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Sample records for amphipoda gammaridea hyalidae

  1. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. (Microsporidia), a parasite of Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. is described from Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridea) collected from Lake Superