Organisms were not able to move and feed – and this caused high mortality after 14 days of constant exposure. In contrast, feeding and lipid content were not affected by repeated imidacloprid pulses. In these treatments, animals were mostly immobilized during the chemical pulses but did recover relatively fast after transfer to clean water. We also performed a starvation experiment without exposure to imidacloprid which showed that starvation alone does not explain the mortality in the constant imidacloprid exposure. Using a multiple stressor toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling approach, we showed that both starvation and other toxic effects of imidacloprid play a role for determining mortality in constant exposure to the insecticide. PMID:23690941

  13. Multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments with the amphipod Gammarus locusta: II. Organism and population-level endpoints.

    PubMed

    Costa, Filipe O; Neuparth, Teresa; Correia, Ana D; Costa, Maria Helena

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to test the performance of the amphipod Gammarus locusta (L.) in chronic sediment toxicity tests. It constitutes part of a multi-level assessment of chronic toxicity of estuarine sediments, integrating organism and population-level endpoints with biochemical markers responses. Here we account for organism and population-level effects, while biomarker responses were reported in a companion article. Five moderately contaminated sediments from Sado and Tagus estuaries were tested, comprising 3 muddy and 2 sandy sediments. These sediments either did not show acute toxicity or were diluted with control sediment as much as required to remove acute toxicity. Subsequent chronic tests consisted of 28-day exposures with survival, individual growth and reproductive traits as endpoints. Two of the muddy sediments induced higher growth rates in the amphipods, and improved reproductive traits. This was understood to be a consequence of the amount of organic matter in the sediment, which was nutritionally beneficial to the amphipods, while concurrently decreasing contaminant bioavailability. Biomarker responses did not reveal toxicant-induced stress in amphipods exposed to these sediments. One of the sandy sediments was acutely toxic at 50% dilution, but in contrast stimulated amphipod growth when diluted 75%. This was presumed to be an indication of a hormetic response. Finally the two remaining contaminated sediments showed pronounced chronic toxicity, affecting survival and reproduction. The sex ratio of survivors was highly biased towards females, and offspring production was severely impaired. The particulars of the responses of this amphipod were examined, as well as strengths versus limitations of the sediment test. This study illustrates the utility of this chronic test for toxicity assessment of contaminated estuarine sediments, with potential application all along Atlantic Europe.

  14. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species— Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  15. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species--Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland).

    PubMed

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  16. Ecological modelling and toxicity data coupled to assess population recovery of marine amphipod Gammarus locusta: Application to disturbance by chronic exposure to aniline.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, Carmen B; Neuparth, Teresa; Torres, Tiago; Martins, Irene; Cunha, Isabel; Sheahan, Dave; McGowan, Tom; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-06-01

    A population agent-based model of marine amphipod Gammarus locusta was designed and implemented as a basis for ecological risk assessment of chemical pollutants impairing life-history traits at the individual level. We further used the model to assess the toxic effects of aniline (a priority hazardous and noxious substance, HNS) on amphipod populations using empirically-built dose-response functions derived from a chronic bioassay that we previously performed with this species. We observed a significant toxicant-induced mortality and adverse effects in reproductive performance (reduction of newborn production) in G. locusta at the individual level. Coupling the population model with the toxicological data from the chronic bioassay allowed the projection of the ecological costs associated with exposure to aniline that might occur in wild populations. Model simulations with different scenarios indicated that even low level prolonged exposure to the HNS aniline can have significant long-term impacts on G. locusta population abundance, until the impacted population returns to undisturbed levels. This approach may be a useful complement in ecotoxicological studies of chemical pollution to transfer individual-collected data to ecological-relevant levels.

  17. Toxicity effects of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to marine organisms: acute and chronic toxicity of p-xylene to the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    PubMed

    Neuparth, T; Capela, R; Pereira, S P P; Moreira, S M; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent focus on hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spills preparedness and responses, much remains to be done regarding the threat posed by HNS spills on marine biota. Among the identified priority HNS, p-xylene was selected to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the amphipod Gammarus locusta under acute and chronic exposure to p-xylene simulating conditions of a spill incident. In the acute exposure (96 h) the p-xylene LC50 was estimated. In the chronic bioassay (36 d), an integration of organism-level endpoints (survival, growth rate, and sex ratio) with biochemical markers indicative of oxidative stress including catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels was determined. The aim was to increase the xylene ecotoxicological database and better predict its impact in aquatic environments. p-Xylene induced several chronic toxicity effects in G. locusta. Significant alterations in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels as well as growth rate and biased sex-ratio were observed. p-Xylene significantly affected the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in G. locusta and produced oxidative damage by increasing levels of LPO in males. Further, impacts in key ecological endpoints, that is, growth and sex ratio, were noted that might be indicative of potential effects at the population level in a spill scenario. The present data may be useful to assist relevant bodies in preparedness and response to HNS spills.

  18. Population responses of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) to an environmental estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Watts, Matthew M; Pascoe, David; Carroll, Kathleen

    2002-02-01

    The effects of the environmental estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on mixed populations of 90 individual Gammarus pulex were examined following a 100-d exposure in a flow-through system. Counts of total animal numbers revealed that, in all treatment groups, population size dramatically increased due to recruitment, with neonate and juvenile gammarids the most abundant. At concentrations of 1 and 10 microg/L EE, the recorded mean population sizes of 385 and 411, respectively, were significantly greater (p = 0.018) than the control (169). Mean population sizes in the solvent control (257) and 100 ng/L EE treatment (267) were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the control. In addition to total counts, detailed image analysis of each individual animal allowed the assessment of length-frequency distributions, adult sex ratio, number of precopula pairs/ovigerous females, and measurement of secondary antenna and gnathopod length (secondary sex characteristics). The sex ratio of adults at 100 ng, 1 microg, and 10 microg/L EE was greater than 2:1 (female:male), and significantly more females (p = 0.008) were recorded at these concentrations compared with the control. The number of male adults, precopula guarding pairs, and ovigerous females did not differ between treatments (p > 0.05). Secondary antennal and gnathopod length in males was consistently greater than in females (p < or = 0.001), but comparison between groups revealed no difference in these parameters.

  19. Development of ecotoxicoproteomics on the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex: identification of PCB biomarkers in glycolysis and glutamate pathways.

    PubMed

    Leroy, D; Haubruge, E; De Pauw, E; Thomé, J P; Francis, F

    2010-03-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants largely distributed in the biosphere. Although their effects on vertebrates are well described, little is known about their action on freshwater invertebrate's metabolism. Gammarus pulex (Linné) was selected as an indicator model to develop a proteomic approach in order to characterize the effects of PCBs on the protein profile of this freshwater crustacean. Sublethal coplanar PCBs exposition and related 2D gel were performed. More than 560 spots were detected and a total of 21 proteins exhibiting significant expression differences in PCB exposed to G. pulex were identified by mass spectrometry. Database searches were conducted to relate the results to well-known metabolic pathways (pentose phosphate, cytoskeleton, energy, etc.). In particular, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and arginine kinase were found to be sensitive to the PCB exposition of G. pulex. The aim of the present study was to assess the biochemical responses and the metabolic changes in G. pulex following intoxication to coplanar PCB congeners CB77 and CB169 by a proteomic approach. This approach allowed us, by the identification of key proteins, to highlight important biochemical mechanisms disturbed by the presence of these contaminants in G. pulex.

  20. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4- dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Mayer, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 degree C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4- nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  1. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  2. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2.

  3. Design of an electronically operated flow-through respirometer and its use to investigate the effects of copper on the respiration rate of the amphipod gammarus pulex (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Kedwards, J.T.; Blockwell, S.J.; Tylor, E.J.; Pascoe, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of oxygen consumption as a measure of metabolism has resulted in the development of many types of respirometer. These can be classified into three types. Firstly, there is the closed system in which oxygen concentration is measured at the beginning and end of the experiment and an organism`s respiratory rate calculated from the decrease in oxygen concentration and the volume of the vessel. Secondly, there is a system in which respired oxygen is replaced by oxygen from the surrounding air and the resultant change in air volume is measured gasometrically. A third approach, and the one employed in this study, utilises an open flow-through system in which water passes through a chamber containing an animal and the oxygen concentration is measured and compared to that of a reference chamber without an animal. The difference in oxygen concentration is then used to determine the respiration rate of the test animal. In open flow-through systems excretory products are washed away and water is not left stagnant as may occur in closed techniques. In addition, the open flow technique provides a constant oxygen concentration, avoids stress to animals with oxygen concentration-dependent metabolism and allows the simulation of low oxygen tension environments. Despite these obvious advantages the use of flow-through respirometers has been somewhat limited due to difficulties in calibration and complexity in construction and operation (Edwards and Learner 1960). The purpose of this investigation was to design a flow-through respirometer which is sufficiently sensitive to detect pollutant-induced respiratory changes in freshwater invertebrates and which permits automated continuous recording of the respiration of several animals maintained individually. In order to evaluate the system the effect of copper (prepared form cupric sulphate, CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) on the respiration of the shrimp Gammarus pulex was studied. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Molecular characterisation of the Microsporidia of the amphipod Gammarus duebeni across its natural range revealed hidden diversity, wide-ranging prevalence and potential for co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Krebes, L; Blank, M; Frankowski, J; Bastrop, R

    2010-10-01

    Microsporidia comprise an unusual group of intracellular, eukaryotic parasites that exhibit ubiquitous distribution throughout the animal kingdom. We analysed the small subunit ribosomal gene (SSUrDNA) using PCR and sequencing and screened 894 Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea, Amphipoda) specimens from 35 European marine and freshwater populations. We discovered considerable hidden microsporidian diversity. Blast searches, sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed intraspecific sequence variants of known species Dictyocoela duebenum,Dictyocoela muelleri, Pleistophora mulleri and Nosema granulosis. For seven SSUrDNA sequences, we did not find corresponding GenBank entries; they likely represent new species, provisionally classified within the genus Microsporidium. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed their position as polyphyletic, thereby lending support to the hypothesis of an early microsporidian radiation within this host group. Nevertheless, four of the presumptive novel species formed a discrete and well-supported subclade in the phylogenetic analysis. The respective host specimens were collected from disjunct freshwater sites in Wales, Ireland and Brittany (France) and may represent a new, G. duebeni-specific, microsporidian genus. At the population level, our screening showed that parasitism through Microsporidia is the rule rather than the exception in G. duebeni. We found Microsporidia in 91% of sampled G. duebeni populations. This finding may have considerable consequences for the interpretation of results from ecological, behavioural, physiological and evolutionary studies of the host, as parasitism can significantly influence these traits. Because the host G. duebeni has a complex phylogeography and evolutionary history, the studied host-parasite system may have potential as a model system for investigating processes of co-evolution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2. PMID:27408590

  6. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  7. Interference competition among native and invader amphipods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Riel, Mariëlle C.; Healy, Evan P.; van der Velde, Gerard; bij de Vaate, Abraham

    2007-05-01

    Aquarium experiments were used to study indications of interference competition, such as substratum choice shifts, swimming activities and mortality of invasive and indigenous gammarids in each other's presence. The more recent invaders Gammarus tigrinus and Dikerogammarus villosus were more likely to prefer stone substratum, whereas the native Gammarus pulex and an earlier invader Gammarus roeseli were found more frequently in the water layer. Sand was the least likely substratum to be chosen by any of the species. G. pulex and G. roeseli did not alter their substratum preference in each other's presence. In the presence of D. villosus, G. pulex shifted towards smaller stones and increased its swimming activities, whereas D. villosus did not change its behaviour in the presence of G. pulex. These shifts may indicate interference competition, with D. villosus being the stronger competitor. The greatest shifts in substratum preference arose when one species had occupied a substratum before the other one was introduced, especially when D. villosus was already present before G. pulex was introduced, possibly indicating pre-emptive competition. Swimming activities of G. pulex increased in the presence of D. villosus, whereas D. villosus spent little time swimming. Mortality was comparable between the different experiments without any indication of predation. The effect of Intra Guild Predation (IGP) may not be reflected adequately by short-time experiments as moults occurred seldom during the experiments. Although no IGP was observed during our experiments, habitat shifts occurred, which may indicate that competitive interactions are apparent before IGP starts. Such shifts may serve to avoid intraguild competition.

  8. PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY IN AMPHIPODS COLLECTED FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk of photo-activated PAH toxicity in contaminated aquatic systems has not been well characterized. To better indicate this potential, amphipods (Gammarus spp.) were collected from two PAH contaminated sites (Hog Island and USX), as well as a reference site (Chipmunk Cove)...

  9. Fungal propagules and DNA in feces of two detritus-feeding amphipods.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Beaton, Margaret; Bärlocher, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic shredders (leaf-eating invertebrates) preferentially ingest and digest leaves colonized by aquatic hyphomycetes (fungi). This activity destroys leaf-associated fungal biomass and detritial resources in streams. Fungal counter-adaptations may include the ability to survive passage through the invertebrate's digestive tract. When fecal pellets of Gammarus tigrinus and Hyalella azteca were incubated with sterile leaves, spores of nine (G. tigrinus) and seven (H. azteca) aquatic hyphomycete species were subsequently released from the leaves, indicating the presence of viable fungal structures in the feces. Extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from feces revealed numerous fungal phylotypes, two of which could be assigned unequivocally to an aquatic hyphomycete. The estimated contributions of major fungal groups varied depending on whether 18S or ITS sequences were amplified and cloned. We conclude that a variable proportion of fungal DNA in the feces of detritivores may originate from aquatic hyphomycetes. Amplified DNA may be associated with metabolically active, dormant, or dead fungal cells.

  10. Conflict of interest between a nematode and a trematode in an amphipod host: Test of the "sabotage" hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Frédéric; Fauchier, Jerome; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Microphallus papillorobustus is a manipulative trematode that induces strong behavioural alterations in the gamaridean amphipod Gammarus insensibilis, making the amphipod more vulnerable to predation by aquatic birds (definitive hosts). Conversely, the sympatric nematodeGammarinema gammari uses Gammarus insensibilis as a habitat and a source of nutrition. We investigated the conflict of interest between these two parasite species by studying the consequences of mixed infection on amphipod behaviour associated with the trematode. In the field, some amphipods infected by the trematode did not display the altered behaviour. These normal amphipods also had more nematodes, suggesting that the nematode overpowered the manipulation of the trematode, a strategy that would prolong the nematode's life. We hypothesize that sabotage of the trematode by the nematode would be an adaptive strategy for the nematode consistent with recent speculation about co-operation and conflict in manipulative parasites. A behavioural test conducted in the laboratory from naturally infected amphipods yielded the same result. However, exposing amphipods to nematodes did not negate or decrease the manipulation exerted by the trematode. Similarly, experimental elimination of nematodes from amphipods did not permit trematodes to manipulate behaviour. These experimental data do not support the hypothesis that the negative association between nematodes and manipulation by the trematode is a result of the "sabotage" hypothesis.

  11. Amphipod densities and indices of wetland quality across the upper-Midwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional, behavioral, and diet data for lesser scaup (Aythya affinis [Eyton, 1838]) indicates that there has been a decrease in amphipod (Gammarus lacustris [G. O. Sars, 1863] and Hyalella azteca [Saussure, 1858]) density and wetland quality throughout the upper-Midwest, USA. Accordingly, we estimated densities of Gammarus and Hyalella in six eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota; 356 randomly selected semipermanent and permanent wetlands were sampled during springs 2004 and 2005. We also examined indices of wetland quality (e.g., turbidity, fish communities, aquatic vegetation) among regions in a random subset of these wetlands (n = 267). Gammarus and Hyalella were present in 19% and 54% of wetlands sampled, respectively. Gammarus and Hyalella densities in North Dakota were higher than those in Iowa and Minnesota. Although historical data are limited, our regional mean (1 to 12 m-3) amphipod densities (Gammarus + Hyalella) were markedly lower than any of the historical density estimates. Fish, important predators of amphipods, occurred in 31%-45% of wetlands in North Dakota, 84% of wetlands in the Red River Valley, and 74%-84% of wetlands in Iowa and Minnesota. Turbidity in wetlands of Minnesota Morainal (4.0 NTU geometric mean) and Red River Valley (6.1 NTU) regions appeared low relative to that of the rest of the upper-Midwest (13.2-17.5 NTU). We conclude that observed estimates of amphipods, fish, and turbidity are consistent with low wetland quality, which has resulted in lower food availability for various wildlife species, especially lesser scaup, which use these wetlands in the upper-Midwest. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. Eocene habitat shift from saline to freshwater promoted Tethyan amphipod diversification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhonge; Sket, Boris; Fiser, Cene; Li, Shuqiang

    2011-08-30

    Current theory predicts that a shift to a new habitat would increase the rate of diversification, while as lineages evolve into multiple species, intensified competition would decrease the rate of diversification. We used Holarctic amphipods of the genus Gammarus to test this hypothesis. We sequenced four genes (5,088 bp) for 289 samples representing 115 Gammarus species. A phylogenetic analysis showed that Gammarus originated from the Tethyan region with a saline ancestry in the Paleocene, and later colonized the freshwater habitat in the Middle Eocene. Ancestral range reconstruction and diversification mode analysis combined with paleogeological and paleoclimatic evidence suggested that the habitat shift from saline to freshwater led to an increased diversification rate. The saline lineage of Gammarus dispersed to both sides of the Atlantic at 55 million years ago (Ma), because of the few barriers between the Tethys and the Atlantic, and diversified throughout its evolutionary history with a constant diversification rate [0.04 species per million years (sp/My)]. The freshwater Gammarus, however, underwent a rapid diversification phase (0.11 sp/My) until the Middle Miocene, and lineages successively diversified across Eurasia via vicariance process likely driven by changes of the Tethys and landmass. In particular, the freshwater Gammarus lacustris and Gammarus balcanicus lineages had a relatively high diversification shift, corresponding to the regression of the Paratethys Sea and the continentalization of Eurasian lands during the Miocene period. Subsequently (14 Ma), the diversification rate of the freshwater Gammarus decreased to 0.05 and again to 0.01 sp/My. The genus Gammarus provides an excellent aquatic case supporting the hypothesis that ecological opportunities promote diversification.

  13. Responses of Niphargus montellianus and Gammarus balcanicus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from karst waters to heavy metal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppellotti Krupa, O.; Guidolin, L.

    2003-05-01

    The response to some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) was examined in two amphipods, Niphargus montellianus and Gammarus balcanicus, living in karst waters and endowed with different ecological characteristics. Exposure experiments were made, in the controlled conditions of a biospeleology laboratory, to increasing concentrations of metals in the range 0.1 10 μg ml^{-1} for up to 10 days. Hypogean and epigean amphipods differed in their responses, G. balcanicus being more sensitive to the toxic effects of heavy metals than the hypogean N montellianus. The degree of tolerance was Cuamphipods in natural conditions and after metal exposure; differences in accumulation rates suggest the potential use of Niphargus as a biological indicator for monitoring groundwater heavy metal pollution.

  14. Comparison of Grazing Intensity & Diets of Native and Invasive Amphipods in Lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, J. P.; Francouer, S. N.

    2005-05-01

    Echinogammarus ischnus, an invasive amphipod originating from the Ponto Caspian Basin, was first discovered in the Detroit River in 1995 and has migrated through the lower Great Lakes displacing the native amphipod, Gammarus fasciatus. Both amphipods seek food and refuge by inhabiting substrata encrusted with zebra mussels and/or filamentous macro-algae. The filamentous green alga Cladophora, along with its epiphytic communities, are an important food source and refuge from predators and physical stresses. We examined the gut content of both amphipod species to determine their preferred food in their natural habitats, and conducted a laboratory experiment to determine each amphipod's grazing effects on algal biomass. Gut analysis was completed by taking grab samples from 4 study sites located along the western shore of Lake Erie every two weeks July through September, 2004. Amphipods were separated by species and preserved in 90% alcohol for later dissection. Algal taxa from amphipod guts were identified and enumerated using brightfield microscopy. In the lab experiment, algal biomass prior to and after two weeks of amphipod grazing was determined using ash-free dry mass and chlorophyll-a. Preliminary results indicate that E. ischnus and G. fasciatus exert approximately equal grazing pressure on the Great Lakes food web.

  15. Gammarus spp. in aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality assessment: toward integrated multilevel tests.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Petra Y; Kienle, Cornelia; Gerhardt, Almut

    2010-01-01

    The amphipod genus Gammarus is widespread and is structurally and functionally important in epigean freshwaters of the Northern Hemisphere. Its presence is crucial, because macroinvertebrate feeding is a major rate-limiting step in the processing of stream detrius. In addition, Gammarus interacts with multiple trophic levels bu functioning as prey, predator, herbivore, detritivore, and shredder. Such a broad span of ecosystem participation underlines the importance of Gammarus to pollutants and other disturbances may render it a valuable indicator for ecosystem health. This review summarizes the vast number of studies conducted with Gammarus spp. for evaluating aquatic ecotoxicology endpoints and examines the suitability of this native invertabrate species for the assessment of stream ecosystem health in the Northern Hemisphere. Numerous papers have been published on how pollutants affect gammarind behavior (i.e., mating, predator avoidance), reproduction, development, feeding activity, population structure, as well as the consequences of pollution on host-parasite, predator-prey, or native-invasive species interactions. Some biochemical and molecular biomarkers have already been established, such as the measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins, metallothioneins, alkali-labile phosphates (in proteins), and lipogenic enzyme activities for assessing endocrine distribution and detoxification mechanisms.

  16. Invasive Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River system: Recent Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the great rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) in 2004-2006 revealed new invasions by marine and estuarine amphipods. The gammarid amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and Gammarus tigrinus were discovered i...

  17. Invasive Macroinvertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River system: Recent Findings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the great rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) in 2004-2006 revealed new invasions by marine and estuarine amphipods. The gammarid amphipods Echinogammarus ischnus and Gammarus tigrinus were discovered i...

  18. [Modification of wood lignin by the fungus Panus tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Revin, V V; Kadimaliev, D A; Shutova, V V; Samuilov, V D

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of sawdust with the fungus Panus tigrinus VKM F-3616 D changed the contents of functional groups in lignin from wood raw material. These changes are accompanied by the release of carboxyl and phenyl hydroxyl groups involved in chemical bond formation between wood particles in pressed materials manufactured from wood wastes.

  19. Toxicity Studies of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on European Amphipods.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marin, Arnaldo; Borredat, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene in dimethyl sulfoxide on the amphipods Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus locusta, and Corophium multisetosum was tested in a static exposure in sea water. The 48-h lethal concentration (LC(50)) of phenanthrene was 173.85 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 147.64 mug/L for G. locusta, and 215.20 mug/L for C. multisetosum. The 48-h LC(50) of fluoranthene was 49.99 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 42.71 mug/L for G. locusta, and 2.85 mug/L for C. multisetosum. The 48-h LC(50) of pyrene was 73.49 mug/L for G. aequicauda, 60.78 mug/L for G. locusta, and 25.29 mug/L for C. multisetosum. Together with their wide distribution along European coasts, the evidence of toxicity on the tested PAH compounds in these amphipods make these species appropriate candidates for evaluating oil-contaminated sediments in Europe.

  20. Ovarian response to repeated administration of alternating exogenous gonadotropin regimens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrinus (Leopardus tigrinus).

    PubMed

    da Paz, Regina Celia Rodrigues; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Barnabe, Valquíria Hippólito; Barnabe, Renato Campanarut

    2006-10-01

    Exogenous gonadotropins are used to stimulate ovarian follicular growth and ovulation in mammalian species, including wild cats. However, successes in application of assisted reproduction techniques in nondomestic felids have been sparse. Our objectives were to assess the effectiveness of alternating gonadotropin regimens on ovarian responses. Five adult female ocelots and four adult female tigrinus were treated four to six times, using alternating eCG/hCG and pFSH/pLH at 4-month intervals. Laparoscopies were done to assess follicular development and to collect oocytes from matures follicles. The average number of follicles and corpus luteum (CL) per stimulation was higher in ocelots (7.0 +/- 0.8; mean +/- S.E.M.) than in tigrinus (2.5 +/- 0.4; P < 0.05), but the percentage of mature oocytes did not differ between the two species (mean range, 54-55%). Within species, both gonadotropin regimens were equally effective in inducing follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The total number of ovarian structures and oocyte maturation percentages did not decrease in either species with sequential stimulations. In summary, female ocelots and tigrinus continued to respond to repeated alternating ovarian stimulation protocols. In conclusion, the use of alternating gonadotropin regimens may permit more intensive reproductive management in these endangered cats.

  1. Isolation and properties of peroxidase produced by the fungus Panus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Revin, V V; Cadimaliev, D A; Atykyan, N A; Sitkin, B V; Samuilov, V D

    2000-11-01

    Synthesis of peroxidase and laccase by the fungus Panus tigrinus was significantly stimulated by addition of the lignocellulose substrate to the culture media. Peroxidase was isolated from the culture liquid and some properties of the enzyme were investigated. P. tigrinus peroxidase belongs to a group of extracellular peroxidases similar to the plant type peroxidases.

  2. A transmission electron microscope investigation of the effect of lead acetate on the hepatopancreatic ceca of Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Mehtap; Düzen, Ayla; Bayçu, Cengiz; Ozata, Ahmet

    2002-10-01

    The freshwater Amphipod Gammarus pulex is a sensitive indicator organism for environmental contamination. In this study, effects of heavy metal lead acetate were investigated by using electron microscopy techniques. Control group was not expose to lead acetate but experimental group was for 96 h. The ultrastructural changes of hepatopancreatic ceca cells were studied in these two groups by electron microscopy techniques analysing cellular structure, structure of organelles and vacuolization. The number of cells based on the toxic effects of lead acetate was increased compared with the control group. The number and length of cell microvilli was decreased. Additionally degenerated mitocondria, dilation of golgi vesicules and cytoplasmic vacuolization were observed. The results of present study suggest that the exposure to the lead acetate may cause some ultrastructural changes on hepatopancreatic ceca of digestive system in Gammarus pulex. The significance of this change in terms of environmental toxicology needs to be further studied.

  3. Extracellular oxidases of the lignin-degrading fungus Panus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Cadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykyan, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2005-06-01

    Two extracellular oxidases (laccases) were isolated from the extracellular fluid of the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated in low-nitrogen medium supplemented with birch sawdust. The enzymes were purified by successive chromatography on columns with TEAE-cellulose and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M. Both oxidases catalyze oxidation of pyrocatechol and ABTS. Moreover, oxidase 1 also catalyzes oxidation of guaiacol, o-phenylenediamine, and syringaldazine. The enzymes have identical pH (7.0) and temperature (60-65 degrees C) optimums. Absorption spectra of the oxidases differ from the spectra of typical "blue" laccases and are similar to the spectrum of yellow oxidase.

  4. The effects of oil, dispersant, and emulsions on the survival and behavior of an estuarine teleost and an intertidal amphipod

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.G.; Trivelpiece, W.; Miller, D.S.

    1982-04-01

    Killfish (Fundulus heteroclitus) and amphipods (Gammarus oceanicus) were exposed seperately to either a No. 2 fuel oil, AP dispersant, or emulsions of the two in a static system. Both species exhibited a concentration-dependent response to all three treatments. However, emulsification of oil with dispersant clearly increased its lethal effect on killfish survival, but did not cause a differential change in behavioral parameters such as schooling, chafing, substrate nipping, activity, or depth preference. Killfish exposed to conditions of thermal or osmotic stress were more sensitive to the lethal effects of emulsions. In contrast, emulsions caused quantitative changes in amphipod activity and precopulatory behavior, but did not increase mortality beyond that caused by exposure to oil alone. Changes in salinity had little effect on amphipod sensitivity to emulsions, but decreasing temperature did result in increased survival.

  5. Separate and combined effects of habitat-specific fish predation on the survival of invasive and native gammarids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Herkül, Kristjan

    2010-10-01

    The North-American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus was observed for the first time in the northern Baltic Sea in 2003. The invasive amphipod has been particularly successful in some habitats (e.g. on pebbles) where it has become one of the most abundant gammarid species. We studied experimentally if the dominant fish Gasterosteus aculeatus preyed differentially on the exotic G. tigrinus and the native Gammarus salinus, if predation differed among habitats, and if one gammarid species facilitated predation on the other. The experiment demonstrated that (1) fish preyed more on the exotic G. tigrinus than the native G. salinus. (2) Predation did not differ among habitats. (3) Gammarus tigrinus facilitated the predation on G. salinus and this facilitation varied among habitats with significant effects on pebbles. Thus, the combined effect of habitat-specific fish predation and competition between gammarid amphipods is a possible explanation of the current range of G. tigrinus in the northern Baltic Sea. G. tigrinus seems to establish in habitats where it can significantly increase fish predation on the native gammarids.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetonitrile and hexane extracts of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper highlighted the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lentinus tigrinus and Pleurotus djamour. Extracts of mushroom fruiting bodies were obtained using hexane and acetonitrile solvents. Acetonitrile extracts of both mushrooms exhibited higher biological activities than hexane extrac...

  7. Mechanisms of parasite-induced sex reversal in Gammarus duebeni.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Gray, Trevor P; Smith, Judith E; Ashcroft, Alison E; Isaac, R Elwyn; Dunn, Alison M

    2004-05-01

    The amphipod Gammarus duebeni is host to the feminising microsporidian parasite Nosema granulosis that converts males into functional females. To test the hypothesis that the parasite acts through endocrine disruption we compared the morphology of the gonad and activity of the androgenic gland, which coordinates male sexual differentiation, in infected and uninfected animals. Male gonad consisted of testis, seminal vesicle and vas deferens that was anchored to the genital papilla on segment 7. The androgenic gland was associated with the distal end of the vas deferens. In female and intersex animals the bi-lobed ovary opened into the oviduct at segment 5, vestigial vas deferens and vestigial androgenic gland were retained. The majority of parasitised individuals (38/39) were either phenotypic females or intersexes with fully developed ovaries and an undifferentiated androgenic gland. Our data suggest that the parasite prevents differentiation of the androgenic gland. In further support of this hypothesis, mass spectrometry of a single androgenic gland from males revealed a dominant molecular ion with a mass/charge ratio of 4818.4+H, corresponding to a peptide of androgenic gland hormone from Armadillidium vulgare. In contrast the vestigial androgenic gland from parasitised and unparasitised females showed only low intensity peaks. Our observations demonstrate that the parasite manipulates host sex by preventing androgenic gland differentiation, androgenic gland hormone production and consequently male differentiation. This is in agreement with observations of A. vulgare with inherited Wolbachia infection, suggesting that phylogenetically distant feminisers manipulate hosts through a common mechanism. The high frequency of infection in intersexes (89.3%) suggests that this phenotype results from incomplete feminisation by the parasite.

  8. Identification of a putatively multixenobiotic resistance related Abcb1 transporter in amphipod species endemic to the highly pristine Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Protopopova, Marina V; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-04-01

    The fauna of Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, the largest freshwater body on Earth, is characterized by high degrees of biodiversity and endemism. Amphipods, a prominent taxon within the indigenous fauna, occur in an exceptionally high number of endemic species. Considering the specific water chemistry of Lake Baikal with extremely low levels of potentially toxic natural organic compounds, it seems conceivable that certain adaptions to adverse environmental factors are missing in endemic species, such as cellular defense mechanisms mitigating toxic effects of chemicals. The degree to which the endemic fauna is affected by the recently occurring anthropogenic water pollution of Lake Baikal may depend on the existence of such cellular defense mechanisms in those species. We here show that endemic amphipods express transcripts for Abcb1, a major component of the cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defense against toxic chemicals. Based on a partial abcb1 cDNA sequence from Gammarus lacustris, an amphipod species common across Northern Eurasia but only rarely found in Lake Baikal, respective homologous sequences were cloned from five amphipods endemic to Lake Baikal, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, E. vittatus, E. cyaneus, E. marituji, and Gmelinoides fasciatus, confirming that abcb1 is transcribed in those species. The effects of thermal (25 °C) and chemical stress (1-2 mg L(-1) phenanthrene) in short-term exposures (up to 24 h) on transcript levels of abcb1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), used as a proxy for cellular stress in the experiments, were exemplarily examined in E. verrucosus, E. cyaneus, and Gammarus lacustris. Whereas increases of abcb1 transcripts upon treatments occurred only in the Baikalian species E. verrucosus and E. cyaneus but not in Gammarus lacustris, changes of hsp70 transcript levels were seen in all three species. At least for species endemic to Lake Baikal, the data thus indicate that regulation of the identified amphipod abcb1 is

  9. Development of Ascarophis sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) to maturity in Gammarus deubeni (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Appy, Ralph G; Butterworth, Eric W

    2011-12-01

    Experimentally transmitted Ascarophis sp. (Spirurida) developed to adult worms in the invertebrate host, Gammarus deubeni (Amphipoda), collected in the intertidal zone in Passamaquoddy Bay, New Brunswick, Canada. The morphological development and growth of larval stages is very similar to other cystidicolids, which are found as adults in fish. Unlike virtually all other Spirurida, which require a vertebrate definitive host, infective larvae of Ascarophis sp. migrate from the invertebrate host musculature into the hemocoel where they molt twice to become adults. Gravid females appear at 80 days and 69 days post-infection at 10-12 C and 18-20 C, respectively. While there is little evident host reaction to the parasite within the muscle tissue, within the hemocoel there is hemocytic reaction to shed nematode cuticles, released eggs, and sometimes the worm itself, including some melanization. The worms are morphologically similar to Ascarophis sp. from G. oceanicus in the Baltic and White seas and among Ascarophis species from fish is most similar to A. arctica. It is suggested that Ascarophis sp. no longer requires a vertebrate host and is transmitted between amphipods either through death and disintegration of infected amphipods and dispersal of the nematode eggs, or more likely through cannibalism or necrophagy.

  10. The effects of diet mixing on consumer fitness: macroalgae, epiphytes, and animal matter as food for marine amphipods.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, E; Hay, M E

    2000-05-01

    Herbivores are thought to achieve adequate nutrition by consuming numerous species of plants or by occasionally consuming animal tissue. Although active selection of diverse foods is common in nature, the relationship between diet mixing and consumer fitness is poorly understood, especially in marine environments. We studied the fitness-based consequences of dietary mixing in the sympatric amphipods Ampithoe marcuzzii, A. valida, Cymadusa compta, and Gammarus mucronatus by measuring survivorship, growth, and fecundity of these amphipods when they were offered single species of algae, a single animal food, a mixture of algal species, or a combination of algae and animal matter. For the more sedentary, tube-building amphipods A. marcuzzii, A. valida, and C. compta, fitness on mixed algal diets was matched by fitness on at least one of the monospecific algal diets, suggesting that they could benefit from preferential feeding on those algae in the field. The more mobile amphipod, G. mucronatus, survived and grew similarly on the mixed diets and on the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. However, its fecundity was significantly higher when feeding on the algal and animal mixture than on Ectocarpus alone. Additionally, for G. mucronatus, fitness on mixed algae, mixed algae plus animal matter, and animal matter alone was equivalent, although female growth (but not gonad production) was slightly lower on animal matter alone than on the mixed algae combined with animal food. Thus the more mobile amphipod, G. mucronatus, was the only species able to perform well on animal food alone. In contrast, A. valida and C. compta experienced large negative effects when limited to consuming animal matter alone. For these two species, combining algae and animal matter did not enhance fitness over combining only algae. Fitness effects of specific algal diets showed some general similarities, but also considerable variance among the amphipods. For example, E. siliculosus was

  11. Polycyclic aromatic compound profiles from extracts of Dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods coexisting in Hamilton Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.; Bryant, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Aggregates of dreissenid mussels were collected in Hamilton Harbour (western Lake Ontario) from a south shore site (Randle Reef) in an area characterized by coal tar-contaminated sediments, and from a site on the north shore exposed to particulates circulating in the harbour water column. Samples were separated into three components: dreissend mussels, gammarid amphipods (Gammarus fasciatus), and particulate material. The samples were freeze-dried, and extracted using ultrasonication in dichloromethane. The organic solvent extracts were subjected to an open-column alumina and Sephadex LH-20 gel column clean-up procedure, and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles of all sample extracts were dominated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The concentrations of the individual compounds were normalized for contaminant profile comparison of the extracts of dreissenids, amphipods, and particulates associated with aggregates of dreissenid mussels. These profiles were also compared with extracts of coal tar-contaminated sediment from the Randle Reef area, and extracts of suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates obtained from sediment traps. The similarities in the PAH profiles provide evidence of exposure to a common source of contaminants. These data also show that PAH associated with suspended particulates in Hamilton Harbour are being accumulated by dreissenid mussels and gammarid amphipods.

  12. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  13. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda ( Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala ( Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  14. Metal accumulation by an epigean and a hypogean freshwater amphipod: Considerations for water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pienet, S.

    1999-12-01

    To evaluate their potential as biomonitors of surface and underground water quality, the accumulation of essential metals, zinc and copper, by two species of amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus fossarum (an epigean amphipod) and Niphargus rhenorhodanensis (a similar but blind and hypogean form) was investigated. These two species were exposed, under controlled laboratory conditions, to different metal concentrations for 12 days. Several concentrations of each of the two metals separately and one concentration of a mixture of both were tested. Percent mortality revealed that the hypogean species was more resistant than the epigean. During the 12 days of experiment, accumulation patterns differed between species and between metals. G. fossarum, but not N. rhenorhodanensis, accumulated zinc at exposures of up to 12 days and concentrations as great as 1,000 {micro}g/L. Zinc levels in tissue of G. fossarum were greater than in those of N. rhenorhodanensis. Epigean and hypogean amphipods did not clearly accumulate copper in exposures as great at 65 {micro}g/L. Possible reasons for the differences in zinc and copper accumulation between the two species are discussed. Finally, the suitability of the two species as biomonitors for surface and underground water is discussed.

  15. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod.

    PubMed

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda (Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala (Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  16. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N.; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status. PMID:26928527

  17. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Moser, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004-2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Both species were negatively correlated with densities of large fish (non-Cyprinidae; P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P<0.001 and P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P<0.001). H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2011.

  18. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Moser, E. Barry

    2011-01-01

    Gammarus lacustrisK/i> and Ki>Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004–2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P P P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary structure analysis of the blue laccase from the ligninolytic fungus Panus tigrinus

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraroni, Marta; Duchi, Ilaria; Myasoedova, Nina M.; Leontievsky, Alexey A.; Golovleva, Ludmila A.; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2005-02-01

    Blue laccase from the white-rot basidiomycete P. tigrinus, an enzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, has been crystallized. The crystals obtained give diffraction data at 1.4 Å, the best resolution to date for this class of enzymes, which may assist in further elucidation of the catalytic mechanism of multicopper oxidases.

  20. Effects of phthalate esters on the locomotor activity of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Thuren, A. ); Woin, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Phthalates are of environmental concern owing to their large-scale annual production and to their ubiquitous use as additives in the manufacture of plastics. Among the phthalates, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and dibutylphthalate (DBP) are the most commonly used compounds. Phthalates are lipophilic with a relatively low water solubility and show low acute toxicity to fish and selectively toxic to cladocerans. Little is known, however, about their effects on the behavior, reproductive success or the growth of organisms. In this investigation of locomotor activity of G. pulex was studied under phthalate stress. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of phthalates on overall locomotor activity of G. pulex and the impact of long term exposure on diel activity.

  1. Contrasting cellular stress responses of Baikalian and Palearctic amphipods upon exposure to humic substances: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Marina V; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Menzel, Ralph; Putschew, Anke; Luckenbach, Till; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2014-12-01

    The species-rich, endemic amphipod fauna of Lake Baikal does not overlap with the common Palearctic fauna; however, the underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Considering that Palearctic lakes have a higher relative input of natural organic compounds with a dominance of humic substances (HSs) than Lake Baikal, we addressed the question whether HSs are candidate factors that affect the different species compositions in these water bodies. We hypothesized that interspecies differences in stress defense might reveal that Baikalian amphipods are inferior to Palearctic amphipods in dealing with HS-mediated stress. In this study, two key mechanisms of general stress response were examined: heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and multixenobiotic resistance-associated transporters (ABCB1). The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that the basal levels (in 3-day acclimated animals) of hsp70 and abcb1 transcripts were lower in Baikalian species (Eulimnogammarus cyaneus, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, Eulimnogammarus vittatus-the most typical littoral species) than in the Palearctic amphipod (Gammarus lacustris-the only Palearctic species distributed in the Baikalian region). In the amphipods, the stress response was induced using HSs at 10 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon, which was higher than in sampling sites of the studied species, but well within the range (3-10 mg L(-1)) in the surrounding water bodies populated by G. lacustris. The results of qPCR and western blotting (n = 5) showed that HS exposure led to increased hsp70/abcb1 transcripts and HSP70 protein levels in G. lacustris, whereas these transcript levels remained constant or decreased in the Baikalian species. The decreased level of stress transcripts is probably not able to confer an effective tolerance to Baikalian species against further environmental stressors in conditions with elevated HS levels. Thus, our results suggest a greater robustness of Palearctic amphipods and

  2. Copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of Gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Lara; von Fumetti, Stefanie; Nagel, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. We assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and Gammarus fossarum Koch, 1836, as the model organism. This amphipod is a common representative of the European spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. The experiments were conducted in test chambers placed in flow channels and directly in a spring. The gammarids were fed with conditioned beech leaf discs, which had been exposed to a 0.8 mg Cu/L solution for 96 h. The feeding activity of the amphipods was quantified on the level of the organism; and the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) assay was conducted in order to determine changes on the cellular level in the test organisms. The results show that the feeding activity, when the leaf discs were contaminated with copper, was not significantly different from the control. The ETS activity of the gammarids, which had been feeding on the copper contaminated leaf discs was however significantly reduced. The results followed the same pattern for gammarids from both the laboratory and the spring. By conducting the experiments not only in a laboratory but also directly in a spring in the field, we took a crucial step towards a more realistic approach when examining environmental pollutants on an organism. Our findings demonstrate the importance of conducting experiments out in the field, in natural conditions, as well as in the laboratory.

  3. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  4. Panus tigrinus strains used in delignification of sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Adilson R; Costa, Sirlene M; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    Three strains of the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (FTPT-4741, FTPT-4742, and FTPT-4745) were cultivated on sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping. Pulp yields, kappa number, and viscosity of all pulps were determined and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from the samples were recorded. The growth of P. tigrinus strains in plastic bags increased the manganese peroxide and xylanase activities. Lignin peroxidase was not detected in the three systems (shaken and nonshaken flasks and plastic bags). FTIR spectra were reduced to their principal components, and a clear separation between FTPT-4742 and the control was observed. Strain FTPT-4745 decayed lignin more selectively in the three systems utilized. Yields of kraft pulping were low, ranging from 20 to 45% for the plastic bag samples and from 12 to 38% for the flask samples. Kappa numbers were 1-18 and viscosity ranged from 2.3 to 6.8 cP.

  5. An integrated study on Gammarus elvirae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): perspectives for toxicology of arsenic-contaminated freshwater.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Chimenti, Claudio; Ronci, Lucilla; Setini, Andrea; Iannilli, Valentina; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2015-10-01

    The Italian region Latium is characterized by extensive quaternary volcanic systems that contribute greatly to arsenic (As) contamination of freshwater, including drinking water supplies. However, knowledge of the possible toxic effects in these aquatic environments is, despite being highly relevant to public health, still limited. In this paper, we approach this issue using Gammarus elvirae, an amphipod species that inhabits rivers and streams in central Italy, including Latium. We explored the possibility of using G. elvirae in the toxicology of freshwater by addressing the most relevant issues. First, we tested the usefulness of hemocytes from G. elvirae in determining non-specific DNA damage by means of the Comet assay after exposure (24 h and 7 days) to different river water samples in Latium; second, we provided an interpretative overview of the usefulness of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells of G. elvirae as a means of assessing toxicity after long-term exposure to As and other pollutants; third, the LC (50-240 h) value for G. elvirae was estimated for arsenate, which is usually the dominant arsenic species in surface waters. Our study sheds light on G. elvirae at different levels, providing a background for future toxicological research of freshwater.

  6. Quantifying diet-borne metal uptake in Gammarus pulex using stable isotope tracers.

    PubMed

    Pellet, Bastien; Ayrault, Sophie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Gammarids are aquatic amphipods widely used for water quality monitoring. To investigate the copper and cadmium diet-borne metal uptake in Gammarus pulex, we adapted the pulse-chase stable isotopes-based approach to determine the food ingestion rate (IR), the gut retention time (GRT) and the metal assimilation efficiencies (AE). G. pulex were fed with (65)Cu-, (106)Cd-, and (53)Cr-labeled alder leaves for 7.5h and then with unlabeled leaves for 5d. The metal stable isotope contents in the gammarids, leaves, filtered water and periodically collected feces were determined. Chromium was poorly assimilated by the gammarids; thus, Cr was used as an unassimilated tracer. The first tracer defecation occurred before the first feces harvest, indicating a gut passage time of less than 9h. A 24-h GRT and a 0.69gg(-1)d(-1) IR were estimated. The Cd AE value was estimated as 5-47%, depending on the assimilation determination method applied. The Cu AE value could not be evaluated regardless of the determination method used, most likely because of the rapid Cu regulation in gammarids in addition to analytical uncertainties when determining the Cu content in leaves. Application of the Cd AE value in the framework of the biodynamic bioaccumulation model shows that the diet-borne uptake of Cd significantly contributes (66-95%) to the metal bioaccumulation in G. pulex fed with alder leaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Invaders, natives and their enemies: distribution patterns of amphipods and their microsporidian parasites in the Ruhr Metropolis, Germany.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Daniel S; Weigand, Alexander M; Leese, Florian; Winking, Caroline; Hering, Daniel; Tollrian, Ralph; Sures, Bernd

    2015-08-13

    The amphipod and microsporidian diversity in freshwaters of a heterogeneous urban region in Germany was assessed. Indigenous and non-indigenous host species provide an ideal framework to test general hypotheses on potentially new host-parasite interactions, parasite spillback and spillover in recently invaded urban freshwater communities. Amphipods were sampled in 17 smaller and larger streams belonging to catchments of the four major rivers in the Ruhr Metropolis (Emscher, Lippe, Ruhr, Rhine), including sites invaded and not invaded by non-indigenous amphipods. Species were identified morphologically (hosts only) and via DNA barcoding (hosts and parasites). Prevalence was obtained by newly designed parasite-specific PCR assays. Three indigenous and five non-indigenous amphipod species were detected. Gammarus pulex was further distinguished into three clades (C, D and E) and G. fossarum more precisely identified as type B. Ten microsporidian lineages were detected, including two new isolates (designated as Microsporidium sp. nov. RR1 and RR2). All microsporidians occurred in at least two different host clades or species. Seven genetically distinct microsporidians were present in non-invaded populations, six of those were also found in invaded assemblages. Only Cucumispora dikerogammari and Dictyocoela berillonum can be unambiguously considered as non-indigenous co-introduced parasites. Both were rare and were not observed in indigenous hosts. Overall, microsporidian prevalence ranged from 50% (in G. roeselii and G. pulex C) to 73% (G. fossarum) in indigenous and from 10% (Dikerogammarus villosus) to 100 % (Echinogammarus trichiatus) in non-indigenous amphipods. The most common microsporidians belonged to the Dictyocoela duebenum- /D. muelleri- complex, found in both indigenous and non-indigenous hosts. Some haplotype clades were inclusive for a certain host lineage. The Ruhr Metropolis harbours a high diversity of indigenous and non-indigenous amphipod and

  8. Biodegradable and Petroleum-Based Microplastics Do Not Differ in Their Ingestion and Excretion but in Their Biological Effects in a Freshwater Invertebrate Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Straub, Sandrine; Hirsch, Philipp E; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-07-13

    Research on the uptake and effects of bioplastics by aquatic organisms is still in its infancy. Here, we aim to advance the field by comparing uptake and effects of microplastic particles (MPP) of a biodegradable bioMPP (polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and petroleum-based MPP (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Ingestion of both MPP in different particle sizes (32-250 µm) occurred after 24 h, with highest ingestion of particles in the range 32-63 µm and almost complete egestion after 64 h. A four-week effect-experiment showed a significant decrease of the assimilation efficiency in amphipods exposed to the petroleum-based MPP from week two onwards. The petroleum-based PMMA affected assimilation efficiency significantly in contrast to the biodegradable PHB, but overall differences in direct comparison of MPP types were small. Both MPP types led to a significantly lower wet weight gain relative to the control treatments. After four weeks, differences between both MPP types and silica, used as a natural particle control, were detected. In summary, these results suggest that both MPP types provoke digestive constraints on the amphipods, which go beyond those of natural non-palatable particles. This highlights the need for more detailed research comparing environmental effects of biodegradable and petroleum-based MPP and testing those against naturally occurring particle loads.

  9. Biodegradable and Petroleum-Based Microplastics Do Not Differ in Their Ingestion and Excretion but in Their Biological Effects in a Freshwater Invertebrate Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Sandrine; Hirsch, Philipp E.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Research on the uptake and effects of bioplastics by aquatic organisms is still in its infancy. Here, we aim to advance the field by comparing uptake and effects of microplastic particles (MPP) of a biodegradable bioMPP (polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) and petroleum-based MPP (polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum. Ingestion of both MPP in different particle sizes (32–250 µm) occurred after 24 h, with highest ingestion of particles in the range 32–63 µm and almost complete egestion after 64 h. A four-week effect-experiment showed a significant decrease of the assimilation efficiency in amphipods exposed to the petroleum-based MPP from week two onwards. The petroleum-based PMMA affected assimilation efficiency significantly in contrast to the biodegradable PHB, but overall differences in direct comparison of MPP types were small. Both MPP types led to a significantly lower wet weight gain relative to the control treatments. After four weeks, differences between both MPP types and silica, used as a natural particle control, were detected. In summary, these results suggest that both MPP types provoke digestive constraints on the amphipods, which go beyond those of natural non-palatable particles. This highlights the need for more detailed research comparing environmental effects of biodegradable and petroleum-based MPP and testing those against naturally occurring particle loads. PMID:28703776

  10. Size at the onset of maturity (SOM) revealed in length-weight relationships of brackish amphipods and isopods: An information theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Emanuela; Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In amphipods and other small-sized crustaceans, allometric relationships are conventionally analysed by fitting the standard model Y = a·Xb (X and Y are, e.g., body length and weight, respectively) whose scaling exponent b is assumed to be constant. However, breakpoints in allometric relationships have long been documented in large-sized crustaceans, ultimately determined by ontogenetic, abrupt variations in the value of b. Here, the existence of breakpoints in length-weight relationships was investigated in four amphipod (i.e., Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus insensibilis, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, and Dexamine spinosa) and three isopod species (i.e., Lekanesphaera hookeri, Sphaeroma serratum, and Cymodoce truncata) from three Mediterranean lagoons. The power of two candidate linear models fitted to log10-transformed data - a simple model assuming a constant exponent b and a segmented model assuming b to vary after a breakpoint - was compared using a parsimonious selection strategy based on the Akaike information criterion. The segmented model with a breakpoint provided the most accurate fitting of length-weight data in the majority of the species analysed; non-conclusive results were obtained only for D. spinosa and C. truncata, of which a limited number of specimens was examined. Model parameters were consistent for amphipod and isopod species collected across the three different habitats; the generality of the results was further supported by a literature search confirming that the identified breakpoints corresponded with ontogenetic discontinuities related with sexual maturation in all the species investigated. In this study, segmented regression models were revealed to provide a statistically accurate and biologically meaningful description of length-weight relationships of common amphipod and isopod species. The methodological limitations of the approach are considered, while the practical implications for secondary production estimates are discussed.

  11. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Bedulina, Daria; Shatilina, Zhanna; Jakob, Lena; Vereshchagina, Kseniya; Lubyaga, Yulia; Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Luckenbach, Till; Lucassen, Magnus; Sartoris, Franz Josef; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858), Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874) and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea) to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase), and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes) of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc.) of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species’ Darwinian fitness in its environment. PMID:27706227

  12. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Bedulina, Daria; Shatilina, Zhanna; Jakob, Lena; Vereshchagina, Kseniya; Lubyaga, Yulia; Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Luckenbach, Till; Lucassen, Magnus; Sartoris, Franz Josef; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858), Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874) and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea) to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase), and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes) of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc.) of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species' Darwinian fitness in its environment.

  13. Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R; Boucansaud, Karelle; Rigaud, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. Vertically transmitted (VT) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (HT) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize VT parasite fitness. Resolution of the conflict between these parasites should lead to the evolution of one of two strategies: avoidance, or sabotage of HT parasite virulence by the VT parasite. We investigated two co-infecting parasites in the amphipod host, Gammarus roeseli: VT microsporidia have little effect on host fitness, but acanthocephala modify host behaviour, increasing the probability that the amphipod is predated by the acanthocephalan's definitive host. We found evidence for sabotage: the behavioural manipulation induced by the Acanthocephala Polymorphus minutus was weaker in hosts also infected by the microsporidia Dictyocoela sp. (roeselum) compared to hosts infected by P. minutus alone. Such conflicts may explain a significant portion of the variation generally observed in behavioural measures, and since VT parasites are ubiquitous in invertebrates, often passing undetected, conflict via transmission may be of great importance in the study of host–parasite relationships. PMID:16271976

  14. Parasite-induced changes in the diet of a freshwater amphipod: field and laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Médoc, V; Piscart, C; Maazouzi, C; Simon, L; Beisel, J-N

    2011-04-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites are likely to strongly influence food web-structure. The extent to which they change the trophic ecology of their host remains nevertheless poorly investigated and field evidence is lacking. This is particularly true for acanthocephalan parasites whose invertebrate hosts can prey on other invertebrates and contribute to leaf-litter breakdown. We used a multiple approach combining feeding experiments, neutral lipids and stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli parasitized by the bird acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected compared to uninfected amphipods consumed as many dead isopods, but fewer live isopods and less leaf material. Infection had no influence on the total concentration of neutral lipids. Contrary to what we expected based on laboratory findings, the nitrogen isotope signature, which allows for the estimation of consumer's trophic position, was not influenced by infection status. Conversely, the carbon isotope signature, which is used to identify food sources, changed with infection and suggested that the diet of infected G. roeseli includes less perilithon (i.e. fixed algae on rocks, stones) but more terrestrial inputs (e.g. leaf material) than that of uninfected conspecifics. This study shows evidence of changes in the trophic ecology of P. minutus-infected G. roeseli and we stress the need to complement feeding experiments with field data when investigating top-down effects of infection in an opportunistic feeder which adapts its diet to the available food sources.

  15. Potential effects of recurrent low oxygen conditions on the Illinois Cave amphipod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Kelly, W.R.; Hwang, H.-H.; Wilhelm, F.M.; Taylor, S.J.; Stiff, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    The caves of Illinois' sinkhole plain are the sole habitat of the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes), a federally endangered species. The sinkhole plain is a hydrologically-connected sequence of karstified limestone that constitutes an extensive karst aquifer which serves as an important source of potable water for area residents. During this investigation, we examined the ground-water quality in caves within two ground-water basins: 1) Illinois Caverns, where the amphipod is now present after previously reported to have been extirpated from the lower reaches, and 2) Stemler Cave, where the amphipod is reported to have been extirpated. The chemical composition of cave streams in Illinois Caverns and Stemler Cave were compared to determine which parameters, if any, could have contributed to the loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave. Stream water in Stemler Cave contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, potassium, silica, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iron and manganese than Illinois Caverns. Perhaps most importantly, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Stemler Cave were, during periods of low flow, substantially lower than in Illinois Caverns. Based on land use, there are probably at least eight times more private septic systems in the Stemler Cave ground-water basin than in the Illinois Caverns ground-water basin. Low DO concentrations were likely the result of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter and wastewater treatment system effluent, and the oxidation of pyrite in bedrock. The near-hypoxic DO in Stemler Cave that occurred during low-flow conditions, and, we speculate, a limited range of G. acherondytes within the Stemler Cave ground-water basin due to a metabolic advantage of the stygophilic aquatic invertebrates over the stygobitic G. acherodytes, resulted in the apparent loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave.

  16. Waterborne toxicity and diet-related effects of fungicides in the key leaf shredder Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Zubrod, J P; Englert, D; Wolfram, J; Wallace, D; Schnetzer, N; Baudy, P; Konschak, M; Schulz, R; Bundschuh, M

    2015-12-01

    Animals involved in leaf litter breakdown (i.e., shredders) play a central role in detritus-based stream food webs, while their fitness and functioning can be impaired by anthropogenic stressors. Particularly fungicides can affect shredders via both waterborne exposure and their diet, namely due to co-ingestion of adsorbed fungicides and shifts in the leaf-associated fungal community, on which shredders' nutrition heavily relies. To understand the relevance of these effect pathways, we used a full 2×2-factorial test design: the leaf material serving as food was microbially colonized for 12 days either in a fungicide-free control or exposed to a mixture of five current-use fungicides (sum concentration of 62.5μg/L). Similarly, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was subjected to the same treatments but for 24 days. Waterborne exposure reduced leaf consumption by ∼20%, which did not fully explain the reduction in feces production (∼30%), indicating an enhanced utilization of food to compensate for detoxification mechanisms. This may also explain the reduced feces production (∼10%) of gammarids feeding on fungicide-exposed leaves. The reduction may, however, also be caused by a decreased nutritious quality of the leaves indicated by a reduced species richness (∼40%) of leaf-associated fungi. However, compensation for these effects by Gammarus was seemingly incomplete, since both waterborne exposure and the consumption of the fungicide-affected diet drastically reduced gammarid growth (∼110% and ∼40%, respectively). Our results thus indicate that fungicide mixtures have the potential for detrimental implications in aquatic ecosystem functioning by affecting shredders via both effect pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Widely distributed and regionally isolated! Drivers of genetic structure in Gammarus fossarum in a human-impacted landscape.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Martina; Leese, Florian

    2016-07-29

    The actual connectivity between populations of freshwater organisms is largely determined by species biology, but is also influenced by many area- and site-specific factors, such as water pollution and habitat fragmentation. Therefore, the prediction of effective gene flow, even for well-studied organisms, is difficult. The amphipod crustacean Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater ecosystems and contains many cryptic species. One of these species is the broadly distributed G. fossarum clade 11 (type B). In this study, we tested for factors driving the genetic structure of G. fossarum clade 11 in a human-impacted landscape at local and regional scales. To determine population structure, we analyzed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene of 2,086 specimens from 54 sampling sites and microsatellite loci of 420 of these specimens from ten sites. We detected strong overall genetic differentiation between populations at regional and local scales with both independent marker systems, often even within few kilometers. Interestingly, we observed only a weak correlation of genetic distances with geographic distances or catchment boundaries. Testing for factors explaining the observed population structure revealed, that it was mostly the colonization history, which has influenced the structure rather than any of the chosen environmental factors. Whereas the number of in-stream barriers did not explain population differentiation, the few large water reservoirs in the catchment likely act as dispersal barriers. We showed that populations of Gammarus fossarum clade 11 are strongly isolated even at local scales in the human-impacted region. The observed genetic structure was best explained by the effects of random genetic drift acting independently on isolated populations after historical colonization events. Genetic drift in isolated populations was probably further enhanced by anthropogenic impacts, as G. fossarum is sensitive to many anthropogenic

  18. Studies on the life-cycle of Ganeo tigrinus Mehra & Negi, 1928 (Digenea).

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2012-05-01

    The life-history stages of Ganeo tigrinus Mehra & Negi, 1928 infecting the Indian bull frog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) are described, those from cercaria to egg-producing adult having been established in the laboratory. Non-virgulate xiphidiocercariae are released by the planorbid snail Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshayes). Metacercariae occur in the haemocoel of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frog H. tigerinus within 15 days. The pre-patent period is 45 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described in detail. Comments on the systematic position of Ganeo Klein, 1905 are included.

  19. High-throughput proteome dynamics for discovery of key proteins in sentinel species: Unsuspected vitellogenins diversity in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Pible, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

    2016-09-02

    In environmental science, omics-based approaches are widely used for the identification of gene products related to stress response. However, when dealing with non-model species, functional prediction of genes is challenging. Indeed, functional predictions are often obtained by sequence similarity searches and functional data from phylogenetically distant organisms, which can lead to inaccurate predictions due to quite different evolutionary scenarios. In oviparous females, vitellogenin production is vital for embryonic development, ensuring population viability. Its abnormal presence in fish male organisms is commonly employed as a biomarker of exposure to xenoestrogens, named endocrine disruptors. Here, in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum, we identified vitellogenin proteins by means of a proteome temporal dynamics analysis during oogenesis and embryogenesis. This exhaustive approach allows several functional molecular hypotheses in the oogenesis process to be drawn. Moreover, we revealed an unsuspected diversity of molecular players involved in yolk formation as eight proteins originating from different families of the large lipid transfer protein superfamily were identified as "true vitellogenins". In non-model species, next generation sequencing technologies development enables quickly deciphering gene and protein sequences but accuracy of associated functional prediction remains to be established. Here, in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, a key sentinel species in freshwater biomonitoring, we identified key molecular players involved in the female reproduction by studying the proteome dynamics of ovaries and embryos. An unsuspected diversity of vitellogenin proteins was evidenced. These proteins being vital for offspring development, their high diversity may be advantageous for the organism's reproduction. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some forms are true vitellogenin orthologs while others are included in the apolipoprotein family, a paralogous

  20. Time budget and activity patterns of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de Souza; Neto, Glauce Lima e; Carvalho, Patrícia Gonçalves Duarte; Landau-Remy, Gabriella; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir de Almeida; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported on the diet of Leopardus tigrinus and ecological aspects, but studies of behavior are scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the time budget and activity patterns of 10 captive Leopardus tigrinus individuals. The group had an activity budget of 66% resting, 20.66% moving, 6.08% vigilant, 3.12% feeding, and 4.14% other activities during 720 hr of observations. The activity budgets of the males and females did not differ significantly; however, males ate more than did females. The nonhuman animals spent more time resting during the day than during the night. Moving, socializing, maintenance, and vigilance showed statistically higher mean values at night. Group analysis of the temporal pattern of behavior showed bimodal peaks. Activity levels were high from 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. and decreased through the day only to peak again at 7 p.m. Stereotypic pacing peaked at dawn and at dusk. Patterns of vigilance, feeding, and maintenance were also determined for the group during a 24-hr period. These results may be useful for the development of management plans and effective conservation strategies for captive cats.

  1. [Use of Panus tigrinus fungi for production of pressed materials from cotton plant waste].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Shutova, V V; Samuilov, V D

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of cotton plant stems used as a substrate for solid-phase cultivation of the fungus Panus tigrinus were studied as well as the effect of these changes on properties of the pressed materials made of these stems. During the first 3 days of growth, the fungus better consumed cellulose; then, the rate of cellulose consumption was comparable with that of lignin. Intensity and pattern of these changes depended on the age of inoculum. The rate of cotton plant waste biodegradation was higher when a 3-day-old incoculum was used. The pressed materials made of the raw stuff treated with a 3-day-old inoculum of P. tigrinus for 2-3 days displayed better characteristics. Annually, large amounts of lignocellulose stuff is lost while processing of agricultural waste: straw, awn, plant stems, etc. In the countries with developed cotton growing, the annual amount of only guza-paya (dry cotton plant stems) reaches several million tons. To solve this problem, bioconversion of these wastes is studied to manufacture useful products and materials.

  2. First report of Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda, Strongyloididae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora: Felidae) in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina R; Faciulli, Paula; Paparotto, Telma; Takahira, Regina K; Lopes, Raimundo S; da Silva, Reinaldo J

    2009-12-01

    The present study reports the first case of infection by Strongyloides sp. in Leopardus tigrinus in the municipality of Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Feces of the infected L. tigrinus specimen were cultivated in sterilized equine feces and a cat (Felis catus domesticus) was experimentally infected with three thousand infective L3 subcutaneous route, in order to identify the Strongyloides species involved in the parasitism. Parthenogenetic females recovered from the experimental animals were analyzed but comparison between the biometric data found and the data in the literature did not enable identification of the species. This is the first report on the occurrence of Strongyloides sp. in L. tigrinus.

  3. A Laccase with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activity from the Broth of Mycelial Culture of the Mushroom Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, LiJing; Wang, HeXiang; Ng, TziBun

    2012-01-01

    A 59 kDa laccase with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50 = 2.4 μM) was isolated from the broth of mycelial culture of the mushroom Lentinus tigrinus. The isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The laccase was adsorbed on both types of ion exchangers. About 95-fold purification was achieved with a 25.9% yield of the enzyme. The procedure resulted in a specific enzyme activity of 76.6 U/mg. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was GIPDLHDLTV, which showed little similarity to other mushroom laccase and other Lentinus tigrinus strain laccase. Its characteristics were different from previously reported laccase of other Lentinus tigrinus strain. Maximal laccase activity was observed at a pH of 4 and at a temperature of 60°C, respectively. This study yielded the information about the potentially exploitable activities of Lentinus tigrinus laccase. PMID:22536022

  4. Bioconcentration, biotransformation and elimination of pyrene in the arctic crustacean Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda) at two temperatures.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Navarro, V; Jæger, I; Honkanen, J O; Kukkonen, J V K; Carroll, JoLynn; Camus, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    The influence of temperature on the bioaccumulation, toxicokinetics, biotransformation and depuration of pyrene was studied in the arctic marine amphipod Gammarus setosus. A two-compartment model was used to fit experimental values of total body burden, total metabolites and parent pyrene concentrations and to calculate toxicokinetic variables derived for two experimental treatments (2 and 8 °C). No statistically significant differences were observed with temperature for these toxicokinetic variables or bioconcentration factors. Contrarily, the Q10 values suggested that the toxicokinetic variables ke and km were temperature-dependent. This may be explained by the high standard deviation of the Q10 values. Q10 is the variation in the rate of a metabolic reaction with a 10 °C increase in temperature. Depuration rate constants were calculated from linear best fit equations applied to measured pyrene concentrations over time during the depuration phase of the experiment. During depuration, the parent pyrene was eliminated in two stages with faster elimination observed at 8 °C compared to 2 °C. This finding was also indicated by the Q10. No changes in total body burdens of metabolite concentrations were observed during the monitoring of depuration over a period of 96 h. The biotransformation pathway of pyrene in G. setosus was also investigated in this study with two main phase II biotransformation products discovered by liquid chromatography. These products are conditionally identified as the sulphate and glucose conjugates of 1-hydroxy-pyrene. Overall, the study contributes new knowledge to the understanding of the fate of PAHs in arctic biota. In particular, the study provides valuable insight into the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of an important PAH and its metabolites in a species that serves as both a predator and prey in the arctic ecosystem.

  5. Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species.

    PubMed Central

    Dick, J T; Platvoet, D

    2000-01-01

    As the tempo of biological invasions increases, explanations and predictions of their impacts become more crucial. Particularly with regard to biodiversity, we require elucidation of interspecific behavioural interactions among invaders and natives. In freshwaters in The Netherlands, we show that the invasive Ponto-Caspian crustacean amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is rapidly eliminating Gammarus duebeni, a native European amphipod, and Gammarus tigrinus, until now a spectacularly successful invader from North America. In the laboratory, survival of single (unguarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms. In addition, survival of paired (guarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus as compared with male G. duebeni were present. D. villosus killed and consumed both recently moulted and, unusually, intermoult victims. Survival of G. tigrinus was significantly lower when D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms and, again, both moulted and intermoult victims were preyed upon. Male D. villosus were significantly more predatory than were females, while female G. tigrinus were significantly more often preyed upon than were males. Predation by D. villosus on both species occurred over a range of water conductivities, an environmental feature previously shown to promote amphipod coexistence. This predatory invader is predicted to reduce further the amphipod diversity in a range of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. PMID:10874746

  6. Modeling the contribution of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic processes to the recovery of Gammarus pulex populations after exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Galic, Nika; Ashauer, Roman; Baveco, Hans; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Barsi, Alpar; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Because aquatic macroinvertebrates may be exposed regularly to pesticides in edge-of-the-field water bodies, an accurate assessment of potential adverse effects and subsequent population recovery is essential. Standard effect risk assessment tools are not able to fully address the complexities arising from multiple exposure patterns, nor can they properly address the population recovery process. In the present study, we developed an individual-based model of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex to evaluate the consequences of exposure to 4 compounds with different modes of action on individual survival and population recovery. Effects on survival were calculated using concentration-effect relationships and the threshold damage model (TDM), which accounts for detailed processes of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Delayed effects as calculated by the TDM had a significant impact on individual survival and population recovery. We also evaluated the standard assessment of effects after short-term exposures using the 96-h concentration-effect model and the TDM, which was conservative for very short-term exposure. An integration of a TKTD submodel with a population model can be used to explore the ecological relevance of ecotoxicity endpoints in different exposure environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  7. Variation and covariation in infectivity, virulence and immunodepression in the host–parasite association Gammarus pulex–Pomphorhynchus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Cornet, Stéphane; Franceschi, Nathalie; Bollache, Loïc; Rigaud, Thierry; Sorci, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Parasites often manipulate host immunity for their own benefit, either by exacerbating or suppressing the immune response and this may directly affect the expression of parasite virulence. However, genetic variation in immunodepression, which is a prerequisite to its evolution, and the relationship between immunodepression and virulence, have rarely been studied. Here, we investigated the variation among sibships of the acanthocephalan parasite, Pomphorhynchus laevis, in infecting and in immunodepressing its amphipod host, Gammarus pulex. We also assessed the covariation between infectivity, parasite-induced immune depression and host mortality (parasite virulence). We found that infectivity, the intensity of immunodepression and virulence were variable among parasite sibships. Infectivity and the level of immunodepression were not correlated across parasite sibships. Whereas infectivity was unrelated to host mortality, we found that gammarids that were exposed to the parasite sibships that immunodepressed their hosts the most survived better. This positive covariation between host survival and immunodepression suggests that gammarids exposed to the less immunodepressive parasites could suffer from damage imposed by a higher activity of the phenoloxidase. PMID:19726474

  8. Modulatory effects of the serotonergic and histaminergic systems on reaction to light in the crustacean Gammarus pulex.

    PubMed

    Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Dion, Emilie; Cézilly, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Serotonin modulates reaction to light in many animals. In the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, exogenous administration of serotonin induces a transient reversal of photic behaviour from strong photophobia to photophily. We have elucidated further the neuromodulation of photic behaviour in G. pulex by using in vivo pharmacology and behavioural testing. Using several mammalian 5-HT receptor antagonists and agonists, we provide evidence for a role of serotonin receptors in the 5-HT-dependent regulation of G. pulex photic behaviour, possibly involving 5-HTR2 subtype. Serotonin-induced photophily was blocked by the 5-HT receptor antagonists, mianserin, cyproheptadine, and ritanserin, but not by ketanserin and methiothepin. In addition, two agonists at 5-HT receptor, mCPP and α-methylserotonin, partially mimicked 5-HT-induced photophily. The natural photophobia of G. pulex was also decreased by exogenous administration of the histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine, suggesting that photic behaviour may be controlled by more complex interactions between serotonergic and histaminergic systems.

  9. Grazing preferences of marine isopods and amphipods on three prominent algal species of the Baltic Sea [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goecker, Margene E.; Kåll, Sara E.

    2003-12-01

    Preference tests were performed over a two-week period in September 2001 in which isopods ( Idotea baltica) and amphipods ( Gammarus oceanicus) were offered choices of three common species of algae from the Baltic Sea: Enteromorpha intestinalis, Cladophora spp., and Fucus vesiculosus. After a 48-hour starvation period, 20 individuals of each grazer species were placed in aquaria containing approximately 1.0 g of each algal species. Fifteen trials for each grazer species were run for 20 hours. We found that G. oceanicus ate significantly more Cladophora spp. and E. intestinalis than F. vesiculosus (p<0.001), with a preference order of: Cladophora spp.> E. intestinalis> F. vesiculosus. Similarly, I. baltica ate significantly more of both the filamentous green algae than F. vesiculosus (p<0.001), with a preference order of: E. intestinalis> Cladophora spp.> F. vesiculosus. Given the preference of isopods and amphipods for filamentous green algae, we might expect these algae to be maintained at low biomass levels. However, this is clearly not the case in the Baltic Sea. Nutrient enrichment (bottom-up effects) is the accepted dominant reason for the non-controlling impact of algal grazers, but other reasons may include cascading trophic effects resulting from the removal of large piscivorous fish (top-down effects).

  10. Influence of cinnamon and catnip on the stereotypical pacing of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de S; Pedretti Gomes, Karla C; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson; Remy, Gabriella L; Almeida Ramos, Valdir de

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z = 3.16, p < .001; Z = 3.16, p < .001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X(2) = 2.69; p = .260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats.

  11. Comparison of whole animal costs of protein synthesis among polar and temperate populations of the same species of gammarid amphipod.

    PubMed

    Rastrick, S P S; Whiteley, N M

    2017-03-02

    Protein synthesis can account for a substantial proportion of metabolic rate. Energetic costs of protein synthesis, should in theory, be the same in marine invertebrates from a range of thermal habitats, and yet direct measurements using inhibitors produce widely differing values, especially in the cold. The present study aimed to remove any potential confounding interspecific effects by determining costs of protein synthesis in two latitudinally separated populations of the same species (amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus) living in two different thermal regimes; polar vs cold-temperate. Costs of protein synthesis were determined in summer acclimatised G. oceanicus from Svalbard (79°N) at 5°C and from Scotland (58°N) at 13°C. Amphipods were injected with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), at 9mmoll(-1) in crab saline to give a tissue concentration of 0.05mgCHXg(-1)FW and left for 60min before the injection of [(3)H] phenylalanine. After incubation for 120min (180min in total from initial injection), both whole-animal rates of oxygen uptake and absolute rates of protein synthesis were significantly reduced in CHX-treated amphipods vs controls injected with saline. Both populations exhibited similar costs of protein synthesis of ~7μmolO2mg(-1)protein which is close to the estimated theoretical minimum for peptide bond formation, and similar to the values obtained in cell-free systems. The study demonstrates that in G. oceanicus, costs of protein synthesis rates were not elevated in the cold but were fixed among polar and cold-temperate populations.

  12. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals.

  13. Infection with an acanthocephalan manipulates an amphipod's reaction to a fish predator's odours.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Thünken, Timo; Frommen, Joachim G; Bakker, Theo C M; Heupel, Oliver; Kullmann, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Many parasites with complex life cycles increase the chances of reaching a final host by adapting strategies to manipulate their intermediate host's appearance, condition or behaviour. The acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis uses freshwater amphipods as intermediate hosts before reaching sexual maturity in predatory fish. We performed a series of choice experiments with infected and uninfected Gammarus pulex in order to distinguish between the effects of visual and olfactory predator cues on parasite-induced changes in host behaviour. When both visual and olfactory cues, as well as only olfactory cues were offered, infected and uninfected G. pulex showed significantly different preferences for the predator or the non-predator side. Uninfected individuals significantly avoided predator odours while infected individuals significantly preferred the side with predator odours. When only visual contact with a predator was allowed, infected and uninfected gammarids behaved similarly and had no significant preference. Thus, we believe we show for the first time that P. laevis increases its chance to reach a final host by olfactory-triggered manipulation of the anti-predator behaviour of its intermediate host.

  14. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  15. Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a model organism to study the effects of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehennaoui, Kahina; Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Felten, Vincent; Andreï, Jennifer; Garaud, Maël; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Guérold, François; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure; Gutleb, Arno C

    2016-10-01

    Amphipods are one of the most important components of freshwater ecosystems. Among them, gammarids are the most widespread group in Europe and are often used as bioindicators and model organisms in ecotoxicology. However, their use, especially of Gammarus fossarum for the study of the environmental impact of nanoparticles, has been rather limited so far. G. fossarum was selected to assess effects of well-characterized chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 20nm and 200nm) and "green" laboratory synthetized (from plant leaf extracts) AgNPs (AgNPs 23nm and 27nm). AgNO3 was used as a positive control to compare AgNPs effects and silver ions effects. A multibiomarker approach was used to investigate the sub-lethal effects of AgNPs on physiological and behavioural responses of G. fossarum. Two different experiments were carried out. In a preliminary experiment, two populations of G. fossarum (G.f1 and G.f2) were tested for sensitivity differences and the most sensitive one was exposed, in a final experiment, to sub-lethal concentrations of AgNO3 and the most toxic AgNPs. AgNO3 and AgNPs 23nm led to a significant decrease in survival rates, osmoregulation and locomotor activity. Ag internalisation, performed with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), showed the presence of silver in gills of G.f2 exposed to AgNPs 23 and 27nm. This study highlighted the influence of method of synthesis on ion release, uptake and toxic effects of AgNPs on G. fossarum. Osmoregulation appeared to be an effective biomarker indicating the physiological health status of G. fossarum. Locomotor activity, which was the most impacted response, reflects the potential effects of released ions from AgNPs 23nm at the population level as locomotion is necessary for foraging, finding mates and escaping from predators. Therefore, we propose G. fossarum as a suitable model for environmental nanotoxicology, providing information both at individual and population levels. Copyright © 2016

  16. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  17. Stages and duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus, Schreber, 1775).

    PubMed

    Balarini, Maytê Koch; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, S L Pinto; Peixoto, J Vogas; Guião-Leite, F Lima; Rossi Júnior, J L; Czermak Junior, A C; Walker, N J

    2012-03-15

    Six adult Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla) were studied to characterize stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its relative frequency and duration, as well as morphometric parameters of the testes. Testicular fragments were obtained (incisional biopsy), embedded (glycol methacrylate), and histologic sections examined with light microscopy. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium was categorized into eight stages (based on the tubular morphology method). The duration of one seminiferous epithelium cycle was 9.19 d, and approximately 41.37 d were required for development of sperm from spermatogonia. On average, diameter of the seminiferous tubules was 228.29 μm, epithelium height was 78.86 μm, and there were 16.99 m of testicular tubules per gram of testis. Body weight averaged 2.589 kg, of which 0.06 and 0.04% were attributed to the testis and seminiferous tubules, respectively. In conclusion, there were eight distinct stages in the seminiferous epithelium, the length of the seminiferous epithelium cycle was close to that in domestic cats and cougars, and testicular and somatic indexes were similar to those of other carnivores of similar size.

  18. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  19. Safety of the molluscicide Zequanox (R) to nontarget macroinvertebrates Gammarus lacustris (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) and Hexagenia spp. (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Zequanox® is a commercial formulation of the killed bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A), that was developed to control dreissenid mussels. In 2014, Zequanox became the second product registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for use in open water environments as a molluscicide. Previous nontarget studies demonstrated the safety and selectivity of P. fluorescens CL154A, but the database on the toxicity of the formulation (Zequanox) is limited for macroinvertebrate taxa and exposure conditions. We evaluated the safety of Zequanox to the amphipod Gammarus lacustris lacustris, and nymphs of the burrowing mayfly, Hexagenia spp. at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg/L active ingredient, A.I.) and exposure duration (8 h). Survival of animals was assessed after 8 h of exposure and again at 24 and 96 h post-exposure. Histopathology of the digestive tract of control and treated animals was compared at 96 h post-exposure. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival of either species. Survival of G. lacustris exceeded 85% in all concentrations at all three sampling time points. Survival of Hexagenia spp. ranged from 71% (control) to 91% at 8 h, 89–93% at 24 h post-exposure, and 70–73% at 96 h post-exposure across all treatments. We saw no evidence of pathology in the visceral organs of treated animals. Our results indicate that application of Zequanox at the maximum approved concentration and exposure duration did not cause significant mortality or treatment-related histopathological changes to G. lacustris and Hexagenia spp.

  20. Parasite-induced alteration of plastic response to predation threat: increased refuge use but lower food intake in Gammarus pulex infected with the acanothocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dianne, Lucile; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Bauer, Alexandre; Guvenatam, Arnaud; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    Larvae of many trophically-transmitted parasites alter the behaviour of their intermediate host in ways that increase their probability of transmission to the next host in their life cycle. Before reaching a stage that is infective to the next host, parasite larvae may develop through several larval stages in the intermediate host that are not infective to the definitive host. Early predation at these stages results in parasite death, and it has recently been shown that non-infective larvae of some helminths decrease such risk by enhancing the anti-predator defences of the host, including decreased activity and increased sheltering. However, these behavioural changes may divert infected hosts from an optimal balance between survival and foraging (either seeking food or a mate). In this study, this hypothesis was tested using the intermediate host of the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. We compared activity, refuge use, food foraging and food intake of hosts experimentally infected with the non-infective stage (acanthella), with that of uninfected gammarids. Behavioural assays were conducted in four situations varying in predation risk and in food accessibility. Acanthella-infected amphipods showed an increase in refuge use and a general reduction in activity and food intake. There was no effect of parasite intensity on these traits. Uninfected individuals showed plastic responses to water-borne cues from fish by adjusting refuge use, activity and food intake. They also foraged more when the food was placed outside the refuge. At the intra-individual level, refuge use and food intake were positively correlated in infected gammarids only. Overall, our findings suggest that uninfected gammarids exhibit risk-sensitive behaviour including increased food intake under predation risk, whereas gammarids infected with the non-infective larvae of P. laevis exhibit a lower motivation to feed, irrespective of predation risk

  1. [Effect of wood modification on lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Revin, V V; Atykian, N A; Samuilov, V D

    2003-01-01

    Lignin consumption and synthesis of lignolytic enzymes by the fungus Panus (Lentinus) tigrinus cultivated on solid phase (modified and unmodified birch and pine sawdusts) were studied. The fungus grew better and consumed more readily the birch lignin than the pine wood. Peroxidase activity was higher in the case of pine sawdust; laccase and lignolytic activities, in the case of birth sawdust. Treatment with ammonia or sulfuric acid decreased lignin consumption by the fungus cultivated on either medium. Modification of sawdust by ultrasound increased lignin consumption and may be recommended for accelerating biodegradation of lignocellulose substrates.

  2. Multibiomarker assessment of cerium dioxide nanoparticle (nCeO2) sublethal effects on two freshwater invertebrates, Dreissena polymorpha and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Garaud, M; Trapp, J; Devin, S; Cossu-Leguille, C; Pain-Devin, S; Felten, V; Giamberini, L

    2015-01-01

    Cerium nanoparticles (nCeO2) are widely used in everyday products, as fuel and paint additives. Meanwhile, very few studies on nCeO2 sublethal effects on aquatic organisms are available. We tried to fill this knowledge gap by investigating short-term effects of nCeO2 at environmentally realistic concentrations on two freshwater invertebrates; the amphipod Gammarus roeseli and the bivalve Dreissena polymorpha, using an integrated multibiomarker approach to detect early adverse effects of nCeO2 on organism biology. Differences in the behaviour of the organisms and of nanoparticles in the water column led to differential nCeO2 bioaccumulations, G. roeseli accumulating more cerium than D. polymorpha. Exposure to nCeO2 led to decreases in the size of the lysosomal system, catalase activity and lipoperoxidation in mussel digestive glands that could result from nCeO2 antioxidant properties, but also negatively impacted haemolymph ion concentrations. At the same time, no strong adverse effects of nCeO2 could be observed on G. roeseli. Further experiments will be necessary to confirm the absence of severe nCeO2 adverse effects in long-term environmentally realistic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Invasion of the Upper Mississippi River System by Saltwater Amphipods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zoobenthos surveys of the Great Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Mississippi, and Ohio Rivers) provided an opportunity for documenting a series of invasions by euryhaline amphipods. The corophiid amphipod Apocorophium lacustre was first found in the Ohio Ri...

  4. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  5. Three New Records of Gammarid Amphipod in Songkhla Lake, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rattanama, Kotchakorn; Pattaratumrong, Manasawan Saengsakda; Towatana, Prawit; Wongkamhaeng, Koraon

    2016-01-01

    Songkhla Lake is known as the most popular area for gammarid amphipod studies in the Gulf of Thailand. The first gammarid amphipod study was investigated in 1925 by Chilton. After that, there are various studies including diversity, ecology, and biology. In this study, gammarid amphipod in Songkhla Lake were collected from year 2010 to 2014. In this study, three newly recorded amphipods had been reported namely Hyale dollfusi Chevreux, 1911, Grandidierella megnae (Giles, 1888), and Hourstonius japonica (Hirayama, 1983) which had not been previously reported from the Thai waters. The gammarid amphipods had been catalogued. Their characteristics had been described and illustrated. All specimens were deposited at Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. PMID:27965741

  6. Hidden Biodiversity in an Ecologically Important Freshwater Amphipod: Differences in Genetic Structure between Two Cryptic Species

    PubMed Central

    Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Keller, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B) using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species. PMID:23967060

  7. Hidden biodiversity in an ecologically important freshwater amphipod: differences in genetic structure between two cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Keller, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B) using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species.

  8. Multiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturaro, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Vermeulen, Simon; Gobert, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The study of spatial patterns is important in understanding the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides a valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 meters) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes driving the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity, and the density of some species varied substantially across years. For most species the highest spatial variation in density and biomass occurred at small scales (1 and 10 meters). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been related to habitat features, but only weakly. Instead, we postulate that amphipod behavioral processes likely represent good explanatory factors. Although, small-scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, some patterns may have gone undetected because they occur at scales smaller than those investigated.

  9. Ten new Gammarus species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae) from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhonge; Li, Junbo; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Ten new species of the genus Gammarus are described from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Southwest China, including Gammarus amabilis sp. nov., G. citatus sp. nov., G. echinatus sp. nov., G. egregius sp. nov., G. eliquatus sp. nov., G. hirtellussp. nov., G. margcomosus sp. nov., G. rivalis sp. nov., G. silendus sp. nov. and G. tranquillus sp. nov. Four of them are stygobite and with no eyes. Detailed illustrations and comparisons with related species are presented. A key to all species from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau are given.

  10. Status of the Amphipod Diporeia spp. in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amphipod Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although Diporeia populations in the lower Great Lakes have experienced severe declines in recent years, densities have remained relatively stable i...

  11. Status of the amphipod Diporeia Spp. in Lake Superior, 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphipods of the genus Diporeia have historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrates in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although Diporeia populations in the lower Great Lakes have experienced severe declines in recent years, densities have remained relativ...

  12. Status of the amphipod Diporeia Spp. in Lake Superior, 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphipods of the genus Diporeia have historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrates in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although Diporeia populations in the lower Great Lakes have experienced severe declines in recent years, densities have remained relativ...

  13. The talitrid amphipods of Tonga (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Bopiah, Arundathi

    2013-01-01

    One new genus and four species of talitrid amphipods are described from Tonga: Platorchestia ano sp. nov.; Talorchestia spinipalma (Dana, 1852); Tongorchestia pangaimotu gen. nov., sp. nov.; T. towneri sp. nov.

  14. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Carlini, David B; Satish, Suma; Fong, Daniel W

    2013-04-23

    Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave-adapted organisms because they may play a

  15. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave

  16. Mercury-contaminated sediments affect amphipod feeding.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Newman, Michael C; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    A 125-mile reach of the South River, Virginia, was contaminated with mercury during the first half of the 20th century. As increased concentrations of mercury have persisted, researchers have carefully studied its distribution in the river biota and estimated associated risks. The present study evaluated the influence of mercury on feeding rate and uptake by the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The test organisms were exposed for 7 days with leaf discs to reference and contaminated field sediment during the preliminary experiment and additionally to Sedimite (a commercial mercury-sequestering agent) amended sediments during the final experiment. The preliminary experiment demonstrated a decreased feeding rate (approximately 35%) of H. azteca in sediment from a contaminated site relative to sediment from a reference site. The test design of the final experiment took advantage of the knowledge gained in the preliminary experiment by increasing the number of replicates, which decreased the type II error rate. First, the results of the final experiment confirmed the results of the preliminary experiment by again demonstrating differences in the feeding rate of approximately 35% between reference and contaminated sediment. Second, the results indicated a lower feeding rate in reference sediment in the presence of Sedimite. Third, an opposite tendency, although not significant, was apparent for Sedimite-amended contaminated sediment. Thus, Sedimite appears to decrease sediment quality, whereas this conclusion is based on the feeding rate of H. azteca. However, Sedimite and its value as a mercury-sequestering agent requires further evaluation.

  17. Biodegradation potential and ligninolytic enzyme activity of two locally isolated Panus tigrinus strains on selected agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ruqayyah, Tijani I D; Jamal, Parveen; Alam, Md Zahangir; Mirghani, Md Elwathig S

    2013-03-30

    The degradation potential and ligninolytic enzyme production of two isolated Panus tigrinus strains (M609RQY and M109RQY) were evaluated in this study. These strains were grown on three selected abundant agro-industrial wastes (rice straw; rice husk and cassava peel) under solid-state fermentation conditions. Degradation potential was determined by analyzing the chemical composition of the selected substrates before and after fermentation along with ligninolytic enzyme production. The strain M609RQY led to the highest lignin degradation of 40.81% on cassava peel, 11.25% on rice husk and 67.96% on rice straw. Both strains significantly increased the protein content of cassava peel. Rice husk stimulated maximum laccase (2556 U/L) and lignin peroxidase (24 U/L) production by the strains M109RQY and M609RQY, respectively. Furthermore, cassava peel stimulated maximum manganese-dependent peroxidase (141 U/L) production by the strain M109RQY. The de-lignified rice straw and the nutritionally-improved cassava peel could serve as potential animal feed supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN DEXMEDETOMIDINE-S-KETAMINE AND MIDAZOLAM-S-KETAMINE IN IMMOBILIZATION OF ONCILLA (LEOPARDUS TIGRINUS).

    PubMed

    Lima, Caio Filipe da Motta; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido; de Moura, Claudio Alves; de Mattos, Ewaldo; das Candeias, Isis Zanini; Pedron, Bruno Gregnanin; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Dias Neto, Ramiro das Neves

    2016-03-01

    Established immobilization protocols are required for safe procedures on wildlife and zoo animals. This study evaluated the cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) with S-ketamine (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with S-ketamine (5 mg/kg) in 12 specimens of oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) at Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo Park in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil, between January and March 2010. Each animal underwent both protocols, totaling 24 anesthetic procedures. The dexmedetomidine-S-ketamine group (DK) showed a decrease in heart rate compared to initial values and significantly lower heart rate and oxyhemoglobin saturation values compared to Midazolam-S-Ketamine Group (MK). Four animals in DK had episodes of sinus pauses. Systemic blood pressure, respiratory frequency, and rectal temperature showed no significant differences between groups. The dexmedetomidine-S-ketamine group showed a greater degree of muscle relaxation and allowed for more thorough and longer oral evaluations. The dexmedetomidine-S-ketamine group had a shorter period of recumbency, longer period to return of muscle tone, and shorter recovery time. Two animals in MK did not reach recumbency. The dexmedetomidine-S-ketamine group had better qualities of induction and recovery. It may be concluded that both protocols can be safely used in oncillas. Midazolam-S-ketamine promotes effective chemical restraint for quick and minimally invasive procedures and dexmedetomidine-S-ketamine promotes effective chemical restraint for prolonged and more invasive procedures.

  19. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin; Xu, Chunping

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass.

  20. Effect of Tween 80 and Acetone on the Secretion, 
Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    He, Peixin; Wu, Shuangshuang; Pan, Lige; Sun, Siwen; Mao, Duobin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, the effects of the addition of Tween 80 and acetone on secretion, structure and antioxidant activities of Lentinus tigrinus exopolysaccharides (EPS) were investigated. It was found that Tween 80 and acetone displayed a stimulatory effect on EPS secretion. The EPS obtained by the addition of Tween 80 (EPS-T), acetone (EPS-A) and control (EPS--C) were purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration chromatography and molecular mass of purified fractions was estimated to be 22.1, 137 and 12 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that EPS-T, EPS-A and EPS-C were mainly composed of glucose and mannose. Congo Red test indicated that EPS-T and EPS-A had a highly ordered conformation of triple helix, while EPS-C had a random coil conformation. Furthermore, EPS-A exhibited higher DPPH scavenging and antiproliferative activities than EPS--C and EPS-T, which might be attributed to the molecular mass. PMID:27956860

  1. Bioaccumulation and critical body burden of fluoranthene in estuarine amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.K.; Dickhut, R.; Schaffner, L.

    1995-12-31

    A standard estuarine sediment toxicity test organism, the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus, was exposed to {sup 14}C-fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is ubiquitous in contaminated coastal sediments. In water-only toxicity tests, the 10-d LC50 was 187.2 nmol/L and the critical body burden associated with 50% mortality on day 8 was 0.694 {micro}mol fluoranthene-equivalents/gww tissue. These results suggest that L. plumulosus is more sensitive to fluoranthene than other species of amphipods that have been examined. Also, the critical body burden measured in water-only tests for this species is lower than the predicted value that is associated with death by accumulation of nonpolar organic compounds such as fluoranthene in other organisms. Sediment toxicity, bioaccumulation, ability to metabolize fluoranthene, elimination rate, and critical body burden of fluoranthene in L. plumulosus will be compared to results previously determined for the freshwater amphipods, Diporeia sp. and Hyalella azteca.

  2. [Interrelation between the composition of lipids and products of their peroxidation and the secretion of ligninolytic enzymes during growth of Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus].

    PubMed

    Kadimaliev, D A; Nadezhina, O S; Atykian, N A; Revin, V V; Samuilov, V D

    2006-01-01

    Lipid composition, intracellular products of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the activities of extracellular enzymes were studied during submerged cultivation of the xylotrophic fungus Lentinus (Panus) tigrinus VKM F-3616D. The maximum secretion of ligninolytic enzymes during the phase of active mycelium growth correlated with increased content of readily oxidized phospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids and with low content of the LPO products. In the idiophase, which was characterized by lower excretion of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, the content of more stable phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, and LPO products increased. A relationship between the composition of mycelial lipids and the secretion of ligninolytic enzymes was revealed.

  3. A FIELD VALIDATION OF TWO SEDIMENT-AMPHIPOD TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field validation study of two sediment-amphipod toxicity tests was conducted using sediment samples collected subtidally in the vicinity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated Superfund site in Elliott Bay, WA, USA. Sediment samples were collected at 30 stati...

  4. A FIELD VALIDATION OF TWO SEDIMENT-AMPHIPOD TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field validation study of two sediment-amphipod toxicity tests was conducted using sediment samples collected subtidally in the vicinity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated Superfund site in Elliott Bay, WA, USA. Sediment samples were collected at 30 stati...

  5. Ecological modeling for the extrapolation of ecotoxicological effects measured during in situ assays in Gammarus.

    PubMed

    Coulaud, Romain; Geffard, Olivier; Coquillat, Amandine; Quéau, Hervé; Charles, Sandrine; Chaumot, Arnaud

    2014-06-03

    Evaluating the effects of chemical contamination on populations and ecological communities still constitutes a challenging necessity in environmental management. However, the toxic effects of contaminants are commonly measured by means of organism-level responses. Linking such effects measures with ecological models is a promising way to determine population-level impacts. In this way, population models are currently increasingly used in predictive risk assessment procedures, but their use in environmental diagnostic framework remains limited due to their lack of ecological realism. The present study with the crustacean Gammarus fossarum, a sentinel species in freshwater monitoring, combines a dual field and laboratory experimental approach with a population modeling framework. In this way, we developed an ecologically relevant periodic matrix population model for Gammarus. This model allowed us to capture the population dynamics in the field, and to understand the particular pattern of demographic sensitivities induced by Gammarus life-history phenology. The model we developed provided a robust population-level assessment of in situ-based effects measures recorded during a biomonitoring program on a French watershed impacted by past mining activities. Thus, our study illustrates the potential of population modeling when seeking to decipher the role of environmental toxic contamination in ecological perturbations.

  6. Sensitivity comparison of laboratory-cultured and field-collected amphipod Corophium multisetosum in toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Menchaca, Iratxe; Belzunce, María Jesús; Franco, Javier; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Montero, Natalia; Revilla, Marta

    2010-04-01

    The feasibility of using lab-cultured amphipods Corophium multisetosum (Stock 1952) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants present within marine sediments was studied. This was done by comparing the sensitivity of lab-cultured amphipods in a cadmium toxicity test and to toxic sediment samples, during a 10-days bioassay, with field collected individuals. Different responses were observed between field and cultured individuals. Cadmium test indicated high temporal variability in the LC(50) values of field amphipods (2.40-6.55 mg L(-1)). Sensitivity of cultured amphipods was within the seasonal range of the field individuals (5.81 mg L(-1), LC(50)). However, culture amphipods showed much lower sensitivity in toxic sediment samples. Our results indicate that sensitivity should be determined using a sediment matrix, if the assessment of toxicity is based upon bioassays performed with cultured burrower-amphipods.

  7. Evaluation of toxicity: Whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures with amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures to the amphipod Hyalella azteca using field-collected sediments. Severe toxic effects (5-63% survival) were observed with amphipods exposed for 10 d in direct contact with sediment. In contrast, amphipods exposed only to overlying water in these sediment exposures did not exhibit any toxic effects.

  8. New lysianassoid amphipods from the north eastern atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Kaim-Malka, R A

    2014-06-25

    Two new lysianassoid amphipod species, Ambasia anophthalma n. sp. and Bathyamaryllis biscayensis n. sp., are described based on adult females collected in the North Eastern Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Biscay) by an autonomous bait system deployed on the sea bottom at a depth of 1460-1550 m. These two species are characterized by the absence of eyes (blind species). They belong to genera which include very few species.

  9. Extraordinary micro-endemism in Australian desert spring amphipods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, N P; Adams, M; Guzik, M T; Austin, A D

    2013-03-01

    Increasing pressure for water in the Australian arid zone is placing enormous stress on the diverse endemic communities inhabiting desert springs. Detailed information about the evolutionary processes occurring within and between individual endemic species will help to develop effective and biologically relevant management strategies this fragile ecosystem. To help determine conservation priorities, we documented the genetic structure of the endemic freshwater amphipod populations in springs fed by the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic history and genetic diversity measures were examined using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from approximately 500 chiltoniid amphipods across an entire group of springs. Pronounced genetic diversity was identified, demonstrating that levels of endemism have been grossly underestimated in these amphipods. Using the GMYC model, 13 genetically divergent lineages were recognized as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), all of which could be considered as separate species. The results show that due to the highly fragmented ecosystem, these taxa have highly restricted distributions. Many of the identified ESUs are endemic to a very small number of already degraded springs, with the rarest existing in single springs. Despite their extraordinarily small ranges, most ESUs showed relative demographic stability and high levels of genetic diversity, and genetic diversity was not directly linked to habitat extent. The relatively robust genetic health of ESUs does not preclude them from endangerment, as their limited distributions ensure they will be highly vulnerable to future water extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The physiological ecology of the supratidal amphipod Talorchestia longicornis.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Aaron P; Forward, Richard B

    2012-02-01

    Physiology, behavior, habitat, and morphology are used to determine the degree of adaptation to life on land for amphipod species and systemization within the four functional groups of the family talitridae. Talorchestia longicornis is a semi-terrestrial amphipod found in the supratidal zone of estuaries. The present study investigates the physiological adaptations of this species to life on land through measurements of osmoregulation and respiration. Over the salinity range of 1-40‰, T. longicornis regulated its hemolymph hyperosmotically at low salinities and hypoosmotically at high salinities. The isosmotic point was about 27‰. Analogously, hemolymph chloride levels were well regulated being hyperionic at low salinities and hypoionic at high salinities. This species is capable of respiration in both air and water. Slopes (b values) of the relationship between weight and oxygen uptake rates ranged from 0.316 to 0.590. Oxygen uptake rates were higher in air than water and at night versus day. Q(10) values were slightly below 2.0 for respiration in air for amphipods, irrespective of weight. These physiological adaptations, along with its behaviors, habitat, and morphology, place T. longicornis within the Group III sandhoppers of the Talitridae.

  11. Overview and quantification of the factors affecting the upstream and downstream movements of Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Dedecker, Andy P; Goethals, Peter L; De Pauw, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Human activities have severely deteriorated the Flemish river systems, and many functions such as drinking water supply, fishing, ... are threatened. Because their restoration entails drastic social (e.g. change in habits with regard to water use and discharge, urban planning) and economical (e.g. investment in nature restoration, wastewater treatment system installation) consequences, the decisions should be taken with enough forethought. Ecosystem models can act as interesting tools to support decision-making in river restoration management. In particular models that can predict the habitat requirements of organisms are of considerable importance to ensure that the planned actions have the desired effects on the aquatic ecosystems. In preliminary studies, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were tested and optimized to obtain the best model configuration for the prediction of the habitat suitability for Gammarus pulex based on the abiotic characteristics of their aquatic environment in the Zwalm river basin (Flanders, Belgium). Although, these ANN models are in general quite robust with a rather high predictive reliability, the model performance has to be increased with regard to simulations for river restoration management. In particular, spatial-temporal expert-rules have to be included. Migration kinetics (downstream drift and upstream migration) of the organism and migration barriers along the river (weirs, impounded river sections, ...) can deliver important additional information on the effectiveness of the restoration plans, and also on the timing of the expected effects. This paper presents an overview and quantification of the factors affecting the upstream and downstream movements of Gammarus pulex. During further research, ANN models will be used to predict the habitat suitability for Gammarus pulex after several restoration options. The migration models, implemented in a Geographical Information System (GIS), are applied to calculate the migration

  12. Effect studies of human pharmaceuticals on Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Lindh, Karolina; Kumblad, Linda

    2012-03-01

    In two experiments, the human pharmaceutical propranolol negatively affected the physiology of two test organisms, Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp. from a Baltic Sea littoral community in a concentration of 1000 μg l⁻¹. Some effects were also observed for the lower, more ecologically relevant concentrations (10 μg l⁻¹ and 100 μg l⁻¹). The effects on F. vesiculosus not only increased with increasing concentration, but also with exposure time; while the effects on Gammarus spp. were more inconsistent over time. No clear effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen were observed for any of the organisms. Physiological parameters measured were GP:R-ratio, chlorophyll fluorescence and release of coloured dissolved organic matter, respiration and ammonium excretion. Pharmaceutical substances are repeatedly detected in the Baltic Sea which is the recipient for STP effluents from more than 85 million people living in the catchment area, but the knowledge of their effects on non-target organisms is still very limited.

  13. Ovary and embryo proteogenomic dataset revealing diversity of vitellogenins in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Pible, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Ovaries and embryos from sexually mature Gammarus fossarum were sampled at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The soluble proteome was extracted for five biological replicates and samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. The resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry with a LTQ-Orbitrap XL instrument. The MS/MS spectra were assigned with a previously described RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database. The proteins highlighted by proteogenomics were monitored and their abundance kinetics over the different stages revealed a large panel of vitellogenins. Criteria were i) accumulation during oogenesis, ii) decrease during embryogenesis, iii) classified as female-specific, and iv) sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis ("High-throughput proteome dynamics for discovery of key proteins in sentinel species: unsuspected vitellogenins diversity in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum" by Trapp et al. [1]) have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange via the PRIDE repository with identifiers PRIDE: PXD001002.

  14. Influence of molting and starvation on digestive enzyme activities and energy storage in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs.

  15. Natural porous and nano fiber chitin structure from Gammarus argaeus (Gammaridae Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Murat; Tozak, Kabil Özcan; Baran, Talat; Sezen, Göksal; Sargin, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Chitin and its derivatives are commercially important biopolymers due to their applications in medicine, agriculture, water treatment, cosmetics and various biotechnological areas. Since chitin and its derivatives exhibit different chemical and physical properties depending on the source and isolation method, there is a growing demand for new chitin sources other than crab and shrimp worldwide. In this study Gammarus, a Crustacea, was investigated as a novel chitin source. Gammarus, which belongs to the family Gammaridae Crustacea, lives in the bottom of aquatic ecosystems. More than 200 species are known worldwide. One of these species, G. argaeus was investigated for chitin isolation. The alpha chitin isolated from G. argaeus was characterized by using analysis techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All these analyses confirmed that the isolated chitin from G. argaeus was in the alpha form. Furthermore, we described that dry weight of this species contained 11-12 % chitin. SEM examination of the isolated α-chitin revealed that it was composed of nanofibrils (15-55 nm) and pores (about 150 nm). PMID:26966425

  16. Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

  17. DIFFERENTIAL DISPLAY ANALYSES OF THE AMPHIPOD HYALELLA AZTECA EXPOSED TO ETHYNYLESTRADIOL AT THREE DIFFERENT TROPHIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine if differential display could be used to detect differences in gene expression in the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. In a study of synthetic estrogen attenuation in different aquatic media, amphipods were exposed to 20 ng/L 17 a-ethynylestradiol in...

  18. DIFFERENTIAL DISPLAY ANALYSES OF THE AMPHIPOD HYALELLA AZTECA EXPOSED TO ETHYNYLESTRADIOL AT THREE DIFFERENT TROPHIC LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine if differential display could be used to detect differences in gene expression in the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. In a study of synthetic estrogen attenuation in different aquatic media, amphipods were exposed to 20 ng/L 17 a-ethynylestradiol in...

  19. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

    PubMed Central

    Mamos, Tomasz; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina; Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1) we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2) the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3) given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4) we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors’ occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. Results We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least 13 cryptic

  20. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Michał; Mamos, Tomasz; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina; Rewicz, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi A

    2017-01-01

    The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1) we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2) the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3) given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4) we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors' occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least 13 cryptic species or molecular operational taxonomic

  1. The validity of the Gammarus:Asellus ratio as an index of organic pollution: abiotic and biotic influences.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Dick, Jaimie T A; Bigsby, Ewan; Elwood, Robert W; Montgomery, W Ian; Gibbins, Chris N; Kelly, David W

    2002-01-01

    In freshwaters. Gammarus spp. are more sensitive to organic pollution than Asellus spp. and the relative abundance of the two taxa has been proposed as a pollution index. We tested the validity of this by examining the relationship between the Gammarus: Asellus (G : A) ratio and (1) a suite of physico-chemical variables. (2) established biotic (average score per taxon, ASPT) and richness (species richness (S) and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera families richness (EPT family richness)) indices generated from the macroinvertebrate community. In addition, we investigated a suspected biotic interaction, predation, between Gammarus and Asellus. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the G: A ratio was sometimes responsive to changes in parameters linked to organic pollution, such as BOD5 and nitrate levels. However, the G : A ratio also appeared responsive to variables not directly linked to organic pollution, such as conductivity and distance from source. There were significant positive correlations among the G : A ratio and the ASPT, S and EPT, indicating that changes in the relative abundances of Gammarus and Asellus were reflected in changes in the pollution sensitivity and richness of the wider macroinvertebrate community. A laboratory experiment revealed significant predation of Asellus aquaticus juveniles by Gammarus duebeni celticus adults, but no reciprocal predation. We propose that the G: A ratio may be useful as a crude measure of organic pollution that could supplement more complex indices in a multimetric approach to pollution monitoring or be used for monitoring individual sites, where a simple technique is required for monitoring purposes over a period of time. Also, we urge recognition of the possible role of biotic interactions among taxa used in the generation of pollution indices.

  2. The legacy of a vanished sea: a high level of diversification within a European freshwater amphipod species complex driven by 15 My of Paratethys regression.

    PubMed

    Mamos, Tomasz; Wattier, Remi; Burzyński, Artur; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-02-01

    The formation of continental Europe in the Neogene was due to the regression of the Tethys Ocean and of the Paratethys Sea. The dynamic geology of the area and repetitious transitions between marine and freshwater conditions presented opportunities for the colonization of newly emerging hydrological networks and diversification of aquatic biota. Implementing mitochondrial and nuclear markers in conjunction with a large-scale sampling strategy, we investigated the impact of this spatiotemporal framework on the evolutionary history of a freshwater crustacean morphospecies. The Gammarus balcanicus species complex is widely distributed in the area previously occupied by the Paratethys Sea. Our results revealed its high diversification and polyphyly in relation to a number of other morphospecies. The distribution of the studied amphipod is generally characterized by very high local endemism and divergence. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny and geographical distribution of ancestral nodes indicates that this species complex started to diversify in the Early Miocene in the central Balkans, partially in the shallow epicontinental sea. It is possible that there were several episodes of inland water colonization by local brackish water lineages. Subsequent diversification within clades and spread to new areas could have been induced by Alpine orogeny in the Miocene/Pliocene and, finally, by Pleistocene glaciations. The present distribution of clades, in many cases, still reflects Miocene palaeogeography of the area. Our results point out that investigations of the historical aspect of cryptic diversity in other taxa may help in a general understanding of the origins of freshwater invertebrate fauna of Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quantification of emerging micropollutants in an amphipod crustacean by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode.

    PubMed

    Sordet, Martin; Berlioz-Barbier, Alexandra; Buleté, Audrey; Garric, Jeanne; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-22

    An innovative analytical method has been developed to quantify the bioaccumulation in an amphipod crustacean (Gammarus fossarum) of three micropollutants regarded as anthropic-pollution markers: carbamazepine, oxazepam, and testosterone. A liquid-liquid extraction assisted by salts, known as QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) was miniaturised and optimised, so it could be adapted to the low mass samples (approximatively 5mg dry weight). For this same reason and in order to obtain good sensitivity, ultra-trace analyses were carried out by means of nanoliquid chromatography. A preconcentration system by on-column trapping was optimised to increase the injection volume. In order to improve both sensitivity and selectivity, the multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode analyses (MRM(3)) were carried out, validated and compared to the classic MRM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that MRM(3) is coupled to nanoliquid chromatography for the analysis and detection of organic micropollutants <300Da. The optimised extraction method exhibited recoveries superior to 80%. The limits of quantification of the target compounds were 0.3, 0.7 and 4.7ng/g (wet weight) for oxazepam, carbamazepine and testosterone, respectively and the limits of detection were 0.1, 0.3 and 2.2ng/g (wet weight), respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were inferior to 7.7% and 10.9%, respectively, for the three levels of concentration tested. The analytical strategy developed allowed to obtain limits of quantification lower than 1ng/g (wet weight) and to establish the kinetic bioconcentration of contaminants within G. fossarum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of water hardness, water temperature, and size of the test organism on the susceptibility of the freshwater shrimp, Gammarus pulex (L. ), to toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, R.R.

    1983-10-01

    In this study the authors examined the effects of water hardness, water temperature, size of test organism and duration of exposure on the acute toxicity of four substances to Gammarus pulex (L.), the freshwater shrimp.

  5. Cannibalism and food availability in the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C.; Jaramillo, E.; Contreras, H.; Acuña, K.

    2010-10-01

    The availability of limiting resources can potentially influence the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions. Stranded macroalgae exported from adjacent coastal ecosystems supports abundant intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches, including talitrid amphipods, which can be one of the numerically dominant invertebrates of the upper shore. The allochthonous nature of this donor-controlled food subsidy and its unpredictable delivery by waves and currents, results in highly variable and potentially limiting resource availability for these consumers. In Chile, adults of the talitrid amphipod, Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet, can influence the survival of juvenile conspecifics through cannibalism, a type of intraspecific interaction we hypothesized could be affected by the availability of macroalgal resources. We experimentally investigated the potential influence of food availability on cannibalism between age classes in O. tuberculata in laboratory mesocosms. Juvenile mortality in presence of conspecific adults was significantly higher when juveniles and adults were maintained without food. However, adult mortality was neither density dependent or food dependent. Further, juveniles did not influence adult mortality, either with or without food. The strong effect of food limitation on juvenile mortality from cannibalism by adults of O. tuberculata found here, supports our hypothesis that food resource availability on beaches can affect this intraspecific interactions. In addition these results provide evidence of the potential importance of biological interaction in the population dynamics of intertidal consumers on oceanic sandy beaches.

  6. A potential new estuarine amphipod test species from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Quintino, V.M.S.; Re, A.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity testing is of recognized value, however tests do not exist for all ecoregions. In particular, there is a paucity of test species for estuarine conditions. To date such testing has been conducted using either Microtox or the Pacific amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius. There are no other test species for which developed tests exist, which can tolerate the full range of estuarine salinities (0 to 35 ppt). The authors report testing with the Atlantic amphipod, Corophium multisetosum, which can survive well from 0 to 35 ppt. At the time of writing this abstract, initial testing has indicated appropriate dose-response relationships with the reference toxicant cadmium chloride, and an acute 10-day protocol has been successfully conducted at a range of test temperatures (15--22 C) and with salinities of 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.5, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0%. Work presently underway and expected to be reported at the World Congress includes finalization of methods development for acute (10-d static) testing, namely the sensitivity to a range of fines content in the sediment, and initiation of chronic (growth, reproduction success) testing.

  7. Amphipods on a deep-sea hydrothermal treadmill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaartvedt, S.; Van Dover, C. L.; Mullineaux, L. S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Bollens, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Conspicuous swarms of a pardaliscid amphipod were observed at about 2520 and 2580 m depth in the East Pacific Rise vent field during dives with the submersible Alvin. Swarms occurred in association with mussels, clams and tubeworms, and were located above, and immediately downstream of cracks with emanating hydrothermal water. Numerical density sometimes exceeded 1000 individuals 1 -1, which is 3 orders of magnitude greater than any previous report on pelagic crustaceans from the deep sea. The amphipods, however, were not obligatory swarmers, and thin-layered shoals and scattered individuals were observed. Orientation of individuals was often polarized as they headed into the venting flow, swimming vigorously at 5-10 cm s -1 to maintain their position in the current. Retention within the preferred habitat requires an average swimming speed corresponding to the average current speed, suggesting a sustained swimming of > 10 body lengths s -1. These observations contrast with the general concept of low swimming activity in deep-sea crustaceans.

  8. Diversity of trematode genetic clones within amphipods and the timing of same-clone infections.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Devon B; Waters, Jonathan M; Poulin, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The genetic diversity of trematodes within second intermediate hosts has important implications for the evolution of trematode populations as these hosts are utilized after the parasites reproduce asexually within first intermediate hosts and before sexual reproduction within definitive hosts. We characterised the genetic clonal diversity of the marine trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis within amphipod (Paracalliope novizealandiae) second intermediate hosts using four to six microsatellite loci to determine if multiple copies of identical trematode clones existed within naturally infected amphipods. To determine the relative timing of infections by identical clones within hosts, trematode metacercariae were assigned to six developmental stages and the stages of identical clones were compared. The genotypes of 306 trematodes were determined from 44 amphipods each containing more than one trematode. Six pairs of identical trematode clones were recovered in total (representing five amphipods: 11% of amphipods with greater than one trematode) and all pairs of clones belonged to the same developmental stage. This suggests that identical clone infections are effectively synchronous. A general decrease in the number of metacercariae recovered, prevalence, and mean intensity of infection for each subsequent developmental stage coupled with large numbers of metacercariae (>9) only being recovered from recent infections, supports the occurrence of post-infection amphipod mortality and/or within-host trematode mortality. Taken together, our results indicate that natural infections are characterised by high genetic diversity, but that amphipods also periodically encounter "batches" of genetically identical clones, potentially setting the stage for interactions within and between clonal groups inside the host.

  9. Metabolism and decompression tolerance of scavenging lysianassoid deep-sea amphipods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treude, Tina; Janßen, Felix; Queisser, Wolfgang; Witte, Ursula

    2002-07-01

    Respiration, ammonia excretion and decompression tolerance were studied in several species of lysianassoid amphipods captured at four stations in the deep Arabian Sea with an isolated trap maintaining them at in situ temperature. The amphipods were decompressed from their ambient to atmospheric pressure during recovery. Six amphipods, belonging to the species Eurythenes gryllus, Paralicella caperesca and Abyssorchomene abyssorum, survived decompression from depths between 1920 and 4420 m. The physiological condition of these specimens was good inferred by the fact that their swimming and resting behaviour appeared normal, they reacted to disturbance by light and vibration, and were able to ingest food to maintain full guts. Most of the amphipods (421 individuals), however, were recovered dead, which allows information about their decompression tolerance and their vertical migration ability to be deduced. Weight-specific respiration rates of the deep-sea amphipods that were fed prior to the experiments were not lower than in shallow-water amphipods living at similar temperatures. Differences in respiration rates between the specimens are discussed with regard to body size, species specificity and food supply. Weight-specific ammonia excretion rates were extremely high when compared with shallow-water relatives, indicating a capability for rapid digestion. This may be an adaptation to the unpredictable food supply in the deep sea as it enables the amphipod to empty its digestive tract quickly, thus making it available for additional food. Rapid digestion also enables the animals to regain mobility soon after feeding, permitting them to move to new food sources.

  10. Silver nanoparticles impact the functional role of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Andreï, Jennifer; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Felten, Vincent; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Gutleb, Arno C; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli.

  11. Heavy metals and arsenic fixation into freshwater organic matter under Gammarus pulex L. influence.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Joerg; Mkandawire, Martin; Gert Dudel, E

    2010-07-01

    Organic sediments are a main sink for metal pollutants in aquatic systems. However, factors that make sediments a sink of metals and metalloids are still not clear. Consequently, we investigate the role of invertebrate shredders (Gammarus pulex L.) on quality of metal and arsenic fixation into organic partitions of sediment in the course of litter decay with laboratory microcosm experiments. During the decomposition of leaf litter, G. pulex significantly facilitated the development of small particles of organic matter. The capacity of metal fixation was significantly higher in smaller particles than leaf litter and litter residuals. Thus, G. pulex enhanced metal fixation into the organic partition of sediments by virtue of increasing the amount smaller particles in the aquatic system. Furthermore, invertebrates have a significant effect on formation of dissolved organic matter and remobilization of cobalt, molybdenum and cesium, but no significant effect on remobilization of all other measured elements.

  12. Bioaccumulation kinetics of organic xenobiotic pollutants in the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex modeled with prediction intervals.

    PubMed

    Ashauer, Roman; Caravatti, Ivo; Hintermeister, Anita; Escher, Beate I

    2010-07-01

    Uptake and elimination rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and elimination times in the freshwater arthropod Gammarus pulex were measured for 14 organic micropollutants covering a wide range of hydrophobicity (imidacloprid, aldicarb, ethylacrylate, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, carbofuran, malathion, 4-nitrobenzyl-chloride, 2,4-dichloroaniline, Sea-Nine, 2,4-dichlorophenol, diazinon, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene; all 14C-labeled). The toxicokinetic parameters were determined by least-square fitting of a one-compartment first-order toxicokinetic model, followed by Markov Chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation. The parameter estimation methods used here account for decreasing aqueous concentrations during the exposure phase or increasing aqueous concentrations during the elimination phase of bioaccumulation experiments. It is not necessary to keep exposure concentrations constant or zero during uptake and elimination, respectively. Neither is it required to achieve steady state during the exposure phase; hence, tests can be shorter. Prediction intervals, which take the between-parameter correlation into account, were calculated for bioaccumulation factors and simulations of internal concentrations under variable exposure. The lipid content of Gammarus pulex was 1.3% of wet weight, consisting of 25% phospholipids and 75% triglycerides. Size-dependent bioaccumulation was observed for eight compounds, although the magnitudes of the relationships were too small to be of practical relevance. Elimination times ranged from 0.45 to 20 d, and bioaccumulation factors ranged from 1.7 to 4,449 L/kg. The identified compounds with unexpectedly long elimination times should be given priority in future studies investigating the biotransformation of these compounds.

  13. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  14. A REFORMULATED, RECONSTITUTED WATER FOR TESTING THE FRESHWATER AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately har...

  15. Talorchestia qeshm sp. nov., a new talitrid amphipod from the Persian Gulf (Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, Im; Momtazi, Farzaneh

    2015-07-13

    A new talitrid amphipod species, Talorchestia qeshm sp. nov., is described from Qeshm Island in the south-eastern Persian Gulf. This is the westernmost confirmed record for Talorchestia and places the genus firmly in the western Indian Ocean.

  16. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  17. A REFORMULATED, RECONSTITUTED WATER FOR TESTING THE FRESHWATER AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately har...

  18. Status of the Amphipod Diporeia spp. in Lake Superior, poster presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amphipod Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although Diporeia populations in the lower Great Lakes have experienced severe declines in recent years, densities have remained relatively stable i...

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND METHYL MERCURY IN THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism of interaction between chlorpyrifos, an organo-phosphate insecticide, and methyl mercury, an organometal, was assessed utilizing the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Previous studies have demonstrated that chlorpyrifos and methyl mercury interact additively, with survival...

  20. Status of the Amphipod Diporeia spp. in Lake Superior, poster presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amphipod Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although Diporeia populations in the lower Great Lakes have experienced severe declines in recent years, densities have remained relatively stable i...

  1. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita.

  2. TOXICOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND METHYL MERCURY IN THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism of interaction between chlorpyrifos, an organo-phosphate insecticide, and methyl mercury, an organometal, was assessed utilizing the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Previous studies have demonstrated that chlorpyrifos and methyl mercury interact additively, with survival...

  3. Anti-depressants make amphipods see the light.

    PubMed

    Guler, Yasmin; Ford, Alex T

    2010-09-01

    The effects of serotonin altering parasites, serotonin, the anti-depressant fluoxetine, plus two other highly prescribed pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and diclofenac) on the behaviour of the marine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus were investigated. Acanthocephalan parasites are known to alter the swimming behaviour in their amphipod hosts through changes in serotonergic activity resulting in increased predation. Behavioural assays were adapted to record changes in phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour in male E. marinus following 7, 14 and 21 days exposure to serotonin and each pharmaceutical compound at 4 concentrations compared to a control (between 10 ng/L and 10 microg/L). E. marinus infected with acanthocephalans parasites had both significantly higher phototaxis and geotaxis scores than those of uninfected specimens. Phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to serotonin. Fluoxetine significantly altered phototaxis and geotaxis activity in what appeared to be a non-monotonic concentration response curve with the greatest behavioural changes observed at 100 ng/L. The main patterns of these behavioural responses were consistent between two trials and the 3 weeks exposure with specimens spending more time within the light and occurring higher in the water column. No obvious trends could be concluded in the phototaxis and geotaxis scores from individuals exposed to carbamazepine or diclofenac as might be expected from their known mode of action. From this study phototaxis and geotaxis behaviour have been observed to be affected by exposure to serotonin modulators. Parasite studies have shown strong links between changes in behaviour and increased predation risk correlating with changes in serotonergic activity. This study has highlighted the potential for highly prescribed anti-depressant drugs to change the behaviour of an ecologically relevant marine species in ways which could conceivably lead to

  4. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  5. Diversity and distribution of freshwater amphipod species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the reorganization of the Hyperiid amphipods, a diverse group of pelagic crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Carla; Haddock, Steven H D; Browne, William E

    2013-04-01

    Within the crustaceans, the Amphipoda rank as one of the most speciose extant orders. Amphipods have successfully invaded and become major constituents of a variety of ecosystems. The hyperiid amphipods are classically defined as an exclusively pelagic group broadly inhabiting oceanic midwater environments and often having close associations with gelatinous zooplankton. As with other amphipod groups they have largely been classified based on appendage structures, however evidence suggests that at least some of these characters are the product of convergent evolution. Here we present the first multi-locus molecular phylogenetic assessment of relationships among the hyperiid amphipods. We sampled 51 species belonging to 16 of the 23 recognized hyperiidian families for three nuclear loci (18S, 28S, and H3) and mitochondrial COI. We performed both Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of concatenated sequences. In addition, we also explored the utility of species-tree methods for reconstructing deep evolutionary histories using the Minimize Deep Coalescence (MDC) approach. Our results are compared with previous molecular analyses and traditional systematic groupings. We discuss these results within the context of adaptations correlated with the pelagic life history of hyperiid amphipods. Within the infraorder Physocephalata (Bowman and Gruner, 1973) we inferred support for three reciprocally monophyletic clades; the Platysceloidea, Vibilioidea, and Phronimoidea. Our results also place the enigmatic Cystisomatidae and Paraphronimidae at the base of the infraorder Physosomata (Bowman and Gruner, 1973) suggesting that Physosomata as traditionally recognized is paraphyletic. Based on our multilocus phylogeny, major rearrangements to existing taxonomic groupings of hyperiid amphipods are warranted.

  7. Toxicity of various contaminants to two Ampeliscid amphipods and a rotifer

    SciTech Connect

    Dolah, R. Van; Maier, P.; Jones, J.; Fulton, M.; Scott, G.; Lewis, M.

    1995-12-31

    Comparative bioassays were completed on the amphipods Ampelisca abdita and A. verrilli, and the rotifer Branchionus plicatilis, to determine their relative sensitivity to cadmium and fluoranthene. All aqueous tests involved static exposures for 24 and 48 hrs in 30 pt seawater, except for the amphipod exposures in fluoranthene which involved a 96-hr exposure. The amphipod sediment assays involved 10-day static exposures to contaminant-spiked sediments. Rotifer tests involved 24 and 48 hr exposures to sediment porewater that was centrifuged from the spiked sediments. Results obtained from the aqueous bioassays indicated that both amphipod species were significantly more sensitive than the rotifer to all of the contaminants. Ampelisca abdita and A. verrilli were generally comparable in their sensitivity to cadmium and fluoranthene. Results obtained from the 10-day sediment bioassays on the amphipods indicated that A. verrilli was more sensitive than A. abdita to the cadmium exposures and both amphipod assays were much more sensitive than the rotifer assay. Only A. abdita showed significant mortality in the highest fluoranthene exposure of 50 mg/kg dry wt, 0.46% TOC.

  8. Electrophoretic approach to the biochemical systematics of gammarids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.; Scholl, A.

    1981-12-01

    By utilizing the techniques for electrophoretic separation of proteins by vertical starch gels, the biochemical systematics of 10 Gammaridae species obtained from marine, brackish and freshwater habitats was studied. They included Chaetogammarus marinus, Gammarus zaddachi, G. salinus, G. oceanicus, G. tigrinus, G. chevreuxi, G. locusta, G. duebeni duebeni, G. d. celticus, G. pulex pulex, and G. fossarum. For comparison of electrophoretic mobilities selected enzymes (phosphoglucose isomerase, glutamate oxalacetate transaminase, arginine phosphokinase, hexokinase, leucine amino peptidase, mannose 6-phosphate isomerase) were assayed. They were used as diagnostic characters in terms of electrophoretic identities or diversities of most frequent alleles at polymorphic gene loci. These criteria could be applied to estimate intrageneric enzymic variation and degrees of genetic relatedness between the crustacean amphipod species under consideration, thereby complementing traditional morphological classification.

  9. A comparison of the accumulation of phenanthrene by marine amphipods in water versus sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Fusi, T.; Weber, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research is to compare the accumulation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene by marine amphipods from sediment and interstitial water versus from a water only exposure system. The equilibrium partitioning theory assumes that the exposure and response of benthic invertebrates are the same when exposed to the same contaminant concentration in water and interstitial water. In this series of experiments, three infaunal marine amphipod species; Eohaustorius estuarius (non tube-forming, burrowing amphipod), Leptocheirus plumulosus (burrow-building amphipod) and Grandidierella japonica (tube-building amphipod), were exposed to {sup 14}C-phenanthrene under three experimental conditions: (1) sediment spiked at a concentration resulting in an interstitial water concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene; (2) sediment spiked at a concentration resulting in interstitial water concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l and the overlying water spiked at 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene; (3) a water only exposure with the water at a concentration of 2.5 {micro}g/l phenanthrene, The exposures were conducted in a static renewal system with the overlying and exposure water being replaced every 8 hours. The bioaccumulation of phenanthrene was followed over 72 hours. In all three species of amphipods, the accumulation of phenanthrene was significantly greater in the water only exposure than in the two sediment exposures. At 72 hours, the amphipod body burdens of phenanthrene in the water only exposures were, depending on the species, 7 to 24 times that of the sediment only exposures. The results suggest that water only exposures may overestimate sediment or interstitial exposure to phenanthrene and other nonionic, lipophilic compounds.

  10. The toxicological effects of thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis (Schellenberg 1937) (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Pelin; Ünlü, Erhan; Satar, Elif İpek

    2015-03-01

    Neonicotinoids are a new group of insecticides, and little is known about their toxicity to nontarget freshwater organisms an potential effects on freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study is to establish the acute toxicity and histopathological effects of thiamethoxam-based pesticide on the gill tissue of Gammarus kischineffensis. In this study G. kischineffensis samples were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100mg/l of commercial grade thiamethoxam for 96 h. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were determined as 75.619, 23.505, 8.048 and 3.751 mg/l respectively. In histopathological study the individuals were exposed to 0.004, 0.04 and 0.4 mg/l thiamethoxam concentrations for 14 days. The results showed that the most common changes at all doses of thiamethoxam were vacuolization and hemostatic infiltration in the gill tissue of G. kischineffensis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal variability of antioxidant biomarkers and energy reserves in the freshwater gammarid Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Sroda, Sophie; Cossu-Leguille, Carole

    2011-04-01

    In gammarids, behavioural and biochemical biomarkers are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies. In our study, we have investigated seasonal variations of several biochemical biomarkers in Gammarus roeseli, a freshwater species. Organisms were sampled monthly over a 1-year period. Gender was distinguished to measure antioxidant enzyme activities like total glutathione peroxidase (GPxtot), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) and catalase enzymes, lipoperoxidation end-product (malondialdehyde, MDA), and energy reserves with protein and lipid contents. In the same time, usual water physico-chemical parameters were measured at the sampling site. A based-gender difference was observed for parameters related to oxidative stress. Females showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities and lower MDA level than males. Parameters related to oxidative stress and energy reserves appeared correlated with temperature and physiological status of organisms. Females GPx activities were lower in autumn and winter when no breeding occurred. In both gender, MDA levels were correlated with temperature with an increase of lipoperoxidation in summer. Lipid contents were the lowest in summer and the highest in winter, probably due to the reproductive status of organisms and their feeding behaviour. Gender-based differences of biochemical parameters suggest a specific sensitivity of males and females in ecotoxicological experiments. Moreover, organisms could be more vulnerable in summer when MDA levels are high and energy reserves low. Deleterious effect of xenobiotics would be different with gender and season.

  12. Crustacean hyperglycemic and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormones in the lobster Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Ollivaux, Céline; Vinh, Joëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), produced by the X organ-sinus gland neurosecretory complex, belong to a peptide group referred to as the CHH family, which is widely distributed in arthropods. In this study, genetic variants and post-translationally modified isoforms of CHH and VIH were characterized in the European lobster Homarus gammarus. With the use of RP-HPLC and ELISA with specific antibodies that discriminate between stereoisomers of CHH and VIH, two groups of CHH-immunoreactive peaks were characterized from HPLC fractions of sinus gland extract (CHH A and CHH B); each group contained two variants (CHH and D-Phe3CHH). In the same way, two VIH-immunoreactive peaks (VIH and D-Trp4VIH) were demonstrated in HPLC fractions from sinus gland extract. The masses of these different neuropeptides were determined by FT-ICR MS: CHH A and CHH B spectra exhibited monoisotopic ions at 8557.05 Da and 8527.04 Da, respectively, and both VIH isomers displayed an m/z value of 9129.19 Da. Two full-length cDNAs encoding preprohomones of CHH A and CHH B and only one cDNA for VIH precursor were cloned and sequenced from X organ RNA. Comparison of CHH sequences between European lobster and other Astacoidea suggests that the most hydrophobic form appeared first during crustacean evolution.

  13. Proteomic investigation of male Gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

    2015-01-02

    While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress.

  14. Enrichment of uranium in particulate matter during litter decomposition affected by Gammarus pulex L.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2008-12-01

    Plant litter and organic matter of aquatic sediments provide a significant sink of soluble inorganic uranium species in contaminated ecosystems. The uranium content in detritus has been observed to increase significantly during decomposition. However, the influence of the decomposer community on uranium fixation remains unclear. In view of this, we investigated the influence of a shredder (the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex L) on uranium fixation and mobilization during the degradation of plant litter. Leaf litter from Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. with 1152 mg kg(-1) U of dry biomass (DM) and without uranium was used in a 14-day laboratory experiment. The uranium concentration in the particulate organic material (POM) at the end of experiment was 1427 mg kg(-1) DM. After 14 days of decay, the residues of the leaves show a uranium concentration of 644 mg kg(-1) DM. Uranium concentrations in the media initially increased reaching up to 63.9 microg L(-1) but finally decreased to an average value of 34.3 microg L(-1). Atthe same time, DOC levels increased from 2.43 mg L(-1) up to 11.4 mg L(-1) in the course of the experiment Hence, inorganic uranium fixation onto particulate organic matter was enhanced by the activity of G. pulex.

  15. Bisphenol A in artificial indoor streams: II. Stress response and gonad histology in Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Schirling, Martin; Jungmann, Dirk; Ladewig, Vanessa; Ludwichowski, Kai-Uwe; Nagel, Roland; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the world wide-distributed chemical bisphenol A (BPA) on the endocrine system of vertebrates have been demonstrated in several studies. Here, we report on the impact of BPA (0, 5, 50 and 500 microg/l nominally, deduced effective concentrations 0, 0.24, 2.4, and 24.1 microg/l, respectively, all at 15 degrees C) on the 70 kD stress protein family (hsp70), the 90 kD stress protein family (hsp90), and gonad histology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum exposed in artificial indoor streams. The animals were exposed for a maximum of 103 days and samples were taken at the beginning and at days 34, 69 and 103 of the experiment. Exposure to BPA resulted in accelerated maturation of oocytes in females and in a decline in the number and size of early vitellogenic oocytes. The level of hsp90, which plays a pivotal role in vertebrate sex steroid signal transduction, was significantly reduced by BPA. In all five streams, measured parameters did not indicate any captivity stress for a period of 69 days. Beyond this time, the mortality rate and proteotoxic effects, the latter measured by hsp70 expression, were found to be elevated.

  16. Effects of feminizing microsporidia on the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland in Gammarus duebeni.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Martin; Smith, Judith E; Dubuffet, Aurore; Dunn, Alison M

    2013-02-01

    Feminizing parasites enhance their vertical transmission to the host offspring by converting genetic male hosts into phenotypic females. Crustacea are the only invertebrates where sexual differentiation is controlled by a specialised endocrine organ, the androgenic gland, rather than by the gonads. We showed that a feminizing microsporidian Microsporidium sp. inhibits androgenic gland differentiation. We investigated the effect of Microsporidium sp. and a second feminizing microsporidium, Nosema granulosis, on the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland in Gammarus duebeni. Androgenic gland implants had a masculinizing effect on the sexual characteristics and sexual behaviour of recipient female hosts, reflecting the masculinizing function of the androgenic gland. Individuals that had received androgenic glands showed changed morphology in comparison with controls; they were bigger overall, they lost their oostegite marginal setae, developed calceoli and acquired a male-like behaviour. This effect was observed in uninfected females, as well as in females infected with the Microsporidium sp. The masculinizing effect of androgenic gland implants was smaller in N. granulosis infected individuals. N. granulosis and Microsporidium sp. fall into distinct clades of the Microspora. It appears that these divergent parasites both act by inhibiting the development of the androgenic gland. However, they differ in their ability to inhibit the host's response to the hormone that controls male sexual differentiation.

  17. The effect of salinity on transovarial transmission of a microsporidian infecting Gammarus duebeni.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A M; Hatcher, M J

    1997-10-01

    This is an investigation of the impact of salinity on transovarial transmission and burden of a microsporidian sex ratio distorter in the inter-tidal crustacean Gammarus duebeni. Exposure of parasitized mothers to increased salinity during the gonotrophic cycle caused an increase in parasite burden in the follicle cells and a decrease in burden in the oocytes. It appears that salinity impedes parasite transmission from the follicle cells to the oocytes during host oogenesis. A lower proportion of the young were infected in broods from elevated salinity and, in infected offspring, parasite burden was lower than in control embryos. Parasite replication occurred during embryogenesis. However, the pattern of parasite growth did not differ between salinities, indicating that differences in parasite burden could be attributed to a reduction in the initial parasite burden transmitted to the gamete, rather than to a reduction in parasite replication during host embryogenesis. We discuss our findings with respect to parasite/host dynamics and the ecology of the host.

  18. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  19. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O

    2013-12-01

    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Ontogeny of intracellular isosmotic regulation in the european lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Haond, C; Bonnal, L; Sandeaux, R; Charmantier, G; Trilles, J P

    1999-01-01

    Intracellular free amino acids were measured in the abdominal muscle of the three larval instars, postlarvae, and juveniles of the lobster Homarus gammarus, acclimated to seawater (35 per thousand) and to a dilute medium (22 per thousand), to study intracellular isosmotic regulation throughout the development of this species. Transfer to low salinity was followed by a highly significant drop of free amino acids level in all developmental stages. The main regulated amino acids were glycine, proline, and alanine. The level of regulation of total free amino acids changed at metamorphosis: the decrease in total free amino acids at low salinity was 46% in the three larval instars, but it was only 29% in postlarvae and 20% in juveniles. These results suggest that free amino acids, mainly glycine, proline, and alanine, are involved in intracellular isosmotic regulation in the lobster, with different levels of involvement in pre- and postmetamorphic stages. The ontogenetic changes in intracellular isosmotic regulation are discussed in relation to the changes in extracellular regulation (osmoregulation) in the lobster.

  1. Changes in amino acids and lipids during embryogenesis of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Rosa, R; Calado, R; Andrade, A M; Narciso, L; Nunes, M L

    2005-02-01

    We studied the amino acid and lipid dynamics during embryogenesis of Homarus gammarus. Major essential amino acids (EAA) in the last stage of embryonic development were arginine, lysine and leucine; major nonessential amino acids (NEAA) were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine and glycine. The highest percent of utilization occurred in respect to EAA (27.8%), mainly due to a significant decrease (p<0.05) of methionine (38.3%) and threonine (36.0%). NEAA also decreased significantly (p<0.05, 11.4%), namely serine (38.1%), tyrosine (26.4%) and glutamic acid (25.7%). In contrast, the free amino acid content increased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development, especially the free nonessential amino acids (FNEAA). In the last stage, the most abundant FNEAA were glycine, proline, alanine and taurine, and the major free essential amino acids (FEAA) were arginine, lysine and leucine. Lipid content decreased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development. A substantial decrease in all neutral lipid classes was observed (>80% of utilization). Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Unsaturated (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at similar rates (76.5% and 76.3%, respectively). Within UFA, monounsaturates (MUFA) were consumed more than polyunsaturates (PUFA) (82.9% and 67.5%, respectively).

  2. Microbial proliferation on gill structures of juvenile European lobster ( Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlemiss, Karen L.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of gill-cleaning structures is not well described in European lobster ( Homarus gammarus). Furthermore, the magnitude and time scale of microbial proliferation on gill structures is unknown to date. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate development of setae in zoea, megalopa and juvenile stages (I-V). Microbes were classified and quantified on gill structures throughout a moult cycle from megalopa (stage IV) to juvenile (stage V). Epipodial serrulate setae, consisting of a naked proximal setal shaft with the distal portion possessing scale-like outgrowths (setules), occur only after zoea stage III. After moulting to megalopa (stage IV), gill structures were completely clean and no microbes were visible on days 1 or 5 postmoult. Microbial proliferation was first evident on day 10 postmoult, with a significant 16-fold increase from day 10 to 15. Rod-shaped bacteria were initially predominant (by day 10); however, by day 15 the microbial community was dominated by cocci-shaped bacteria. This research provides new insights into the morphology of gill-grooming structures, the timing of their development, and the magnitude, timescale and characteristics of gill microbial proliferation during a moult cycle. To some degree, the exponential growth of epibionts on gills found during a moult cycle will likely impair respiratory (gas exchange) and ion regulatory function, yet further research is needed to evaluate the physiological effects of the exponential bacterial proliferation documented here.

  3. Postembryonic development of the parasitic amphipod Hyperia galba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Birgit

    1987-06-01

    Hyperia galba Montagu is associated with gelatinous zooplankton as are many species of the Hyperiidea. The hosts preferred in the European seas are the large scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita, Chrysaora hysoscella, Rhizostoma pulmo, Cyanea capillata and Cyanea lamarckii, which harbour the first developmental stages. The anamorphic development produces young that are incapable of swimming at the time of hatching. They are characterized by an embryonic abdomen without extremities and external segmentation; the eyes are not completely developed and the mouth is primitive lacking bristles, molar and incisor. The postembryonic development, described in detail, is subdivided into two phases: the pantochelis phase and the protopleon phase; the former comprises only one stage; the latter can be subdivided into four stages. In the course of postnatal development the larval organs are reduced and characters typical of the adult are gradually differentiated. H. galba plays an important role as obligatory endoparasite of scyphomedusae at least during the first stages of development; without a host this amphipod cannot survive, neither benthically nor in the plankton. The transition from life in the female's marsupium to endoparasitism in the jellyfish generally occurs during stage of the postembryonic development which is the first stage of the protopleon phase. The specific adaptations of its reproductive biology to a parasitic mode of life such as moult inhibition under starvation, development of larval organs and the behavioural patterns of the females as well as the young are described. Further, the influence of external factors such as temperature and food supply on the course of development is examined.

  4. Role of sources and temporal sinks in a marine amphipod

    PubMed Central

    Munguia, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Spatially structured habitats challenge populations to have positive growth rates and species often rely on dispersing propagules to occupy habitats outside their fundamental niche. Most marine species show two main life stages, a dispersing stage and a sedentary stage affecting distribution and abundance patterns. An experimental study on Corophium acherusicum, a colonial tube-building amphipod, showed the strong influence that a source population can have on new habitats. More importantly, this study shows the effect of temporal sinks where newly established populations can show reduced growth rates if the propagule supply from a source is removed. Sink populations had a reduction in abundance and became male-biased as females left colonies. The consequences arising from short-term dispersal and temporal sinks could be due to different selection pressures at the source and sink populations. These consequences can become reflected in long-term dynamics of marine populations if we shift focus to non-random dispersal models incorporating behaviour and stage-dependent dispersal. PMID:25673002

  5. Functional response of staging semipalmated sandpipers feeding on burrowing amphipods.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2009-09-01

    Despite its fundamental relevance to many ecological processes in predator-prey relationships, the functional response, which relates predator intake rate to prey density, remains difficult to document in the field. Here, I document the functional response of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) foraging on a burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator during three field seasons at the peak of fall migration in the upper Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick, Canada). I gathered data during the ebbing tide when all sandpipers are highly motivated to feed after a lengthy hide-tide fast. As birds follow the receding tideline, foragers encounter prey at different densities and do not aggregate in the richest food patches. Results show that intake rate increased at a decreasing rate with Corophium density, yielding a type II functional response typical of many shorebird species. Intake rate decreased in the later stages of migration stopover at a time where preferred prey items have been shown to occur at lower densities due to prior depletion. At this period of lower prey availability, intake rate also decreased with sandpiper density providing evidence for interference at low prey density. The results illustrate the fact that the functional response may not be unique but instead vary as a function of the type of competitive relationship among foragers.

  6. Role of sources and temporal sinks in a marine amphipod.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Spatially structured habitats challenge populations to have positive growth rates and species often rely on dispersing propagules to occupy habitats outside their fundamental niche. Most marine species show two main life stages, a dispersing stage and a sedentary stage affecting distribution and abundance patterns. An experimental study on Corophium acherusicum, a colonial tube-building amphipod, showed the strong influence that a source population can have on new habitats. More importantly, this study shows the effect of temporal sinks where newly established populations can show reduced growth rates if the propagule supply from a source is removed. Sink populations had a reduction in abundance and became male-biased as females left colonies. The consequences arising from short-term dispersal and temporal sinks could be due to different selection pressures at the source and sink populations. These consequences can become reflected in long-term dynamics of marine populations if we shift focus to non-random dispersal models incorporating behaviour and stage-dependent dispersal.

  7. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables.

  8. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods.

    PubMed

    Madyarova, Ekaterina V; Adelshin, Renat V; Dimova, Mariya D; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2015-01-01

    At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea) are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema) are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus.

  9. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Madyarova, Ekaterina V.; Adelshin, Renat V.; Dimova, Mariya D.; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V.; Lubyaga, Yulia A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea) are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema) are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus. PMID:26087136

  10. Sensitivity of an infaunal amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius, to acute waterborne exposures of 4-nonylphenol: evidence of a toxic hangover.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Scott; Boese, Bruce L

    2002-04-01

    Three independent trials were conducted using mortality and burial as endpoints. Amphipod mean lethal concentration to 50% (LC50) was 227 microg/L. One-hour burial as a sublethal endpoint increased the sensitivity of the toxicity test by 40%; however, most amphipods that survived exposure were able to recover within 24 to 48 h. This toxic hangover was dose-dependent.

  11. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.J.; Pauley, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. Amphipods are ubiquitous in distribution, but are most abundant in estuarine areas and other high nutrient areas. Hyperiidea are the third most abundant coastal marine crustacean zooplankton, following copepods and euphausiids. Benthic Gammaridea are an invaluable food source for many economically important fish and invertebrate species. Habitat preference and behavior of the major amphipod groups is highly variable. Intertidal California amphipods overlap the distribution of common genera of other regions around the world. Amphipoda are reported to be indicators of heavily polluted areas. They are considered the most efficient of all scavengers on the sea bottom and in shoreline areas. 66 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Direct comparison of amphipod sensitivities to dredged sediments from Spanish ports.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martinez, M C; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of the benthic amphipod species Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator to dredged sediments was compared through simultaneous testing on the standard 10 days sediment toxicity test. The results of mortality obtained for 22 harbor sediments sampled at several Spanish ports were studied together with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples to obtain the incidence of toxicity in terms of dredged material categories and to identify possible differences in the amphipod mortality results when using one or another test species. The results showed a similar incidence of toxicity for medium-high and highly contaminated sediments for both amphipod species, similar to that obtained through the comparison of the chemical concentrations measured in sediments with the single limit values used in Spain for dredged material characterization and management. On the contrary, C. volutator presented a higher mortality and a higher incidence of toxicity when exposed to low and medium-low contaminated sediments, which may have been caused by the lower sensitivity of A. brevicornis when exposed to sediments from its natural environment. When compared to other amphipod species used for whole sediment toxicity assessment, both amphipod species used in this study reported slightly higher sensitivities although these differences could have been associated to the different set of chemical compounds considered when characterizing the sediment samples. In this sense, the amphipod mortality results were better predicted through the use of mean quotients than just by comparing the measured chemical concentrations with the single limit values used in Spain, which indicates that the toxic response of both species was caused by the cocktail of contaminants present in the sediments. Finally, the correlation analysis identified a higher association between A. brevicornis mortality and the metallic contaminants while C. volutator was more correlated with the organic

  13. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Chris G.; Brunson, Eric L.; Dwyer, F. James; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Kemble, Nile E.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). Exposures to sediment were started with 7- to 8-d-old amphipods. On day 28, amphipods were isolated from the sediment and placed in water-only chambers where reproduction was measured on day 35 and 42. Typically, amphipods were first in amplexus at about day 21 to 28 with release of the first brood between day 28 to 42. Endpoints measured included survival (day 28, 35, and 42), growth (as length and weight on day 28 and 42), and reproduction (number of young/female produced from day 28 to 42). This method was used to evaluate a formulated sediment and field-collected sediments with low to moderate concentrations of contaminants. Survival of amphipods in these sediments was typically >85% after the 28-d sediment exposures and the 14-d holding period in water to measure reproduction. Reproduction was more variable than growth; hence, more replicates might be needed to establish statistical differences among treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated that growth of H. azteca in sediment tests often provides unique information that can be used to discriminate toxic effects of exposure to contaminants. Either length or weight can be measured in sediment tests with H. azteca. However, additional statistical options are available if length is measured on individual amphipods, such as nested analysis of variance that can account for variance in length within replicates. Ongoing water-only studies testing select contaminants will provide additional data on the relative sensitivity and variability of sublethal endpoints in toxicity tests with H. azteca.

  14. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Neff, Jerry M; Durell, Gregory S

    2012-04-01

    An objective of a multiyear monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management was to examine temporal and spatial changes in chemical and biological characteristics of the Arctic marine environment resulting from offshore oil exploration and development activities in the development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. To determine if petroleum hydrocarbons from offshore oil operations are entering the Beaufort Sea food web, we measured concentrations of hydrocarbons in tissues of amphipods, Anonyx nugax, sediments, Northstar crude oil, and coastal peat, collected between 1999 and 2006 throughout the development area. Mean concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), saturated hydrocarbons (SHC), and sterane and triterpane petroleum biomarkers (StTr) were not significantly different in amphipods near the Northstar oil production facility, before and after it came on line in 2001, and in amphipods from elsewhere in the study area. Forensic analysis of the profiles (relative composition and concentrations) of the 3 hydrocarbon classes revealed that hydrocarbon compositions were different in amphipods, surface sediments where the amphipods were collected, Northstar crude oil, and peat from the deltas of 4 North Slope rivers. Amphipods and sediments contained a mixture of petrogenic, pyrogenic, and biogenic PAH. The SHC in amphipods were dominated by pristane derived from zooplankton, indicating that the SHC were primarily from the amphipod diet of zooplankton detritus. The petroleum biomarker StTr profiles did not resemble those in Northstar crude oil. The forensic analysis revealed that hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were not from oil production at Northstar. Hydrocarbons in amphipod tissues were primarily from their diet and from river runoff and coastal erosion of natural diagenic and fossil terrestrial materials, including seep oils, kerogens, and peat. Offshore oil and gas exploration and development

  15. Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese; Sundelin, Brita; Yang, Gongda; Ford, Alex T

    2011-01-17

    The antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Despite of regulations on the usage of TBT, it remains in high concentrations in sediments both in harbors and in off-shore sites. The toxicity of TBT in mollusks is well documented. However, adverse effects in other aquatic organisms, such as crustaceans, are less well known. This study is an effort to assess the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT on an ecologically important species in Swedish fresh and brackish water ecosystems, the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Field collected animals were exposed during gonad maturation to TBT (70 and 170 ng/g sediment d wt) for five weeks in static microcosms with natural sediment. Exposure concentrations were chosen to reflect effects at concentrations found in Swedish coastal sediment, but below expected effects on survival. TBT exposure resulted in a statistically significant adverse effect on oocyte viability and a doubling of the prevalence of microsporidian parasites in females, from 17% in the control to 34% in the 170 ng TBT/g sediment d wt exposure. No effects on survival were observed. Borderline significant effects were observed on male sexual maturation in the 70 ng TBT/g d wt exposure and on ecdysteroid levels in the 170 ng/g sediment d wt exposure. Both reproduction and parasite infection effects are of ecological importance since they have the potential to affect population viability in the field. This study gives further evidence to the connection between low dose contaminant exposure and increases in microsporidian parasite infection.

  16. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.

    1989-06-01

    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  17. Accumulation of cadmium associated with sewage sludge by a marine amphipod crustacean.

    PubMed

    Caparis, M E; Rainbow, P S

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium bound to sewage sludge (5% mixture with littoral mud) is available to the deposit-feeding marine amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). The amphipod accumulates labelled cadmium from sludge in proportion to both duration of exposure and cadmium concentration of the sludge. Newly accumulated cadmium is added onto the existing cadmium body load without significant excretion. Thus, cadmium in association with sewage sludge dumped at sea may be absorbed and accumulated by deposit-feeding invertebrates, with the potential of being transferred along marine food chains.

  18. Tube-building in two epifaunal amphipod species, Corophium insidiosum and Jassa falcata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, I.; Anger, K.; Schöttler, U.

    1995-03-01

    Jassa falcata and Corophium insidiosum are epifaunal tube-building marine amphipods, whose niches overlap in habitat and food requirements. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the influence of the quality of different available particulate substrates on settlement and tube-building behaviour of these two amphipod species. Our experiments suggest that C. insidiosum is less specialized in this respect than J. falcata. C. insidiosum is able to use organic materials for tube-building such as artificial ( Ulva spec. powder) or mixed natural detritus as well as inorganic material (coarse sand); whereas J. falcata utilizes organic materials, but sand only to a very limited extent.

  19. Linking feeding inhibition with reproductive impairment in Gammarus confirms the ecological relevance of feeding assays in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Coulaud, Romain; Geffard, Olivier; Vigneron, Amandine; Quéau, Hervé; François, Adeline; Chaumot, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    The in situ feeding bioassay in Gammarus fossarum is recognized as a reliable tool for monitoring the toxicity of freshwater contamination. However, whether recorded feeding inhibitions can potentially provoke population-level adverse outcomes remains an open question. In the present study, the authors present an experimental study in G. fossarum, which contributes to the quantitative description of the links between feeding inhibitions and impacts on female reproductive performance. The authors studied the impacts of food deprivation on reproductive endpoints (i.e., fecundity, fertility, molt cycle) during 2 successive molting cycles. Among the main results, the authors found that food deprivation triggered a slowdown of the molting process and a reduction in fertility but no alteration to embryonic development. These reproductive impairments appeared for feeding inhibition values usually recorded in monitoring programs of environmental pollution. Using a population model translating Gammarus life-history, the authors predicted that the observed reproductive alterations predict a strong degradation of population dynamics. The present study underlines the importance of feeding inhibition in population-level risk assessment and discusses how establishing upscaling schemes based on quantitative mechanistic links between impacts at different levels of biological organization can be applied in environmental monitoring to propose an ecotoxicological assessment of water quality, which would be sensitive, specific, and ecologically relevant. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length or development of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  1. Effect of CO2-related acidification on aspects of the larval development of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, K. E.; Findlay, H. S.; Spicer, J. I.; Daniels, C. L.; Boothroyd, D.

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 results in a reduction in pH termed "Ocean Acidification" (OA). Comparatively little attention has been given to the effect of OA on the early life history stages of marine animals. Consequently, we investigated the effect of culture in CO2-acidified sea water (approx. 1200 ppm, i.e. average values predicted using IPCC 2007 A1F1 emissions scenarios for year 2100) on early larval stages of an economically important crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus. Culture in CO2-acidified sea water did not significantly affect carapace length of H. gammarus. However, there was a reduction in carapace mass during the final stage of larval development in CO2-acidified sea water. This co-occurred with a reduction in exoskeletal mineral (calcium and magnesium) content of the carapace. As the control and high CO2 treatments were not undersaturated with respect to any of the calcium carbonate polymorphs measured, the physiological alterations we record are most likely the result of acidosis or hypercapnia interfering with normal homeostatic function, and not a direct impact on the carbonate supply-side of calcification per se. Thus despite there being no observed effect on survival, carapace length, or zoeal progression, OA related (indirect) disruption of calcification and carapace mass might still adversely affect the competitive fitness and recruitment success of larval lobsters with serious consequences for population dynamics and marine ecosystem function.

  2. Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda) larvae under an ocean acidification scenario: Responses across different levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Rato, Lénia D; Novais, Sara C; Lemos, Marco F L; Alves, Luís M F; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2017-09-17

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to different target pCO2 levels: control (C: 370μatm, pH = 8.15) and ocean acidification (OA: 710μatm, pH=7.85) on development and biochemical responses related with oxidative stress and energy metabolism during the crustacean Homarus gammarus (L.) larval development, integrating different levels of biological organization. After hatching in the laboratory, larvae from the same female brood were exposed to the described conditions from hatching until reaching Stage III (last larval stage - 11 days). H. gammarus larvae demonstrated some susceptibility when addressing the predicted pCO2 levels for 2100. Further analysis at the biochemical and physiological level highlighted the occurrence of oxidative stress in the OA scenario (Superoxide Dismutase reduction and higher DNA damage) that was followed by developmental effects, increased inter-moult period from SII to SIII and reduced growth. The extended exposure to these conditions may affect organisms' key life-cycle functions such as physiological resistance, growth, sexual maturation, or reproduction with implications in their future fitness and population dynamics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The effect of Echinorhynchus borealis (Acanthocephala) infection on the anti-predator behavior of a benthic amphipod.

    PubMed

    Benesh, D P; Kitchen, J; Pulkkinen, K; Hakala, I; Valtonen, E T

    2008-04-01

    In benthic habitats, predators can generally not be detected visually, so olfaction may be particularly important for inducing anti-predation behaviors in prey organisms. Manipulative parasites infecting benthic hosts could suppress these responses so as to increase the probability of predation and thus trophic transmission. We studied how infection with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis affects the response of the benthic amphipod Pallasea quadrispinosa to water conditioned by burbot (Lota lota), the parasite's definitive host. In normal lake water, refuge use by infected and uninfected amphipods was similar, but when exposed to burbot-conditioned water, uninfected amphipods spent much more time hiding than infected amphipods. Thus, rather than affecting ambient hiding behavior, E. borealis infection seems to alter host response to a predator. A group of amphipods sampled from a postglacial spring that is devoid of fish predators exhibited only a weak response to burbot-conditioned water, perhaps suggesting these anti-predator behaviors are costly to maintain. The hiding behavior of spring and infected amphipods was very similar. If the reduced refuge use by the spring amphipods reflects adaptation to a predator-free environment, this indicates that E. borealis severely weakens its host's anti-predator behavior. Presumably this increases the likelihood of parasite transmission.

  4. PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF PAHS AND ALKYLATED PAHS TO A MARINE INFAUNAL AMPHIPOD (RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The marine infaunal amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius was exposed in standard 10-day toxicity tests to sediments contaminated with parent or alkylated PAHs. After exposures, mortalities (LC50 values) and the ability to rebury in control sediment (EC50 values) were determined. Survivo...

  5. Vertical differences in species turnover and diversity of amphipod assemblages associated with coralline mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Tanaka, M. O.; Flores, A. A. V.; Leite, F. P. P.

    2016-11-01

    Environmental gradients are common in rocky shore habitats and may determine species spatial distributions at different scales. In this study, we tested whether environmental filtering affects amphipod assemblages inhabiting coralline algal mats at different vertical heights in southeastern Brazil. Samples obtained from the upper and lower zones of the infralittoral fringe were used to estimate mat descriptors (algal mass, sediment retention, organic matter contents, grain size and sediment sorting) and describe amphipod assemblages (abundance, species richness and diversity indices). Coralline algal mats and amphipod assemblages were similar between intertidal zones in several aspects. However, a more variable retention of sediment (positively related to algal mass), together with the accumulation of larger grains lower on the shore, likely provide higher habitat heterogeneity that hosts generally more diverse (both α- and β-diversity, as well as higher species turnover) amphipod assemblages in the lower intertidal zone. Poorer assemblages in the upper intertidal zone are dominated by omnivores, while carnivorous species are more often found in richer assemblages in the lower intertidal zone, as predicted by traditional niche theory.

  6. POPTOX: Population-level responses of an amphipod to contaminated marine sediments and other environmental stresses

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H. |

    1994-12-31

    Experimental measurements of population-level responses are useful to environmental management in two ways: (1) to estimate the fitness of populations in an ecological-risk study, and (2) to evaluate the ecological relevance of shorter-term acute and chronic toxicity tests that use the same test species. An experimental system was developed for modeling the population-level responses of the burrowing, estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus, to environmental stresses, including chemical contamination. Replicate cohorts of newborn amphipods were exposed to natural and anthropogenic (PAH-contaminated sediment) stresses under static-renewal conditions over periods varying up to their full life-span. The amphipods were periodically removed from the sediment, censused, measured, and returned alive to the exposure chamber; the resulting life-history data were used to develop age-based, matrix-algebraic, population-projection models. Preliminary experiments revealed that an exposure period of 12 weeks with a sampling frequency of 2 weeks was sufficient to model the population dynamics of this amphipod. This experimental system may also be,used to study the interaction between anthropogenic stresses and ecological stresses under controlled and long-term exposures.

  7. STATUS OF THE AMPHIPOD DIPOREIA SPP. IN LAKE SUPERIOR, 1994-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amphipod Diporeia spp. is the dominant component of the Great Lakes benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in terms of both numbers and biomass, and plays an important role in the ecosystem. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement calls for the use of Diporeia as an indicator of ec...

  8. Vertical zonation patterns of scavenging amphipods from the Hadal zone of the Tonga and Kermadec Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, Lesley E.; Yayanos, A. Aristides; Cadien, Donald B.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Deep-sea trenches present an ideal system in which to study vertical zonation, though the difficulties inherent in studying these great depths have thus far deterred such research. Here, we present the first account of the structure and vertical zonation of the scavenging guild residing in the hadal habitat of the Tonga and Kermadec Trenches (SW Pacific Ocean). Four species of scavenging amphipod ( Eurythenes gryllus, Scopelocheirus schellenbergi, Hirondellea dubia, and Uristes sp. nov.) were captured with baited free-vehicle traps set 1 m above the seafloor and deployed to bottom depths between 5155 and 10,787 m. Each species occupied a distinct vertical zone of 3.5 km or less, and the scavenging amphipod assemblage vertically partitioned the hadal zone. Scavenging amphipod diversity and evenness sharply declined below 9 km. For S. schellenbergi and H. dubia, population structure was stratified ontogenetically. Early instars appeared to reside exclusively in the shallower depths of each species' vertical zone, and were functionally missing from the median and deeper regions. We captured brooding Uristes sp. nov. females, documenting the first bait-attendance event of brooding amphipods in the hadal zone. Separation of habitat in conjunction with deviations in reproductive traits, behaviors, and nutritional strategies may facilitate the coexistence of these four related species in this harsh and confining habitat.

  9. STATUS OF THE AMPHIPOD DIPOREIA SPP. IN LAKE SUPERIOR, 1994-2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The amphipod Diporeia spp. is the dominant component of the Great Lakes benthic macroinvertebrate fauna in terms of both numbers and biomass, and plays an important role in the ecosystem. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement calls for the use of Diporeia as an indicator of ec...

  10. INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF A REDUCED VOLUME MARINE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST METHOD USING AMPHIPOD AMPELISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has standardized methods for performing acute marine amphipod sediment toxicity tests. A test design reducing sediment volume from 200 to 50 ml and overlying water from 600 to 150 ml was recently proposed. An interlaboratory comparison wa...

  11. Comparative mitogenomic analyses of three North American stygobiont amphipods of the genus Stygobromus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aunins, Aaron W.; Nelms, David L.; Hobson, Christopher S.; King, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of three North American stygobiont amphipods Stygobromus tenuis potomacus, S. foliatus and S. indentatus collected from Caroline County, VA, were sequenced using a shotgun sequencing approach on an Illumina NextSeq500 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). All three mitogenomes displayed 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two rRNAs typical of metazoans. While S. tenuis and S. indentatusdisplayed identical gene orders similar to the pancrustacean ground pattern, S. foliatus displayed a transposition of the trnL2-cox2 genes to after atp8-atp6. In addition, a short atp8 gene, longer rrnL gene and large inverted repeat within the Control Region distinguished S. foliatus from S. tenuis potomacus and S. indentatus. Overall, it appears that gene order varies considerably among amphipods, and the addition of these Stygobromus mitogenomes to the existing sequenced amphipod mitogenomes will prove useful for characterizing evolutionary relationships among various amphipod taxa, as well as investigations of the evolutionary dynamics of the mitogenome in general.

  12. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS, DIELDRIN, AND METHYL MERCURY MIXTURES TO THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological interactions were assessed on the reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca throughout a chronic exposure to methyl mercury (0.9, 4.7, 23.3 nM), chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.05, 0.24), dieldrin (0.5, 2.3, 11.4 nM) and their binary mixtures. H. azteca were exposed to the...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS, DIELDRIN, AND METHYL MERCURY MIXTURES TO THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological interactions were assessed on the reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca throughout a chronic exposure to methyl mercury (0.9, 4.7, 23.3 nM), chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.05, 0.24), dieldrin (0.5, 2.3, 11.4 nM) and their binary mixtures. H. azteca were exposed to the...

  14. Climate warming may cause a parasite-induced collapse in coastal amphipod populations.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Kim N; Tompkins, Daniel M; Poulin, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Besides the direct impact on the general performance of individual organisms, the ecological consequences of climate change in terrestrial and marine ecosystems are expected to be determined by complex cascading effects arising from modified trophic interactions and competitive relationships. Recently, the synergistic effect of parasitism and climate change has been emphasised as potentially important to host population dynamics and community structure, but robust empirical evidence is generally lacking. The amphipod Corophium volutator is an ecologically important species in coastal soft-bottom habitats of the temperate North Atlantic, and commonly serves as host to microphallid trematodes that cause intensity-dependent and temperature-dependent mortality in the amphipod population. Using a simulation model parameterised with experimental and field data, we demonstrate that a 3.8 degrees C increase in ambient temperature will likely result in a parasite-induced collapse of the amphipod population. This temperature increase is well within the range predicted to prevail by the year 2075 in the International Wadden Sea region from where the model data are obtained. Due to the amphipods' ecological importance, their population decline may impact the coastal ecosystem as a whole.

  15. AMPHIPOD COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO STRESS INDUCED BY ALGAL MATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphipod, algal and sediment samples were taken at two- to four-week intervals from June through December, 2000 along two transects in Yaquina Bay, OR. The transects extended from within the Zostera marina bed at the river channel edge through intertidal burrowing shrimp ...

  16. BENTHIC AMPHIPOD COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO STRESS INDUCED BY ALGAL MATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphipod, algal biomass and sediment samples were taken at two- to four-week intervals from June through December, 2000 along lines perpendicular to two transects in Yaquina Bay, OR, extending from within the Zostera marina bed at the river channel edge through intertidal burrowi...

  17. Bioavailability, toxicity, and bioaccumulation of quantum dot nanoparticles to the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian P.; Bugge, Deenie; Ranville, James F.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relative toxicities of different modes of nanoparticle exposure as compared with their dissolved metal ions are emerging areas in ecotoxicology. Here we report on bioavailability, toxicity, and bioaccumulation of carboxyl-functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus exposed to equivalent Cd concentrations via dissolved Cd, QDs in water or QDs in algal food. Both modes of QD exposure were accumulated to greater extent than dissolved Cd. Exposure to QDs via algae resulted in high amphipod mortality. Cadmium and Se in amphipods exposed to QDs in water were highly correlated and spatially localized within the amphipod. In contrast, when exposed to QDs via algae the metals were more disperse and not highly correlated suggesting QD dissolution and resultant metal ion toxicity. This study suggests QDs are accumulated to a greater extent than the dissolved ion and could lead to trophic transfer. QDs ingested with algae are bioavailable and result in toxicity which is not observed in the absence of algae. PMID:22471552

  18. Abundance and diversity of epibenthic amphipods (Crustacea) from contrasting bathyal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Matthew A.; Hogg, Ian D.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Lörz, Anne-Nina; Nodder, Scott D.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate relationships between epibenthic macrofauna and bathyal habitat characteristics, we examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of amphipod crustaceans relative to environmental variables on two major bathymetric features of New Zealand - the Chatham Rise and Challenger Plateau. An epibenthic (Brenke) sledge was used to sample depths ranging from 200 to 1200 m. Fifteen stations were sampled on the Chatham Rise, which is an extensive submarine ridge, east of New Zealand, characterised by high productivity in surface waters, associated with the Subtropical Front. Five stations were sampled on the Challenger Plateau, west of New Zealand, a region with a similar depth range, but less topographical relief and lower pelagic productivity relative to the Chatham Rise. Over 12,500 amphipods were recovered and identified. We found high abundance (range: 44-2074 individuals 1000 m-2) and taxonomic richness (27 families) in both regions. Amphipod assemblages at all stations were largely dominated by the same families, particularly the Phoxocephalidae. Chatham Rise stations were mostly similar in family composition to one another and to the two closest Challenger Plateau stations. However, the remaining three, more distal, western Challenger Plateau stations were highly differentiated from other stations and from one another, despite being relatively similar habitats. Overall, amphipod community composition correlated most strongly with surface chlorophyll a, suggesting strong benthic-pelagic coupling and emphasising the importance of benthic-pelagic links in bathyal ecosystems.

  19. Persistence, Prevalence, and Load of Circoviruses in Marine and Lacustrine Amphipods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistolas, K. S.; Jackson, E.; Hewson, I.

    2016-02-01

    Benthic amphipods serve as keystone species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, mediating functional and structural diversity in profundal communities by contributing to net detritivory, herbivory, and sediment bioturbation. Long-term, lake wide annual monitoring programs depict progressive and severe (up to 90%) declines in populations of the dominant amphipod, Diporeia spp. between 1997-2015. The causative factors implicated in Diporeia decline remain unknown. However, previous metaviromic studies identified a well-represented CRESS-DNA virus associated with Diporeia from four of the five Great Lakes, excluding Lake Superior. Prevalence, load, and persistence of this single putative circovirus (LM29173) largely coincide with the severity of Diporeia decline in independent populations. This study builds upon assessments of circoviral prevalence and load from 2013, and identifies LM29173 as a persistent constituent of the Diporeia nanobiome over a multi-year sampling period. Furthermore, comparative analysis of Diporeia metaviromes from independent sampling sites in lakes with varying benthic profiles reveal several distinct patterns of viral consortia. Phylogenetic comparison of conserved replication initiator protein-like sequence elements places LM29173 in the context of circoviruses from similar lacustrine and marine microcrustacean hosts. While it is unclear if circoviruses are directly deleterious to amphipod hosts, it is apparent that CRESS-DNA sequence elements sharing similar features to LM29173 are ubiquitous in amphipod-associated metaviromes.

  20. Feeding habits of amphipods (Crustacea: Malacostraca) from shallow soft bottom communities: Comparison between marine caves and open habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Tierno-de-Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Sánchez-Tocino, Luis; García-Gómez, José Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Marine caves are environments of great interest since the organisms that inhabit them are forced to develop specific adaptations to high constraint conditions. Because of some of these particular conditions, such as light absence or oligotrophy, it can be expected that feeding strategies into caves differ from that present outside them. Nevertheless, no studies have been done to compare the trophic structure of marine caves and open habitats, at least for amphipod communities, considering their importance both inside and outside of the caves. In this study, the diet of the dominant amphipod species living on shallow sediments, both inside and outside of six marine caves in western Mediterranean, was characterized. Thereby, the gut content of 17 amphipod species was studied, being this study the first attempt to establish the feeding habit of most of these species. Analysis of digestive contents of the species showed that amphipod diet is less diverse in sediments than in other environments, such as algae and seagrasses. No herbivorous species were found in the sediment and carnivorous amphipods showed a little variety of prey, feeding mainly on crustaceans. Differences in the trophic structure were also found between marine caves and open habitats sediments: while outside the caves detritivorous was the dominant group (both in number of species and number of individuals), amphipods mainly play the role of carnivorous inside the caves. No detritivorous species were found into the caves, where carnivorous represents almost 60% of amphipods species and more than 80% of amphipod individuals. This pattern obtained in amphipods differ from the general trend observed in marine cave organisms, for which a generalist diet, such as omnivory, usually is an advantage in these oligotrophic conditions. The possible causes of this pattern are discussed.

  1. Metal release from contaminated leaf litter and leachate toxicity for the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Maunoury-Danger, Florence; Felten, Vincent; Bojic, Clément; Fraysse, Fabrice; Cosin Ponce, Mar; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain; Guérold, François; Danger, Michael

    2017-06-18

    Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic. When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of leaf litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated leaf litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from leaf litter during a 48-h experimental leaching. We used aspen (Populus tremula L.), a common tree species on these polluted sites, and collected leaf litter on three polluted sites (settling pond of a former steel mill) and three control sites situated in the same geographic area. Then, toxicity tests were carried out on individuals of a key detritivore species widely used in ecotoxicology tests, Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with uncontaminated and contaminated leaf litter leachates, using a battery of biomarkers selected for their sensitivity to metallic stress. Leaf litters collected on polluted sites exhibited not only significantly higher cadmium and zinc concentrations but also lower lignin contents. All leaf litters released high amounts of chemical elements during the leaching process, especially potassium and magnesium, and, in a lesser extent, phosphorus, calcium, and trace metals (copper, cadmium, and zinc but not lead). Toxicity tests revealed that the most important toxic effects measured on G. fossarum were due to leaf litter leachates by themselves, whatever the origin of litter (from polluted or control sites), confirming the toxicity of such substances, probably due to their high content in phenolic compounds. Small additional toxic effects of leachates from contaminated leaf litters were only evidenced on gammarid lipid peroxidation, indicating that contaminated leaf litter leachates might be slightly more toxic than uncontaminated ones, but in a very reduced manner. Further studies will

  2. Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks.

    PubMed

    Andrén, C M; Eriksson Wiklund, A-K

    2013-10-01

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al(i)). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH<6.0 and Al(i)>15 μg/L for G. pulex and at pH<5.7 and Al(i)>20 μg/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Al(i) strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al(i) episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Al(i) and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  3. Community composition of scavenging amphipods at bathyal depths on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Tammy; Thurston, Michael H.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2013-12-01

    This study focussed on a section of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with one pair of sampling areas at 49°N and the other at 54°N, north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and east and west of the ridge, at a water depth of 2500 m. Sixteen baited-trap samples of necrophagous amphipods were collected during three research cruises on the R.R.S. James Cook in 2007, 2009 and 2010. Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea are numerically dominant and taxonomically diverse and form the most important group of necrophages in most deep-sea environments. A total of 39 scavenging species from 253,306 specimens were identified at the four sampling areas over the 4-year study period. Less than half of the entities could be ascribed to known species. More than 25% of the species recorded were found at all of the sampling areas, supporting the view that necrophagous amphipods are widely distributed animals. The number of lysianassoid species (31) was higher than expected when compared with other studies of necrophagous amphipods, particularly as all sampling was done at one depth (2500 m). Deep-sea scavenging amphipods are generally thought to have low diversity and previous studies have supported this view. Sample sizes were large with some traps containing more than 40,000 specimens. The most abundant species, Abyssorchomene abyssorum, dominated all trap samples with percentage compositions over 90% at the NE sites in 2009-2010. Univariate and Multivariate analyses indicated a significant difference in community composition and species richness between the northern and southern stations. There are at least 15 new species to be described from these samples, and particular effort is required in the genus Paracallisoma and the genus Tryphosella.

  4. A field assessment of long-term laboratory sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Hayward, Jeannie M. R.; Jones, John R.; Jones, Susan B.; Ireland, D. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Response of the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments for 10 to 42 d in laboratory toxicity tests was compared to responses observed in controlled three-month invertebrate colonization exposures conducted in a pond. Sediments evaluated included a sediment spiked with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) or dilutions of a field sediment collected from the Grand Calumet River (GCR) in Indiana (USA) (contaminated with organic compounds and metals). Consistent effects were observed at the highest exposure concentrations (400 ??g DDD/goc [DDD concentrations normalized to grams of organic carbon (goc) in sedimentl or 4% GCR sediment) on survival, length, and reproduction of amphipods in the laboratory and on abundance of invertebrates colonizing sediments in the field. Effect concentrations for DDD observed for 10-d length and 42-d reproduction of amphipods (e.g., chronic value [ChV] of 66 ??g DDD/goc and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25] of 68 ??g DDD/goc for reproduction) were similar to the lowest effect concentrations for DDD measured on invertebrates colonizing sediment the field. Effect concentrations for GCR sediment on 28-d survival and length and 42-d reproduction and length of amphipods (i.e., ChVs of 0.20-0.66% GCR sediment) provided more conservative effect concentrations compared to 10-d survival or length of amphipods in the laboratory or the response of invertebrates colonizing sediment in the field (e.g., ChVs of 2.2% GCR sediment). Results of this study indicate that use of chronic laboratory toxicity tests with H. azteca and benthic colonization studies should be used to provide conservative estimates of impacts on benthic communities exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation of DDD by oligochaetes colonizing the DDD-spiked sediment was similar to results of laboratory sediment tests previously conducted with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegates, confirming that laboratory exposures can be used to estimate

  5. Effects of light pollution on the emergent fauna of shallow marine ecosystems: Amphipods as a case study.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Hughes, Lauren Elizabeth

    2015-05-15

    Light pollution from coastal urban development is a widespread and increasing threat to biodiversity. Many amphipod species migrate between the benthos and the pelagic environment and light seems is a main ecological factor which regulates migration. We explore the effect of artificial lighting on amphipod assemblages using two kind of lights, LED and halogen, and control traps in shallow waters of the Great Barrier Reef. Both types of artificial light traps showed a significantly higher abundance of individuals for all species in comparison to control traps. LED lights showed a stronger effect over the amphipod assemblages, with these traps collecting a higher number of individuals and differing species composition, with some species showing a specific attraction to LED light. As emergent amphipods are a key ecological group in the shallow water environment, the impact of artificial light can affect the broader functioning of the ecosystem.

  6. Relationships among levels of benthic vegetation and pore-water sulfides, burrowing shrimp and infaunal amphipods in Yaquina estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic amphipods are an important component of estuarine food webs, which in turn support ecological services provided by near shore commercial and recreational fisheries. In this study relationships among biological and geochemical aspects of the intertidal community were inve...

  7. Avoidance response of the estuarine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated, field-collected sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, M.J. . Office of Water); Lamberson, J.O.; Ferraro, S.P.; Swartz, R.C.; Boese, B.L.; Specht, D.T. )

    1999-06-01

    Amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius) were placed in two-chamber containers with different combinations of three contaminated sediments and a control sediment, and their distribution was determined after 2 or 3 d. Amphipods avoided the sediment with the highest PAH contamination and one of two sediments with moderate PAH concentrations. In the moderately contaminated sediment avoided by amphipods, the (avoidance) response was more sensitive than mortality as a biological indicator of unacceptable sediment contamination. The avoidance response in this case likely represents an early indication of potential mortality from sediment exposure. Population levels of amphipods in moderately to heavily PAH-contaminated sediments may be influenced by a combination of avoidance behavior and toxicity/lethality.

  8. Relationships among levels of benthic vegetation and pore-water sulfides, burrowing shrimp and infaunal amphipods in Yaquina estuary, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic amphipods are an important component of estuarine food webs, which in turn support ecological services provided by near shore commercial and recreational fisheries. In this study relationships among biological and geochemical aspects of the intertidal community were inve...

  9. A biodynamic model predicting waterborne lead bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: Influence of water chemistry and in situ validation.

    PubMed

    Urien, N; Uher, E; Billoir, E; Geffard, O; Fechner, L C; Lebrun, J D

    2015-08-01

    Metals bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms are considered to be a good indicator of bioavailable metal contamination levels in freshwaters. However, bioaccumulation depends on the metal, the species, and the water chemistry that influences metal bioavailability. In the laboratory, a kinetic model was used to describe waterborne Pb bioaccumulated in Gammarus pulex. Uptake and elimination rate constants were successfully determined and the effect of Ca(2+) on Pb uptake was integrated into the model. Thereafter, accumulated Pb concentrations in organisms were predicted with the model and compared with those measured in native populations from the Seine watershed (France). The predictions had a good agreement with the bioaccumulation levels observed in native gammarids and particularly when the effect of calcium was considered. To conclude, kinetic parameters experimentally derived for Pb in G. pulex are applicable in environmental conditions. Moreover, the consideration of the water's chemistry is crucial for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the copepod parasite Nicothoë astaci on haemolymph chemistry of the European lobster Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-03-09

    The gills of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (L.) are susceptible to parasitization by the copepod Nicothoë astaci, the lobster louse. This copepod feeds on haemolymph of the host and can damage the gills, potentially affecting gaseous exchange capabilities. To investigate the host response to the parasite, haemolymph levels of total protein, haemocyanin, glucose and ammonia were quantified in adult lobsters carrying varying parasite loads. Parasite loads correlated positively with total haemolymph protein and haemocyanin concentrations but not with glucose or ammonia concentrations. The data suggest that lobsters with gills damaged by the feeding activities of N. astaci respond by producing higher levels of haemocyanin, which is both a key defence response and may compensate for their decreased respiratory functioning.

  11. Evolution of cadmium tolerance and associated costs in a Gammarus fossarum population inhabiting a low-level contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, A; Geffard, O; Coquery, M; François, A; Quéau, H; Chaumot, A

    2015-08-01

    Deciphering evolutionary processes occurring within long-term contaminated wild populations is essential for the ecological risk assessment of persistent chemical contaminations. Using field populations of Gammarus, a commonly-used genus in aquatic ecotoxicology, the present study sought to gain insights into the extent to which long-term exposure to metals in the field could effectively lead to shifts in toxicological sensitivities. For this, we identified a Gammarus population inhabiting a stream contaminated by cadmium (Cd). We compared the Cd-exposure and Cd-sensitivity of this population to those of five reference populations. Active biomonitoring determined in different years and seasons that significant levels of Cd were bioavailable in the contaminated site. Laboratory sensitivity tests under common garden conditions established that this long-term field exposure led to the development of a moderate Cd tolerance, which was maintained after a 3-week acclimatization in the laboratory, and transmitted to offspring produced under clean conditions. The potential physiological costs of tolerance were assessed by means of feeding rate measurements (in the laboratory and in situ). They revealed that, unlike for reference populations, the feeding activity of organisms from the tolerant population was greatly decreased when they were maintained under laboratory conditions, potentially indicating a high population vulnerability to environmental perturbations. Because dissolved Cd concentrations in water from the contaminated site were low (averaging 0.045 µg L(-1)) and below the current European environmental quality standard for Cd for inland surface waters (fixed at 0.08 µg L(-1) in soft water environments), this case study sheds light onto the extent to which current environmental quality standards are protective against potential adverse outcomes of adaptive and micro-evolutionary processes occurring in contaminated environments.

  12. Effects of two commonly used fungicides on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hung T; Keough, Michael J; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Fungicides are used widely in agriculture and have been detected in adjacent rivers and wetlands. However, relatively little is known about the potential effects of fungicides on aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the effects of 2 commonly used fungicides, the boscalid fungicide Filan(®) and the myclobutanil fungicide Systhane(™) 400 WP, on life history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction) and energy reserves (lipid, protein, and glycogen content) of the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis under laboratory conditions, at concentrations detected in aquatic environments. Amphipods were exposed to 3 concentrations of Filan (1 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/L, 10 μg a.i./L, and 40 μg a.i./L) and Systhane (0.3 μg a.i./L, 3 μg a.i./L, and 30 μg a.i./L) over 56 d. Both fungicides had similar effects on the amphipod at the organism level. Reproduction was the most sensitive endpoint, with offspring produced in controls but none produced in any of the fungicide treatments, and total numbers of gravid females in all fungicide treatments were reduced by up to 95%. Female amphipods were more sensitive than males in terms of growth. Systhane had significant effects on survival at all concentrations, whereas significant effects of Filan on survival were observed only at 10 μg a.i./L and 40 μg a.i./L. The effects of fungicides on energy reserves of the female amphipod were different. Filan significantly reduced amphipod protein content, whereas Systhane significantly reduced the lipid content. The present study demonstrates wide-ranging effects of 2 common fungicides on an ecologically important species that has a key role in trophic transfer and nutrient recycling in aquatic environments. These results emphasize the importance of considering the long-term effects of fungicides in the risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:720-726. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Acute toxicity and biochemical effects of azinphos methyl in the amphipod Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, Olga Liliana; Castro, Claudia; Venturino, Andrés; Ferrari, Ana

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the acute toxicity and biochemical effects of the organophosphorus pesticide azinphos methyl (AM) in the amphipod Hyalella curvispina that inhabits ponds and irrigation channels of an intensive fruit-producing region in Rio Negro and Neuquén valley, North Patagonia, Argentina. The analysis by nonlinear regression of data from the 96 h-acute toxicity tests indicated the coexistence of two subpopulations of H. curvispina with different susceptibilities to AM. The 96 h-LC₅₀ for the resistant subpopulation (166 ± 56 μg/L) was 216-fold higher than the 96h-LC₅₀ value for the susceptible one (0.77 ± 1.33 μg/L).The two subpopulations could not be distinguished based on the biochemical measurements in control amphipods. Cholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited in AM-exposed amphipods in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC₅₀ value obtained after 96 h of exposure (2.18 ± 1.95 μg/L) was significantly lower than the 48 h-IC₅₀ value (29.6 ± 17.4 μg/L). Carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited after 48 h of exposure to 12.5 and 62.5 μg/L AM (inhibition, 51%). This enzyme was thus able to protect cholinesterase from inhibition at 12.5 μg/L AM. Reduced glutathione and catalase showed a significant increase after 24 h of exposure as an adaptive response to AM, whereas glutathione S-transferase activity was not significantly modified. The analysis of species sensitivity distribution showed that both subpopulations of H. curvispina were more tolerant to AM than most amphipod species, and that the susceptible subpopulation was more sensitive to AM than the other local aquatic species analyzed. The maximum concentration of AM in drainage water within the fruit-producing area reported by other studies would affect most of the amphipod species (99%) and also a 44% of local aquatic ones. The results obtained in this study point out the usefulness of including amphipods like H. curvispina in ecotoxicity studies and

  14. Nuclear DNA content correlates with depth, body size, and diversification rate in amphipod crustaceans from ancient Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Yampolsky, Lev; Gregory, T Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Lake Baikal in Russia is a large, ancient lake that has been the site of a major radiation of amphipod crustaceans. Nearly 400 named species are known in this single lake, and it is thought that many more await description. The size and depth of Lake Baikal, in particular, may have contributed to the radiation of endemic amphipods by providing a large number of microhabitats for species to invade and subsequently experience reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the possibility that large-scale genomic changes have also accompanied diversification in these crustaceans. Specifically, we report genome size estimates for 36 species of Baikal amphipods, and examine the relationship between genome size, body size, and the maximum depths at which the amphipods are found in the lake. Genome sizes ranged nearly 8-fold in this sample of amphipod species, from 2.15 to 16.63 pg, and there were significant, positive, phylogenetically corrected relationships between genome size, body size, maximum depth, and diversification rate among these species. Our results suggest that major genomic changes, including transposable element proliferation, have accompanied speciation that was driven by selection for differences in body size and habitat preference in Lake Baikal amphipods.

  15. Epibiotic rotifers of Gammarus pulex (L.) (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with descriptions of two new species and notes on the terminology of the trophi.

    PubMed

    Smet, Willem H De; Verolet, Michel

    2016-05-03

    The epibiotic rotifers of a Gammarus pulex (L.) collection from the Ardèche, France are reported. Four species were found, of which Cephalodella jersabeki n. sp. and Proales gammaricola n. sp. are new to science and described. The other species, Dicranophorus cambari Wulfert and Embata laticeps (Murray), are commented upon. SEM micrographs of the trophi are presented, and a new or amended terminology is proposed for some diagnostic trophi parts.

  16. Acute toxicity of cadmium to eight species of marine amphipod and isopod crustaceans from southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Reish, D.J.

    1987-11-01

    Amphipods and isopods are important components of the marine intertidal and subtidal fauna where they are found on or in the substrate or among spaces between larger, attached organisms. However, in spite of their abundance and importance, the use of these two endemic marine groups has been limited in comparison to decapods in marine toxicological research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single metallic salt, CdCl/sub 2/, on six species of amphipods and two species of isopods under similar experimental conditions. Cadmium was selected as the toxicant in this comparative study since this metal is an important constituent in municipal wastes discharged into southern California marine waters.

  17. Total oxyradical scavenging capacity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus.

    PubMed

    Camus, L; Gulliksen, B

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concern for the deep-sea ecosystem is increasing as contaminants, originating from anthropogenic activities, have been detected in deep-sea biota. However, little is known on the xenobiotics metabolising capability of deep-sea fauna. In this study, the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus was selected as sentinel species to measure the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Individuals of E. gryllus were sampled at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean. The TOSC assay was measured on the cytosolic fraction and the soluble fraction (3 kDa) of the digestive gland and on the cell-free haemolymph toward peroxyl, hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals according to the method of Winston et al. [Free Radical Biology and Medicine 24 (3) (1998) 480] and Regoli and Winston [Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 156 (1999) 96]. These results provide the first baseline data set for total antioxidant capacity in a deep-sea amphipod.

  18. Development of a Bioaccumulation Test Method with the Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Marine Environmental Research 64 (5): 541-555. Driscoll, S. K., and A . E. McElroy. 1996. Bioaccumulation and metabolism of benzo [ a ] pyrene in three... A ., A . M. B. Giessing, L. J. Rasmussen, and O. Andersen. 2005. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene in the marine...ERDC TN-DOER-R15 April 2011 Development of a Bioaccumulation Test Method with the Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus by J. Daniel Farrar

  19. Fatty acid composition of the estuarine amphipod, Melita plumulosa (Zeidler): link between diet and fecundity.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Bryan, Ashley D; Johnston, Emma L; Mann, Reinier M

    2009-01-01

    The influence of various diets on the survival, fecundity, and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of the benthic estuarine amphipod Melita plumulosa (Zeidler) in laboratory cultures were determined. Apart from a natural silty sediment, six commercial food supplements were examined: an omega-6 PUFA enriched Spirulina-based dry powder, Sera micron; a shrimp-based pellet food; an omega-3 PUFA enriched algal paste, Rotiselco-ALG; an omega-6 PUFA enriched algal dry powder, AlgaMac-ARA (arachidonic acid); flaxseed meal; and an omega-3 PUFA enriched dry powder, Frippak. We have previously established that M. plumulosa cultures perform poorly and eventually decline if provided with silty sediment alone, but will thrive if supplemented with Sera micron. Conversely, if the amphipods are cultured on a nutrient-depleted sand substrate, Sera micron alone does not constitute an adequate feed. The major difference in the fatty acid composition of M. plumulosa cultured on silty sediment compared to amphipods cultured on a sand substrate and both fed Sera micron was an increase in the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 PUFAs, indicating that the silty sediment provides additional food sources rich in omega-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, amphipods cultured in sand and fed any of the three algal-based foods or the Frippak powder as the sole food source had poor survival rates, although Sera micron maintained the best survival-this was attributed to it containing high amounts of beta-carotene and terpenoids. Melita plumulosa fed a mixture of Sera micron in conjunction with the omega-3 PUFA enriched Rotiselco-ALG and cultured on a silty substrate were found to have good fecundity with low variability.

  20. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  1. Factors controlling the bioaccumulation of mercury and methylmercury by the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, A L; Mason, R P

    2001-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (HgI) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) by benthic organisms and subsequent trophic transfer couples the benthic and pelagic realms of aquatic systems and provides a mechanism for transfer of sedimentary contaminants to aquatic food chains. Experiments were performed to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of particle-associated HgI and MMHg by the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus to further understand the controls on bioaccumulation by benthic organisms. HgI and MMHg are particle reactive and have a strong affinity for organic matter, a potential food source for amphipods. Microcosm laboratory experiments were performed to determine the effects of organic matter on Hg bioaccumulation and to determine the major route of Hg uptake (i.e. sediment ingestion, uptake from water/porewater, or uptake from 'food'). Amphipods living in organic-rich sediment spiked with Hg accumulated less Hg than those living in sediments with a lower organic matter content. Feeding had a significant impact on the amount of HgI and MMHg accumulated. Similarly, amphipods living in water with little organic matter accumulated more Hg than those living in water with a greater percentage of organic matter. MMHg was more readily available for uptake than HgI. Experimental results, coupled with results from a bioaccumulation model, suggest that accumulation of HgI and MMHg from sediment cannot be accurately predicted based solely on the total Hg, or even the MMHg, concentration of the sediment, and sediment-based bioaccumulation factors. All routes of exposure need to be considered in determining the accumulation of HgI and MMHg from sediment to benthic invertebrates.

  2. Accumulation and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles in a soft-sediment estuarine amphipod.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Shannon K; Miller, Robert J; Zhou, Dongxu; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2013-10-15

    Estuarine and marine sediments are a probable end point for many engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) due to enhanced aggregation and sedimentation in marine waters, as well as uptake and deposition by suspension-feeding organisms on the seafloor. Benthic infaunal organisms living in sediments encounter relatively high concentrations of pollutants and may also suffer toxic effects of ENPs. We tested whether three heavily used metal oxide ENPs, zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), and nickel oxide (NiO) were toxic to an estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. We used results from 10-day laboratory bioassays to estimate potential demographic impacts of ENP exposure. We also evaluated fate and transport pathways of the ENPs in the experiments to elucidate routes of uptake and exposure. Dissolved Zn was found in sediment pore water and overlying water samples at 10 fold the concentrations of Cu or Ni, a pattern indicative of the relatively high dissolution rate of ZnO ENPs compared with CuO and NiO ENPs. Accumulation of metals in amphipod tissues increased with exposure concentrations for all three ENPs, suggesting possible exposure pathways to higher taxa. Amphipods accumulated ≤600 μg Zn and Cu g(-1) and 1000 μg Ni g(-1). Amphipod mortality increased with ZnO and CuO concentrations, but showed no significant increase with NiO to concentrations as high as 2000 μg g(-1). The median lethal concentration in sediment (LC50) of ZnO was 763 μg g(-1) and 868 μg g(-1) for CuO ENPs. Our results indicate that ZnO and CuO ENPs, but not NiO ENPs, are toxic to L. plumulosus and that ZnO toxicity primarily results from Zn ion exposure while CuO toxicity is due to nanoparticle exposure.

  3. Acoustic and in situ measurements of freshwater amphipods (Jesogammarus annandalei) in Lake Biwa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, M.V.; Tanaka, Yuji

    1997-01-01

    During a 23-d study of Lake Biwa, Japan (starting 23 August 1993), multifrequency inverted echo-sounder measurements of nocturnal scattering layers in the meta- and epilimnion were performed at a single location. Direct samples from within this scattering layer indicated that it was composed of Jesogammarus annandalei (Crustacea:Amphipoda), with mean adult length of 8.3 mm and population densities from 4 to 50 per m{sup 3}. Estimates of the scattering cross-section for individual amphipods were extracted from echo-amplitude probability distributions combined with volume scattering strength from a 198-kHz sonar. Total scattering cross-sections for adult amphipods at 88, 118, and 198 kHz were estimated as 4.3{plus_minus}0.9 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}, 8.7{plus_minus}1.2 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}, and 2.8{plus_minus}0.5 x 10{sup {minus}7} m{sup 2}. These cross-section measurements were found to be consistent with a fluid cylinder acoustic scattering model with a 1.2-mm radius and a 9.6-mm length. The acoustically derived population densities, sizes, and length-to-radius ratio were consistent with in situ amphipod samples. The amphipods exhibited a clear nocturnal migration into the lower thermocline, concentrating at depths of 15-25 m beginning after sunset (near 1830 hours local time) each day. Population densities (10-min averaged) showed maxima of 10-30 per m{sup 3} near 2000 hours, with densities decreasing rapidly toward midnight and disappearing by approximately 0430 hours. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Limited prevalence of gaffkaemia (Aerococcus viridans var. homari) isolated from wild-caught European lobsters Homarus gammarus in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Stebbing, P D; Pond, M J; Peeler, E; Small, H J; Greenwood, S J; Verner-Jeffreys, D

    2012-08-27

    Gaffkaemia, caused by Aerococcus viridans var. homari, causes fatal infections in Homarus spp. (clawed lobsters). Despite its high economic significance to the lobster fisheries in the USA and northern Europe, data on its prevalence in captured and wild populations, particularly in Europe, is scarce. Following an outbreak of gaffkaemia in a European lobster holding facility in South Wales (UK), a base-line survey was conducted for gaffkaemia in wild populations of European lobster Homarus gammarus around the coast of England and Wales. In addition, isolates recovered from the original outbreak and the survey were typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with previously characterised isolates from the USA, UK and Canada. Locally caught H. gammarus were sampled at 30 sites from around the coast of England and Wales between March 2006 and October 2008. Results confirmed that the prevalence of gaffkaemia in populations of H. gammarus was low, with only 9 positive isolates recovered from 952 samples examined. PFGE analysis showed that the isolates from the outbreak investigation shared the same pulsotype as A. viridans var. homari isolates from the USA, Norway and Canada, as well as an isolate (NCIMB 1119) reportedly recovered from an outbreak of European lobsters in England in the 1960s. This confirms earlier studies that suggest virulent strains of A. viridans var. homari show very limited geographical or temporal genetic variation and were introduced into the UK with American lobsters H. americanus.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among hadal amphipods of the Superfamily Lysianassoidea: Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, H.; Jamieson, A. J.; Piertney, S. B.

    2015-11-01

    Amphipods of the superfamily Lysianassoidea are ubiquitous at hadal depths (>6000 m) and therefore are an ideal model group for investigating levels of endemism and the drivers of speciation in deep ocean trenches. The taxonomic classification of hadal amphipods is typically based on conventional morphological traits but it has been suggested that convergent evolution, phenotypic plasticity, intra-specific variability and ontogenetic variation may obscure the ability to robustly diagnose taxa and define species. Here we use phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence variation at two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rDNA) and one nuclear (18S rDNA) regions at to examine the evolutionary relationships among 25 putative amphipod species representing 14 genera and 11 families that were sampled from across seven hadal trenches. We identify several instances where species, genera and families do not resolve monophyletic clades, highlighting incongruence between the current taxonomic classification and the molecular phylogeny for this group. Our data also help extend and resolve the known biogeographic distributions for the different species, such as identifying the co-occurrence of Hirondellea dubia and Hirondellea gigas in the Mariana trench.

  6. A preliminary study of the Caprella scaura amphipod culture for potential use in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Rojano, Elena; Calero-Cano, Sandra; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-10-01

    The caprellid amphipod Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 was investigated as a mass culture organism, for potential use as natural prey in aquaculture. C. scaura showed good population growth during 3 months of culturing with nauplii of Artemia sp. and microalgae as food source. A final mean population size of 12,510.67 individuals/tank and a maximum density of 10,460 individuals m- 2 were obtained; a 50-fold increase of the initial population was observed. Juveniles were the most abundant stage in the culture (86.0% of total), followed by mature females (5.4%) and immature males (3.1%). Three kinds of plastic mesh with different complexity levels were used as artificial substrates for amphipods to attach to and shelter. There were no significant differences in the total number of individuals present on each kind of mesh, although female and male adults were more abundant in folded meshes with larger pore diameter. This research demonstrated that the caprellid amphipod C. scaura may be readily cultured at high densities with a variety of mesh morphologies allowing more efficient use of tank volume and improved handling.

  7. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Kemble, N.E.; Brunson, E.B.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ehrhardt, E.A.; Hardesty, D.K.; Haverland, P.S.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    ASTM and EPA standard methods for sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca typically recommend use of lethality as the endpoint in a 10-d exposure. However, data from 10- to 28-d exposures with amphipods indicate sublethal endpoints (i.e., growth, sexual maturation, or reproduction) identify additional samples as toxic. The authors compared the frequency that lethal and sublethal endpoints identified a sediment sample as toxic in 14- and 28-d amphipod exposures. In the 14-d amphipod exposures, lethality identified 20% of the samples as toxic, and sublethal endpoints identified an additional 16% of the samples as toxic using sublethal endpoints only. Similarly, in the 28-d exposures, lethality identified 14% of the samples as toxic and sublethal endpoints identified an additional 18% of the samples as toxic. The authors are also currently evaluating Sediment Effect Concentrations (SECs) relative to both lethal and sublethal endpoints in H. azteca exposures. These SECs will be used to evaluate reliability in estimating toxicity of samples. Potential factors which may confound interpretation of sublethal endpoints in sediment tests include: (1) changes in sediment chemistry resulting from long-term storage or feeding (2) the influence of physical characteristics of sediment (grain size), and (3) effects of ammonia or hydrogen sulfide.

  8. Assimilation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from microplastics by the marine amphipod, Allorchestes compressa.

    PubMed

    Chua, Evan M; Shimeta, Jeff; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Morrison, Paul D; Clarke, Bradley O

    2014-07-15

    Microplastic particles (MPPs; <5 mm) are found in skin cleansing soaps and are released into the environment via the sewage system. MPPs in the environment can sorb persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that can potentially be assimilated by organisms mistaking MPPs for food. Amphipods (Allorchestes compressa) exposed to MPPs isolated from a commercial facial cleansing soap ingested ≤45 particles per animal and evacuated them within 36 h. Amphipods were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -183) in the presence or absence of MPPs. This study has demonstrated that PBDEs derived from MPPs can be assimilated into the tissue of a marine amphipod. MPPs reduced PBDE uptake compared to controls, but they caused greater proportional uptake of higher-brominated congeners such as BDE-154 and -153 compared to BDE-28 and -47. While MPPs in the environment may lower PBDE uptake compared to unabsorbed free chemicals, our study has demonstrated they can transfer PBDEs into a marine organism. Therefore, MPPs pose a risk of contaminating aquatic food chains with the potential for increasing public exposure through dietary sources. This study has demonstrated that MPPs can act as a vector for the assimilation of POPs into marine organisms.

  9. Benthimermithid nematode parasites of the amphipod Hirondellea dubia in the Kermadec Trench.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic nematodes have evolved to exploit a wide variety of hosts living in a range of marine environments. Benthimermithid nematodes occur deeper than any other nematode parasites (down to 5880 m depth) but are mostly known from free-living adult stages living in the sediments, and parasitic juveniles are seldom encountered. In the present study, the benthimermithid Trophomera cf. marionensis was discovered in the body cavity of the lysianassoid amphipod Hirondellea dubia sampled between 7018 and 10,005 m depths in the Kermadec Trench. The nematode specimens, which could be readily observed through the transparent exoskeleton of freshly caught amphipods, were up to twice the length of T. marionensis specimens described from the Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans but were otherwise morphologically identical. Because of its wide geographical and water depth distribution (almost 10,000 m), T. marionensis likely consists of several cryptic species. The prevalence of Trophomera parasites among the host population was estimated to be substantially less than 1 %; such a low proportion of parasitised hosts could help explain why so few Trophomera specimens have been obtained from their host so far. The present study demonstrates that parasites can occur throughout the entire ocean depth and that they likely occur in other hadal trenches where H. dubia and other lysianassoid amphipods also dominate.

  10. AxIOM: Amphipod crustaceans from insular Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Heughebaert, André; Lepoint, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Neptune grass, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813, is the most widespread seagrass of the Mediterranean Sea. This foundation species forms large meadows that, through habitat and trophic services, act as biodiversity hotspots. In Neptune grass meadows, amphipod crustaceans are one of the dominant groups of vagile invertebrates, forming an abundant and diverse taxocenosis. They are key ecological components of the complex, pivotal, yet critically endangered Neptune grass ecosystems. Nevertheless, comprehensive qualitative and quantitative data about amphipod fauna found in Mediterranean Neptune grass meadows remain scarce, especially in insular locations. New information Here, we provide in-depth metadata about AxIOM, a sample-based dataset published on the GBIF portal. AxIOM is based on an extensive and spatially hierarchized sampling design with multiple years, seasons, day periods, and methods. Samples were taken along the coasts of Calvi Bay (Corsica, France) and of the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo Marine Protected Area (Sardinia, Italy). In total, AxIOM contains 187 samples documenting occurrence (1775 records) and abundance (10720 specimens) of amphipod crustaceans belonging to 72 species spanning 29 families. The dataset is available at http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=axiom. PMID:27660521

  11. An empirical model of the optimal timing of reproduction for female amphipods infected by trematodes.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, D G; Boates, J S; Forbes, M R

    2001-02-01

    Life-history theory predicts that hosts should reproduce when first infected by parasites if hosts are capable and if parasites have a lower cost on current than on future reproduction of hosts. We constructed an empirical model to explore fitness of females of the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator that reproduced soon versus long after infection by the trematode Gynaecotyla adunca. For uninfected females, the optimal time to reproduce was at their maximum body length. However, for females infected by low or high intensities of trematode metacercariae, reproductive potential (realized fecundity) was highest for females that mated immediately after becoming infected. Even after removing a high cost of delaying reproduction for infected amphipods (high likelihood of depredation by sandpipers, which are final hosts of G. adunca), realized fecundity remained highest if reproduction occurred immediately following infection by trematodes. Results from our model support the view that early reproduction of female amphipods following infection by G. adunca is an adaptive life-history response to parasitism.

  12. Light triggers habitat choice of eyeless subterranean but not of eyed surface amphipods.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Žiga; Novak, Luka; Luštrik, Roman; Fišer, Cene

    2016-02-01

    Boundaries of species distributions are the result of colonization-extinction processes. Survival on the boundary depends on how well individuals discriminate optimal from suboptimal habitat patches. Such behaviour is called habitat choice and was only rarely applied to macroecology, although it links species ecological niche and species distribution. Surface and subterranean aquatic species are spatially strongly segregated, even in the absence of physical barriers. We explored whether a behavioural response to light functions as a habitat choice mechanism that could explain species turnover between surface and subterranean aquatic ecosystems. In a controlled laboratory experiment, we studied the behavioural response to light of ten pairs of surface and subterranean amphipods that permanently co-occur in springs. Surface species showed a weak photophobic, photoneutral, and in one case, photophilic response, whereas all subterranean species showed a strong photophobic response. Eyeless subterranean but not eyed surface amphipods appear to orient themselves with light cues. On a local scale, this difference possibly diminishes harmful interactions between the co-occurring amphipods, whereas on a regional scale, photophobia could explain limited dispersal and a high degree of endemism observed among subterranean species.

  13. Use of sublethal endpoints in sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.

    1998-08-01

    Short-term sediment toxicity tests that only measure effects on survival can be used to identify high levels of contamination but may not be able to identify marginally contaminated sediments. The objective of the present study was to develop a method for determining the potential sublethal effects of contaminants associated with sediment on the amphipod Hyalella azteca (e.g., reproduction). This method was used to evaluate a formulated sediment and field-collected sediments with low to moderate concentrations of contaminants. Survival of amphipods in these sediments was typically >85% after the 28-d sediment exposures are the 14-d holding period in water to measure reproduction. Reproduction was more variable than growth; hence, more replicates in sediment tests often provides unique information that can be used to discriminate toxic effects of exposure to contaminants. Either length or weight can be measured in sediment tests with H. azteca. However, additional statistical options are available if length is measured on individual amphipods, such as nested analysis of variance that can account for variance in length within replicates. Ongoing water-only studies testing select contaminants will provide additional data on the relative sensitivity and variability of sublethal endpoints in toxicity tests with H. azteca.

  14. The use of carbon resin for the reduction of sediment toxicity to infaunal amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Hurk, P. van den; Vogelbein, M.A.; McCullough, D.; Roberts, M.H. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Commercially available carbon resins are designed to absorb non-polar organic compounds. To evaluate the potential of resins to absorb hydrophobic pore water pollutants and thus reduce the toxicity of sediments the Ambersorb 1500 resin was mixed with PAH-contaminated sediment samples and tested with infaunal amphipods. The sediments were collected at a freshwater site in the Little Scioto River, OH and at an estuarine site in the Elisabeth River, VA. The bulk chemical analysis of both sediments was comparable in that they both show creosote pollution. The sediments were tested in dilution series with clean reference sediments and with increasing amounts of resin (2, 4 and 8% dry sediment weight). The freshwater sediments were tested with both Hyalella azteca (a freshwater infaunal amphipod) and Leptocheirus plumulosus (an estuarine infaunal amphipod). The estuarine sediments were only tested with L. plumulosus. Significant effects of the resin were recognized by comparing polluted sediment LC50s with their 95% confidence intervals, as calculated with the Trimmed Spearman-Karber test. The results show that the freshwater samples were not very toxic to either of the species (LC50: 80--100% polluted sediment), and there was no significant effect of the resin. The estuarine samples were highly toxic (LC50: 3--13% polluted sediment) and there was a significant reduction of toxicity with increasing amount of resin. Pore water chemical analysis will be evaluated to explain the toxicity differences between the freshwater and estuarine samples.

  15. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining.

    PubMed

    Couillard, Y; Grapentine, L C; Borgmann, U; Doyle, P; Masson, S

    2008-12-01

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO4(2-) modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents.

  16. Acute toxicity and esterase response to carbaryl exposure in two different populations of amphipods Hyalella curvispina.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, Olga Liliana; Vacca, Melina; Rodriguez Araujo, María Emilia; Montagna, Mónica; Venturino, Andrés; Ferrari, Ana

    2017-07-01

    During the last years, a carbaryl insecticide was extensively applied in the valley of Río Negro and Neuquén, North Patagonia Argentina, to manage codling moths (Cydia pomonella), the main pest of pear and apple trees. In this study carbaryl susceptibility and B-esterase activity from both insecticide-exposed and non-exposed field populations of amphipods Hyalella curvispina were studied. Two subpopulations, one susceptible to carbaryl (LC50=213±7.5μg/L carbaryl) and one resistant to it (LC50=14,663±2379μg/L carbaryl), were found in the agricultural area selected in this study. Both populations were, in turn, more resistant to carbaryl than the population from a pristine area (LC50=11.31±2.27μg/L carbaryl). The in vivo 48h-IC50 values for cholinesterase (ChE) were close to the corresponding 48h-LC50 values as determined for the non-exposed population (IC50=7.16±0.86μg/L carbaryl) and for the susceptible subpopulation from the insecticide-exposed site (IC50=193±99μg/L carbaryl). Carbaryl exposure of the amphipods from the agricultural area mentioned above produced a significant decrease of carboxylesterase (CabE) activity, at a sublethal concentration (10μg/L) that was not able to significantly inhibit ChE, thereby showing a protective role of CabE and its usefulness as early biomarker. However, at lethal concentrations the inhibition of ChE activity was higher than that of CabE. On the other hand, CabE of amphipods from the pristine site was less sensitive to carbaryl than ChE, suggesting a different participation of CabE in ChE protection in the susceptible population of H. curvispina. Pulse exposure to carbaryl for 2h caused a significant inhibition of ChE in amphipods from both populations, with a fast recovery as expected for a carbamate insecticide. In conclusion, we proved that amphipods from the said agricultural area have developed resistance to carbaryl and showed the presence of two subpopulations with a different response to the insecticide

  17. Effects of current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the feeding and survival of the key shredder Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Zubrod, J P; Baudy, P; Schulz, R; Bundschuh, M

    2014-05-01

    Fungicides are frequently applied in agriculture and are subsequently detected in surface waters in total concentrations of up to several tens of micrograms per liter. These concentrations imply potential effects on aquatic communities and fundamental ecosystem functions such as leaf litter breakdown. In this context, the present study investigates sublethal and lethal effects of organic (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) and inorganic (three copper (Cu)-based substances and sulfur) current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the key leaf-shredding invertebrate Gammarus fossarum. The feeding activity of fungicide-exposed gammarids was quantified as sublethal endpoint using a static (organic fungicides; 7 d test duration) or a semi-static (inorganic fungicides; 6 d test duration with a water exchange after 3 d) approach (n=30). EC50-values of organic fungicides were generally observed at concentrations resulting in less than 20% mortality, with the exception of carbendazim. With regard to feeding, quinoxyfen was the most toxic organic fungicide, followed by cyprodinil, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole. Although all tested organic fungicides have dissimilar (intended) modes of action, a mixture experiment revealed a synergistic effect on gammarids' feeding at high concentrations when using "independent action" as the reference model (∼35% deviation between predicted and observed effect). This may be explained by the presence of a synergizing azole fungicide (i.e. tebuconazole) in this mixture. Furthermore, lethal concentrations of all Cu-based fungicides assessed in this study were comparable amongst one another. However, they differed markedly in their effective concentrations when using feeding activity as the endpoint, with Cu-sulfate being most toxic, followed by Cu-hydroxide and Cu-octanoate. In contrast, sulfur neither affected survival nor the feeding activity of gammarids (up to ∼5 mg/L) but reduced Cu

  18. Review of the reproductive biology of amphipods and their endocrine regulation: identification of mechanistic pathways for reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V

    2011-12-01

    The reproductive biology of amphipods is reviewed to update the knowledge of the male and female reproductive processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis as well as the endocrine systems of amphipods with the aim of advancing studies of reproductive toxicology. The ovarian and reproduction cycles of female gammaridean amphipods are closely correlated with the molt cycle, which is under direct control by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. The ability of males to copulate and subsequently for females to ovulate is restricted to the early postmolt period of the females. New developments in our understanding of the molt cycle and the endocrine regulatory pathways for reproduction using genomics techniques on other crustacean species are also discussed. The arthropod sterol ponasterone A or xenobiotics such as the fungicide fenarimol have been shown to elicit endocrine disruption in some crustaceans by acting as an agonist for 20-hydroxyecdysone at the ecdysone receptor or by inhibiting the synthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone, respectively, resulting in disruption of molting and reproduction. Recent studies suggest that cadmium can inhibit secondary vitellogenesis in amphipods. Experimental approaches for examining the metabolic pathways associated with ecdysteroid hormonal signaling or metabolism, exoskeleton maintenance and molting, and the regulation of vitellogenin in amphipods are discussed. This information should aid in the identification of useful biomarkers for reproductive toxicity. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Transcriptome-based phylogeny of endemic Lake Baikal amphipod species flock: fast speciation accompanied by frequent episodes of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Sergey A; Logacheva, Maria D; Popova, Nina V; Klepikova, Anna V; Penin, Aleksey A; Bazykin, Georgii A; Etingova, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Yampolsky, Lev Y

    2017-01-01

    Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two nonendemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock and analyse evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armour and reduction in appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel. Radiation of Baikal amphipods has been characterized by short phylogenetic branches and frequent episodes of positive selection which tended to be more frequent in the early phase of the second invasion of amphipods into Baikal when the most intensive diversification occurred. Notably, signatures of positive selection are frequent in genes encoding mitochondrial membrane proteins with electron transfer chain and ATP synthesis functionality. In particular, subunits of both the membrane and substrate-level ATP synthases show evidence of positive selection in the plankton species Macrohectopus branickii, possibly indicating adaptation to active plankton lifestyle and to survival under conditions of low temperature and high hydrostatic pressures known to affect membranes functioning. Other functional categories represented among genes likely to be under positive selection include Ca-binding muscle-related proteins, possibly indicating adaptation to Ca-deficient low mineralization Baikal waters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Infection pattern of two sympatric acanthocephalan species in the amphipod Hyalella patagonica (Amphipoda: Hyalellidae) from Lake Mascardi (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Semenas, Liliana

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the infection pattern of the acanthocephalans Acanthocephalus tumescens and Corynosoma sp. co-occurring in the intermediate host the amphipod Hyalella patagonica. Samples were collected monthly from June 2002 to May 2004 from Lake Mascardi. Amphipods were measured and classified by developmental stages. Single and double infections of larval acanthocephalans were recorded and prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. An annual life cycle of H. patagonica could be inferred with recruitment of juveniles from spring to autumn. Males and females were found all year round but females were significantly more abundant. Single infections were mainly found in smaller juvenile amphipods during winter for A. tumescens and in intermediate and large male amphipods during spring and summer for Corynosoma sp. Double infections showed low values and were mainly found in intermediate sized amphipods during spring. A segregation of the infection by season, size and developmental stages of the host was recorded and would tend to avoid competition considering these two acanthocephalan species have different definitive hosts: fishes for A. tumescens and aquatic birds for Corynosoma sp.

  1. Effects of sediment characteristics on the toxicity of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Kemble, N.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sediment characteristics, acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic matter (OM), on the toxicity of chromium (Cr) in freshwater sediments. We conducted chronic (28-42-d) toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water and in spiked sediments. Waterborne Cr(VI) caused reduced survival of amphipods with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 40 ??g/L. Cr(VI) spiked into test sediments with differing levels of AVS resulted in graded decreases in AVS and sediment OM. Only Cr(VI)-spiked sediments with low AVS concentrations (<1 ??mol/g) caused significant amphipod mortality. Waterborne Cr(III) concentrations near solubility limits caused decreased survival of amphipods at pH 7 and pH 8 but not at pH 6. Sediments spiked with high levels of Cr(III) did not affect amphipod survival but had minor effects on growth and inconsistent effects on reproduction. Pore waters of some Cr(III)-spiked sediments contained measurable concentrations of Cr(VI), but observed toxic effects did not correspond closely to Cr concentrations in sediment or pore waters. Our results indicate that risks of Cr toxicity are low in freshwater sediments containing substantial concentrations of AVS.

  2. Investigation of the soluble metals in tissue as biological response pattern to environmental pollutants (Gammarus fossarum example).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Dragun, Zrinka; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata; Gulin, Vesna; Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Erk, Marijana

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, Gammarus fossarum was used to investigate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of aquatic pollutants in the real environmental conditions. The novelty of the study is the evaluation of soluble tissue metal concentrations in gammarids as indicators in early assessment of metal exposure. In the Sutla River, industrially/rurally/agriculturally influenced catchment in North-Western Croatia, physico-chemical water properties pointed to disturbed ecological status, which was reflected on population scale as more than 50 times lower gammarid density compared to the reference location, Črnomerec Stream. Significantly higher levels of soluble toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr) were observed in gammarids from the Sutla River compared to the reference site and reflected the data on higher total dissolved metal levels in the river water at that site. The soluble metal estimates were supplemented with the common multibiomarker approach, which showed significant biological responses for decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased total soluble protein concentrations, confirming stressed environmental conditions for biota in the Sutla River. Biomarker of metal exposure, metallothionein, was not induced and therefore, toxic effect of metals was not confirmed on molecular level. Comparable between-site pattern of soluble toxic metals in gammarids and total dissolved metal levels in water suggests that prior to biomarker response and observed toxic impact, soluble metals in tissue might be used as early warning signs of metal impact in the aquatic environment and improve the assessment of water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the “naïve” treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the “exposed” treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles. PMID:27560932

  4. Consequences of lower food intake on the digestive enzymes activities, the energy reserves and the reproductive outcome in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics.

  5. Effects of endosulfan, thiamethoxam, and indoxacarb in combination with atrazine on multi-biomarkers in Gammarus kischineffensis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Özlem; Güven, Kemal; Asma, Dilek; Öğüt, Serdal; Uğurlu, Pelin

    2017-09-21

    Studies addressing the toxicity of pesticides towards non-target organisms focus on the median lethal concentration and biochemical response of individual pesticides. However, when determining environmental risks, it is important to test the combined effects of pesticides, such as insecticides and herbicides, which are frequently used together in agricultural areas. Here we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of the combined use of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides, endosulfan, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis. To do this, we tested the activities of oxidative stress, detoxification, and neurotoxicity biomarkers. Compared to atrazine alone, we detected higher glutathione-S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities (oxidative stress biomarkers) when atrazine was combined with either endosulfan or indoxacarb. However, higher IBR values were determined in organisms where pesticide mixtures were used according to individual use. Based on these results, mixtures of atrazine and other pesticides may cause synergistic effects and may be evidence of increased toxicity and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Aspaas, Stian; Grefsrud, Ellen Sofie; Fernö, Anders; Jensen, Knut Helge; Trengereid, Henrik; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.

  7. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  8. Contribution of aqueous and dietary uptakes to lead (Pb) bioaccumulation in Gammarus pulex: From multipathway modeling to in situ validation.

    PubMed

    Hadji, Rym; Urien, Nastassia; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C; Lebrun, Jérémie D

    2016-07-01

    Although dynamic approaches are nowadays used increasingly to describe metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, the validation of such laboratory-derived modeling is rarely assessed under environmental conditions. Furthermore, information on bioaccumulation kinetics of Pb and the significance of its uptake by dietary route is scarce in freshwater species. This study aims at modeling aqueous and dietary uptakes of Pb in the litter-degrader Gammarus pulex and assessing the predictive quality of multipathway modeling from in situ bioaccumulation data. In microcosms, G. pulex were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of Pb (from 0.1 to 10µg/L) in the presence of Pb-contaminated poplar leaves, which were enclosed or not in a net to distinguish aqueous and dietary uptakes. Results show that water and food both constitute contamination sources for gammarids. Establishing biodynamic parameters involved in Pb aqueous and dietary uptake and elimination rates enabled to construct a multipathway model to describe Pb bioaccumulation in gammarids. This laboratory-derived model successfully predicted bioaccumulation measured in native populations of G. pulex collected in situ when local litter was used as dietary exposure source. This study demonstrates not only the suitable applicability of biodynamic parameters for predicting Pb bioaccumulation but also the necessity of taking dietary uptake into account for a better interpretation of the gammarids' contamination in natural conditions.

  9. Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed Central

    Helluy, S; Thomas, F

    2003-01-01

    The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis, and changes the gammarid's responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications. Whole mounts of gammarid brains were labelled with fluorescent anti-serotonin and anti-synapsin antibodies and viewed using confocal microscopy. Two types of change were observed in infected brains: the intensity of the serotonergic label was altered in specific regions of the brain, and the architecture of some serotonergic tracts and neurons was affected. A morphometric analysis of the distribution of the label showed that serotonergic immunoreactivity was decreased significantly (by 62%) in the optic neuropils, but not in the olfactory lobes, in the presence of the parasite. In addition, the optic tracts and the tritocerebral giant neurons were stunted in parasitized individuals. Published evidence demonstrates changes in serotonin levels in hosts ranging from crustaceans to mammals infected by parasites as diverse as protozoans and helminths. The present study suggests that the degeneration of discrete sets of serotonergic neurons might underlie the serotonergic imbalance and thus contribute to host manipulation. PMID:12769454

  10. Enhanced metal and metalloid concentrations in the gut system comparing to remaining tissues of Gammarus pulex L.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Dharamshi, Jennah; Dudel, E Gert

    2011-04-01

    Invertebrate shredders such as Gammarus pulex are key species in contaminated stream ecosystems. Although a number of previous studies examining differences in metal accumulation between the gut system and remaining tissues of invertebrates exist, few focus on wide range of metals and metalloids that are relevant to contaminated systems. This study compared accumulation of the commonest (at study site) 15 metals and metalloids between the gut system including feces and remaining tissues of G. pulex. All metals and metalloids measured were significantly higher (p<0.001, except Cu p<0.005) in the gut system including feces than remaining tissues of G. pulex. Metals and metalloids in body tissues without the gut system including feces were significantly lower (Al, Cr, Fe and Mn (p<0.005), Sr and U (p<0.01), Co (p<0.05)) in content for a number of elements when compared to washed, whole G. pulex specimens. As well, all elements measured were significantly higher (all elements (p<0.005) except Cu and Co (p<0.05)) in gut system including feces than washed, whole G. pulex specimens. These results indicate that in G. pulex the uptake of all 15 metals and metalloids examined across the gut epithelium is minimalized or that sequestration of these elements in gut epithelial cells may occur.

  11. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  12. Ecophysiological responses to temperature of the "killer shrimp" Dikerogammarus villosus: is the invader really stronger than the native Gammarus pulex?

    PubMed

    Maazouzi, C; Piscart, C; Legier, F; Hervant, F

    2011-07-01

    With global climate changes, biological invasions are considered to be one of the main causes of the decline of freshwater biodiversity. In this context, predicted increases in global temperature may alter the geographical distributions of native and invasive species. The purpose of our study was to examine the metabolic, behavioral and physiological responses to short-term temperature acclimation of two widely distributed species (the most successful European invader, Dikerogammarus villosus, and its main victim, Gammarus pulex), in order to estimate the potential effect of global warming on its invasion of freshwater ecosystems. Our results show that D. villosus is more vulnerable to high temperatures than G. pulex. The native species seems to be best adapted to intermediate temperatures (10-20°C) with a possibility of adjustment to "extreme" temperatures (5-27°C), whereas the "killer shrimp" D. villosus seems best adapted to lower temperatures (5-10°C) with a limited possibility of adjustment above 20°C. In the light of our results, global warming is likely to be less favorable to the invasive species. However, D. villosus showed reduced metabolic and activity rates, associated with higher glycogen content. This adaptive strategy was interpreted as having functional advantages, allowing D. villosus to successfully invade harsh and/or unpredictable biotopes. In addition, our results show that glycogen stores may be used as a powerful indicator of the optimal thermal window for aquatic ectotherms.

  13. Transfer across the human gut of environmental technetium in lobsters (Homarus gammarus L.) from the Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Young, A K; Bonfield, R A

    2001-03-01

    Few data are available on the uptake by the human gut of the element technetium. Of current radiological interest in connection with discharges of technetium-99 in liquid discharges from BNFL, Sellafield, is uptake from European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), whose edible parts are known to concentrate technetium. In this study, a group of eight adult volunteers (six males and two females) ate samples of edible flesh from lobsters caught off the west Cumbrian coast and provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces for analysis. Detection of uptake from the gut by difference between intake and faecal measurements proved insensitive, suggesting a low value of the gut transfer factor (f1 value) of up to 0.1 with a maximum (two standard deviations) level of about 0.3. In urine, technetium was detectable at a relatively low level compared with the intakes, consistent with a low absorption across the gut. Values for f1 were derived with the aid of literature data for excretion following intravenous administration of technetium-95 m as pertechnetate, and gave averaged data for f1 in the range 0.046 to 0.23. These results are in broad conformity with those derived from the faecal measurements, and suggest a lower value than the 0.5 used by ICRP.

  14. NMR-based metabolomics for the environmental assessment of Kaohsiung Harbor sediments exemplified by a marine amphipod (Hyalella azteca).

    PubMed

    Chiu, K H; Dong, C D; Chen, C F; Tsai, M L; Ju, Y R; Chen, T M; Chen, C W

    2017-03-03

    Inflow of wastewater from upstream causes a large flux of pollutants to enter Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan daily. To reveal the ecological risk posed by Kaohsiung Harbor sediments, an ecological metabolomic approach was employed to investigate environmental factors pertinent to the physiological regulation of the marine amphipod Hyalella azteca. The amphipods were exposed to sediments collected from different stream inlets of the Love River (LR), Canon River (CR), Jen-Gen River (JR), and Salt River (SR). Harbor entrance 1 (E1) was selected as a reference site. After 10-day exposure, metabolomic analysis of the Hyalella azteca revealed differences between two groups: {E1, LR, CR} and {JR, SR}. The metabolic pathways identified in the two groups of amphipods were significantly different. The results demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics can be effectively used to characterize metabolic response related to sediment from polluted areas.

  15. Invasive Ponto-Caspian Amphipods and Fish Increase the Distribution Range of the Acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the River Rhine

    PubMed Central

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W.; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal. PMID:23300895

  16. A rapid amphipod reproduction test for sediment quality assessment: In situ bioassays do not replicate laboratory bioassays.

    PubMed

    Mann, Reinier M; Hyne, Ross V; Simandjuntak, Desiree L; Simpson, Stuart L

    2010-11-01

    An underlying assumption of laboratory-based toxicity tests is that the sensitivity and exposure of organisms in the laboratory is comparable to that in the field. We sought to make a comparison between field-based and laboratory-based sediment toxicity tests using a recently developed rapid amphipod reproduction test that encompasses gametogenesis, fertilization, and embryo development before hatching. The test species, Melita plumulosa, is an epibenthic, detritivorous amphipod native to Eastern Australia. Test sediments were sourced from Lake Macquarie, a large saltwater lagoon located 100 km north of Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) that has received heavy-metal pollution over many decades, primarily from a Pb/Zn smelter but also from collieries, coal-fired power stations, and urban areas. This has led to a north-south trace-metal concentration gradient, including Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu, in the sediments of Lake Macquarie. Sediments from these northern bays were demonstrated to reduce amphipod fecundity in laboratory-based tests. For the current study, the amphipod reproduction test has been modified for use in situ. In situ test chambers were deployed at the mouth of Cockle Creek, Lake Macquarie. Sediments that were demonstrated to reduce fecundity of M. plumulosa in the laboratory reproduction test were not similarly toxic when amphipods were exposed to the same sediments in situ. Factors related to the regular tidal renewal of overlying water likely altered exposure profiles in situ, including the provision of additional or alternative nutrition that obviated the need for amphipods to interact with the contaminated sediments, and a washout effect that prevented the accretion of dissolved zinc in the overlying water. © 2010 SETAC.

  17. Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine.

    PubMed

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal.

  18. Toxicity of sediment cores collected from the ashtabula river in northeastern Ohio, USA, to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Smorong, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to support a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration project associated with the Ashtabula River in Ohio. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemistry and toxicity of 50 sediment samples obtained from five cores collected from the Ashtabula River (10 samples/core, with each 10-cm-diameter core collected to a total depth of about 150 cm). Effects of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) measured in the sediment samples were evaluated by measuring whole-sediment chemistry and whole-sediment toxicity in the sediment samples (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], organochlorine pesticides, and metals). Effects on the amphipod Hyalella azteca at the end of a 28-day sediment toxicity test were determined by comparing survival or length of amphipods in individual sediment samples in the cores to the range of responses of amphipods exposed to selected reference sediments that were also collected from the cores. Mean survival or length of amphipods was below the lower limit of the reference envelope in 56% of the sediment samples. Concentrations of total PCBs alone in some samples or concentrations of total PAHs alone in other samples were likely high enough to have caused the reduced survival or length of amphipods (i.e., concentrations of PAHs or PCBs exceeded mechanistically based and empirically based sediment quality guidelines). While elevated concentrations of ammonia in pore water may have contributed to the reduced length of amphipods, it is unlikely that the reduced length was caused solely by elevated ammonia (i.e., concentrations of ammonia were not significantly correlated with the concentrations of PCBs or PAHs and concentrations of ammonia were elevated both in the reference sediments and in the test sediments). Results of this study show that PAHs, PCBs, and ammonia are the primary COPCs that are likely causing or substantially contributing to the toxicity to

  19. Assessing the influence of ocean acidification to marine amphipods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, M C; Riba, I; Cesar, A; Serrano-Bernando, F; DelValls, T A

    2017-10-01

    CO2 increases in the ocean may occur both by the capacity of CO2 exchanges with its dissolved form between atmosphere and surface seawater as well by CO2 leaks during the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process. The decrease in seawater pH may result in a reduction in the concentration of both hydroxide and carbonate (OH(-) and CO3(2-)). The main aim of this work is to conduct an ecotoxicology comparative survey using two amphipod species from Europe and Brazil exposed to different acidification (CO2) scenarios. For it, an integrative approach based on the weight of evidence was used for comparative proposes to identify the effects on the amphipods association with the acidification and with the related mobility of metals. The results demonstrate that the Ampelisca brevicornis species is more sensitive to pH reductions than the Hyale youngi species. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that the CO2 enrichment in aquatic ecosystems would cause changes on the mobility of certain metals (Zn, Cu and As). The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the dissolved Zn in overlying water was strongly correlated with the decrease in the pH and was associated with increased toxicity of the sediment to the exposed organisms, mainly for the A. brevicornis species from Spain. Nevertheless, similar results were found in relation to the mortality of amphipods in low pH values for all sediment tested. Concluding, it is highlighted the importance of comparative studies in different types of environment and improve the understood of the risks associated with the ocean acidification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Competition for food between the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill) and the native amphipod Monoporeia affinis Lindström in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotta, Jonne; Ólafsson, Emil

    2003-08-01

    Since 1985 the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill) has invaded large parts of the Baltic Sea. In deeper soft-bottom habitats (>10 m) a marked long-term decrease of the native amphipod Monoporeia affinis has been noted and is presently associated with the establishment of the polychaete. One plausible explanation is that the polychaetes and the amphipods are competing for food resources as both are deposit feeding animals and likely to share similar food resources. Interspecific competition for food between the polychaete and the amphipod was studied in a laboratory experiment. Two year classes (0y+,1y+) of the amphipods were kept at various densities, with and without added food resources, with and without the polychaete, in microcosms with sediment and continuous supply of cooled water for 2 months. The polychaetes did not have any effect on mortality in the amphipods. 4-way ANOVA showed that food addition, density of amphipods and presence of the polychaete had a significant effect on the growth of amphipods of different age classes. 1y+ amphipods showed increased growth with added food and this increase was density-dependent in the absence of the polychaetes but not in their presence. The polychaetes reduced the growth of 1y+ amphipods at natural densities (2000 ind m -2) by 60%, but had no clear effects on the growth of juveniles. It is concluded that lower amphipod growth in the presence of M. viridis was caused by competition for food and is likely to affect the population of M. affinis in deep soft-bottom habitats of the northern Baltic Sea.

  1. Melitid amphipods from the Gulf of Thailand, with a description of Dulichiella pattaniensis, a new species

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Pattaratumrong, Manasawan Saengsakda; Puttapreecha, Ratchanee

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of melitid amphipod were collected from the Gulf of Thailand. Dulichiella pattaniensis is new to science, and Melitalati latiflagella Ren & Andres, 2012 has not been previously reported from Thai Waters. Dulichiella pattaniensis is characterized by male gnathopod 2 distolateral crown with 4 spines; pleonite/urosomite formula 7-7-7-5-6-2; pereopod 5-7 dactylus with 2 accessory spines. This combination of characters has not been recorded previously in the Dulichiella. The characters of the specimens are described and illustrated. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. PMID:24899833

  2. The effect of seasonality and body size on the sensitivity of marine amphipods to toxicants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Landa, Víctor; Belzunce, María Jesús; Franco, Javier

    2008-12-01

    Two factors, seasonality and body size, were studied to determine their influence on the sensitivity of the amphipods Corophium urdaibaiense and Corophium multisetosum to toxicants. Seasonality was studied by comparing LC50 values for cadmium and ammonia toxicity to both species over a year. Body size effect was studied by comparing LC50 values of ammonia in three size categories of C. urdaibaiense. Except for the case of C. urdaibaiense with ammonia as a toxicant, the sensitivity was maximum during summer and minimum during winter. Furthermore, differences in sensitivities were found among the three body size groups studied.

  3. Rhythms of locomotion and oxygen consumption in the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Morgan, E

    1984-01-01

    The estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator exhibits an endogenous circatidal rhythm of swimming activity, with maxima occurring just after the expected time of high water, under constant laboratory conditions. Oxygen uptake by Corophium is also subject to modulation across the tidal cycle. The period of highest oxygen uptake occurs during the ebb tide, in phase with the period of maximum swimming activity. A second increase in oxygen uptake during the early flood tide is thought to reflect either in-burrow activity or a previously described rhythm of emergence. This being so, this aspect of the animal's respiratory metabolism may be regulated by an autonomous oscillator independent of that governing the animal's swimming behaviour.

  4. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Amphipods. [Gammaridea; Hyperidea; Caprellidea

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.J.; Pauley, G.B.; Moran, D.

    1986-08-01

    Amphipods are ubiquitous in distribution. Hyperiidea are the third most abundant coastal marine crustacean zooplankton, following copepods and euphausids. Benthic Gammaridea are an invaluable food source for many economically important fish and invertebrate species. Lifestyles of the major amphipod groups are varied. On the basis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), they comprise more than half of the total IRI spectrum for 38 of 55 fish species in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. They are reported to be indicators of heavily polluted areas.

  5. Reproductive effects of the endocrine disruptor fenarimol on a Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese; Sundelin, Brita

    2006-04-01

    An endocrine disruptor, the fungicide fenarimol, was investigated regarding its effects on reproduction and hormone (ecdysteroid) levels in the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. In addition, the influence of food shortage, both by itself and in combination with fenarimol, on reproduction was examined. Field-collected amphipods were exposed in flow-through microcosms during the period of sexual maturation and mating in four treatment series: Control with low food, fenarimol with low food, control with high food, and fenarimol with high food. Fenarimol was added at a concentration of 0.3 mg/L in two pulses/ week. Results show that fenarimol has a negative effect on fertilization rate and male mating ability. Results were supported by a tendency toward delayed male sexual development. Food shortage decreased weight in both sexes and retarded female oocyte development. Higher ecdysteroid levels were recorded in males than in females, and food shortage increased male ecdysteroid levels. No effect of fenarimol exposure on ecdysteroid levels was observed. No synergistic effects of fenarimol and food shortage could be distinguished in any variable examined. Thus, M. affinis was vulnerable to reproductive impairment by fenarimol, with effects on the next generation (i.e., a disturbed sexual development and fertilization ability). Food shortage has negative effects on M. affinis, but it does not enhance the effects of fenarimol.

  6. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  7. Ontogenetic variability in the feeding behavior of a marine amphipod in response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Samanta; Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro A

    2016-11-15

    Global stressors like ocean acidification (OA) are expected to influence the quality or palatability of primary producers like algae. Such changes can trigger a response on algal consumers' feeding strategies, and this response may not necessarily be the same for the consumers during the ontogeny. We used a mesocosm's system to expose algae to current and projected OA conditions (390 and 1000ppm, respectively) and then compared the feeding behavior and absorption efficiency of juvenile and adult stages of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Specifically, we measured consumption rates (with and without a choice) and absorption efficiency on algae exposed and not exposed to OA. Our results show that OA affect the amphipod's consumption and feeding preferences, and that these effects were related with the analyzed ontogenetic stage (juveniles versus adults). These results support the existence of an ontogenetic change in the response of this species and others similar marine invertebrates to OA, which highlight the need to incorporate different life stages in the study of OA or others global stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The tropical caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla: a new alien crustacean in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Paracaprella pusilla Mayer (Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 17:1-55, 1890), originally described from Brazil, is one of the most abundant caprellid amphipod species in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. During a survey of caprellid amphipods from marinas along the Balearic Island (Western Mediterranean Sea) carried out between November 2011 and August 2012, we found two established populations of P. pusilla in Mallorca and Ibiza, respectively. So far, its occurrence in European waters was reported only from southwestern Spain in 2010. This record represents a northward range expansion of the species' distribution, which is found for the first time in the Mediterranean. This is also the first record of the genus Paracaprella in the Mediterranean Sea. The most probable introduction vector was ship fouling. We also found the invasive caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton (Trans Entomol Soc Lond 1:185-198, 1836) in Mallorca and Menorca, which is recorded for the first time in the Balearic Islands, confirming its rapid expansion along the Mediterranean. When comparing reproductive traits between both alien species, we found that P. pusilla has a higher fecundity than C. scaura for the same female size. Taking into account this evidence, the species may be expected to appear in other Mediterranean and adjacent areas.

  9. Subterranean archipelago in the Australian arid zone: mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of amphipods from central Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Steven J B; Bradbury, John H; Saint, Kathleen M; Leys, Remko; Austin, Andrew D; Humphreys, William F

    2007-04-01

    In 1998, a unique subterranean ecosystem was discovered in numerous isolated calcrete (carbonate) aquifers in the arid Yilgarn region of Western Australia. Previous morphological and genetic analyses of a subterranean water beetle fauna suggest that calcrete aquifers are equivalent to closed island habitats that have been isolated for millions of years. We tested this hypothesis further by phylogeographic analyses of subterranean amphipods (Crangonyctoidea: Paramelitidae and Hyalidae) using mitochondrial DNA sequence data derived from the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Phylogenetic analyses and population genetic analyses (samova) provided strong evidence for the existence of at least 16 crangonyctoid and six hyalid divergent mitochondrial lineages, each restricted in their distribution to a single calcrete aquifer, in support of the 'subterranean island (archipelago) hypothesis' and extending its scope to include entirely water respiring invertebrates. Sequence divergence estimates between proximate calcrete populations suggest that calcretes have been isolated at least since the Pliocene, coinciding with a major aridity phase that led to the intermittent drying of surface water. The distribution of calcretes along palaeodrainage channels and on either side of drainage divides, have had less influence on the overall phylogeographic structure of populations, with evidence that ancestral crangonyctoid and hyalid species moved between catchments multiple times prior to their isolation within calcretes. At least two potential modes of evolution may account for the diversity of subterranean amphipod populations: dispersal/vicariance of stygobitic species or colonization of calcretes by surface species and independent evolution of stygobitic characteristics.

  10. Avoidance response of sediment living amphipods to zinc pyrithione as a measure of sediment toxicity.

    PubMed

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Börjesson, Therese; Wiklund, Stig Johan

    2006-01-01

    An avoidance test was developed using non-cultured individuals of the sediment dwelling amphipod Monoporeia affinis. As test substance we used zinc pyrithione, an antifouling agent and a common shampoo ingredient. The toxicity to Daphnia and fish is well known but sediment toxicity of this very hydrophobic compound is less known. The preference of juvenile M. affinis was tested in jars, each including 12 petri dishes. In each replicate, half of the petri dishes contained sediment mixed with six concentrations ranging from 0 to 10microg zinc pyrithione per L sediment and half of the petri dishes contained the corresponding sediment-substance mixture plus an extra food addition. The amphipods significantly avoided petri dishes with the three highest concentrations of zinc pyrithione and the calculated EC(50) was 9.65microgL(-1) sediment. No difference in mortality was observed between concentrations. Using the avoidance behaviour in sediment toxicity testing is a simple and cost-effective screening for toxicants.

  11. Critical body residues in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita: Sediment exposures with nonionic organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, A.A.; Brownawell, B.J.; Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    Body residues associated with acute toxicity were determined in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita exposed to spiked sediments. Nonylphenol and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl critical body residues (CBRs, body residue of contaminant at 50% mortality) were 1.1 {micro}mol/g wet tissue and 0.57 {micro}mol/g wet tissue, respectively, values near the low end of the CBR range expected for compounds acting via narcosis. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benz[a]anthracene (BaA), were not acutely toxic at exposure concentrations of up to 43 and 1,280 {micro}g/g dry sediment for BaA and BaP respectively, and body burdens up to 1.2 {micro}mol/g wet tissue (for BaP). Neither polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was significantly metabolized by A. abdita. The microextraction technique employed here allowed residue analysis of samples containing as few as three amphipods (0.33 mg dry wt). The CBR approach avoids confounding factors such as variations in bioavailability and uptake kinetics and could be employed to assess the relative contribution of specific contaminants or contaminant classes in mixtures to effects observed in toxicity tests with Ampelisca and other organisms.

  12. Life history and population dynamics of an estuarine amphipod, Eriopisa chilkensis Chilton (Gammaridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Nisha P.; Sheeba, P.; Nair, K. K. C.; Achuthankutty, C. T.

    2007-08-01

    The life cycle of the gammarid amphipod Eriopisa chilkensis Chilton from the Cochin estuary, south west coast of India, has been studied for the first time under laboratory conditions. Amphipods, especially gammarids, are used as potential live feed in fish culture. Eriopisa chilkensis can withstand wide variations in salinity (5-35) and temperature (27.5-34 °C) of the medium. It was cultured in un-aerated finger bowls using dried algal matter ( Chara sp.) as food. The life span of females was found to be higher (maximum: 220 days) than males (maximum: 175 days). Females were iteroparous and attained sexual maturity within 39.3 ± 6 days (mean ± SD), whereas males matured within 26.5 ± 5.6 days. Number of broods in a life span ranged from 4 to 7. The maximum number of juveniles produced in a single brood was 29 and the maximum number of juveniles produced by a single female over a lifetime was 139. The duration of embryonic development was 12 ± 2.45 days. The population dynamics of E. chilkensis was studied based on monthly sampling, over one year from the mangrove swamps of Puduvypin. It occurred in varying densities in the epifaunal community (21-1583 ind. m -2). Extrapolation of laboratory data to the field suggests that E. chilkensis in Cochin estuary has a multivoltine life cycle.

  13. Acute toxicity of interstitial and particle-bound cadmium to a marine infaunal amphipod

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, P.F.; Swartz, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The relative acute toxicity of particle-bound and dissolved interstitial cadmium was investigated using a new bioassay procedure. Interstitial concentration of Cd was controlled by means of peristaltic pumps, allowing separate manipulation of interstitial and particle properties. Addition of small quantities of organic-rich fine particles to sandy sediment resulted in greatly differing particle-bound Cd concentrations in sediment with similar interstitial Cd concentrations. Analysis of variance indicated no significant difference in the survival or ability to rebury in sediment of the phoxocephalid amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard), when exposed to sediment with different total Cd concentrations but nearly equal interstitial Cd concentrations; in one case LC50 data indicated slightly increased mortality in sediment with higher total Cd concentration. At least 70.2-87.9% of mortality could be predicted from past data on mortality based on dissolved Cd concentrations. The acute toxicity of Cd to the infaunal amphipod appears to be due principally to Cd dissolved in interstitial water.

  14. Accuracy of pitfall traps for monitoring populations of the amphipod Orchestia gammarella (Pallas 1766) in saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzouki, Evanthia; Ysnel, Frédéric; Carpentier, Alexandre; Pétillon, Julien

    2012-11-01

    The intertidal amphipod Orchestia gammarella displays a key role in the functioning of sand and salt marsh habitats, mainly due to its role in decomposition processes and as a main prey item for fish and birds. This study evaluates the accuracy of two sampling methods for estimating population size, biomass and cohort composition. Pitfall trapping, a passive and easily displayed method, was compared with the depletion of quadrats, an active and time-consuming method, considered here as the reference method. Sampling took place in North-West European saltmarshes (Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France) during the summer, 2003 (64 replicates per method). Linear regression revealed that activity-densities (number of individuals per trap) were strongly and positively correlated with densities (number of individuals per quadrat). Dry biomasses obtained from the two sampling methods were also significantly and positively correlated, but with a low coefficient of correlation. Cohort composition differed between the methods, with proportionally less juveniles and more intermediates in pitfall traps. We conclude that pitfall traps can be used for easily monitoring changes in the size, and to a lesser extent for measuring the biomass, of an amphipod population, but not for estimating its cohort composition.

  15. The diversity and antibiotic properties of actinobacteria associated with endemic deepwater amphipods of Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Protasov, Eugenii S; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics increases the need for discovery of new effective antimicrobials. Unique habitats such as marine deposits, wetlands and caves or unexplored biological communities are promising sources for the isolation of actinobacteria, which are among the major antibiotic producers. The present study aimed at examining cultivated actinobacteria strains associated with endemic Lake Baikal deepwater amphipods and estimating their antibiotic activity. We isolated 42 actinobacterial strains from crustaceans belonging to Ommatogammarus albinus and Ommatogammarus flavus. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the isolation and initial characterization of representatives of Micromonospora and Pseudonocardia genera from Baikal deepwater invertebrates. Also, as expected, representatives of the genus Streptomyces were the dominant group among the isolated species. Some correlations could be observed between the number of actinobacterial isolates, the depth of sampling and the source of the strains. Nevertheless, >70% of isolated strains demonstrated antifungal activity. The dereplication analysis of extract of one of the isolated strains resulted in annotation of several known compounds that can help to explain the observed biological activities. The characteristics of ecological niche and lifestyle of deepwater amphipods suggests that the observed associations between crustaceans and isolated actinobacteria are not random and might represent long-term symbiotic interactions.

  16. Do amphipods have the same concentration-response to contaminated sediment in situ as in vitro?

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Hickey, C.W.; Morrisey, D.J.; Williamson, R.B.; Dam, L. van; Williams, E.K.; Nipper, M.G.; Roper, D.S.

    1999-05-01

    An underlying assumption of laboratory-based toxicity tests is that the sensitivity of organisms in the laboratory (in vitro) is comparable to that in the field (in situ). The authors tested this assumption by exposing estuarine amphipods (Chaetocorophium cf. lucasi) to a concentration series of cadmium-spiked sediments in vitro and in situ for 10 d. In situ exposures were conducted within plastic-mesh cages on an intertidal mudflat. To characterize exposure, they measured interstitial water cadmium concentrations (IW{sub Cd}), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and simultaneously extracted Cd (SEM{sub Cd}) at the beginning and end of the exposures. Between day 0 and day 10, AVS decreased in both in vitro and in situ exposures, while IW{sub Cd} levels declined less in vitro than in situ (median 76%). Despite more extreme conditions of temperature and salinity in situ, in vitro and in situ exposures showed comparable survival responses based on SEM{sub Cd}/AVS with the onset of marked mortality above a SEM{sub Cd}/AVS value of about one and minimal survival (< 5%) above a value of two. Based on IW{sub Cd} concentrations, however, sensitivity was significantly greater in vitro. They concluded that, in their tests, amphipod sensitivity in vitro was equal to or greater than its sensitivity in situ.

  17. Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Amphipod Corophium volutatorin Two Estuaries in South-east England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. G.; Gerdol, V.

    1997-05-01

    The distribution of Corophium volutator(Pallas) in the estuaries of the Rivers Blackwater and Crouch in South-east England was examined by taking samples of mud from 137 sites at approximately 0·5 m below mean high water of neap tidal level. Corophium volutatorwere approximately twice as abundant in creeks and semi-enclosed bays than on the open mud flats, a difference that was significant statistically. There was no correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the median particle size of the sediment nor the mud content. There was a significant but weak negative correlation between the abundance of C. volutatorand the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The aggregation of C. volutatorin the creeks and bays was attributed to their dispersal behaviour of swimming on the flood tide, which would sweep the amphipods into such areas where the tide rises but does not flow laterally. On the open mud flats, displacement of swimming amphipods by the flood tide further upstream and into semi-enclosed areas would occur. Their dispersal behaviour places C. volutatorin the creeks and bays within the saltmarsh vegetation, where their bioturbatory feeding habits may be responsible, in part, for the significant loss of pioneer zone vegetation that occurs there.

  18. Comparison of the partitioning of pesticides relative to the survival and behaviour of exposed amphipods.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Leonard, Jim; Cook, Art; Doe, Ken; Dunphy, Kathryn; Jackman, Paula; Tremblay, Laurie; Flemming, Joanna Mills

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides sprayed on farmlands can end up in rivers and be transported into estuaries, where they could affect aquatic organisms in freshwater and marine habitats. A series of experiments were conducted using the amphipod Corophium volutator Pallas (Amphipoda, Corophiidae) and single pesticides, namely atrazine (AT), azinphos-methyl (AZ), carbofuran (CA) and endosulfan (EN) that were added to sediments and covered with seawater. Our goal was to compare the concentrations affecting the survival of the animals relative to potential attractant or repellent properties of sediment-spiked pesticides. The avoidance/preference of contaminated/reference sediments by amphipods was examined after 48 and 96 h of exposure using sediments with different organic carbon content. The octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(ow)) ranked the pesticides binding to sediments as EN > AZ > AT > CA. LC(50) and LC(20) covered a wide range of nominal concentrations and ranked toxicity as CA-AZ > EN > AT. Under the experimental set up, only EN initiated an avoidance response and the organic carbon normalised concentration provided consistent results. Using the present data with wide confidence limits, >20% of a population of C. volutator could perish due to the presence of EN before relocation or detecting CA or AZ in sediments by chemical analysis.

  19. Comparison of amphipods Corophium insidiosum and C. orientale (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in sediment toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Bigongiari, Nicola; Barghigiani, Corrado; Biandolino, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of two Corophidae: Corophium orientale a standardized species and Corophium insidiosum a species more available in the Ionian sea (Southern Italy), in order to evaluate the suitability and applicability of C. insidiosum to sediment toxicity test. The sensitivity of the 2 species was compared through simultaneous bioassays: the 96-h static water-only toxicity test and a 10-day static sediment toxicity test. Sediment samples were collected in the Livorno harbour (Ligurian Sea). Both amphipods showed high sensitivity to reference toxicant and no significant differences were found between the two Corophiidae (t test; p > 0.05). Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) have been used to relate the chemical concentrations of sediment samples to biological effects. Both amphipod species indicated the same sediment samples as potentially toxic according to chemical data. The results indicate that Corophium insidiosum would be suitable as an alternative test species to the recommended species C. orientale, in the development of sediment toxicity test.

  20. Toxicity of selenomethionine- and seleno-contaminated sediment to the amphipod Corophium sp.

    PubMed

    Hyne, Ross V; Hogan, Alicia C; Pablo, Fleur; Roach, Anthony C

    2002-05-01

    The acute toxicity of four chemical species of selenium to juvenile amphipods (Corophium sp.) was assessed in water-only tests. The seleno-amino acid compounds seleno-L-methionine and seleno-DL-cystine were found to be more toxic (96-h LC(50) values of 1.5 and 12.7 microg Se/L) than the inorganic selenite and selenate (96-h NOEC values of 58 and 116 microg Se/L). New marine sediment testing procedures were developed using juvenile and adult Corophium sp. Both life stages were highly sensitive to seleno-L-methionine-spiked sediment. The juveniles were approximately five times more sensitive, with a 10-day LC(50) of 1.6 microg Se/g (dry weight) compared to 7.6 microg Se/g (dry weight) for the adults. Sediment collected from three sites in Lake Macquarie, a marine barrier lagoon with elevated concentrations of total selenium, had no effect on the survival of adult Corophium over 10 days. The toxicity of seleno-L-methionine to other amphipod species occurring in Lake Macquarie was assessed in water-only tests, with Paracalliope australis being highly sensitive (96-h LC(50) 2.58 microg Se/L).

  1. Testing alternative hypotheses for variation in amphipod behaviour and life history in relation to parasitism.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, D G; Forbes, M R; Boates, J S

    1999-07-01

    We tested two hypotheses concerning changes in investment in current reproduction for parasitised hosts, using amphipods (Corophium volutator) which act as second intermediate hosts for trematodes (Gynaecoyla aduncta). One hypothesis requires that parasites exert control over their hosts (parasite manipulation), whereas the other predicts that hosts control decisions over investment (adaptive host response). Although these hypotheses are viewed as mutually exclusive, our various results support both hypotheses. For example, female amphipods infected by late-stage larvae were often found crawling at times when predation by sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), which are the final hosts for trematodes, was likely, while uninfected females typically remained in their burrows. Furthermore, old females that were newly-infected by trematodes often aborted and ate their young. Both of these responses seem inconsistent with female investment in current reproduction, but can be interpreted as adaptive parasite manipulation. In contrast, young non-ovigerous females that were newly-infected hastened the onset of their parturial moult and thus, time to becoming receptive. This response can be explained as a host adaptation to minimise the cost of parasites. We contend that differences between parasitised and unparasitised hosts in behaviour or investment can be explained as both parasite and host adaptations, expressed at different times in the host's life history. Such compromise will help explain the persistence of parasite-host associations in nature.

  2. Seasonal variability of metabolic markers and oxidative balance in freshwater amphipod Hyalella kaingang (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Braghirolli, Fernando Machado; Oliveira, Maiara Rodriguez; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-08-01

    Amphipods are widely used as bioindicator organisms, in view of their ease of collection and cultivation, sexual dimorphism and abundance, in aquatic environments. In the present study male (n=30) and female (n=30) amphipod Hyalella kaingang were collected during the middle of each season from a nature preserve (Research Center PRÓ-MATA) in São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil. Proteins, glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, and lipid peroxidation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activity) were measured. The results obtained for the markers of energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation revealed a clear seasonal variation. The patterns of proteins, glycerol, and glutathione S-transferase activity did not differ between sexes; conversely, differential responses in males and females over the year were observed for all other parameters (glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). These responses appear to be strongly influenced by a prolonged reproductive period (autumn through spring, peaking in autumn); by the degree of exploratory activity, particularly in the summer and autumn; and by abiotic factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. The responses observed in the summer and autumn (decrease in levels of proteins, glycogen and fats, and increase in lipid peroxidation levels and glutathione S-transferase activity), suggest that this season represents a critical time point for these animals. The parameters studied herein may be used as biomarkers to assess the environmental conditions in the aquatic habitat.

  3. Pelagic amphipod assemblage associated with subarctic water off the West Coast of the Baja California peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2014-04-01

    The California Current system is a large marine ecosystem with transition gradients between subarctic and tropical biomes containing diverse habitats. Biogeographic species groups must be carefully analyzed in order to detect tendencies shifting the ecosystem toward a more temperate or tropical state. Species composition of hyperiid amphipods was analyzed in July 2002 for evidence of subarctic water intrusion and for signals of the El Niño event developing in the equatorial Pacific. Multivariate analysis showed a dominance of “transition zone” species typical of the California Current. The main evidence of subarctic water intrusion was the extended distribution of Themisto pacifica, which reached as far south as 27°N, with particularly high abundances at 30-32°N. The intrusion of subarctic water took place despite evidence that an El Niño event was in progress. The zonal advection due to El Niño intersected the equatorward flow of the subarctic intrusion and probably produced a large cyclonic eddy off Baja California. This eddy maintained a limited El Niño influence at a few offshore stations near its southern boundary. The main environmental variables influencing the amphipod assemblage structure were water temperature and the abundance of salps. T. pacifica, a species with cool water affinity, was more sensitive to temperature, whereas subtropical species, such as Vibilia armata, were strongly correlated with the availability of salps.

  4. Deep-sea scavenging amphipod assemblages from the submarine canyons of the Western Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, G. A.; Horton, T.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2012-11-01

    Submarine canyons have often been identified as hotspots of secondary production with the potential to house distinct faunal assemblages and idiosyncratic ecosystems. Within these deep-sea habitats, assemblages of scavenging fauna play a vital role in reintroducing organic matter from large food falls into the wider deep-sea food chain. Free-fall baited traps were set at different depths within three submarine canyons on the Iberian Margin. Amphipods from the traps were identified to species level and counted. Scavenging amphipod assemblages were compared at different depths within each canyon and between individual canyon systems. Using data from literature, abyssal plain assemblages were compared to submarine canyon assemblages. Samples from canyons were found to contain common abyssal plain species but in greater than expected abundances. It is proposed that this is a result of the high organic carbon input into canyon systems owing to their interception of sediment from the continental shelf and input from associated estuarine systems. Community composition differed significantly between the submarine canyons and abyssal plains. The cause of this difference cannot be attributed to one environmental variable due to the numerous inherent differences between canyons and abyssal plains.

  5. Deep-sea scavenging amphipod assemblages from the submarine canyons of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, G. A.; Horton, T.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2012-06-01

    Submarine canyons have often been identified as hotspots of secondary production with the potential to house distinct faunal assemblages and idiosyncratic ecosystems. Within these deep-sea habitats, assemblages of scavenging fauna play a vital role in reintroducing organic matter from large food falls into the wider deep-sea food chain. Free-fall baited traps were set at different depths within three submarine canyons on the Iberian Margin. Amphipods from the traps were identified to species level and counted. Scavenging amphipod assemblages were compared at different depths within each canyon, between individual canyon systems, and between the abyssal plain and submarine canyon sites. Samples from canyons were found to contain common abyssal plain species but in greater than expected abundances. Community composition differed significantly between the submarine canyons and abyssal plains. It is proposed that this is a result of the high organic carbon input into canyon systems owing to their interception of sediment from the continental shelf and input from associated estuarine systems.

  6. Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

  7. Assessing sublethal levels of sediment contamination using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.L.; Schlekat, C.E.; Reinharz, E. )

    1993-03-01

    Recent emphasis on the incorporation of sublethal end points into sediment toxicity test methods follows the realization that acute lethality tests may not provide sufficient sensitivity for predicting subtle ecological effects of sediment contamination. To this end, a partial life-cycle test with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus Shoemaker was evaluated for solid-phase testing of contaminated estuarine sediments. Initially, juvenile and adult Leptocheirus plumulosus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed to gradients of chemical contamination prepared by diluting field-collected contaminated sediment with texturally similar reference sediment. Ten-day exposure results indicate juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus is more sensitive than adult Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca, with significant mortality of juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus occurring in sediment diluted to 12.5% of the adult lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC). Long-term exposure of juveniles to dilutions of the acute juvenile LOEC shows significant effects on growth in sediment concentrations below the lethal threshold. Effect of reproductive end points parallel growth effects. Evaluation of nontoxicant experimental variables indicates significant effects of temperature and feeding regime on sensitivity of juvenile Leptocheirus plumulosus to contaminated sediment. Trace element concentrations were determined for the following: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

  8. A rhythmic modulatory gating system in the stomatogastric nervous system of Homarus gammarus. III. Rhythmic control of the pyloric CPG.

    PubMed

    Cardi, P; Nagy, F

    1994-06-01

    1. Two modulatory neurons, P and commissural pyloric (CP), known to be involved in the long-term maintenance of pyloric central pattern generator operation in the rock lobster Homarus gammarus, are members of the commissural pyloric oscillator (CPO), a higher-order oscillator influencing the pyloric network. 2. The CP neuron was endogenously oscillating in approximately 30% of the preparations in which its cell body was impaled. Rhythmic inhibitory feedback from the pyloric pacemaker anterior burster (AB) neuron stabilized the CP neuron's endogenous rhythm. 3. The organization of the CPO is described. Follower commissural neurons, the F cells, and the CP neuron receive a common excitatory postsynaptic potential from another commissural neuron, the large exciter (LE). When in oscillatory state, CP in turn excites the LE neuron. This positive feedback may maintain long episodes of CP oscillations. 4. The pyloric pacemaker neurons follow the CPO rhythm with variable coordination modes (i.e., 1:1, 1:2) and switch among these modes when their membrane potential is modified. The CPO inputs strongly constrain the pyloric period, which as a result may adopt only a few discrete values. This effect is based on mechanisms of entrainment between the CPO and the pyloric oscillator. 5. Pyloric constrictor neurons show differential sensitivity from the pyloric pacemaker neurons with respect to the CPO inputs. Consequently, their bursting period can be a shorter harmonic of the bursting period of the pyloric pacemakers neurons. 6. The CPO neurons seem to be the first example of modulatory gating neurons that also give timing cues to a rhythmic pattern generating network.

  9. Altered exoskeleton composition and vitellogenesis in the crustacean Gammarus sp. collected at polluted sites in the Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J

    2005-05-01

    Gammarus sp. individuals were collected at four intertidal sites subjected to direct sources of pollution (marinas, ferry traffic, and harbors) and at one site with no direct source of pollution. Levels of vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg), metallothioneins (MT), alkali-labile phosphates (ALPs) in proteins, and lipogenic enzyme activities (i.e., glucose-6-dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate enzyme) were measured in whole soft tissues. In exoskeletons, levels of pH-dependent extractable protein and chitin were determined to assess the possible impacts of pollution on exoskeleton integrity and the molting process. Results show that males were consistently heavier than females regardless of site quality but that the whole-body weight of both sexes was significantly lower at polluted sites. Females displayed either induced or decreased Vtg-like proteins at polluted sites, indicating significant changes in gametogenesis activity. MT levels were not sex dependent and tended to be induced at all impacted sites. ALP levels in acetone-fractionated proteins indicate altered phosphate mobilization at some impacted sites, where females tended to display higher ALP levels. Lipogenic enzyme activities did not vary by sex but were readily increased at impacted sites, suggesting a delay in gonad maturation rates. Exoskeleton protein characteristics revealed that the proportion of chitin in exoskeletons was a lower at most impacted site, suggesting disruption of chitin and pH-dependent protein mobilization. Principal component analysis revealed that gammarids collected at affected sites displayed substantial changes in the proportion of chitin, arthropodin, sclerotin, MTs, and intermediary glucose metabolism (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase in soft tissues) and thus suffered from disturbed gametogenesis and exoskeleton integrity.

  10. Bioaccumulation of Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium by the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum: Involvement in biomonitoring surveys and trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Bigot-Clivot, Aurélie; Palos Ladeiro, Mélissa; Lepoutre, Alexandra; Bastien, Fanny; Bonnard, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Geffard, Olivier; François, Adeline; Geffard, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are public health priorities because their oocysts can persist in recreational, surface, drinking, river, and sea water sources for a long time. To evaluate the capacity of the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum to accumulate T. gondii and C. parvum oocysts, gammarids were exposed to 200, 2000 or 20,000 oocysts per gammarid and per day for 21 days followed by 5 days of depuration. C. parvum DNA was detected by qPCR in G. fossarum in only one out of four pools for the highest concentration and after 14 days of exposure, and T. gondii DNA was detected after 7 days of exposure to the two highest concentrations. Our results document the capacity of G. fossarum to accumulate T. gondii in its tissues proportionally to the ambient concentration; the maximum number of oocysts was detected in gammarid tissues after exposure to 20,000 oocysts per day. Mean values of 3.26 (±3), 21.71 (±15.18), and 17.41 (±10.89) oocysts were detected in gammarids after 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively, and after 5 days of depuration, T. gondii oocysts were still present in gammarid tissues. These results show for the first time that a freshwater crustacean can bioaccumulate T. gondii oocysts, suggesting that G. fossarum is a potential effective bioindicator of protozoan contamination in biomonitoring studies. Moreover, due to its key position in freshwater food webs, G. fossarum could also play a role in the trophic transfer of protozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  12. Behavioural and physiological responses of Gammarus pulex exposed to cadmium and arsenate at three temperatures: individual and combined effects.

    PubMed

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and 15 °C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl(-)]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as 'additive' for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10 °C considered as "antagonistic"). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl(-)] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na(+)] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  13. A comparison of beating parameters in larval and post-larval locomotor systems of the lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Laverack, M S; Macmillan, D L; Neil, D M

    1976-03-18

    A study has been made of the interrelations between rhythmical exopodite beating in different larval stages and swimmeret beating in poast-larval stages of the lobster Homarus gammarus. Data on exopodite beat cycle durations have been used for statistical comparisons of exopodite performance within one larva, and also between different stages of larval development. Inter-exopodite comparisons reveal clear bilateral differences (table 1), although there is no consistently favoured relationship (tables 2 and 3). There are significant differences in cycle duration between the first three developmental stages, with a slight increase at the first moult, and a marked decrease at the second (table 4). However, within each stage the repeat frequency exhibits little change (table 5). Therefore it appears that changes in swimming behaviour occur discontinuously in development, and are associated with the larval moults. It is suggested that changes in beat frequency, and especially the faster beating in stage III, may represent responses to changed loading conditions (table 7). Measurements of swimmeret beating in post-larval lobsters have been analysed in terms of cycle durations, and inter- and intra-segmental phase relations. Swimmeret beating patterns are very regular (figure 1), but not restricted to a narrow range of frequencies (table 6a). Intersegmental phase lag remains constant around 0.2 (figure 3) independent of beat frequency (figure 4). Similarly the powerstroke/returnstroke ratio of approximately 0.5 (figure 5) shows no significant correlation with cycle duration (figure 6). Differences emerge in the performance of larval exopodites and post-larval swimmerets (table 6b), although the possibility cannot be excluded that the larval exopodite oscillator in some way influences the developing action of the post-larval swimmeret system.

  14. Proteomics in aquatic amphipods: can it be used to determine mechanisms of toxicity and interspecies responses after exposure to atrazine?

    PubMed

    Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly J; Sanchez, Brian C; Adamec, Jiri; Sepúlveda, María S

    2011-05-01

    Proteomics has gained popularity in the field of ecotoxicology as a holistic tool for unraveling novel mechanisms of toxicity and elucidating subtle effects of contaminant exposure. The holoarctic amphipod Diporeia spp. is declining at precipitous rates in the Great Lakes, and we are evaluating the use of the well-studied amphipod model Hyalella azteca as a surrogate for Diporeia spp. This article presents proteomics data from both amphipod species exposed to atrazine (ATZ) and one of its metabolites, desethylatrazine (DEA; 3 and 30 µg/L for 21 and 42 d). We used a proteomics approach to determine whether these two species of amphipods responded similarly to the same chemicals and to understand better the mechanisms of toxicity of ATZ and DEA in aquatic invertebrates. We observed disruption in energy production and mitochondrial function as well as hormesis in exposed organisms. In addition, we identified a two proteins (GAPDH and HSP 90 kDa) that have been linked to hormonal disruptions, suggesting potential endocrine disruption. Finally, we found that H. azteca and Diporeia spp. responded with similar proteomic profiles after ATZ and DEA exposure, suggesting that H. azteca may be used as a surrogate model organism for Diporeia spp.

  15. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  16. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  17. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LABORATORY RESPONSE DATA TO PREDICT POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS FOR THE ESTUARINE AMPHIPOD, AMPILISCA ABDITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten-day acute mortality of the benthic amphipod Ampelisca abdita is used in a number of regulatory, research, and monitoring programs to evaluate chemical contamination of marine sediments. Although this endpoint has proven to be valuable for characterizing the relative toxicitie...

  18. Genetic structure of the benthic amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and its relationship to abundance in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod Diporeia is a crucial part of the food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but has faced serious declines correlated with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), except in Lake Superior, which has seen an increase in Diporeia abundance. Specul...

  19. Genetic structure of the benthic amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and its relationship to abundance in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod Diporeia is a crucial part of the food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but has faced serious declines correlated with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), except in Lake Superior, which has seen an increase in Diporeia abundance. Specul...

  20. Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants using the amphipod Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Scarlett, A; Rowland, S J; Canty, M; Smith, E L; Galloway, T S

    2007-06-01

    Acute sediment toxicity tests do not test key life stage events such as moulting and reproduction and therefore do not reveal the longer-term effects of contaminant exposure. A laboratory method is described for determining the chronic toxicity of contaminants associated with whole sediments. The test is conducted using neonates of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator at 15 degrees C, salinity 25 psu and a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. The endpoints are survival and growth after 28 days and survival, growth and reproduction of amphipods upon termination of test i.e. reproduction within all control vessels (ca 75 days). The sediment chronic toxicity test was used to investigate the effects of sediments spiked with environmentally relevant preparations of slightly weathered Alaskan North Slope crude oil, including a water-accommodated-fraction (WAF) and a chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9527) WAF. Sediment oil concentrations were quantified using ultra-violet fluorescence. The amphipods exposed to chemically dispersed oil had higher mortality and lower growth rates than control-, Corexit 9527- and WAF-exposed organisms, resulting in reduced reproduction. The described method supplements the standard acute sediment test and would be particularly useful when long-term ecological effects are suspected but acute tests reveal no significant mortality. The sediment chronic test reported herein has shown that sediment that was not evidently toxic during 10-day acute tests could have population-level effects on sediment-dwelling amphipods.

  1. Evaluation of the Influence of Bromide or Iodide on the Performance the Amphipod Hyalella azteca in Reconstituted Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival, growth, or reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (HA) is reported to be poor when some reconstituted waters have been used to conduct chronic (>14-d) water-only or sediment toxicity tests, including ASTM reconstituted hard water (with no addition of Bromi...

  2. Evaluation of the Influence of Bromide or Iodide on the Performance the Amphipod Hyalella azteca in Reconstituted Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival, growth, or reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (HA) is reported to be poor when some reconstituted waters have been used to conduct chronic (>14-d) water-only or sediment toxicity tests, including ASTM reconstituted hard water (with no addition of Bromi...

  3. Influence of bioturbation by the amphipod Corophium volutator on fluoranthene uptake in the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarelli, S.; Kater, B.J.; Straalen, N.M. van

    2000-06-01

    The uptake kinetics of fluoranthene in the polychaete worm Nereis virens were investigated in the presence and in the absence of amphipods to examine the effects of sediment bioturbation by the benthic amphipod Corophium volutator on the uptake in worms. Worms only and worms together with two different densities of amphipods were exposed to fluoranthene-spiked sediment for 12 d. Worms and overlying water samples for fluoranthene analyses were taken and total suspended solids in water column were measured after 1, 2, 5, 8, and 12 d. Results showed that in all treatments fluoranthene was rapidly accumulated by N. virens during the first two days and a steady state was reached within five days of exposure. Biota to sediment accumulation factors normalized to lipid concentration and to sediment organic carbon (BAF{sub ioc}) or worms exposed with the highest number of amphipods were significantly higher (two to three times) compared to worms exposed with fewer or without amphipods after one and two days of exposure. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs), calculated as the ratio between the uptake (k{sub 1}) and elimination (k{sub 2}) rate constants were not significantly different among treatments. When BCFs were calculated on the basis of dissolved fluoranthene concentrations (BCF{sub diss}), values of the treatments where worms were exposed with 100 and 300 amphipods were slightly higher than those calculated on the basis of total (dissolved + particle-bound) aqueous fluoranthene (BCF{sub tot}). However, the presence of fluoranthene bound to dissolved organic matter could have accounted for lower than expected BCF{sub diss} values. The results suggest that bioturbation by amphiopoc, affected the concentration of fluoranthene in the worms not by changing the worm to water partitioning (k{sub 1}/k{sub 2}) but by changing the worm to sediment partitioning (BAF{sub ioc}). In the treatments with worms a higher mortality of amphipods was found compared to those without worms. The

  4. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  5. Effects of seawater alkalinity on calcium and acid-base regulation in juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during a moult cycle.

    PubMed

    Middlemiss, Karen L; Urbina, Mauricio A; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-03-01

    Fluxes of NH4(+) (acid) and HCO3(-) (base), and whole body calcium content were measured in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) during intermoult (megalopae stage), and during the first 24h for postmoult juveniles under control (~2000 μeq/L) and low seawater alkalinity (~830 μeq/L). Immediately after moulting, animals lost 45% of the total body calcium via the shed exoskeleton (exuvia), and only 11% was retained in the uncalcified body. At 24h postmoult, exoskeleton calcium increased to ~46% of the intermoult stage. Ammonia excretion was not affected by seawater alkalinity. After moulting, bicarbonate excretion was immediately reversed from excretion to uptake (~4-6 fold higher rates than intermoult) over the whole 24h postmoult period, peaking at 3-6h. These data suggest that exoskeleton calcification is not completed by 24h postmoult. Low seawater alkalinity reduced postmoult bicarbonate uptake by 29% on average. Net acid-base flux (equivalent to net base uptake) followed the same pattern as HCO3(-) fluxes, and was 22% lower in low alkalinity seawater over the whole 24h postmoult period. The common occurrence of low alkalinity in intensive aquaculture systems may slow postmoult calcification in juvenile H. gammarus, increasing the risk of mortalities through cannibalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The proteasomes of two marine decapod crustaceans, European lobster (Homarus gammarus) and Edible crab (Cancer pagurus), are differently impaired by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sandra; Bose, Aneesh; Sokolova, Inna M; Abele, Doris; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    The intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key regulator of cellular processes involved in the controlled degradation of short-living or malfunctioning proteins. Certain diseases and cellular dysfunctions are known to arise from the disruption of proteasome pathways. Trace metals are recognized stressors of the proteasome system in vertebrates and plants, but their effects on the proteasome of invertebrates are not well understood. Since marine invertebrates, and particularly benthic crustaceans, can be exposed to high metal levels, we studied the effects of in vitro exposure to Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) on the activities of the proteasome from the claw muscles of lobsters (Homarus gammarus) and crabs (Cancer pagurus). The chymotrypsin like activity of the proteasome of these two species showed different sensitivity to metals. In lobsters the activity was significantly inhibited by all metals to a similar extent. In crabs the activities were severely suppressed only by Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) while Zn(2+) had only a moderate effect and Cd(2+) caused almost no inhibition of the crab proteasome. This indicates that the proteasomes of both species possess structural characteristics that determine different susceptibility to metals. Consequently, the proteasome-mediated protein degradation in crab C. pagurus may be less affected by metal pollution than that of the lobster H. gammarus.

  7. Long-term dynamics in a soft-bottom amphipod community and the influence of the pelagic environment.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; McNeill, Caroline L; Widdicombe, Claire E; Guerra-García, Jose M; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The processes and patterns seen in coastal benthic communities can be strongly influenced by the overlying pelagic environmental conditions. Integrating long-term biological and environmental data (both benthic and pelagic) can give insight into the specific relationships between key benthic functional groups and natural temporal changes in the marine environment. The identity and abundance of amphipod species found at Station L4 (Western English Channel) were tracked for 7 years (2008-2014), whilst simultaneously, annual changes in phytoplankton biomass, water temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a concentration were also characterized. The main species were persistent and showed little variability along the study period. Overall, however, there were significant changes in the structure of the whole community between sampling times, highlighting the importance of less numerically-dominant species in driving temporal variability. Surprisingly, the current study did not detect a significant influence of the phytoplankton biomass on benthic amphipod dynamics. On the other hand, there was a clear and constant correlation between bottom water temperatures and amphipod abundance. This pattern is different from that observed in other detritivorous species at L4, highlighting the complexity of benthic-pelagic coupling and the high variability of the response to pelagic conditions among different groups. As a result of the biogeographic position of the Western English Channel, the key role of amphipods in benthic communities, the influence of the temperature in their populations dynamics, as well as the solid baseline provided here and in previous studies, the monitoring of long-term amphipod dynamics in the English Channel could be a valuable tool to evaluate the biological effect of climate change over marine benthic communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sediment toxicity, contamination and amphipod abundance at a DDT- and dieldrin-contaminated site in San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.C.; Cole, F.A.; Lamberson, J.O.; Ferraro, S.P.; Schults, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment toxicity to the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, sediment contamination, and the abundance of amphipods were examined along a contamination gradient in the Lauritzen Channel and adjacent parts of Richmond Harbor, California. Dieldrin and DDT were formulated and ground at this site from 1945 to 1966. Sediment contamination by both dieldrin and the sum of DDT and its metabolites (DDT's) was positively correlated with sediment toxicity and negatively correlated with the abundance of amphipods excluding Grandidierella japonica. The maximum dieldrin and DDT's concentrations in toxic units were 0.018 and 9.43, respectively, indicating that DDT's was the dominant ecotoxicological factor. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and metals were not sufficient to cause appreciable toxicity, except at one PAH-contaminated station. Relations between DDT's, sediment toxicity, and amphipod abundance are similar at three DDT's-contaminated sites. The 10-d LC50 for DDT's in field-collected sediment was 2,500 micrograms/gram organic carbon (OC) for Eohaustorius estuarius in the study, 1,040 micrograms/gram OC for Rhepoxynius abronius exposed to Palos Verdes Shelf, California, sediment, and 2,580 micrograms/gram OC for Hyalella azteca exposed to sediment from a freshwater stream system near Huntsville, Alabama. The threshold for 10-d sediment toxicity occurred at about 300 micrograms DDT's/gram OC. The abundance of amphipods (except Grandidierella japonica) was reduced at DDT's concentrations >100 micrograms/gram OC. Correlations between toxicity, contamination, and biology indicate that acute sediment toxicity to Eohaustorius estuarius, Rhopoxynius abronius, or Hyalella azteca in lab tests provides reliable evidence of biologically adverse sediment contamination in the field.

  9. Behavioural and transcriptional changes in the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus exposed to two antidepressants, fluoxetine and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Bossus, Maryline C; Guler, Yasmin Z; Short, Stephen J; Morrison, Edward R; Ford, Alex T

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, there have been increasing concerns over the effects of pharmaceutical compounds in the aquatic environment, however very little is known about the effects of antidepressants such as the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Many biological functions within invertebrates are under the control of serotonin, such as reproduction, metabolism, moulting and behaviour. The effects of serotonin and fluoxetine have recently been shown to alter the behaviour of the marine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach, 1815). The purpose of this study was to observe behavioural and transcriptional modifications in this crustacean exposed to the two most prescribed SSRIs (fluoxetine and sertraline) and to develop biomarkers of neurological endocrine disruption. The animals were exposed to both drugs at environmentally relevant concentrations from 0.001 to 1μg/L during short-term (1h and 1day) and medium-term (8 days) experiments. The movement of the amphipods was tracked using the behavioural analysis software during 12min alternating dark/light conditions. The behavioural analysis revealed a significant effect on velocity which was observed after 1h exposure to sertraline at 0.01μg/L and after 1 day exposure to fluoxetine as low as 0.001μg/L. The most predominant effect of drugs on velocity was recorded after 1 day exposure for the 0.1 and 0.01μg/L concentrations of fluoxetine and sertraline, respectively. Subsequently, the expression (in this article gene expression is taken to represent only transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated at translation, mRNA and protein stability levels) of several E. marinus neurological genes, potentially involved in the serotonin metabolic pathway or behaviour regulation, were analysed in animals exposed to various SSRIs concentrations using RT-qPCR. The expression of a tryptophan hydroxylase (Ph), a neurocan core protein (Neuc), a Rhodopsin (Rhod1) and an Arrestin

  10. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  11. Influence of cooling rate on the ability of frozen-thawed sperm to bind to heterologous zona pellucida, as assessed by competitive in vitro binding assays in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and tigrina (Leopardus tigrinus).

    PubMed

    Baudi, D L K; Jewgenow, K; Pukazhenthi, B S; Spercoski, K M; Santos, A S; Reghelin, A L S; Candido, M V; Javorouski, M L; Müller, G; Morais, R N

    2008-01-15

    We evaluated the influence of two cooling rates (from 25 to 5 degrees C) on post-thaw function of frozen sperm in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis; n=3 males) and tigrinas (Leopardus tigrinus; n=4 males). Seven normospermic (>70% normal sperm) electroejaculates from each species were diluted with a 4% glycerol freezing medium, divided into two aliquots, and assigned to one of two cooling rates: fast or slow (0.7 or 0.16 degrees C/min, respectively). Sperm motility index (SMI) and percentage of sperm with an intact acrosome were assessed before freezing and after thawing, and the ability of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of IVM domestic cat oocytes were assessed in a competitive in vitro sperm-binding assay. Regardless of the cooling rate, frozen-thawed sperm from both species exhibited a SMI of 50; approximately 20 and approximately 32% of post-thaw sperm had an intact acrosome in ocelots and tigrinas, respectively (P<0.05). The mean (+/-S.E.M.) number of sperm bound per oocyte was higher for fast-cooled (8.5+/-1.3) than slow-cooled (2.5+/-0.3; P<0.01) ocelot sperm. In contrast, more tigrina sperm bound to domestic cat oocytes when cooled slowly versus quickly (5.8+/-0.9 versus 2.7+/-0.4, P<0.05). In conclusion, cryopreservation decreased sperm function in both species, and the oocyte-binding assay was the most efficient method to detect functional differences in post-thaw sperm.

  12. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  13. Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor) treatment of amphipod parasites (Hyperiidae) from several host jellyfish species.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Koneval, Maureen E; Clark, James D; Schick, Mark; Smith, Malissa; Stark, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    Wild-caught crystal jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) arrived at the John G. Shedd Aquarium infested with hyperiid amphipods (Hyperia medusarum), which were inadvertently introduced into a system containing several jellyfish species. Affected systems were treated with milbemycin oxime (Interceptor tablets for dogs 51-100 lbs, Novartis Animal Health US, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina 27408, USA), a treatment prescribed for red bug (Tegastes acroporanus) infestation in corals. Two treatments using one 25-mg aliquot of Interceptor per 10 gallons of tank water administered 6-7 days apart were completed. Overall, treatment to eradicate the parasite from the affected systems was successful. Further studies evaluating the tolerance of jellyfish to milbemycin oxime, particularly in small juvenile Eutonina indicans and Aurelia aurita, are warranted. Based on clinical observations, there were more negative effects associated with the treatment in the hydrozoans than in the scyphozoans.

  14. A simple control for sediment-toxicity exposures using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, Pete; Urich, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity exposures comparing survival and growth of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, are often components of aquatic-habitat assessments. Standardized exposure methods have been established and require evaluations for quality assurance. Test acceptability using performance-based criteria can be determined from exposures to control sediments, which are collected from the environment or formulated from commercially available components. Amending sand with leached alfalfa solids provided a simple formulated sediment that elicited consistently acceptable survival and growth in 28-day exposures with and without a daily feeding regime. A procedure is described for preparing the sediment along with results from comparisons among sand, amended sand, and field-collected sediments that incorporated three feeding regimes.

  15. Niche-based mechanisms operating within extreme habitats: a case study of subterranean amphipod communities

    PubMed Central

    Fišer, Cene; Blejec, Andrej; Trontelj, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that both niche-based and neutral mechanisms are important for biological communities to evolve and persist. For communities in extreme and isolated environments such as caves, theoretical and empirical considerations (low species turnover, high stress, strong convergence owing to strong directional selection) predict neutral mechanisms and functional equivalence of species. We tested this prediction using subterranean amphipod communities from caves and interstitial groundwater. Contrary to expectations, functional morphological diversity within communities in both habitats turned out to be significantly higher than the null model of randomly assembled communities. This suggests that even the most extreme, energy-poor environments still maintain the potential for diversification via differentiation of niches. PMID:22513281

  16. Transcriptome of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica and its response to pollutant exposure.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seunghyun; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Gondogeneia antarctica is widely distributed off the western Antarctic Peninsula and is a key species in the Antarctic food web. In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.6Gb) nucleotides and a comprehensive transcript dataset for G. antarctica. Over 46 million total reads were assembled into 20,749 contigs, and 12,461 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx. The RNA-seq results after exposure to three pollutants showed that 658, 169 and 367 genes that were potential biomarkers of responses to pollutants for this species were specifically upregulated after exposure to PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls), PFOS (Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) and PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), respectively. These data represent the first transcriptome resource for the Antarctic amphipod G. antarctica and provide a useful resource for studying Antarctic marine species.

  17. The amphipod Talitrus saltator as a bioindicator of human trampling on sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Ungherese, Giuseppe; Somigli, Silvia; Galanti, Giuditta; Baroni, Davide; Borghini, Francesca; Cipriani, Nicola; Nebbiai, Massimo; Passaponti, Maurizio; Focardi, Silvano

    2008-05-01

    The present paper assesses the use of the supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator as a bioindicator of the effects of human trampling on the supralittoral sandy band. Samplings in delimited areas were carried out at sites subjected to different human impact. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the number of swimmers and the sandhopper population density, while there was no clear relationship between sandhopper abundance and the other factors considered: granulometry, compactness and organic carbon content of the sand, and trace metal contents in the sand and sandhoppers. A field test of trampling conducted in a confined space showed its direct negative effect on sandhopper survival. However, trace metal analysis confirmed the ability of T. saltator to bioaccumulate some elements (Hg, Zn, Cu, Cd). Our study demonstrates that T. saltator is a good bioindicator of human impact in the supralittoral zone of sandy shores.

  18. Development of a chronic sublethal sediment bioassay using the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus (Shoemaker)

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.L. Jr.; Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Gray, B.R.; Duke, B.M.; Wright, R.B.; Farrar, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    Based on the need for a test to evaluate chronic sublethal toxicity in estuarine sediments, a 28-d sediment bioassay with the estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus (Shoemaker) was developed. The test was initiated with animals less than 2 weeks old. Test endpoints included survival, growth, and reproduction. Factors with the potential to influence test animal performance such as artificial sea salts, salinity, food ration, size at test initiation, intraspecific density, sediment grain size, and diet were evaluated. For example, intraspecific densities between 10 and 60 animals/beaker did not affect survival, growth, or reproduction. Similarly, L. plumulosus were tolerant of a wide range of sediment grain sizes with only extremely fine grained or coarse grained material significantly affecting survival, growth, and reproduction. Test performance criteria included control survival (> 80%) and reproduction and response to a reference toxicant test with cadmium chloride in a control chart format.

  19. Genetic variability, differential response, and differential sensitivity between populations of the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita

    SciTech Connect

    Maxemchuk-Daly, A.

    1995-12-31

    Exposing marine invertebrates to sediments in solid phase tests has become a popular method for determining the toxicity of sediments being dredged from coastal waterways. The use of the marine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita for testing dredge sediments will be discussed specifically. A. abdita has proven useful for 10-day sediment toxicity tests, in which mortality is the endpoint, due to its relatively high sensitivity. However, the results from testing these animals have been variable. After comparing several populations of organisms exposed to the same sediment, it was found that there are differences in the response of organisms between populations to sediment exposure. SRT data also demonstrated differences in the sensitivity of A. abdita collected from different populations. Genetic differences between populations of organisms may be responsible for the differential response and sensitivity observed.

  20. Reproduction of the estuarine and marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) in laboratory for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Peters, Carolin; Ahlf, Wolfgang

    2005-04-01

    The acute whole sediment bioassay with the estuarine and marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) is broadly used within Europe. Hitherto, the test is carried out with field-collected animals. In order to provide a more standardized and continuously available test organism reproduction and growth experiments were performed for a period of one year in laboratory under simulated summer conditions (light/dark 16:8 at 15, 19, and 23 degrees C). C. volutator was the first time reproduced successfully in laboratory for several generations and independent from its natural life cycle also in winter. The females produced two to three broods with a mean number of 96 offspring. A mean growth rate of 0.07 mm per day was determined at 15 degrees C. The reproduction and growth experiments provide consequently the essential base for the development of a chronic toxicity test with C. volutator.

  1. Two new species of pontogeneiid amphipods (Crustacea, Senticaudata, Calliopioidea) from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Guk; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new pontogeneiid amphipods, Eusiroides pilopalpus sp. n. and Paramoera dentipleurae sp. n., from Korean waters are described and illustrated. Eusiroides pilopalpus sp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by the following characters: mandibular palp article 3 has brush-like setation, maxilla 2 has an inner plate that is not enlarged, and gnathopods 1 and 2 ischium has a well-developed anterior lobe. Paramoera dentipleurae sp. n. can be discriminated from congeners by the following characters: head anterior cephalic lobe is sinusoid, pereopods 5–7 are homopodous and slender, pereopods 6 and 7 basis are proximally lobed but distally diminished on posterior margins, and epimeron 3 is prominently expanded posterodistally. PMID:27917057

  2. Niche-based mechanisms operating within extreme habitats: a case study of subterranean amphipod communities.

    PubMed

    Fiser, Cene; Blejec, Andrej; Trontelj, Peter

    2012-08-23

    It has been suggested that both niche-based and neutral mechanisms are important for biological communities to evolve and persist. For communities in extreme and isolated environments such as caves, theoretical and empirical considerations (low species turnover, high stress, strong convergence owing to strong directional selection) predict neutral mechanisms and functional equivalence of species. We tested this prediction using subterranean amphipod communities from caves and interstitial groundwater. Contrary to expectations, functional morphological diversity within communities in both habitats turned out to be significantly higher than the null model of randomly assembled communities. This suggests that even the most extreme, energy-poor environments still maintain the potential for diversification via differentiation of niches.

  3. Trait vs. phylogenetic diversity as predictors of competition and community composition in herbivorous marine amphipods.

    PubMed

    Best, R J; Caulk, N C; Stachowicz, J J

    2013-01-01

    Field studies of community assembly patterns increasingly use phylogenetic relatedness as a surrogate for traits. Recent experiments appear to validate this approach by showing effects of correlated trait and phylogenetic distances on coexistence. However, traits governing resource use in animals are often labile. To test whether feeding trait or phylogenetic diversity can predict competition and production in communities of grazing amphipods, we manipulated both types of diversity independently in mesocosms. We found that increasing the feeding trait diversity of the community increased the number of species coexisting, reduced dominance and changed food availability. In contrast, phylogenetic diversity had no effect, suggesting that whatever additional ecological information it represents was not relevant in this context. Although community phylogenetic structure in the field may result from multiple traits with potential for phylogenetic signal, phylogenetic effects on species interactions in controlled experiments may depend on the lability of fewer key traits.

  4. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G

    2016-10-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  5. A simple control for sediment-toxicity exposures using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Lasier, Peter J; Urich, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    Sediment-toxicity exposures comparing survival and growth of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, are often components of aquatic-habitat assessments. Standardized exposure methods have been established and require evaluations for quality assurance. Test acceptability using performance-based criteria can be determined from exposures to control sediments, which are collected from the environment or formulated from commercially available components. Amending sand with leached alfalfa solids provided a simple formulated sediment that elicited consistently acceptable survival and growth in 28-day exposures with and without a daily feeding regime. A procedure is described for preparing the sediment along with results from comparisons among sand, amended sand, and field-collected sediments that incorporated three feeding regimes.

  6. Changes in amphipod (Crustacea) assemblages associated with shallow-water algal habitats invaded by Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Luis, M; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Bayle-Sempere, J T

    2008-06-01

    The effects of the invasive species Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (hereafter C. racemosa) on amphipod assemblages associated with shallow-water rocky habitats were studied. Two habitats located along the SE Iberian Peninsula were compared; invaded and non-invaded. The results showed that growth of C. racemosa affects habitat structure, influencing the species composition and biomass of macroalgae, and detritus accumulation. In turn, such changes in habitat features affected the associated amphipod assemblages with different ecological requirements. However, the species richness of amphipods was relatively high in both habitats, while the species composition of amphipods changed completely. For example, some species such as Ampithoe ramondi and Hyale schmidti did not colonize invaded habitats, while others such as Apocorophium acutum were favoured by the spread of C. racemosa. Habitat invasion by C. racemosa can have an important influence on biotic assemblages, modifying both habitat structure and the associated fauna, with unknown effects on the overall ecosystem.

  7. Lethal and behavioral impacts of diesel and fuel oil on the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-09-01

    Toxicity testing with Antarctic species is required for risk assessment of fuel spills in Antarctic coastal waters. The lethal and sublethal (movement behavior) sensitivities of adults and juveniles of the Antarctic amphipod Paramoera walkeri to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of 3 fuels were estimated in extended-duration tests at -1 °C to 21 d. Response of P. walkeri for lethal hydrocarbon concentrations was slow, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) first able to be estimated at 7 d for adults exposed to Special Antarctic Blend diesel (SAB), which had the highest hydrocarbon concentrations of the 3 fuel WAFs. Juveniles showed greater response to marine gas oil (MGO) and intermediate residual fuel oil (IFO 180) at longer exposure durations and were most sensitive at 21 d to IFO 180 (LC50 = 12 μg/L). Adults were initially more sensitive than juveniles; at 21 d, however, juveniles were more than twice as sensitive as adults to SAB (LC50 = 153 μg/L and 377 μg/L, respectively). Significant effects on movement behavior were evident at earlier time points and lower concentrations than was mortality in all 3 fuel WAFs, and juveniles were highly sensitive to sublethal effects of MGO. These first estimates of Antarctic amphipod sensitivity to diesel and fuel oils in seawater contribute to the development of ecologically relevant risk assessments for management of hydrocarbon contamination in the region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2444-2455. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Evidence of hidden biodiversity, ongoing speciation and diverse patterns of genetic structure in giant Antarctic amphipods.

    PubMed

    Baird, Helena P; Miller, Karen J; Stark, Jonathan S

    2011-08-01

    Recent molecular research on Antarctic benthic organisms has challenged traditional taxonomic classifications, suggesting that our current perceptions of Antarctic biodiversity and species distributions must be thoroughly revised. Furthermore, genetic differentiation at the intraspecific level remains poorly understood, particularly in eastern Antarctica. We addressed these issues using DNA sequence data for two sibling amphipod species that could be collected on a circum-Antarctic scale: Eusirus perdentatus and Eusirus giganteus. Haplotype networks and Bayesian phylogenies based on mitochondrial (COI, CytB) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA provided strong evidence of multiple cryptic species of Eusirus, with several occurring in sympatry and at least one likely to have a true circum-Antarctic distribution. Within species, gene flow was often highly restricted, consistent with a brooding life history and in some cases suggestive of current or future allopatric speciation. Patterns of genetic structure were not always predictable: one cryptic species showed preliminary evidence of high genetic differentiation across ∼150 km in eastern Antarctica (F(ST) > 0.47, P < 0.01), yet another was remarkably homogenous across ∼5000 km (F(ST) = 0.00, P = 1.00). Genetic diversity also varied among cryptic species, independent of sample size (π = 0.00-0.99). These results indicate several hidden levels of genetic complexity in these Antarctic amphipods that are neither apparent from previous taxonomic or ecological studies nor predictable from their life history. Such genetic diversity and structure may reflect different modes of survival for Antarctic benthic organisms during historic glacial cycles, and/or subsequent re-establishment of populations on the shelf, and highlight our misunderstanding of Antarctic marine species diversity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Cell lineage, axis formation, and the origin of germ layers in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Carsten; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2002-10-01

    Embryos of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana are examined during cleavage, gastrulation, and segmentation by using in vivo labelling. Single blastomeres of the 8- and 16-cell stages were labelled with DiI to trace cell lineages. Early cleavage follows a distinct pattern and the a/p and d/v body axes are already determined at the 4- and 8-cell stages, respectively. In these stages, the germinal rudiment and the naupliar mesoderm can be traced back to a single blastomere each. In addition, the ectoderm and the postnaupliar mesoderm are separated into right and left components. At the16-cell stage, naupliar ectoderm is divided from the postnaupliar ectoderm, and extraembryonic lineages are separated from postnaupliar mesoderm and endoderm. From our investigation, it is evident that the cleavage pattern and cell lineage of Orchestia cavimana are not of the spiral type. Furthermore, the results of the labelling show many differences to cleavage patterns and cell lineages in other crustaceans, in particular, other Malacostraca. The cleavage and cell lineage patterns of the amphipod Orchestia are certainly derived within Malacostraca, whose ancestral cleavage mode was most likely of the superficial type. On the other hand, Orchestia exhibits a stereotyped cell division pattern during formation and differentiation of the germ band that is typical for malacostracans. Hence, a derived (apomorphic) early cleavage pattern is the ontogenetic basis for an evolutionarily older cell division pattern of advanced developmental stages. O. cavimana offers the possibility to trace the lineages and the fates of cells from early developmental stages up to the formation of segmental structures, including neurogenesis at a level of resolution that is not matched by any other arthropod system.

  10. Naphthalene disrupts pheromone induced mate search in the amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara

    2007-11-15

    Many crustaceans communicate with pheromones during mating. In the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), females release gender-specific waterborne pheromones that guide males in their search for receptive burrowed females. Pollutants that affect the pheromone release or impair the ability of males to detect and respond to chemosensory cues, could profoundly affect mating. C. volutator is commonly found on shallow soft sediments in estuaries and coastal waters, and their reproductive season coincides with intense traffic of leisure boats, which discharge high concentrations of fuel into the water and sediment of these areas. This study shows that sublethal exposure to naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundant in motor fuel, disturbs chemical communication in C. volutator. This was demonstrated in Y-maze bioassays, where males were allowed to follow female pheromones after separately exposing the males or females to naphthalene spiked sediments (0, 0.5, 5 or 50 microg g(-1) dw, nominal concentrations) for 3 days. The results show that exposure to naphthalene at the two lower concentrations significantly affects the males' response to female pheromones (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Male search activity was reduced by 27-45% and males could no longer find females by the use of the olfactory sense. Analysed sediment samples, however, indicate that the naphthalene concentrations causing this effect were 2-20 times lower than nominal concentrations. At the highest naphthalene treatment, no significant difference from the controls was found, probably explained by a different exposure regime for these amphipods since they seemingly avoided burrowing in sediments. Female C. volutator produce and release pheromones, despite naphthalene exposure. Disrupted chemical communication in C. volutator may affect the reproductive fitness of males and females with possible consequences for populations in contaminated areas.

  11. Role of food source and predator avoidance in habitat specialization by an octocoral-associated amphipod.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Naoki H

    2008-04-01

    Small marine invertebrates often use sessile organisms as microhabitats, which can provide food sources and/or serve as refugees from predators. Because of the availability of external food items such as epibionts and detritus in the marine environment, these invertebrates may not depend on the sessile organisms as sole food sources. In this study, I hypothesized that habitat specialization by a marine invertebrate is determined by factors other than food. Results of field surveys off the coast of the Izu Peninsula, on the eastern coast of Japan, showed that, with few exceptions, the distribution of the amphipod Incisocalliope symbioticus was restricted to the octocoral Melithaea flabellifera. When presented with several habitat options, I. symbioticus selected M. flabellifera most frequently, although some individuals chose the octocoral Acabaria japonica. The selection was proximately determined by water-borne cues from M. flabellifera that appear to be unrelated to the octocoral as a food source, since the amphipod preferred detritus to the octocoral. As a chemical refuge, M. flabellifera had an allelopathic effect that deterred fish predation on the exposed epifauna. With regard to octocoral habitat in the study area, I. symbioticus may be restricted to M. flabellifera because this was the only abundant octocoral consistently occurring in shallow water (< or =10 m), where predation is intensive. The relationship between I. symbioticus and M. flabellifera was commensal and was ultimately driven by the value of M. flabellifera as a chemical refuge from predation, rather than its food value. This study supports the idea that protection from predators, rather than food utilization, can promote ecological specialization.

  12. A unique apposition compound eye in the mesopelagic hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis.

    PubMed

    Baldwin Fergus, Jamie L; Johnsen, Sönke; Osborn, Karen J

    2015-02-16

    The mesopelagic habitat is a vast space that lacks physical landmarks and is structured by depth, light penetration, and horizontal currents. Solar illumination is visible in the upper 1,000 m of the ocean, becoming dimmer and spectrally filtered with depth-generating a nearly monochromatic blue light field. The struggle to perceive dim downwelling light and bioluminescent sources and the need to remain unseen generate contrasting selective pressures on the eyes of mesopelagic inhabitants. Hyperiid amphipods are cosmopolitan members of the mesopelagic fauna with at least ten different eye configurations across the family-ranging from absent eyes in deep-living species to four enlarged eyes in mesopelagic individuals. The hyperiid amphipod Paraphronima gracilis has a pair of bi-lobed apposition compound eyes, each with a large upward-looking portion and a small lateral-looking portion. The most unusual feature of the P. gracilis eye is that its upward-looking portion is resolved into a discontinuous retina with 12 distinct groups, each serving one transverse row of continuously spaced facets. On the basis of eye morphology, we estimated spatial acuity (2.5° ± 0.11°, SEM; n = 25) and optical sensitivity (30 ± 3.4 μm(2) ⋅ sr, SEM; n = 25). Microspectrophotometry showed that spectral sensitivity of the eye peaked at 516 nm (±3.9 nm, SEM; n = 6), significantly offset from the peak of downwelling irradiance in the mesopelagic realm (480 nm). Modeling of spatial summation within the linear retinal groups showed that it boosts sensitivity with less cost to spatial acuity than more typical configurations.

  13. Role of suction in sandy beach habitats and the distributions of three amphipod and isopod species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Shinji; Yang, Soonbo; Watabe, Yoichi; Kajihara, Naoto; Takada, Yoshitake

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beach ecology has progressed rapidly with the emergence of several theories developed on the basis of understanding of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes on sandy beach habitats. However, the possible role of dynamic geophysical processes in the sediments remains poorly understood. The present study aims to explore the role of such geophysical processes in the sediments in forming the habitat environment and how they influence the species distributions. We conducted sets of integrated observations and surveys on intertidal and supratidal geophysical environments and the distributions of three amphipod and isopod species at four exposed sandy beaches located on the Japan Sea coast of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. The field results combined with a series of laboratory soil tests demonstrate that suction governed the variability of habitat environments observed, involving the degree of saturation, density, and hardness of the cross-shore intertidal and supratidal sediments, depending on the severity of the suction-dynamics-induced sediment compaction. While the observed species abundances were consistent with existing theories relating to intertidal and supratidal species, the observed magnitudes of suction were responsible for the distribution limits of the amphipods Haustorioides japonicus and Talorchestia brito and the isopod Excirolana chiltoni manifested consistently throughout the different beaches. The results of controlled laboratory experiments and field tests further revealed three distinctive suction-induced mechanisms, associated with their burrowing and physiology and the stability of the burrows. The novel role of such suction-induced geophysical processes in forming the habitat environment and influencing the species distributions may advance our understanding of sandy beach ecology in intertidal and supratidal zones.

  14. Additive effect of calcium depletion and low resource quality on Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) life history traits.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Marc; Coulaud, Romain; Danger, Michael; Sohm, Bénédicte; Flayac, Justine; Bec, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Felten, Vincent

    2017-06-17

    Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G. fossarum. To investigate the effects of food resources quality, we experimentally manipulated the P content of sycamore leaves and also used diatoms because they contain high amounts of HUFAs. Three resource quality treatments were tested: low quality (LQ, unmanipulated leaves: low P content), high quality 1 (HQ1; P-manipulated leaves: high P content), and high quality 2 (unmanipulated leaves supplemented with a pellet containing diatoms: high P and HUFA content). Naturally, demineralised stream water was supplemented with CaSO4 to obtain three Ca concentrations (2, 3.5, and 10.5 mg Ca L(-1)). For 21 days, pairs of G. fossarum were individually exposed to one of the nine treatments (3 [Ca] × 3 resource qualities). At the individual level, strong and significant delays in moult stage were observed in gammarids exposed to lower [Ca] and to lower resource quality, with additive effects lengthening the duration of the reproductive cycle. Effects at the molecular level were investigated by measuring expression of 12 genes involved in energy production, translation, or Ca or P homeostasis. Expression of ATP synthase beta (higher in HQ2), calcified cuticle protein (higher in HQ1 and HQ2), and tropomyosin (higher in HQ2 compared to HQ1) was significantly affected by resource quality, and significant additive effects on Ca transporting ATPase expression were induced by [Ca

  15. Mortality and deformities in European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles exposed to the anti-parasitic drug teflubenzuron.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Farestveit, Eva; Grefsrud, Ellen S; Hannisdal, Rita; Holmelid, Bjarte; Tjensvoll, Tore; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study describes experiments carried out to examine effects of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron, used in delousing farmed salmon, on a non-target species, the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). Juvenile lobsters were fed two doses of teflubenzuron, 10 and 20mg/kg successively for 7 days corresponding to a standard medication of the fish (10mg/kg day) and twice the standard dose (20mg/kg day). Monitoring lasted 3 months to include at least one moulting period for all individuals. Cumulative mortality was higher in all replicates given medicated feed compared with the control group. Mean cumulative mortality for each dosing was 41 ± 13% for 10mg/kg and 38 ± 8% for 20mg/kg, i.e. no difference. Drug residue was analysed in all juveniles that died, in addition to 12 juveniles at day 8 and the first 12 surviving lobsters. A decline in concentration of teflubenzuron from over 8,000 ng/g (day 5) to 14 ng/g (day 70) was observed in the juveniles that died during the experiment. Twelve individuals that died contained 82 ng/g or less whereas the mean concentration in the first 12 lobsters that survived moulting was 152 ng/g. Following a single oral administration, the half-life of teflubenzuron in lobster was estimated to 3.4 days and the initial concentration (C0) to 515 ng/g at time t0. At the end of the study a considerable number of juvenile lobsters were observed with deformities in various organs; carapace, walking legs, cheliped, tail fan, abdomen and antenna. The occurrence of observed deformities varied from 0 to 15% in treated replicates and will most likely affect ability to locate and consume food (antenna, claw and walking legs), respiration (carapace) and ability to move/swim (walking legs, tail fan and abdomen). In total, the mortality and senescent damages were close to 50% in all replicates. Juveniles that survived medication without deformities however, moulted and increased in size at each moult equally well as the unmedicated controls.

  16. Deformities in larvae and juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) exposed to lower pH at two different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnalt, A.-L.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Farestveit, E.; Larsen, M.; Keulder, F.

    2013-05-01

    Trends of increasing temperatures and ocean acidification are expected to influence benthic marine resources, especially calcifying organisms. The European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is among those species at risk. A project was initiated in 2011 aiming to investigate long-term synergistic effects of temperature and projected increases in ocean acidification on the life cycle of lobster. Larvae were exposed to pCO2 levels of ambient water (water intake at 90 m depth, tentatively of 380 μatm pCO2), 727 and 1217 μatm pCO2, at temperatures 10 and 18 °C. Long-term exposure lasted until 5 months of age. Thereafter the surviving juveniles were transferred to ambient water at 14 °C. At 18 °C the development from Stage 1 to 4 lasted from 14 to 16 days, as predicted under normal pH values. Growth was very slow at 10 °C and resulted in only two larvae reaching Stage 4 in the ambient treatment. There were no significant differences in carapace length at the various larval stages between the different treatments, but there were differences in total length and dry weight at Stage 1 at 10 °C, Stage 2 at both temperatures, producing larvae slightly larger in size and lighter by dry weight in the exposed treatments. Stage 3 larvae raised in 18 °C and 1217 μatm pCO2 were also larger in size and heavier by dry weight compared with 727 μatm. Unfortunate circumstances precluded a full comparison across stages and treatment. Deformities were however observed in both larvae and juveniles. At 10 °C, about 20% of the larvae exposed to elevated pCO2were deformed, compared with 0% in larvae raised in pH above 8.0. At 18 °C and in high pCO2 treatment, 31.5% of the larvae were deformed. Occurrence of deformities after 5 months of exposure was 33 and 44% in juveniles raised in ambient and low pCO2, respectively, and 20% in juveniles exposed to high pCO2. Some of the deformities will possibly affect the ability to find food, sexual partner (walking legs, claw and antenna

  17. 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of gene expression profiles in the amphipod Melita plumulosa: transcriptome assembly and toxicant induced changes.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Twine, Natalie A; Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A; Moncuquet, Philippe; Wilkins, Marc R

    2014-08-01

    Next generation sequencing using Roche's 454 pyrosequencing platform can be used to generate genomic information for non-model organisms, although there are bioinformatic challenges associated with these studies. These challenges are compounded by a lack of a standardized protocol to either assemble data or to evaluate the quality of a de novo transcriptome. This study presents an assembly of the control and toxicant responsive transcriptome of Melita plumulosa, an Australian amphipod commonly used in ecotoxicological studies. RNA was harvested from control amphipods, juvenile amphipods, and from amphipods exposed to either metal or diesel contaminated sediments. This RNA was used as the basis for a 454 based transcriptome sequencing effort. Sequencing generated 1.3 million reads from control, juvenile, metal-exposed and diesel-exposed amphipods. Different read filtering and assembly protocols were evaluated to generate an assembly that (i) had an optimal number of contigs; (ii) had long contigs; (iii) contained a suitable representation of conserved genes; and (iv) had long ortholog alignment lengths relative to the length of each contig. A final assembly, generated using fixed-length trimming based on the sequence quality scores, followed by assembly using the MIRA algorithm, produced the best results. The 26,625 contigs generated via this approach were annotated using Blast2GO, and the differential expression between treatments and control was determined by mapping with BWA followed by DESeq. Although the mapping generated low coverage, many differentially expressed contigs, including some with known developmental or toxicological function, were identified. This study demonstrated that 454 pyrosequencing is an effective means of generating reference transcriptome information for organisms, such as the amphipod M. plumulosa, that have no genomic information available in databases or in closely related sequenced species. It also demonstrated how optimization of

  18. Description of Ganymedes yurii sp. n. (Ganymedidae), a New Gregarine Species from the Antarctic Amphipod Gondogeneia sp. (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Diakin, Andrei; Wakeman, Kevin C; Valigurová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    A novel species of aseptate eugregarine, Ganymedes yurii sp. n., is described using microscopic and molecular approaches. It inhabits the intestine of Gondogeneia sp., a benthic amphipod found along the shore of James Ross Island, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The prevalence of the infection was very low and only a few caudo-frontal syzygies were found. Morphologically, the new species is close to a previously described amphipod gregarine, Ganymedes themistos, albeit with several dissimilarities in the structure of the contact zone between syzygy partners, as well as other characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA from G. yurii supported a close relationship between these species. These two species were grouped with other gregarines isolated from crustaceans hosts (Cephaloidophoroidea); however, statistical support throughout the clade of Cephaloidophoroidea gregarines was minimal using the available dataset.

  19. Fungal composition on leaves explains pollutant-mediated indirect effects on amphipod feeding.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Stang, Christoph; Duester, Lars; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of leaves by microorganisms (=conditioning) caused by chemical stressors are rarely studied. Our laboratory experiments, therefore, investigated for the first time effects of a fungicide on the conditioning process of leaf material by means of food-choice experiments using Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Additionally, microbial analyses were conducted to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of the observed behavior. Gammarids significantly preferred control leaf discs over those conditioned in presence of the fungicide tebuconazole at concentrations of 50 and 500 μg/L. Besides the decrease of fungal biomass with increasing fungicide concentration, also the leaf associated fungal community composition showed that species preferred by gammarids, such as Alatospora acumunata, Clavariopsis aquatica, or Flagellospora curvula, were more frequent in the control. Tetracladium marchalianum, however, which is rejected by gammarids, was abundant in all treatments suggesting an increasing importance of this species for the lower leaf palatability--as other more palatable fungal species were almost absent--in the fungicide treatments. Hence, the food-choice behavior of G. fossarum seems to be a suitable indicator for alterations in leaf associated microbial communities, especially fungal species composition, caused by chemical stressors. Finally, this or similar test systems may be a reasonable supplement to the environmental risk assessment of chemicals in order to achieve its protection goals, as on the one hand, indirect effects may occur far below concentrations known to affect gammarids directly, and on the other

  20. Paramyxean-microsporidian co-infection in amphipods: is the consensus that Microsporidia can feminise their hosts presumptive?

    PubMed

    Short, Stephen; Guler, Yasmin; Yang, Gongda; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

    2012-06-01

    The current consensus is that Microsporidia belong to a select group of parasites capable of causing both intersexuality and complete sex reversal in their hosts. Indeed, species such as Nosema granulosis and Dictyocoela duebenum, which infect amphipod crustaceans, are regularly referred to as 'feminising microsporidians'. This categorisation is based on a combination of findings: that these species are vertically transmitted and occur at a high prevalence of infection in intersex and female amphipods, that infected amphipod populations are female-biased, and that infected females have significantly female-biased broods with no concurrent increase in mortality. In this study, we report on a population of the amphipod Echinogammarus marinus presenting both female bias and high levels of intersexuality, which are infected with D. deubenum. In keeping with its feminising classification, infection is prevalent in animals presenting female and intersex phenotypes. However, a further screen revealed the presence of a previously unknown paramyxean parasite related to organisms of the genus Marteilia, a group known to cause catastrophic sexual dysfunction in bivalves. We found that the paramyxean parasite was also vertically transmitted, with infections being more prevalent in females and intersex animals. Critically, every animal infected with D. deubenum was also co-infected with the paramyxean, with few animals presenting an independent paramyxean infection. In contrast, co-infection of E. marinus with a paramyxean and the non-feminising microsporidian Dictyocoela berillonum rarely occurred. These observations raise a new hypothesis, namely, that D. duebenum and other feminising microsporidians are not actually capable of host feminisation but instead 'hitch-hike' together with a feminising paramyxean parasite. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of the boscalid fungicide Filan® on the marine amphipod Allorchestes compressa at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hung T; Keough, Michael J; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J

    2016-05-01

    Fungicides are widely used in agriculture to control fungal diseases. After application, fungicides can be transported offsite to surface and groundwater and ultimately enter estuarine and marine environments. The presence of fungicides in the marine environment may pose risks to marine organisms, but little is known about fungicide effects on these organisms, especially invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of the commonly used boscalid fungicide Filan® on life history traits, feeding rate, and energy reserves (lipid, glycogen, and protein content) of the marine amphipod Allorchestes compressa over 6 wk under laboratory conditions. Amphipods were exposed to 3 concentrations of Filan (1 μg, 10 μg, and 40 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/L), with 5 replicates per treatment. Lipid content and reproduction were the most sensitive measures of effect, with lipid content reduced by 53.8% at the highest concentration. Survival, growth, and other energy reserves of amphipods were also negatively affected by Filan, and the effects were concentration dependent. Antennal deformities were incidentally observed on the amphipods at a concentration of 40 μg a.i./L. The results of the present study indicate comprehensive effects of the boscalid fungicide Filan on A. compressa at environmentally relevant concentrations. The decline or absence of A. compressa in marine ecosystems could impair the ecosystem function because of their important role in trophic transfer and nutrient recycling. The authors' results suggest that even though the use of fungicides is often regarded as posing only a minor risk to aquatic organisms, the assessment of their long-term effects is critical. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the amphipod Corophium volutator relates to chemical desorption.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, R H; Ciarelli, S; Tolls, J; Kater, B J; Belfroid, A

    2001-08-01

    In the present study, the relationship between bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic amphipods and the PAH desorption kinetics was examined. To that end, field-contaminated sediment was treated in three different ways. One subsample had no addition of PAHs and contained native PAHs only. To a second subsample, six PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene) were added in the laboratory. Two of the PAHs were added at higher concentrations to a third subsample, serving as a control for concentration-dependent uptake. Marine amphipods (Corophium volutator) were exposed to the three subsamples for a maximum of 25 d and were subsequently analyzed. Desorption kinetics were determined for both the lab-contaminated and the native PAHs. The biota-to-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of the individual native and lab-contaminated PAHs correlated well with the rapidly desorbing fraction (R2 = 0.76). The BSAFs were 1.4 to 3.3 higher for the lab-contaminated PAHs compared with the native PAHs, while the difference between the rapidly desorbing fractions was a factor of 1.1 to 1.8. The BSAFs of the lab-contaminated PAHs in the second and third subsample were equal, indicating concentration-independent accumulation. The results suggest that lab-contaminated PAHs are more available to amphipods than native PAHs and that differences in bioavailability of lab-contaminated and native PAHs to marine amphipods are related to differences in desorption behavior.

  3. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  4. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  5. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus) population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    PubMed

    Sundelöf, Andreas; Bartolino, Valerio; Ulmestrand, Mats; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series.

  6. Multi-Annual Fluctuations in Reconstructed Historical Time-Series of a European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) Population Disappear at Increased Exploitation Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sundelöf, Andreas; Bartolino, Valerio; Ulmestrand, Mats; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series. PMID:23573187

  7. Patterns of population genetic variation in sympatric chiltoniid amphipods within a calcrete aquifer reveal a dynamic subterranean environment

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, T M; Adams, M; Guzik, M T; Humphreys, W F; Austin, A D; Cooper, S JB

    2013-01-01

    Calcrete aquifers from the Yilgarn region of arid central Western Australia contain an assemblage of obligate groundwater invertebrate species that are each endemic to single aquifers. Fine-scale phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of three sympatric and independently derived species of amphipod (Chiltoniidae) were carried out to determine whether there were common patterns of population genetic structure or evidence for past geographic isolation of populations within a single calcrete aquifer. Genetic diversity in amphipod mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) and allozymes were examined across a 3.5 km2 region of the Sturt Meadows calcrete, which contains a grid of 115 bore holes (=wells). Stygobiont amphipods were found to have high levels of mitochondrial haplotype diversity coupled with low nucleotide diversity. Mitochondrial phylogeographic structuring was found between haplogroups for one of the chiltoniid species, which also showed population structuring for nuclear markers. Signatures of population expansion in two of the three species, match previous findings for diving beetles at the same site, indicating that the system is dynamic. We propose isolation of populations in refugia within the calcrete, followed by expansion events, as the most likely source of intraspecific genetic diversity, due to changes in water level influencing gene flow across the calcrete. PMID:23549336

  8. Comparison of marine sediment toxicity test protocols for the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius and the polychaete worm Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M. |

    1998-05-01

    The 10-d amphipod survival toxicity test protocol using Rhepoxynius abronius was compared to the 20-d polychaete worm growth and survival protocol using Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata. Of the 341 sediment samples collected in California and tested over a 2-year period. 78% significantly inhibited R. abronius survival, whereas 2 and 26% significantly inhibited N. arenaceodentata survival and biomass, respectively. Statistical power associated with each protocol endpoint was determined by calculating the minimum significant difference (MSD) for each test protocol for this data set. The 90th percentile MSDs for R. abronius survival and N. arenaceodentata survival and biomass were 16, 36, and 56%, respectively. Survival of R. abronius was significantly negatively correlated with a number of toxicants including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No significant correlations were determined between N. arenaceodentata survival or biomass and contaminants measured. Amphipod survival was also negatively correlated with sediment total organic carbon and grain size, but when samples with a high percent fine grain size (>90% fines) were eliminated from consideration, the overall conclusions of the study were not altered. The 10-d amphipod survival protocol using R. abronius was a more sensitive indicator of toxicity, but the results indicate that this was due to greater statistical power rather than greater sensitivity of the test organisms or endpoints.

  9. Bioavailability of particle-associated silver, cadmium, and zinc to the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus through dietary ingestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlekat, C.E.; Decho, Alan W.; Chandler, G.T.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted experiments to determine effects of particle type on assimilatory metal bioavailability to Leptocheirus plumulosus, an infaunal, estuarine amphipod that is commonly used in sediment toxicity tests. The following particles were used to represent natural food items encountered by this surface-deposit and suspension-feeding amphipod: bacterial exopolymeric sediment coatings, polymeric coatings made from Spartina alterniflora extract, amorphous iron oxide coatings, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta, processed estuarine sediment, and fresh estuarine sediment. Bioavailability of the gamma-emitting radioisotopes 110mAg, 109Cd, and 65Zn was measured as the efficiency with which L. plumulosus assimilated metals from particles using pulse-chase methods. Ag and Cd assimilation efficiencies were highest from bacterial exopolymeric coatings. Zn assimilation efficiency exhibited considerable interexperimental variation; the highest Zn assimilation efficiencies were measured from phytoplankton and processed sediment. In general, Ag and Cd assimilation efficiencies from phytoplankton were low and not related to the proportion of metal associated with cell cytosol or cytoplasm, a phenomenon reported for other particle-ingesting invertebrates. Amphipod digestive processes explain differences in Ag and Cd assimilation efficiencies between exopolymeric coatings and phytoplankton. Results highlight the importance of labile polymeric organic carbon sediment coatings in dietary metals uptake by this benthic invertebrate, rather than recalcitrant organic carbon, mineralogical features such as iron oxides, or phytoplankton.

  10. Comparison between amphipod assemblages associated with Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea and those of other Mediterranean habitats on soft substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.

    2009-09-01

    The spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea in shallow-water habitats can present different faunal assemblage composition. We compared the amphipod assemblages associated with C. racemosa and natural habitats found on shallow-water Mediterranean soft substrata. Four vegetated habitats were compared: C. racemosa, Caulerpa prolifera, Cymodocea nodosa and Posidonia oceanica with unvegetated substrata. Samples were collected during two sampling periods (September 2004 and March 2005). A total of 63 amphipod species were recorded. The results showed that the vegetated habitats sampled, including C. racemosa stands, supported a higher abundance and species richness of amphipods. Furthermore, the assemblage structure differed between the different habitats, while the abundance of some species was significantly different, depending on habitat. For example, Microdeutopus obtusatus was favoured by C. racemosa habitat; Ampelisca diadema was associated with C. prolifera beds; and Hyale schmidti was more abundant in P. oceanica meadows. Habitat invasion by C. racemosa can exert an important influence on biotic assemblages, modifying habitat structure and associated fauna.

  11. Sex-specific nutrient use and preferential allocation of resources to a sexually selected trait in Hyalella amphipods.

    PubMed

    Goos, Jared M; Cothran, Rickey D; Jeyasingh, Punidan D

    2016-03-01

    Although sexually dimorphic traits are often well studied, we know little about sex-specific resource use strategies that should underlie such dimorphism. We measured sex-specific responses in acquisition and assimilation of two fundamental resources, carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in juvenile and mature Hyalella amphipods given low and high supplies of inorganic phosphate, analogous to oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions, respectively. Additionally, we quantified allocation of resources to sexual traits in males. Dual radiotracer ((14)C and (33)P) assays revealed substantial age- and sex-specific differences in acquisition and assimilation. Furthermore, a phenotypic manipulation experiment revealed that amphipods fed low-P food allocated more C to all traits than those fed high-P food. Importantly, we found that amphipods preferentially allocated more C to the development of a sexually selected trait (the posterior gnathopod), compared with a serially homologous trait (the fifth pereopod) not under sexual selection. Substantial differences in how the sexes use fundamental resources, and the impact of altered nutrient supply on such differences, illuminate sexual dimorphism at the lowest level of biological organization. Such information will be important in understanding how sex- and age-specific life history demands influence nutrient processing in a biosphere characterized by rapidly changing alterations to biogeochemical cycles.

  12. Molecular adaptation in the world's deepest-living animal: Insights from transcriptome sequencing of the hadal amphipod Hirondellea gigas.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yi; Sun, Jin; Tian, Renmao; Bartlett, Douglas H; Li, Runsheng; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Weipeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Xu, Ting; He, Li-Sheng; Tabata, Harry G; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food limitation, dark and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep. Assembly of these sequences resulted in 133,041 contigs and 22,046 translated proteins. Functional annotation of these contigs was made using the go and kegg databases. Comparison of these translated proteins with those of four shallow-water amphipods revealed 10,731 gene families, of which 5659 were single-copy orthologs. Base substitution analysis on these single-copy orthologs showed that 62 genes are positively selected in H. gigas, including genes related to β-alanine biosynthesis, energy metabolism and genetic information processing. For multiple-copy orthologous genes, gene family expansion analysis revealed that cold-inducible proteins (i.e., transcription factors II A and transcription elongation factor 1) as well as zinc finger domains are expanded in H. gigas. Overall, our results indicate that genetic adaptation to the hadal environment by H. gigas may be mediated by both gene family expansion and amino acid substitutions of specific proteins. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of climate-related change in vegetation on leaf litter consumption and energy storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean populations.

    PubMed

    Foucreau, Natacha; Piscart, Christophe; Puijalon, Sara; Hervant, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex) between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley) and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley) conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content). This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean) were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change might locally

  14. Effect of Climate-Related Change in Vegetation on Leaf Litter Consumption and Energy Storage by Gammarus pulex from Continental or Mediterranean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Foucreau, Natacha; Piscart, Christophe; Puijalon, Sara; Hervant, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of global warming, it is important to characterise the potential changes occurring for some functional processes through the intra-specific study of key species. Changes in species distribution, particularly when key or engineer species are affected, should contribute to global changes in ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined the potential consequences induced by global warming on ecosystem functioning in term of organic matter recycling. We compared consumption of leaf litter by some shredder populations (Gammarus pulex) between five tree species inhabiting continental (i.e., the northern region of the Rhône River Valley) and/or Mediterranean (i.e., the southern region of the Rhône River Valley) conditions. To consider any potential adaptation of the gammarid population to vegetation in the same climate conditions, three populations of the key shredder Gammarus pulex from the northern region and three from the southern region of the Rhône River Valley were used. We experimentally compared the effects of the geographical origin of both the gammarid populations and the leaf litter species on the shredding activity and the physiological state of animals (through body triglyceride content). This study demonstrated that leaf toughness is more important than geographical origin for determining shredder leaf litter consumption. The overall consumption rate of the gammarid populations from the southern region of Rhône Valley was much higher than that of the populations from the northern region, but no clear differences between the origins of the leaf litter (i.e., continental vs. Mediterranean) were observed. The northwards shift of G. pulex populations adapted to warmer conditions might significantly modify organic matter recycling in continental streams. As gammarid populations can demonstrate local adaptations to certain leaf species as a trophic resource, changes in riparian vegetation associated with climate change might locally

  15. Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets.

  16. Relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols with the amphipods Eohaustorius estuarius and Ampelisca abdita.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian S; Lowe, Sarah; Phillips, Bryn M; Hunt, John W; Vorhees, Jennifer; Clark, Sara; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    A series of dose-response experiments was conducted to compare the relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols using the amphipods Ampelisca abdita and Eohaustorius estuarius. A. abdita is one of the dominant infaunal species in the San Francisco Estuary, and E. estuarius is the primary sediment toxicity species used in the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program. Experiments were conducted with a formulated sediment spiked with copper, fluoranthene, chlorpyrifos, and the three pyrethroid pesticides permethrin, bifenthrin, and cypermethrin, all chemicals of concern in this Estuary. The results showed that the protocol with A. abdita was more sensitive to fluoranthene and much more sensitive to copper, while E. estuarius was more sensitive to chlorpyrifos, and much more sensitive to the pyrethroid pesticides. These results, considered in conjunction with those from previous spiking studies [Weston, D.P., 1995. Further development of a chronic Ampelisca abdita bioassay as an indicator of sediment toxicity: summary and conclusions. In: Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances Annual Report. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA, pp 108-115; DeWitt, T.E., Swartz, R.C., Lamberson, J.O., 1989. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8: 1035-1048; DeWitt, T.H.E., Pinza, M.R., Niewolny, L.A., Cullinan, V.I., Gruendell, B.D., 1997. Development and evaluation of a standard marine/estuarine chronic sediment toxicity method using Leptocheirus plumulosus. Draft report prepared for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington DC, under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830 by Batelle Marine Science Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, Richland, WA], suggest that, in general, A. abdita is more sensitive to metals, E. estuarius is more sensitive to pesticides, and both protocols have roughly comparable sensitivities to hydrocarbons. The preponderance of

  17. Estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing with the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock, 1952.

    PubMed

    Ré, Ana; Freitas, Rosa; Sampaio, Leandro; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the use of the European amphipod Corophium multisetosum Stock [Stock, J.H., 1952. Some notes on the taxonomy, the distribution and the ecology of four species of the genus Corophium (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Beaufortia 21, 1-10] in estuarine sediment acute toxicity testing. The sensitivity of adults to the reference toxicant CdCl(2) was determined in water-only 96 h exposures in salinity 2. LC(50) values ranged from 0.33mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 22 degrees C to 0.57mgCd(2+)L(-1) at 15 degrees C. Adult survival was studied in control sediment with water salinity from 0 to 36 and with fine particles content (<63 microm) from 2% to 97% of total sediment, dry weight. Experiments were conducted at 15, 18 and 22 degrees C and the results indicate that the species can be used under the full salinity range although higher mortality was observed at the lower salinity in the higher water temperature, and at the higher salinity in the lower water temperature. The species also tolerated the studied range of sediment fines content and showed the highest sensitivity at intermediate values of fines, especially at the higher temperature, thus advising that tests which have to accommodate sediments with a wide range in fines content should preferably be conducted at 15 degrees C rather than at 22 degrees C. The response in natural sediments was studied in samples collected yearly from 1997 to 2006, at a site located off the Tagus Estuary, western Portugal. A major flood event in winter 2000-2001 induced detectable alterations in sediment baseline descriptors (grain-size, redox potential and total volatile solids), organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, DDT metabolites and gamma-HCH) and the macrofauna benthic community. Mortality of the amphipod diminished significantly from the before to the after flood period, in close agreement with diminishing sediment contamination and increasing benthic fauna diversity, in the same time period. C. multisetosum is suitable to conduct

  18. Deformities in larvae and juvenile European lobster (Homarus gammarus) exposed to lower pH at two different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnalt, A.-L.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Farestveit, E.; Larsen, M.; Keulder, F.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing warming and acidification of the world's oceans are expected to influence the marine ecosystems, including benthic marine resources. Ocean acidification may especially have an impact on calcifying organisms, and the European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is among those species at risk. A project was initiated in 2011 aiming to investigate long-term effects of ocean acidification on the early life-cycle of lobster under two temperatures. Larvae were exposed to pCO2 levels of ambient water (water intake at 90 m depth), medium 750 (pH = 7.79) and high 1200 μatm pCO2 (pH = 7.62) at temperatures 10 and 18 °C. The water parameters in ambient water did not stay stable and were very low towards the end of the experiment in the larval phase at 10 °C,with pH between 7.83 and 7.90. At 18°, pH in ambient treatment was even lower, between 7.76 and 7.83, i.e. close to medium pCO2 treatment. Long-term exposure lasted 5 months. At 18 °C the development from stage 1 to 4 lasted 14 to 16 days, as predicted under optimal water conditions. Growth was very slow at 10 °C and resulted in three larvae reaching stage 4 in high pCO2 treatment only. There were no clear effects of pCO2 treatment, on either carapace length or dry weight. However, deformities were observed in both larvae and juveniles. The proportion of larvae with deformities increased with increasing pCO2 exposure, independent of temperature. In the medium treatment about 23% were deformed, and in the high treatment about 43% were deformed. None of the larvae exposed to water of pH >7.9 developed deformities. Curled carapace was the most common deformity found in larvae raised in medium pCO2 treatment, irrespective of temperature, but damages in the tail fan occurred in addition to a bent rostrum. Curled carapace was the only deformity found in high pCO2 treatment at both temperatures. Occurrence of deformities after five months of exposure was 33 and 44% in juveniles raised in ambient and low pCO2 levels

  19. Effects of sediment bioturbation by the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator on fluoranthene resuspension and transfer into the mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarelli, S.; Straalen, N.M. van; Klap, V.A.; Wezel, A.P. van

    1999-02-01

    To better understand the effects of bioturbation on partitioning and availability of sediment-bound contaminants to infaunal amphipods and mussels, experiments were carried out with fluoranthene-spiked sediment. Treatments included different densities of the estuarine amphipod, Corophium volutator. Total suspended solids (TSS), particulate organic carbon/particulate organic matter (POC/POM) in overlying water, fluoranthene concentrations in sediment, pore water, overlying water, amphipods, and mussels were measured. Bioturbation significantly increased TSS and POC/POM concentrations in overlying water, and this effect became greater at higher animal density and longer exposure time. Mean total aqueous fluoranthene concentrations increased from 2.40 to 4.1 and 5.45 {micro}g/L in the control, low-density, and high-density treatments, respectively, after 10 d of exposure. The particle-bound fraction of fluoranthene in the overlying water from the high-density treatment was two times higher than that from the low-density treatment. Bioturbation did not affect the partitioning of fluoranthene over suspended solids and water, nor did it affect the concentrations in sediment and pore water. This was illustrated by the constancy of sediment-interstitial water partitioning coefficients (log K{sub oc(iw)}), sediment-overlying water partitioning coefficients (log K{sub oc(ow)}), and normalized POC-water partitioning coefficients (log K{sub poc}). Uptake of fluoranthene by filter-feeding mussels (Mytilus edulis) increased linearly with the density of bioturbating amphipods and with exposure time. The difference in concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels between the lowest and highest density of amphipods was more than factor of two. Their results showed that bioturbation significantly increases TSS concentration in the overlying water and consequently the total aqueous concentration of sediment-bound contaminants, which are subsequently accumulated by filter-feeders. The

  20. Comprehensive analysis of Hox gene expression in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.

    PubMed

    Serano, Julia M; Martin, Arnaud; Liubicich, Danielle M; Jarvis, Erin; Bruce, Heather S; La, Konnor; Browne, William E; Grimwood, Jane; Patel, Nipam H

    2016-01-01

    Hox genes play crucial roles in establishing regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis in bilaterian animals, and have been implicated in generating morphological diversity throughout evolution. Here we report the identification, expression, and initial genomic characterization of the complete set of Hox genes from the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Parhyale is an emerging model system that is amenable to experimental manipulations and evolutionary comparisons among the arthropods. Our analyses indicate that the Parhyale genome contains a single copy of each canonical Hox gene with the exception of fushi tarazu, and preliminary mapping suggests that at least some of these genes are clustered together in the genome. With few exceptions, Parhyale Hox genes exhibit both temporal and spatial colinearity, and expression boundaries correlate with morphological differences between segments and their associated appendages. This work represents the most comprehensive analysis of Hox gene expression in a crustacean to date, and provides a foundation for functional studies aimed at elucidating the role of Hox genes in arthropod development and evolution.

  1. Chronic toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to a marine polychaete and an estuarine amphipod

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Moore, D.; Farrar, D.

    1999-08-01

    The chronic toxicity of sediment-associated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata and the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus was evaluated. Test organisms were exposed to sediments spiked with radiolabeled TNT for 28 d, after which time the endpoints of mortality, growth, and reproduction (L. plumulosus only) were assayed and compared against the TNT tissue concentrations as well as the TNT sediment concentrations. Survival was significantly reduced at a tissue concentration of 61 {micro}g TNT/g wet wt tissue in N. arenaceodentata and L. plumulosus with enhancement (significant for N. arenaceodentata) occurring at the lower TNT concentrations. Growth was significantly reduced at the highest TNT exposure of 10.0 {micro}g TNT/g wet wt tissue in L. plumulosus. Reproduction was significantly reduced at a tissue concentration of 6.3 {micro}g TNT/g wet wt tissue in L. plumulosus. The results of this study demonstrate that both N. arenaceodentata and L. plumulosus are sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated TNT and that more information is needed about the toxicity of TNT to benthic fauna to facilitate risk assessment and management of TNT-contaminated sites.

  2. Molecular evidence of the survival of subterranean amphipods (Arthropoda) during Ice Age underneath glaciers in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Kornobis, Etienne; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2010-06-01

    A Two endemic groundwater arthropod crustacean species, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis, were recently discovered on the mid-Atlantic volcanic island of Iceland. The extent of morphological differences from closest relatives, endemism, along with the geographic isolation of Iceland and its complete coverage by glaciers 21,000 years ago, suggests that these two species have survived glaciation periods in sub-glacial refugia. Here we provide strong support for this hypothesis by an analysis of mitochondrial genetic variation within Crangonyx islandicus. Our results show that the species is divided into several distinct monophyletic groups that are found along the volcanic zone in Iceland, which have been separated by 0.5 to around 5 million years. The genetic divergence between groups reflects geographic distances between sampling sites, indicating that divergence occurred after the colonization of Iceland. The genetic patterns, as well as the dependency of genetic variation on distances from the tectonic plate boundary and altitude, points to recent expansion from several refugia within Iceland. This presents the first genetic evidence of multicellular organisms as complex as crustacean amphipods which have survived glaciations beneath an ice sheet. This survival may be explained by geothermal heat linked to volcanic activities, which may have maintained favourable habitats in fissures along the tectonic plate boundary in Iceland during glaciations.

  3. Development of a field-based demographic model for the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.L.; Dillon, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment bioassays are conducted to estimate the adverse effects of contaminated sediments on aquatic organisms. The scientific basis for using bioassays ultimately depends on the ability to extrapolate from laboratory observations to natural systems. Laboratory-based demographic models developed for the EPA sediment toxicity test species, L. plumulosus provide a quantitative method for interpreting the ecological importance of statistically significant laboratory responses. However, analysis of population dynamics under constant laboratory conditions does not provide information on natural mortality rates and seasonal variation in growth and fecundity. To this end, the population dynamics of L. plumulosus from an unimpacted site in Chesapeake Bay are being characterized. Amphipods are censused weekly during the summer, biweekly during spring and fall, and monthly during the winter. Data from year 1 of this 2 year study were used to construct a size-classified periodic matrix model. The model includes different transition matrices to reflect seasonal changes in mortality, fecundity and growth. Sensitivity analysis of the model is used to identify the vital rates that have the greatest influence on population growth rate. The model is also used to evaluate the potential population level effects of the interaction between anthropogenic stress and seasonal variation in life history parameters.

  4. Comparison of an Ampelisca abdita growth rate test with other standard amphipod sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.; Weston, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Amphipod crustaceans are often used to measure the toxicity of bulk sediments. Acute lethal bioassays are commonly employed, but this study investigated the potential for using a chronic growth bioassay with Ampelisca abdita. A potential advantage of this method is that the growth rate could be a more sensitive measure of contamination than mortality. Growth rates for A. abdita in sediments spiked with cadmium and crude oil were compared to mortality rates in A. abdita, Eohaustorius estuaries, and Rhepoxynius abronius in sediments with the same concentrations of contaminants. A. abdita was more sensitive to cadmium than the other two species. For crude oil, there was a significant shift in size distribution from the control even at concentrations as low as 150 mg/kg of oil. The standard acute lethal tests for all species, on the other hand, did not show significant mortality until at least 1,600 mg/kg. The results confirm that growth rates are a more sensitive indicator of toxicity, and to at least the three contaminants tested, A. abdita is as sensitive as E. estuarius and R. abronius. This study also confirmed the reported high mortality rates of E. estuaries in San Francisco Bay sediments. The causes of this high mortality are unknown but give further reason for using A. abdita for toxicity tests in this region.

  5. Phylogeography of a subterranean amphipod reveals cryptic diversity and dynamic evolution in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Lefébure, T; Douady, C J; Gouy, M; Trontelj, P; Briolay, J; Gibert, J

    2006-06-01

    Extreme conditions in subsurface are suspected to be responsible for morphological convergences, and so to bias biodiversity assessment. Subterranean organisms are also considered as having poor dispersal abilities that in turn generate a large number of endemic species when habitat is fragmented. Here we test these general hypotheses using the subterranean amphipod Niphargus virei. All our phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum likelihood and distance), based on two independent genes (28S and COI), revealed the same tripartite structure. N. virei populations from Benelux, Jura region and the rest of France appeared as independent evolutionary units. Molecular rates estimated via global or Bayesian relaxed clock suggest that this split is at least 13 million years old and accredit the cryptic diversity hypothesis. Moreover, the geographical distribution of these lineages showed some evidence of recent dispersal through apparent vicariant barrier. In consequence, we argue that future analyses of evolution and biogeography in subsurface, or more generally in extreme environments, should consider dispersal ability as an evolving trait and morphology as a potentially biased marker.

  6. Genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos: insights from the widespread amphipod, Orchomenella franklini.

    PubMed

    Baird, Helena Phoenix; Miller, Karen Joy; Stark, Jonathan Sean

    2012-01-01

    Currently there is very limited understanding of genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos. We conducted one of the first studies of microsatellite variation in an Antarctic benthic invertebrate, using the ubiquitous amphipod Orchomenella franklini (Walker, 1903). Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess genetic structure on three spatial scales: sites (100 s of metres), locations (1-10 kilometres) and regions (1000 s of kilometres) sampled in East Antarctica at Casey and Davis stations. Considerable genetic diversity was revealed, which varied between the two regions and also between polluted and unpolluted sites. Genetic differentiation among all populations was highly significant (F(ST) = 0.086, R(ST) = 0.139, p<0.001) consistent with the brooding mode of development in O. franklini. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed that the majority of the genetic subdivision occurred across the largest geographical scale, with N(e)m≈1 suggesting insufficient gene flow to prevent independent evolution of the two regions, i.e., Casey and Davis are effectively isolated. Isolation by distance was detected at smaller scales and indicates that gene flow in O. franklini occurs primarily through stepping-stone dispersal. Three of the microsatellite loci showed signs of selection, providing evidence that localised adaptation may occur within the Antarctic benthos. These results provide insights into processes of speciation in Antarctic brooders, and will help inform the design of spatial management initiatives recently endorsed for the Antarctic benthos.

  7. Axogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    PubMed

    Ungerer, Petra; Geppert, Maria; Wolff, Carsten

    2011-03-01

    We describe the formation of the major axon pathways in the embryonic central and peripheral nervous systems of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana Heller, 1865 by means of antibody staining against acetylated alpha-tubulin. The data add to a long list of previous studies of various other aspects of development in Orchestia and provide a basis for future studies of neurogenesis on a deeper cellular and molecular level. Orchestia exhibits a tripartite dorsal brain, which is a characteristic feature of euarthropods. Its anlagen are the first detectable structures in the developing nervous system and can be traced back to distinct neuronal cell clusters in the early embryo. The development of the ventral nervous system proceeds with an anteroposterior gradient of development. In each trunk segment, the longitudinal connectives and the anterior commissure form first, followed by the intersegmental nerve, the posterior commissure and segmental nerves, respectively. A single commissure of a vestigial seventh pleonal segment is found. In the peripheral nervous system we observe a spatial and temporal pattern of leg innervation, which is strikingly similar in both limb types, the uniramous pereopods and the biramous pleopods. A proximal leg nerve splitting distally into two separated nerves probably reflects a general feature of crustaceans.

  8. Unsuspected diversity of Niphargus amphipods in the chemoautotrophic cave ecosystem of Frasassi, central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sulfide-rich Frasassi caves in central Italy contain a rare example of a freshwater ecosystem supported entirely by chemoautotrophy. Niphargus ictus, the sole amphipod species previously reported from this locality, was recently shown to host the first known case of a freshwater chemoautotrophic symbiosis. Since the habitat of N. ictus is highly fragmented and is comprised of streams and lakes with various sulfide concentrations, we conducted a detailed study to examine the potential genetic diversity of this species within Frasassi. Results By sequencing one nuclear (ITS) and two mitochondrial (COI and 12S) regions, we show that four partially sympatric Niphargus clades are present in Frasassi. Morphological and behavioral data obtained for three of these clades are perfectly congruent with this molecular delineation and make it possible to distinguish them in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA sequences reveal that, among the four clades, only two are closely related to each other. Moreover, these four clades occupy distinct niches that seem to be related to the chemical properties and flow regimes of the various water bodies within Frasassi. Conclusions Our results suggest that four distinct Niphargus species are present in Frasassi and that they originated from three or four independent invasions of the cave system. At least two among the four species harbor Thiothrix epibionts, which paves the way for further studies of the specificity and evolutionary history of this symbiosis. PMID:20534131

  9. Biomechanics and energy cost of the amphipod Corophium volutator filter-pump.

    PubMed

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2007-04-01

    The integrated function of the setal filter-basket and the pleopodal pump in the burrowing amphipod Corophium volutator was studied by video-microscopy in order to evaluate the energy costs of filter feeding. Video-microscope observations indicated that, in general, nine short, water-pumping beat cycles of the pleopods are succeeded by one slow cycle that coincides with cleaning of the setal filter and transient slowdown of inhalant water velocity. The position of the plumose setal filter on the second pair of gnathopods ensures that all water runs through the filter-basket. The fine V-shaped bristles on the setae enlarge the total filter area so that the velocity of water flowing through the filter is relatively slow, about 2.5 mm s(-1), giving rise to a resistance of about 2.9 mm H(2)O, which is the most important contribution to the total pressure drop in the system. In "standard" individuals of C. volutator with lengths of 3 and 6 mm, the normal operating pump pressure and pumping rate were, respectively, 2.6 and 3.1 mm H(2)O, and 18.3 and 85.5 ml h(-1); the overall pump efficiencies were 5.1% and 11.6%, respectively. These results show that the Corophium filter-pump is comparable to other low-pressure biological pumps in filter-feeding marine invertebrates, such as mussels, polychaetes, ascidians, and bryozoans.

  10. Parent-offspring conflict and motivational control of brooding in an amphipod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W

    2006-12-22

    Models of parent-offspring conflict concerning levels of caregiving centre on conflict resolution by offspring control, compromise or offspring 'honest signalling' that parents use to maximize their own fitness. Recent empirical studies on motivational control of parental feeding of offspring are interpreted as supporting the latter model. Here, we examine parental care in an amphipod, Crangonyx pseudogracilis, which directs care to embryos in a brood pouch. Embryo removal and transplantation elucidated causal factors that determine levels of caregiving. In the short-term, females with all embryos removed reduced care activities, but partial embryo removal did not affect caregiving, evidence of 'unshared' parental care. In the long-term, females with all embryos removed ceased care. Thus, females have a maternal state that is maintained by stimuli from offspring. Transplantation of early/late stage embryos among females originally carrying early/late stage embryos revealed that stimuli from embryos indicate their age-dependent needs, but only modify caregiving within the constraints of a changing endogenous maternal state. Thus, we demonstrate that mothers and offspring share motivational control of care. However, we highlight the inappropriate use of motivational data in reaching conclusions about the resolution of parent-offspring conflict.

  11. Testing dispersal and cryptic diversity in a widely distributed groundwater amphipod (Niphargus rhenorhodanensis).

    PubMed

    Lefébure, T; Douady, C J; Malard, F; Gibert, J

    2007-03-01

    Theories about colonization and evolution in groundwater have assumed that the fragmented structure of groundwater strongly limits dispersal. The high number of endemic and allopatric species in groundwater supports this hypothesis, but the occurrence of widely distributed groundwater taxa calls into question its universality. These widely distributed taxa might also be sets of cryptic species because extreme conditions of life in groundwater promote cryptic diversity by inducing convergent morphological evolution. Niphargus rhenorhodanensis is a widely distributed and ubiquitous groundwater amphipod which supposedly colonized the Alps after Quaternary glaciations. We tested the dispersal and the cryptic species hypotheses within this species using a phylogeographic approach based on two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S) and a nuclear gene (28S). Results support the view that poor dispersal is a main evolutionary factor in groundwater. All genes independently supported the existence of numerous cryptic and mostly allopatric units within N. rhenorhodanensis, indicating that its apparently wide distribution range is an artefact generated by cryptic diversity. We reject the hypothesis of a recent and global colonization of the Alps and argue that some N. rhenorhodanensis lineages probably survived glaciations near or within the Alps.

  12. Effects of storage on the toxicity of sediments spiked with fluoranthene to the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, F.A.; Boese, B.L.; Swartz, R.C.; Lamberson, J.O.; DeWitt, T.H.

    2000-03-01

    To determine the effect of storage on contaminant bioavailability and toxicity, two sediment types, a fine sand and a silty sand, were spiked with nine concentrations of fluoranthene, then stored at 4 C for up to 170 d. Toxicity of the stored sediment was determined eight times during this storage interval using standard 10-d toxicity tests with the marine infaunal amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. The concentrations of fluoranthene in the sediment and interstitial water were determined on samples taken on each test date. The toxicity of fluoranthene in the silty sand was similar for all storage times with LC50s ranging from 5.3 to 6.6 mg/g organic carbon (OC). The LC50 in the fine sand was 7.4 mg/g OC after 13 d of storage, ranged from 10.2 to 11.8 mg/g OC during 27 to 83 d of storage, and increased to 24.2 and 27.6 mg/g OC after 121 and 170 d of storage, respectively. These data indicate that the toxicity of both the fine and the silty sand remained essentially constant during storage from days 27 to 83. Toxicity tests conducted before or after that period may give misleading results because of disequilibrium or unknown storage effects.

  13. A chronic bioassay with the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator: test method description and confounding factors.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; Postma, Jaap; Jol, Johan; Kooman, Hanneke; Dubbeldam, Marco; Schipper, Cor; Kater, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    Methods of conducting a chronic sediment toxicity test with the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator are described. They consist of a 49-day exposure, after which mortality, growth and reproduction are determined. Pilot experiments were used to optimize test design parameters such as temperature, duration, feeding and refreshing regimes, and effects of indigenous organisms. By way of further validation, the present study focused on the effects of four different parameters: oxygen saturation, salinity, ammonium and nitrite. These confounding factors might play an important role especially if the test is used for risk assessment of field-contaminated sediments. It is concluded that the present experimental design is well suited for chronic sediment exposures with C. volutator. The test can be performed at a broad range of salinity values, provided that controls are performed at the same salinity. Results further demonstrate that with the endpoints growth and reproduction this chronic test procedure is a factor 7-18 more sensitive to ammonium and nitrate than the standardized acute bioassay (endpoint mortality).

  14. Genetic Population Structure in the Antarctic Benthos: Insights from the Widespread Amphipod, Orchomenella franklini

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Helena Phoenix; Miller, Karen Joy; Stark, Jonathan Sean

    2012-01-01

    Currently there is very limited understanding of genetic population structure in the Antarctic benthos. We conducted one of the first studies of microsatellite variation in an Antarctic benthic invertebrate, using the ubiquitous amphipod Orchomenella franklini (Walker, 1903). Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess genetic structure on three spatial scales: sites (100 s of metres), locations (1–10 kilometres) and regions (1000 s of kilometres) sampled in East Antarctica at Casey and Davis stations. Considerable genetic diversity was revealed, which varied between the two regions and also between polluted and unpolluted sites. Genetic differentiation among all populations was highly significant (FST = 0.086, RST = 0.139, p<0.001) consistent with the brooding mode of development in O. franklini. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed that the majority of the genetic subdivision occurred across the largest geographical scale, with Nem≈1 suggesting insufficient gene flow to prevent independent evolution of the two regions, i.e., Casey and Davis are effectively isolated. Isolation by distance was detected at smaller scales and indicates that gene flow in O. franklini occurs primarily through stepping-stone dispersal. Three of the microsatellite loci showed signs of selection, providing evidence that localised adaptation may occur within the Antarctic benthos. These results provide insights into processes of speciation in Antarctic brooders, and will help inform the design of spatial management initiatives recently endorsed for the Antarctic benthos. PMID:22479613

  15. Evidence for sex ratio distortion by a new microsporidian parasite of a Corophiid amphipod.

    PubMed

    Mautner, S I; Cook, K A; Forbes, M R; McCurdy, D G; Dunn, A M

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the occurrence of a microsporidian parasite in female-biased populations of an intertidal amphipod, Corophium volutator (Pallas), at mudflat sites in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Sequence data for the parasite's 16S rDNA indicate that it is a novel microsporidian species. This parasite was found principally in female host gonads, indicating that it might be a vertically transmitted, sex-distorting microparasite. At 4 sites each sampled in early and mid-summer, parasite prevalence varied from 0 to 21%. In the lab, infected mothers gave rise to more female-biased broods, than did uninfected mothers. Infection was not associated with size of females or with lowered survivorship of their young. Surprisingly, infected mothers actually had higher fertility controlling for body length than did uninfected mothers. Taken together, our results suggest that this novel microsporidian is likely a feminizing microparasite and is a contributing factor to local and widespread sex ratio distortion in C. volutator.

  16. A first glimpse at the genome of the Baikalian amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus.

    PubMed

    Rivarola-Duarte, Lorena; Otto, Christian; Jühling, Frank; Schreiber, Stephan; Bedulina, Daria; Jakob, Lena; Gurkov, Anton; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Lucassen, Magnus; Hackermüller, Jörg; Hoffmann, Steve; Sartoris, Franz; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luckenbach, Till; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-05-01

    Eulimnogammarus verrucosus is an amphipod endemic to the unique ecosystem of Lake Baikal and serves as an emerging model in ecotoxicological studies. We report here on a survey sequencing of its genome as a first step to establish sequence resources for this species. From a single lane of paired-end sequencing data, we estimated the genome size as nearly 10 Gb and we obtained an overview of the repeat content. At least two-thirds of the genome are non-unique DNA, and a third of the genomic DNA is composed of just five families of repetitive elements, including low-complexity sequences. Attempts to use off-the-shelf assembly tools failed on the available low-coverage data both before and after removal of highly repetitive components. Using a seed-based approach we nevertheless assembled short contigs covering 33 pre-microRNAs and the homeodomain-containing exon of nine Hox genes. The absence of clear evidence for paralogs implies that a genome duplication did not contribute to the large genome size. We furthermore report the assembly of the mitochondrial genome using a new, guided "crystallization" procedure. The initial results presented here set the stage for a more complete sequencing and analysis of this large genome.

  17. An empirical test of stable species coexistence in an amphipod species complex.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Rickey D; Noyes, Patrick; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-07-01

    The ability of phenotypically similar species to coexist at local scales is paradoxical given that species that closely resemble each other should compete strongly for resources and thus be subject to competitive exclusion. Although theory has identified the key requirements for species to stably coexist, empirical tests of coexistence have rarely been conducted. We explored a key requirement for species to stably coexist: a species can invade a community when it is initially rare. We also assessed whether primary productivity (manipulated using phosphorus availability) affected invasion success by increasing the amount of resources available. Using two mesocosm experiments and an assemblage of phenotypically similar amphipod species in the genus Hyalella, we found no evidence for invasion success among the three Hyalella species. Further, patterns of species exclusions differed among the species, which suggests that one species is an especially poor competitor. Finally, these patterns were consistent regardless of whether mesocosms were fertilized with low or high levels of phosphorus. Our results, suggest that species differences in resource competition and predator avoidance ability found in previous studies using these Hyalella species may not be sufficient to allow for coexistence. Moreover, our study demonstrates the importance of using a variety of empirical approaches to test species coexistence theory.

  18. Local contamination in relation to population genetic diversity and resilience of an arctic marine amphipod.

    PubMed

    Bach, Lis; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether populations inhabiting a contaminated environment are affected in terms of decreased genetic diversity due to selection of tolerant genotypes and if such effect carries a cost. Marine arctic amphipod populations (Orchomenella pinguis) were collected from sites within a contaminated fjord, as well as from sites outside the fjord on the west-coast of Greenland over three years (2006-2008). Impacts on genetic diversity, effects on resilience such as development of tolerance and cost were determined. AFLP-analysis was used to explore within and between population genetic diversity, and exposure studies were performed where the populations were subjected to known and unknown stressors to assess resilience. Populations collected at three contaminated sites all had reduced genetic diversity in 2007 compared to populations outside the fjord. This pattern was different in 2008 as all contaminated site populations increased in diversity, whereas a decrease in diversity occurred at the outer sites. However, tolerance, but even more so, cost, was related to contamination exposure in 2008, in spite of the shift in genetic diversity. We suggest that contamination rapidly induces effects that can be captured as tolerance and associated cost, whereas effects on genetic diversity can be difficult to separate from recent migration events that dilute eventual decreases in diversity due to contamination pressure. As long as impacted populations can be influenced by migration events that increase the genetic diversity and add health to an affected population, populations in contaminated areas may have enhanced probability of survival.

  19. Uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of benzo[a]pyrene by the gammarid amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickbut, R.M.; Huszai, C.M.; Lay, P.W.; Schaffner, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    The uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of {sup 3}H-benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by the gammarid amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus was evaluated in laboratory exposures. Rapid uptake (i.e. within 2.5 h) of sediment-associated B[a]P was observed, and during the exposures organism body burdens were dominated by organic extractable (e.g. parent compound) components, with aqueous soluble and bound metabolites constituting a much smaller fraction of the total body burden. However, upon discontinuation of exposure of the organisms to B[a]P, organic extractable compounds were more rapidly eliminated by L. plumulosus than the aqueous extractable and bound contaminant pools. Uptake and elimination of B[a]P were adequately modeled assuming first order kinetics, with the exception of the early stages of exposure. The rapid uptake during the first few hours of exposure of Leptocheirus to sediment-associated B[a]P may be due to sorption of B[a]P to the exoskeleton of the organism. This hypothesis is under further investigation. Uptake and elimination of B[a]P metabolite pools by L. plumulosus was best modeled assuming a fraction of the metabolite pool was irreversibly bound or slowly eliminated.

  20. Saprolegnia strains isolated from river insects and amphipods are broad spectrum pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; van den Berg, Albert Hendrik; McLaggan, Debbie; Young, Mark R; van West, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Saprolegnia species are destructive pathogens to many aquatic organisms and are found in most parts of the world. Reports based on phylogenetic analysis suggest that Saprolegnia strains isolated from aquatic animals such as crustaceans and frogs are close to Saprolegnia strains isolated from infected fish or fish eggs and vice versa. However, it has often been assumed that host specificity occurs for each individual isolate or strain. Here we demonstrate that Saprolegnia spp. can have multiple hosts and are thus capable of infecting different aquatic organisms. Saprolegnia delica, Saprolegnia hypogyna, and 2 strains of Saprolegnia diclina were isolated from aquatic insects and amphipods while S. delica, Saprolegnia ferax, Pythium pachycaule, and a Pythium sp. were isolated from the water of a medium to fast flowing river. The ITS region of the rRNA gene was sequenced for all isolates. In challenge experiments, all four isolates from insects were found to be highly pathogenic to eggs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and embryos of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). We found that Saprolegnia spp. isolated from salmon eggs were also able to successfully establish infection in nymphs of stonefly (Perla bipunctata) and embryos of X. laevis). These results suggest that Saprolegnia spp. are capable of infecting multiple hosts, which may give them an advantage during seasonal variation in their natural environments. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Reprint of: Saprolegnia strains isolated from river insects and amphipods are broad spectrum pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; van den Berg, Albert Hendrik; McLaggan, Debbie; Young, Mark R; van West, Pieter

    2014-07-01

    Saprolegnia species are destructive pathogens to many aquatic organisms and are found in most parts of the world. Reports based on phylogenetic analysis suggest that Saprolegnia strains isolated from aquatic animals such as crustaceans and frogs are close to Saprolegnia strains isolated from infected fish or fish eggs and vice versa. However, it has often been assumed that host specificity occurs for each individual isolate or strain. Here we demonstrate that Saprolegnia spp. can have multiple hosts and are thus capable of infecting different aquatic organisms. Saprolegnia delica, Saprolegnia hypogyna, and 2 strains of Saprolegnia diclina were isolated from aquatic insects and amphipods while S. delica, Saprolegnia ferax, Pythium pachycaule, and a Pythium sp. were isolated from the water of a medium to fast flowing river. The ITS region of the rRNA gene was sequenced for all isolates. In challenge experiments, all four isolates from insects were found to be highly pathogenic to eggs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and embryos of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). We found that Saprolegnia spp. isolated from salmon eggs were also able to successfully establish infection in nymphs of stonefly (Perla bipunctata) and embryos of X. laevis). These results suggest that Saprolegnia spp. are capable of infecting multiple hosts, which may give them an advantage during seasonal variation in their natural environments. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Accumulation and toxicokinetics of fluoranthene in sediment bioassays with freshwater amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.K.; Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1997-04-01

    Two freshwater amphipods, Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp., were exposed to sediment spiked with radiolabeled fluoranthene at nominal concentrations of 0.1 (trace) to 1,270 nmol fluoranthene/g dry weight. In two experiments, uptake kinetics and mortality were determined over 30-d exposures. Concentrations of fluoranthene in sediment and pore water were also measured. Mean survival of H. azteca was generally high, greater than 90% after 10 or 16 d, and greater than 74% after 30 d. Mean survival was lower for Diporeia, 14% after a 30-d exposure to the highest sediment concentration in experiment 1, and 53% in experiment 2. Tissue concentrations in Diporeia were as high as 2 to 4 {micro}mol/g wet weight, a body burden that could be expected to result in death by narcosis. Hyalella azteca did not typically accumulate more than 1 {micro}mol/g wet weight, which is consistent with the lower observed mortality. Apparent steady-state biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs, lipid- and organic-carbon-normalized) for sediment concentrations other than trace level tended to be higher for Diporeia than for H. azteca. The BSAFs for trace levels tended to be lower for both species in comparison to higher sediment concentrations. For both organisms, the internal concentration based on body residue was a more reliable indicator of toxicity than were equilibrium partitioning predictions.

  3. Accumulation and toxicokinetics of fluoranthene in water-only exposures with freshwater amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Tigue, E.

    1997-04-01

    Two 10-d water-only toxicity tests with radiolabeled fluoranthene were conducted with two species of freshwater amphipods, Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp. For H. azteca, 10-d median lethal concentrations were 564 nmol/L and 481 nmol/L. Tentative median lethal doses, determined from the regressions of body burden of remaining live H. azteca versus survival, were 5.6 and 3.6 mmol fluoranthene/kg wet weight tissue. Diporeia appeared to be less sensitive, because survival in Diporeia was greater than 84% after 10-d exposures. Elimination rates determined for Diporeia, ranging from 0.0011 to 0.0042/h were much slower than rates determined for H. azteca of 0.128 to 0.188/h. Faster elimination in H. azteca may be related to its greater ability to metabolize fluoranthene. For H. azteca, an average of 17% of its body burden was present as metabolites after 24 h of exposure to radiolabeled fluoranthene, as compared to 5% for Diporeia. For Diporeia, exposure to various water concentrations of fluoranthene for various lengths of time resulted in declines in the conditional uptake clearance rates. A similar, although less dramatic trend was observed for conditional uptake clearance rates in H. azteca.

  4. Evaluation of reproduction as an endpoint in chronic toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, USEPA published ``Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates`` (EPA/600/R-94/024). Within that document a Hyalella azteca 10-d survival test for sediments is described. The 10-d survival test provides a measure of acute toxicity from moderately to highly contaminated sediments. In addition to survival, growth during the 10-d test can be measured and could be a more sensitive endpoint. However, the ecological significance of reduced growth is questionable. Reproduction may be a more sensitive endpoint than growth or survival and its ecological importance is not questionable. The objective of this research is to develop a Hyalella azteca sediment toxicity test with a reproductive endpoint. The reproductive test will closely resemble the 10-d test but will be longer in duration and may require isolation of amphipods from the sediment for reproduction. Presently, reproductive effects of different diets and water types have been evaluated. A preliminary test protocol has been developed and is being tested and refined. This presentation will provide the most current results of this ongoing research. This study will be used to develop standard methods for measuring chronic toxicity in sediments using Hyalella azteca.

  5. Analysis of bacterial communities associated with the benthic amphipod Diporeia in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin.

    PubMed

    Winters, Andrew D; Marsh, Terence L; Brenden, Travis O; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial communities play important roles in the biological functioning of crustaceans, yet little is known about their diversity, structure, and dynamics. This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities associated with the benthic amphipod Diporeia, an important component in the Great Lakes foodweb that has been declining over the past 3 decades. In this study, the combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed a total of 175 and 138 terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) in Diporeia samples following treatment with the endonucleases HhaI and MspI, respectively. Relatively abundant and prevalent T-RFs were affiliated with the genera Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas and the class Betaproteobacteria. T-RFs affiliated with the order Rickettsiales were also detected. A significant difference in T-RF presence and abundance (P = 0.035) was detected among profiles generated for Diporeia collected from 4 sites in Lake Michigan. Comparison of profiles generated for Diporeia samples collected in 2 years from lakes Superior and Michigan showed a significant change in diversity for Lake Superior Diporeia but not Lake Michigan Diporeia. Profiles from one Lake Michigan site contained multiple unique T-RFs compared with other Lake Michigan Diporeia profiles, most notably one that represents the genus Methylotenera. This study generated the most extensive list of bacteria associated with Diporeia and sheds useful insights on the microbiome of Great Lakes Diporeia that may help to reveal potential causes of the decline of Diporeia populations.

  6. Testing sediment biological effects with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca: the gap between laboratory and nature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feiyue; Goulet, Richard R; Chapman, Peter M

    2004-12-01

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is widely used in laboratory sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. However, its responses in the laboratory are probably very different from those in the field. A review of the literature indicates that in its natural habitat this species complex is primarily epibenthic, derives little nutrition from the sediments, and responds primarily to contaminants in the overlying water column (including water and food), not sediment or porewater. In laboratory sediment toxicity tests H. azteca is deprived of natural food sources such as algal communities on or above the sediments, and is subjected to constant light without any cover except that afforded by burial into the sediments. Under these constraining laboratory conditions, H. azteca has been reported to respond to sediment or porewater contamination. In nature, contamination of overlying water from sediment is less likely than in the laboratory because of the large, generally non-static sink of natural surface water. H. azteca does not appear to be the most appropriate test species for direct assessments of the bioavailability and toxicity of sediment contaminants, though it is probably appropriate for testing the toxicity of surface waters. Toxic and non-toxic responses will be highly conservative, though the latter are probably the most persuasive given the exposure constraints. Thus H. azteca is probably a suitable surrogate species for determining sediments that are likely not toxic to field populations; however, it is not suitable for determining sediments that are likely toxic to field populations.

  7. Epibenthic amphipod abundance and predation efficiency of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad, 1939) in habitats with different physical complexity in a tropical estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Corona; Soto; Sánchez

    2000-10-05

    Amphipod abundance and biomass were determined in soft-bottom substrates (SBS), monospecific Thalassia testudinum patches and T. testudinum with attached macroalgae (SAV) from Términos Lagoon. Amphipods were absent in SBS, and their density and biomass were higher in SAV (3351 individualsm(-2), 1718 mg AFDWm(-2)) than in T. testudinum (1220 indm(-2), 625 mg AFDWm(-2)). Although macroalgae and seagrasses are recognised as an alternative refuge against predation for amphipods, the high abundance of amphipods in SAV suggests that macroalgae represent a habitat that provides greater food availability. Pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad, 1939) consumption rate (Mo) of epibenthic amphipods was experimentally evaluated. Mo intensifies as prey density increases and varied from 0.39 to 2.39 mg AFDWh(-1). Predation efficiency of F. duorarum on epibenthic amphipods was also evaluated in four artificial habitats with different physical complexity: soft-bottom substrates (SBS), small woody debris (SWD), seagrasses with densities of 300 and 1200 shootsm(-2) (S300 and S1200, respectively), macroalgae (MA), and at two prey densities (962 and 2406 indm(-2)). Amphipod consumption rate by F. duorarum varied from 1.20 to 2.07 indh(-1) in S1200 and MA, respectively. Habitat complexity had a significant effect on consumption rate, but prey density did not. Habitat physical complexity and predation efficiency maintained an inverse and a non-linear relationship. Presumably, the decrease in predation efficiency in association with the habitat complexity is due to the differential refuge value of these habitats. However, predation efficiency may also be influenced by either the microhabitat use by amphipods, the shrimp's dependence on seagrasses, or by differences in habitat value caused by the diel behavioural distribution pattern of amphipods and shrimp. Both field and experimental results highlight the importance of evaluating the relative value of tropical estuarine

  8. Changes in composition of summer hyperiid amphipods from a subtropical region of the California current during 2002-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2017-01-01

    Interannual changes in the assemblages of hyperiid amphipods during the period 2002 to 2008 are analyzed for the first time in the coastal Pacific area comprised between Ensenada (32°N) and Punta Baja (30°N), Baja California, Mexico. The study period witnessed diverse climatic events, such as a subarctic water intrusion in 2002, three El Niño events (in 2002-2003, 2004-2005, and 2006-2007) and one La Niña event in 2007-2008. Multivariate analysis of summer hyperiid amphipods based on the Bray-Curtis similarity index indicated that July 2005 contrasted with the rest of the summer seasons, showing a low abundance of amphipods, characterized particularly by the scarcity of Lestrigonus schizogeneios. The second most different summer was July 2002, characterized by the increased abundance of Primno brevidens and the presence of the subarctic species Themisto pacifica. Despite the marked decrease of L. schizogeneios in 2005, this species showed a pronounced recovery in 2006. Therefore, physical conditions under the influence of El Niño did not appear to be a direct factor in changing the abundances of L. schizogeneios, and the collapse of its populations during July 2005 could be the result of strong predation on small Lestrigonus juveniles by euphausiids, which were extremely abundant in spring and summer 2005. With the exception of 2005, the dominant species were relatively constant. Similarity analysis revealed a core contribution of the characteristic subtropical species in the California Current System (L. schizogeneios, P. brevidens, Vibilia armata, and Eupronoe minuta), indicating a resilience of these key species to climatic events.

  9. Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Stern, Gary A; Tomy, Gregg T; Hargrave, Barry T; Jantunen, Liisa M; Macdonald, Robie W

    2013-06-04

    Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (∑Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ∑Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ∑Hg. ∑Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (∑Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with δ(13)C nor δ(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156,000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ∑TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ∑PCBs > ∑DDTs > ∑chlordanes > ∑mirex compounds > ∑BDEs ∼ ∑chlorobenzenes ∼ octachlorostyrene > α-hexachlorocyclohexane ∼ hexachlorobenzene ∼ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.

  10. Ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity to freshwater invertebrates with different physiology: a comparative study between amphipods and planarians.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Camargo, J A

    2008-02-01

    High nitrite concentrations in freshwater ecosystems may cause toxicity to aquatic animals. These living organisms can take nitrite up from water through their chloride cells, subsequently suffering oxidation of their respiratory pigments (hemoglobin, hemocyanin). Because NO(2)(-) and Cl(-) ions compete for the same active transport site, elevated chloride concentrations in the aquatic environment have the potential of reducing nitrite toxicity. Although this ameliorating effect is well documented in fish, it has been largely ignored in wild freshwater invertebrates. The aim of this study was to compare the ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity to two species of freshwater invertebrates differing in physiology: Eulimnogammarus toletanus (amphipods) and Polycelis felina (planarians). The former species presents gills (with chloride cells) and respiratory pigments, whereas in the latter species these are absent. Test animals were exposed in triplicate for 168 h to a single nitrite concentration (5 ppm NO(2)-N for E. toletanus and 100 ppm NO(2)-N for P. felina) at four different environmental chloride concentrations (27.8, 58.3, 85.3, and 108.0 ppm Cl(-)). The number of dead animals and the number of affected individuals (i.e., number of dead plus inactive invertebrates) were monitored every day. LT(50) (lethal time) and ET(50) (effective time) were estimated for each species and each chloride concentration. LT(50) and ET(50) values increased with increases in the environmental chloride concentration, mainly in amphipods. Results clearly show that the ameliorating effect of chloride on nitrite toxicity was more significant in amphipods than in planarians, likely because of the absence of gills (with chloride cells) and respiratory pigments in P. felina. Additionally, this comparative study indicates that the ecological risk assessment of nitrite in freshwater ecosystems should take into account not only the most sensitive and key species in the

  11. Effects of Sublethal Cadmium Exposure on Antipredator Behavioural and Antitoxic Responses in the Invasive Amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus

    PubMed Central

    Sornom, Pascal; Gismondi, Eric; Vellinger, Céline; Devin, Simon; Férard, Jean-François; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are recognised as an important component of freshwater ecosystems and are frequently used as an ecotoxicological test species. Despite this double interest, there is still a lack of information concerning toxic impacts on ecologically relevant behaviours. The present study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd), a non-essential heavy metal, on both antipredator behaviours and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus under laboratory conditions. Amphipod behaviour (i.e. refuge use, aggregation with conspecifics, exploration and mobility) was recorded following a 4-min test-exposure to 500 µg Cd/L with or without a 24-h Cd pre-exposure and in the presence or absence of a high perceived risk of predation (i.e. water scented by fish predators and injured conspecifics). Following behavioural tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a biomarker for toxic effect, and energy reserves (i.e. lipid and glycogen contents) were assessed. Cd exposures induced (1) cell damage reflected by high MDA levels, (2) erratic behaviour quantified by decreasing refuge use and exploration, and increasing mobility, and (3) a depletion in energy reserves. No significant differences were observed between 4-min test-exposed and 24-h pre-exposed individuals. Gammarids exposed to Cd had a disturbed perception of the alarm stimuli, reflected by increased time spent outside of refuges and higher mobility compared to gammarids exposed to unpolluted water. Our results suggest that Cd exposure rapidly disrupts the normal behavioural responses of gammarids to alarm substances and alters predator-avoidance strategies, which could have potential impacts on aquatic communities. PMID:22879985

  12. Phylogeny as a Proxy for Ecology in Seagrass Amphipods: Which Traits Are Most Conserved?

    PubMed Central

    Best, Rebecca J.; Stachowicz, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, studies of community assembly and ecosystem function combine trait data and phylogenetic relationships to gain novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary constraints on community dynamics. However, the key to interpreting these two types of information is an understanding of the extent to which traits are phylogenetically conserved. In this study, we develop the necessary framework for community phylogenetics approaches in a system of marine crustacean herbivores that play an important role in the ecosystem functioning of seagrass systems worldwide. For 16 species of amphipods and isopods, we (1) reconstructed phylogenetic relationships using COI, 16S, and 18S sequences and Bayesian analyses, (2) measured traits that are potentially important for assembling species between and within habitats, and (3) compared the degree to which each of these traits are evolutionarily conserved. Despite poor phylogenetic resolution for the order Amphipoda as a whole, we resolved almost all of the topology for the species in our system, and used a sampling of ultrametric trees from the posterior distribution to account for remaining uncertainty in topology and branch lengths. We found that traits varied widely in their degree of phylogenetic signal. Body mass, fecundity, and tube building showed very strong phylogenetic signal, and temperature tolerance and feeding traits showed much less. As such, the degree of signal was not predictable based on whether the trait is related to environmental filtering or to resource partitioning. Further, we found that even with strong phylogenetic signal in body size, (which may have large impacts on ecosystem function), the predictive relationship between phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function is not straightforward. We show that patterns of phylogenetic diversity in communities of seagrass mesograzers could lead to a variety of interpretations and predictions, and that detailed study of trait similarities and

  13. Linking sub-cellular biomarkers to embryo aberrations in the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis.

    PubMed

    Reutgard, Martin; Furuhagen, Sara

    2016-04-01

    To adequately assess and monitor environmental status in the aquatic environment a broad approach is needed that integrates physical variables, chemical analyses and biological effects at different levels of the biological organization. Embryo aberrations in the Baltic Sea key species Monoporeia affinis can be induced by both metals and organic substances as well as by hypoxia, increasing temperatures and malnutrition. This amphipod has therefore been used for more than three decades as a biological effect indicator in monitoring and assessment of chemical pollution and environmental stress. However, little is known about the sub-cellular mechanisms underlying embryo aberrations. An improved mechanistic understanding may open up the possibility of including sub-cellular alterations as sensitive warning signals of stress-induced embryo aberrations. In the present study, M. affinis was exposed in microcosms to 4 different sediments from the Baltic Sea. After 88-95 days of exposure, survival and fecundity were determined as well as the frequency and type of embryo aberrations. Moreover, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) was assayed as a proxy for antioxidant defense, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level as a measure of lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an indicator of neurotoxicity. The results show that AChE and ORAC can be linked to the frequency of malformed embryos and arrested embryo development. The occurrence of dead broods was significantly associated with elevated TBARS levels. It can be concluded that these sub-cellular biomarkers are indicative of effects that could affect Darwinian fitness and that oxidative stress is a likely mechanism in the development of aberrant embryos in M. affinis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional analysis of freshwater and marine amphipods from the Strait of Gibraltar and potential aquaculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Rojano, Elena; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Guerra-García, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Four gammarid and four caprellid amphipod species from the Strait of Gibraltar were analyzed to study their nutritional contents: Caprella dilatata, Caprella equilibra, Caprella grandimana, Caprella penantis, Elasmopus rapax, Hyale perieri and Jassa sp. from marine water habitats and Echinogammarus sp. from freshwater habitats. Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash and water contents were measured. Proteins and ash were the most abundant components in all the species, ranging between 37.9 and 44.6% and 29.3 and 39.7% dry weight, respectively. The lipid and carbohydrate contents showed lower levels (5.1-9.6% and 3.1-9.1% dry weight, respectively). No significant differences in general biochemical composition were found between gammarid and caprellid species. The most abundant fatty acids were the polyunsaturated ones (38.3%) with high levels of EPA (20:5(n-3)) with 8.5 to 17.7%, DHA (22:6(n-3)) with 0.9 to 13.6% and ARA (20:4(n-6)) with 1.7 to 5.8%. Caprellid species were characterized by a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while the freshwater gammarid species showed the lowest levels. According to lipid classes, caprellids had higher phospholipids levels and lower triacylglycerol levels, as well as a higher content of polar lipids than the gammarids, being more suitable for their use in aquaculture. Differences in the general biochemical composition between species can be related to habitat characteristics, diets and environmental conditions. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of these organisms in aquaculture are discussed.

  15. Physiological and behavioral responses of the invasive amphipod, Dikerogammarus villosus, to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Normant-Saremba, Monika; Becker, Jochen; Winkelmann, Carola

    2015-11-01

    We studied the physiological and behavioral responses of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus during exposure to four total ammonia concentrations (NH3+NH4(+); TotAmm): 0.003 (control), 0.06, 1.6, and 7.0 mmol L(-1) (0.042, 0.84, 22.4, and 98.0 mg L(-1)) for a period of up to 12 h at 21 °C. During the transition period from the control to treatment concentration as well as during the first hour of exposure to 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), gammarids increased their locomotor activity, which was manifested in significantly higher routine metabolic rates compared to control conditions. At control conditions, the resting metabolic rate amounted to 0.98±0.26 mW g(-1) and significantly increased by 19 and 37% at 0.06 and 1.6 mmol L(-1), respectively. The highest examined [TotAmm] caused a rapid and significant increase in resting metabolic rate by 37% within the first 4 h of exposure before gammarids died. The exposure to elevated [TotAmm] also resulted in a significant decreased RNA:DNA ratio and significantly higher glycogen concentrations compared to the control. We conclude that even a short exposure to TotAmm of 0.06 mmol L(-1), which may occur in natural habitats, disturbs the physiology and behavior of D. villosus and leads to increased metabolic costs of the maintenance and reduced protein synthesis.

  16. Cerium oxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the sediment-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Yuktee; Arkill, Kenton P; Elgy, Christine; Stolpe, Bjorn; Lead, Jamie; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) exhibit fast valence exchange between Ce(IV) and Ce(III) associated with oxygen storage and both pro and antioxidant activities have been reported in laboratory models. The reactivity of CeO2 NPs once they are released into the aquatic environment is virtually unknown, but this is important to determine for assessing their environmental risk. Here, we show that amphipods (Corophium volutator) grown in marine sediments containing CeO2 NPs showed a significant increase in oxidative damage compared to those grown in sediments without NPs and those containing large-sized (bulk) CeO2 particles. There was no exposure effect on survival, but significant increases in single-strand DNA breaks, lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity were observed after a 10-day exposure to 12.5 mg L(-1) CeO2. Characterisation of the CeO2 NPs dispersed in deionised or saline exposure waters revealed that more radicals were produced by CeO2 NPs compared with bulk CeO2. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis revealed that both CeO2 NPs were predominantly Ce(III) in saline waters compared to deionised waters where they were predominantly Ce(IV). In both types of medium, the bulk CeO2 consisted mainly of Ce(IV). These results support a model whereby redox cycling of CeO2 NPs between Ce(III) and Ce(IV) is enhanced in saline waters, leading to sublethal oxidative damage to tissues in our test organism.

  17. Chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin to freshwater amphipods, midges, cladocerans, and mussels in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Kunz, James L; Ingersoll, Chris G; Smalling, Kelly L; Elskus, Adria A; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2017-02-09

    Understanding the effects of fungicides on nontarget organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6 μg/L in the United States and 30 μg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The potential photo-enhanced toxicity of azoxystrobin accumulated by C. dubia and L. siliquoidea following chronic exposures to azoxystrobin was also evaluated. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) based on the most sensitive endpoint were 4.2 μg/L for H. azteca reproduction, 12 μg/L for C. dubia reproduction and C. dilutus emergence, and >28 μg/L for L. siliquoidea. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to azoxystrobin compared with the other 3 species in the chronic exposures. No photo-enhanced toxicity was observed for either C. dubia or L. siliquoidea exposed to ultraviolet light in control water following azoxystrobin tests. The results of the present study indicate chronic effects of azoxystrobin on 3 of 4 invertebrates tested at environmentally relevant concentrations. The changes noted in biomass and reproduction have the potential to alter the rate of ecological processes driven by aquatic invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  18. Identification and temporal expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Joseph F; Hoelters, Laura S; Swain, Martin T; Wilcockson, David C

    2016-01-01

    Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species. We harvested brain tissue from animals expressing robust circadian activity rhythms and used homology cloning and Illumina RNAseq approaches to sequence and identify the core circadian clock and clock-related genes in these samples. We assessed the temporal expression of these genes in time-course samples from rhythmic animals using RNAseq. We identified a comprehensive suite of circadian clock gene homologues in T. saltator including the 'core' clock genes period (Talper), cryptochrome 2 (Talcry2), timeless (Taltim), clock (Talclk), and bmal1 (Talbmal1). In addition we describe the sequence and putative structures of 23 clock-associated genes including two unusual, extended isoforms of pigment dispersing hormone (Talpdh). We examined time-course RNAseq expression data, derived from tissues harvested from behaviourally rhythmic animals, to reveal rhythmic expression of these genes with approximately circadian period in Talper and Talbmal1. Of the clock-related genes, casein kinase IIβ (TalckIIβ), ebony (Talebony), jetlag (Taljetlag), pigment dispensing hormone (Talpdh), protein phosphatase 1 (Talpp1), shaggy (Talshaggy), sirt1 (Talsirt1), sirt7 (Talsirt7) and supernumerary limbs (Talslimb) show temporal changes in expression. We report the sequences of principle genes that comprise the circadian clock of T. saltator and highlight the conserved structural and functional domains of their deduced cognate proteins. Our sequencing data contribute to the growing inventory

  19. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on permethrin toxicity in the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Amweg, Erin L; Weston, Donald P; Johnson, Cathy S; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a synergist of pyrethroid pesticides found in many products for structural pest control, mosquito control, and home and garden uses. Because both PBO and pyrethroid residues potentially co-occur in urban creeks, this study determined if environmental levels of PBO were capable of synergizing pyrethroids in the environment. Three types of toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca to determine the minimum PBO concentration required to increase toxicity of the pyrethroid permethrin: Sediment was spiked with permethrin only; permethrin and overlying water spiked with PBO; and permethrin, PBO, and overlying water spiked with PBO. In tests with PBO added to both water and sediment, PBO concentrations of 2.3 microg/L in water and 12.5 microg/kg in sediment reduced the permethrin median lethal concentration (LC50) nearly 50% to 7.3 mg/kg organic carbon (OC). Higher concentrations of PBO increased permethrin toxicity up to sevenfold. In exposures with PBO in water alone, 11.3 microg/L was required to increase permethrin toxicity. Urban creek sediments from California and Tennessee, USA, had PBO concentrations in the low microg/kg range; only one water sample was above the detection limit of 0.05 microg/L. Wetlands in northern California also were sampled after application of pyrethrins and PBO for mosquito abatement. Sediment and water PBO concentrations within 12 h of abatement spraying peaked at 3.27 microg/kg and 0.08 microg/L, respectively. These results suggest that environmental PBO concentrations rarely, if ever, reach concentrations needed to increase pyrethroid toxicity to sensitive organisms, though available data on environmental levels are very limited, and additional data are needed to assess definitively the risk.

  20. Using stable isotopes to assess carbon and nitrogen turnover in the Arctic sympagic amphipod Onisimus litoralis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Mette R; Gradinger, Rolf R; Bluhm, Bodil A; O'Brien, Diane M

    2008-11-01

    Food web studies based on stable C and N isotope ratios usually assume isotopic equilibrium between a consumer and its diet. In the Arctic, strong seasonality in food availability often leads to diet switching, resulting in a consumer's isotopic composition to be in flux between different food sources. Experimental work investigating the time course and dynamics of isotopic change in Arctic fauna has been lacking, although these data are crucial for accurate interpretation of food web relationships. We investigated seasonal (ice-covered spring vs. ice-free summer) and temperature (1 vs. 4 degrees C) effects on growth and stable C and N isotopic change in the common nearshore Arctic amphipod Onisimus litoralis following a diet switch and while fasting in the laboratory. In spring we found no significant temperature effect on N turnover [half-life (HL) estimates: HL-N = 20.4 at 4 degrees C, 22.4 days at 1 degrees C] and a nonsignificant trend for faster growth and C turnover at the higher temperature (HL-C = 13.9 at 4 degrees C, 18.7 days at 1 degrees C). A strong seasonal effect was found, with significantly slower growth and C and N turnover in the ice-free summer period (HL-N = 115.5 days, HL-C = 77.0 days). Contrary to previous studies, metabolic processes rather than growth accounted for most of the change in C and N isotopic composition (84-89 and 67-77%, respectively). This study provides the first isotopic change and metabolic turnover rates for an Arctic marine invertebrate and demonstrates the risk of generalizing turnover rates based on taxon, physiology, and environment. Our results highlight the importance of experimental work to determine turnover rates for species of interest.

  1. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Dredged Material with the Marine Amphipod Corophium volutator

    PubMed

    Ciarelli; Vonck; van Straalen NM; Stronkhorst

    1998-05-01

    The incorporation of toxicological data from bioassays can improve the present system of sediment quality criteria in the Netherlands. The use of acute lethality toxicity tests alone does not however provide sufficient discrimination and sensitivity for predicting ecological effects of slightly and moderately contaminated dredged material. Sublethal endpoints are needed for the assessment of environmental hazards of such dredged material. In this study, two approaches were used to identify toxicity of marine sediments collected from 16 locations classified as "slightly and moderately contaminated" on the basis of chemical data: (1) a comparison of growth vs. mortality as different endpoints in the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas); (2) an investigation on the use of sediment dilutions to characterize the degree of toxicity. The influence of sediment storage time on toxicity was also evaluated. In four out of 16 locations, mortality over 10 days of exposure ranged 80-100%; in two out of 16 locations mortality ranged 40-60%. In the other 10 locations, mortality was below 15%. Results on growth showed that in all locations final dry weight values were significantly lower (a factor of 1.5 to 3) than in controls. Results of dilution experiments showed that if sediments were diluted with a reference sediment of similar physicochemical characteristics, total concentrations of metals, mineral oil, and PAHs decreased as expected and so did the effects on C. volutator. In the 100% contaminated sediments growth was reduced by 32-60% compared to controls. The dilution rate necessary to reduce toxicity to the EC10 value for growth of C. volutator was considered an appropriate endpoint for the evaluation. When sediments were stored for a period of 3-5 months at 4 degreesC and retested, effects on mortality and growth decreased, although some effects on growth were still measured after 5 months of storage. The experiments illustrate the usefulness of ecotoxicity

  2. Toxicokinetics and critical body burden of fluoranthene in amphipod bioassays with Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, S.K.; Landrum, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshwater amphipods (Hyalella azteca and Diporeia sp.) were exposed to fluoranthene under yellow light in 10-day water-only and 30-day sediment bioassays. In water, the 10-d-LC50 for H. azteca (at 20 C) was 564 nmol/L (114 {micro}g/L). Survival of Diporeia (at 4 C) was higher, ranging from 87 to 97% at concentrations up to 1,285 nmol/L (260 {micro}g/L, the limit of water solubility). Although H. azteca was more sensitive than Diporeia to fluoranthene in water, it appeared to be less sensitive in sediment bioassays. Survival of H. azteca in sediment bioassays was generally greater than 90% at all doses, even after 30 d at the highest dose (136 nmol/gdw). A 10-d exposure of H. azteca to a sediment concentration (136 nmol/gdw) with an estimated interstitial water concentration (264 nmol/L), more than twice that of the water-only LC50 (114 nmol/L), resulted in only 5% mortality. In contrast, survival of Diporeia at the highest sediment dose (688 nmol/gdw) averaged 67%, 44%, and 16% after 10, 17 and 30-d exposures, respectively. Thus, although no substantial mortality was observed for Diporeia in water-only bioassays, sediment exposures resulted in significant dose dependent mortality. At the highest sediment doses, observed body burdens in Diporeia were in the range of 1--2 {micro}mol/gww, concentrations that would be expected to produce death by narcosis. In general, the body burden of H. azteca did not exceed 0.5 {micro}mol/gww in the sediment bioassay, which is consistent with the low mortality that was observed. Thus, measures of the actual dose in the organism best define the exposure. These results suggest that estimation of an interstitial water concentration may be insufficient for predicting sediment toxicity.

  3. A reformulated, reconstituted water for testing the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.E.; Herrin, L.E.; Thoeny, W.T.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Brewer-Swartz, S.

    1997-06-01

    Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters were tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW), reformulated moderately hard reconstituted water (RMHRW), and 25% dilute mineral water (DMW). The water used for comparison was a nonstandard, in-house culture water mixture of well water and dechlorinated tap water, diluted with Super-Q{reg_sign} deionized water to a hardness of 100 mg/L, as CaCO{sub 3} (LL/SQ). Control survival was less than the 90% minimum control survival criteria in all tests with MHRW. Two of five tests with DMW also failed to pass the minimum control survival criteria. All five tests with the RMHRW passed the control survival criteria. The mean 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for the tests in RMHRW was 320 mg/L KCl, with a coefficient of variation of 8.5%. Concurrent tests with the in-house water yielded control survival greater than 90% and a mean LC50 of 216 mg/L KCl with a coefficient of variation of 13.4%. Tests in an interlaboratory study yielded similar results. Whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted using RMHRW as the overlying water routinely exceed the 80% minimum survival criteria in the control and reference sediments. The failure of MHRW and DMW to produce acceptable results, as well as the inability of other laboratories to produce LL/SQ, makes RMHRW the best candidate for a standard water for H. azteca testing.

  4. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines.

  5. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines. PMID:26448700

  6. Corophiine amphipods of the genera Chelicorophium and Paracorophium from the lower Gulf of Thailand (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae, Corophiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Towatana, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two species of corophiine amphipods from Songkhla Lake, in the lower Gulf of Thailand, are described and illustrated. Chelicorophium madrasensis (Nayar, 1950), found in the mangrove forest, has not previously been observed in Thai waters. Paracorophium angsupanichae sp. n. is characterized by its chelate male gnathopod 2, obtuse palm with subrectangular distomedial elevation, and urosomites 1-3 free. This is the first record of the genus Chelicorophium and Paracorophium in Thai waters. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand and the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. PMID:26052237

  7. A new method for early assessment of effects of exposing two non-target crustacean species, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus fossarum, to pesticides, a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lukancic, Simon; Zibrat, Uros; Mezek, Tadej; Jerebic, Andreja; Simcic, Tatjana; Brancelj, Anton

    2010-05-01

    A reliable method is needed for assessing the condition of aquatic animals and their resistance to toxic pollutants. The physiological responses of two freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus fossarum, following in vitro exposure to two pesticides (atrazine and imidacloprid), were measured by a combination of electron transport system (ETS) activity and respiration (R). Short-term exposure concentrations were selected according to standard toxicity tests and ranged from 0.01 mg L(-1) to 10 mg L(-1). When pesticide concentration was greater than 1 mg l(- 1) (which is below the LC(50) [48 hours] determined for both species), A. aquaticus and G. fossarum responded to short-term exposure with elevated levels of R and/or lower levels of ETS activity. One hour exposure to concentrations of up to 10 mg L(-1) showed an effect in both test species. Laboratory tests confirmed that G. fossarum is more sensitive to short-term pesticide exposure than A. aquaticus. The combination of these two methods provides a useful and effective tool for assessing the general condition of aquatic animals. It also enables to determine toxic effects on freshwater biota of specific or combined pollutants. ETS/R ratio may be used as a quick predictor of effects on organisms exposed to pesticides and other stress factors such as changes in temperature, light, salinity, oxygen concentration and food.

  8. The mitogenome of Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea Amphipoda): A new gene order and non-neutral sequence evolution of tandem repeats in the control region.

    PubMed

    Krebes, Lukas; Bastrop, Ralf

    2012-06-01

    We determined the complete mitogenome sequence of Gammarus duebeni (Peracarida, Amphipoda). The mitogenome is circular and has a length of 15,651bp. The content corresponds to typical mitogenomes of metazoans. The gene order and transcriptional polarity of the protein-coding genes is identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Six tRNA genes are rearranged, making the gene order unique. Thus it will bring forward the understanding of mitogenome evolution within the Peracarida, for which much more derived gene orders are known. We postulate that the gene string trnA-trnS1 (AGN)-trnN-trnE-trnR constitutes an apomorphic character for the Amphipoda. In contrast to the relatively large genome size, we found two extremely truncated rRNA genes. The rrnL gene is the shortest (986bp) reported up until now for crustaceans. A six-time imperfect tandem repeat was observed within the control region. The inferred deterministic pattern of variation between the repeat units makes it likely, that functional constraints play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics and extant appearance of the repeat array. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1μm in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host.

  10. Mass spectrometry assay as an alternative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for biomarker quantitation in ecotoxicology: application to vitellogenin in Crustacea (Gammarus fossarum).

    PubMed

    Simon, Romain; Jubeaux, Guillaume; Chaumot, Arnaud; Lemoine, Jérôme; Geffard, Olivier; Salvador, Arnaud

    2010-07-30

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a widespread biomarker for measuring exposure to endocrine disruptors. Vg quantification is usually done by using the ELISA test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Since this test is specific to a target protein, it can rarely be used with other species due to low cross-reactivity across species. Therefore alternative analytical methods have to be considered as the development of a specific and sensitive ELISA test for each new target is time-consuming and may prove unsuccessful. This paper focuses on the development of a quantitative assay by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of vitelogenin in an invertebrate (Gammarus fossarum) for which no ELISA kit is available. The linearity of the method was within the concentration range 2.5-25,000pg/mL and the limit of detection was estimated at 0.75pg/mL of Vg. This method has been demonstrated to be an alternative to existing immunological methods for quantifying Vg in invertebrates due to its greater sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility (intra- and inter-assay below 15%). This assay was applied for Vg determination in female G. fossarum following exposure to a known endocrine disruptor, methyl farnesoate, in crustaceans. The availability of a quantitative G. fossarum LC-MS/MS assay should open the way for further studies to evaluate xenoestrogen effects in aquatic male G. fossarum.

  11. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  12. Photoreceptor ultrastructure of the amphipod, Cyamus ceti (Linné, 1758), an ectoparasite of bowhead, right and gray whales.

    PubMed

    Levin, M J; Pfeiffer, C J

    1999-07-01

    Light and electron microscopic findings are presented for the first time on a species of amphipod whale louse, Cyamus ceti, with reference to the paired photoreceptor structures of the head. Whale lice are crustacean ectoparasites of large, slow moving whales. Twenty-two known species parasitize mainly baleens but also toothed whales. Samples were collected from Alaskan bowhead whales during an Eskimo hunt. The photoreceptors, or compound eyes, were sessile and located on the dorsal cephalon. Each photoreceptor contained approximately 50 visual ommatidial units. The general organization was similar to other amphipod crustacean compound eyes. The single ommatidial unit consisted of 1) an overlying cuticle, 2) crystalline cone secreted by cone cells, 3) a fusiform layered rhabdom, 4) surrounding pigmented retinular cells, and 5) basal lamina and axon. The cuticle over each eye was translucent, convex, and thinner than the rest of the cranial cuticle. The photosensitive rhabdom contained a central core of alternating microvillous projections, and the rhabdomere unit was formed by five or six retinular cells. There were numerous electron-dense and electron-lucent granules within the cytoplasm of the retinular cells, corresponding to visual pigment or reflecting granules. The eyes most likely play a role in detecting light direction, duration and/or intensity, which may direct molting, reproduction, or other functions of this cetacean ectoparasite.

  13. Assessment of sediment contamination, acute toxicity, and population viability of the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, B.L.; Fisher, D.J.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Turley, S.

    1999-10-01

    In Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, some of the most contaminated sediments are found in the highly industrialized Baltimore Harbor-Patapsco River area. As part of a comprehensive assessment of sediment quality in this system, sediment toxicity was assessed in 10-d acute tests with the estuarine amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Mean amphipod survival was significantly reduced in 7 of the 25 samples tested despite the occurrence of minor experimental artifacts. The most toxic sediments were collected from Bear Creek; other areas exhibiting toxicity included the Inner Harbor and Colgate Creek. Marginal toxicity was observed in samples from Curtis Creek, Lazeretto Point, and Back River. Negative relationships were detected between survival and concentrations of select sediment-associated contaminants, whereas a very strong positive association existed between survival in laboratory exposures and density of L. plumulosus at the test sites. A weight of evidence approach, including correlation analyses, a model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioavailability, and comparisons to benchmark sediment levels, was used to tentatively identify classes of contaminants that contributed to the observed toxicity. Analysis of results suggested that toxicity at stations in Bear Creek and Colgate Creek may have been driven by sediment-associated metals, whereas toxicity at stations in the Inner Harbor was likely due to both metal and organic contaminants. The observed relationships among toxicity test results, concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants, and abundance of L. plumulosus at the test sites suggests that acute toxicity tests with this species are indicative of adverse biological effects in the field.

  14. Vertical distribution and daily migrations of hyperiid amphipods in the northern Benguela in relation to water column stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Carme; Gili, Josep-Maria

    1993-11-01

    The vertical distribution and migratory behaviour of hyperiid amphipods were studied in a series of tows carried out during a 48-h sampling period at an oceanic station at the northern edge of the Benguela System during a major penetration by Angola Current waters. A total of 49 species of hyperiid amphipods were collected; of these, Tetrathyrus forcipatus was the most abundant, with densities greater than two individuals per 10 m 3. Vibilia armata, Lestrigonus latissimus, L. bengalensis and Paratyphis promontorii were also highly abundant. During the sampling period most species were concentrated in the uppermost 40 m of the water column, though in other regions the vertical distribution of these same species has been reported to be broader. Only a few species were able to migrate through the thermocline. We hypothesize that both the non-migratory behaviour and the aggregation of individuals and species were caused by two primary factors: the existence of a strong thermocline, which hindered the transit of species to deeper layers, and abundant concentrations of gelatinous zooplankton above the thermocline. Hyperiids and the gelatinous zooplankton, particularly medusae and siphonophores, exhibited a close association during the sampling period, suggesting that hyperiids are able to partition their habitat by using the different medusan and siphonophoran species as specific substrates, thereby reducing interspecific competition.

  15. Factors affecting population fluctuations of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis (Lindström) in Sweden's largest lakes.

    PubMed

    Goedkoop, W; Johnson, R K

    2001-12-01

    Factors affecting long-term (1982-2000) population densities of the glacial relict amphipod Monoporeia affinis were studied in Sweden's three largest lakes. Monoporeia showed large population fluctuations in all three lakes, with conspicuous peaks in density occurring in Lakes Vänern and Mälaren. In Lake Vänern, amphipod densities showed highly significant relationships with spring maximum diatom biovolume at a 1-yr lag. The lack of relationship between diatom biovolumes and Monoporeia densities in L. Vättern is likely due to the larger depth and the lower nutrient content of this lake. In eutrophic L. Mälaren, summer hypoxia (< 4 mg O2 L-1) is likely an important regulating factor. Hypolimnetic temperature showed a clear periodicity with relatively warm deep water occurring between 1989 and 1994. Hypolimnetic temperatures in Vänern and Vättern were correlated with total solar irradiance. However, neither hypolimnetic water temperature nor diatom biovolumes correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation winter index. We speculate that variations in temperature and near-bottom oxygen concentrations negatively affect population densities by acting on recruitment success (reproduction) and juvenile (young-of-the-year) survival.

  16. Trophic interactions of macro-zooplankton (krill and amphipods) in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalpadado, Padmini; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ellertsen, Bjørnar; Johannessen, Signe

    2008-10-01

    The diets of krill and amphipods were examined using light microscopy on field-collected specimens from 2004 to 2005 from the Marginal Ice Zone of the northwestern Barents Sea, north and east of Spitsbergen. Stomach content analyses indicate dominant krill species to have a filter-feeding mode, whereas amphipods seem to be mainly raptorial feeders. The dominant krill, Thysanoessa inermis, is primarily regarded as an herbivore feeding mostly on diatoms. Alternatively, Thysanoessa longicaudata fed occasionally on calanoid copepods in addition to being a suspension feeder on phytoplankton. The largest of the krill species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, showed a mixed diet with regular feeding on calanoid copepods and phytoplankton. The degree of carnivory varied between stations and was determined by examining the size and shape of the mandible of copepods. M. norvegica, with a total length of between 26 and 41 mm, had up to two copepods in their stomachs, with a mandible width of the copepods varying from 32 to 154 μm, corresponding, respectively, to a computed prosome length of 0.3 and 2.6 mm. Themisto libellula fed primarily on C3 and C4 copepodite stages of Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, and up to three copepods were found in the stomach contents of T. libellula. Themisto abyssorum fed on herbivorous and omnivorous prey such as copepods and appendicularians. The presence of Metridia spp. and appendicularians, e.g., Oikopleura vanhoeffeni in the diet of T. abyssorum may indicate feeding in the deeper layers (>200 m).

  17. Using a spiked sediment bioassay to establish a no-effect concentration for dioxin exposure to the amphipod, Ampelisca abdita

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, T.R.; Chappie, D.J.; Duda, D.J.; Fuchsman, P.C.; Finley, B.L.

    1998-03-01

    A recent study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported a highly significant correlation between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) concentrations and amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) mortality in sediment samples collected from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the potential effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on benthic invertebrates under controlled laboratory exposures. In this study, 10-d whole-sediment bioassays using the marine amphipod A. abdita were conducted on spiked sediment samples representing a range of 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations. No effects on survival or growth relative to controls were observed at any test concentration. The highest 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration reported from the NOAA study was 0.62 {micro}g/kg. Therefore, the lack of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity in this study indicates that the mortality observed in the NOAA study was probably due to factors or chemicals other than 2,3,7,8-TCDD. This study demonstrates the utility of spiked sediment bioassays in evaluating cause and effect relationships between sediment contamination and benthic invertebrate mortality.

  18. Screening differentially expressed genes in an amphipod (Hyalella azteca) exposed to fungicide vinclozolin by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun H; Wu, Tsung M; Hong, Chwan Y; Wang, Yei S; Yen, Jui H

    2014-01-01

    Vinclozolin, a dicarboximide fungicide, is an endocrine disrupting chemical that competes with an androgenic endocrine disruptor compound. Most research has focused on the epigenetic effect of vinclozolin in humans. In terms of ecotoxicology, understanding the effect of vinclozolin on non-target organisms is important. The expression profile of a comprehensive set of genes in the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to vinclozolin was examined. The expressed sequence tags in low-dose vinclozolin-treated and -untreated amphipods were isolated and identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. DNA dot blotting was used to confirm the results and establish a subtracted cDNA library for comparing all differentially expressed sequences with and without vinclozolin treatment. In total, 494 differentially expressed genes, including hemocyanin, heatshock protein, cytochrome, cytochrome oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase were detected. Hemocyanin was the most abundant gene. DNA dot blotting revealed 55 genes with significant differential expression. These genes included larval serum protein 1 alpha, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, mitochondrial protein, proteasome inhibitor, hemocyanin, zinc-finger-containing protein, mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and epididymal sperm-binding protein. Vinclozolin appears to upregulate stress-related genes and hemocyanin, related to immunity. Moreover, vinclozolin downregulated NADH dehydrogenase, related to respiration. Thus, even a non-lethal concentration of vinclozolin still has an effect at the genetic level in H. azteca and presents a potential risk, especially as it would affect non-target organism hormone metabolism.

  19. Identification and temporal expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Joseph F.; Hoelters, Laura S.; Swain, Martin T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species. Methods We harvested brain tissue from animals expressing robust circadian activity rhythms and used homology cloning and Illumina RNAseq approaches to sequence and identify the core circadian clock and clock-related genes in these samples. We assessed the temporal expression of these genes in time-course samples from rhythmic animals using RNAseq. Results We identified a comprehensive suite of circadian clock gene homologues in T. saltator including the ‘core’ clock genes period (Talper), cryptochrome 2 (Talcry2), timeless (Taltim), clock (Talclk), and bmal1 (Talbmal1). In addition we describe the sequence and putative structures of 23 clock-associated genes including two unusual, extended isoforms of pigment dispersing hormone (Talpdh). We examined time-course RNAseq expression data, derived from tissues harvested from behaviourally rhythmic animals, to reveal rhythmic expression of these genes with approximately circadian period in Talper and Talbmal1. Of the clock-related genes, casein kinase IIβ (TalckIIβ), ebony (Talebony), jetlag (Taljetlag), pigment dispensing hormone (Talpdh), protein phosphatase 1 (Talpp1), shaggy (Talshaggy), sirt1 (Talsirt1), sirt7 (Talsirt7) and supernumerary limbs (Talslimb) show temporal changes in expression. Discussion We report the sequences of principle genes that comprise the circadian clock of T. saltator and highlight the conserved structural and functional domains of their deduced cognate proteins. Our

  20. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ivey, Chris D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeastþcereal leafþtrout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatomsþTetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20]¼13 mg/L and 15mg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 mg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test—and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model–normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7mg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 mg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes.

  1. Chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin to freshwater amphipods, midges, cladocerans, and mussels in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Smalling, Kelly; Elskus, Adria; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of fungicides on nontarget organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6 μg/L in the United States and 30 μg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations. The potential photo-enhanced toxicity of azoxystrobin accumulated by C. dubiaand L. siliquoidea following chronic exposures to azoxystrobin was also evaluated. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) based on the most sensitive endpoint were 4.2 μg/L for H. aztecareproduction, 12 μg/L for C. dubia reproduction and C. dilutus emergence, and >28 μg/L for L. siliquoidea. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to azoxystrobin compared with the other 3 species in the chronic exposures. No photo-enhanced toxicity was observed for either C. dubia or L. siliquoidea exposed to ultraviolet light in control water following azoxystrobin tests. The results of the present study indicate chronic effects of azoxystrobin on 3 of 4 invertebrates tested at environmentally relevant concentrations. The changes noted in biomass and reproduction have the potential to alter the rate of ecological processes driven by aquatic invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1–8. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  2. First finding of the amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus and the mussel Dreissena bugensis in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Fanslow, David L.; Tuchman, Marc L.; Fleischer, Guy W.

    2001-01-01

    The first finding of the amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus and the mussel Dreissena bugensis in Lake Michigan is documented. These two species are widespread and abundant in the lower lakes, but had not yet been reported from Lake Michigan. E. ischnus is generally considered a warm-water form that is typically associated wtih hard substrates and Dreissena clusters in the nearshore zone. Along the eastern shoreline of Lake Michigan, this species was present at rocky, breakwall habitats, along the entire north-south axis of the lake. Although not abundant, this species was also found at soft-bottom sites as deep as 94 m in the southern basin. The finding of this species in deep offshore waters apparently extends the known habitat range for this species in the Great Lakes, but it is found in deep water areas within its native range (Caspian Sea). D. bugensis was not abundant, but was present in both the southern and northern portions of the lake. Individuals of up to 36 mm in length were collected, indicating that it had probably been present in the lake for 2 or more years. Also presented are depth-defined densities of D. polymorpha at 37 sites in the Straits of Mackinac in 1997, and densities at up to 55 sites in the southern basin in 1992/93 and 1998/99. Mean densities decreased with increased water depth in both regions. Maximum mean density in the Straits in 1997 was 13,700/mA? (a?? 10 m), and maximum density in the southern basin in 1999 was 2,100/mA? (a?? 30 m). Mean densities at the a?? 30-m interval in the southern basin remained relatively unchanged between 1993 and 1999, but increased from 25/mA? to 1,100/mA? at the 31 to 50 m interval over the same time period. D. polymorpha was rare at sites > 50 m. The presence of E. ischnus and the expected population expansion of D. bugensis will likely contribute to further foodweb changes in the lake.

  3. Effect of diet quality on chronic toxicity of aqueous lead to the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ivey, Chris D; Brumbaugh, William G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2016-07-01

    The authors investigated the chronic toxicity of aqueous Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Hyalella) in 42-d tests using 2 different diets: 1) the yeast + cereal leaf + trout pellet (YCT) diet, fed at the uniform low ration used in standard methods for sediment toxicity tests; and 2) a new diet of diatoms + TetraMin flakes (DT), fed at increasing rations over time, that has been optimized for use in Hyalella water-only tests. Test endpoints included survival, weight, biomass, fecundity, and total young. Lethal effects of Pb were similar for the DT and YCT tests (20% lethal concentration [LC20] = 13 μg/L and 15 μg/L, respectively, as filterable Pb). In contrast, weight and fecundity endpoints were not significantly affected in the DT test at Pb concentrations up to 63 µg/L, but these endpoints were significantly reduced by Pb in the YCT test-and in a 2005 test in the same laboratory with a diet of conditioned Rabbit Chow (RC-2005). The fecundity and total young endpoints from the YCT and RC-2005 tests were considered unreliable because fecundity in controls did not meet test acceptability criteria, but both of these tests still produced lower Pb effect concentrations (for weight or biomass) than the test with the DT diet. The lowest biotic ligand model-normalized effect concentrations for the 3 tests ranged from 3.7 μg/L (weight 20% effect concentration [EC20] for the RC-2005 test) to 8.2 μg/L (total young EC20 for the DT test), values that would rank Hyalella as the second or third most sensitive of 13 genera in a species sensitivity distribution for chronic Pb toxicity. These results demonstrate that toxicity tests with Hyalella fed optimal diets can meet more stringent test acceptability criteria for control performance, but suggest that results of these tests may underestimate sublethal toxic effects of Pb to Hyalella under suboptimal feeding regimes. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1825-1834. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc

  4. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. While Hyalella azteca methods exist for sediment tox...

  5. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  6. SENSITIVITY OF AN INFAUNAL AMPHIPOD, EOHAUSTORIUS ESTUARIUS, TO ACUTE WATER-BORN EXPOSURES OF 4-NONYLPHENOL (NP): EVIDENCE OF A TOXIC HANGOVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three independent trials were conducted using mortality and burial as endpoints. Mean LC50 was 227 ug/l. One hour burial as a sub-lethal endpoint increased the sensitivity of the toxicity test by 40%; however most amphipods that survived exposure were able to recover within 24-48...

  7. Optimizing the performance of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, in chronic toxicity tests: Results of feeding studies with various foods and feeding regimes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, is a common organism used for sediment toxicity testing. Standard methods for 10-d and 42-d sediment toxicity tests with H. azteca were last revised and published by USEPA/ASTM in 2000. While Hyalella azteca methods exist for sediment tox...

  8. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II--sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and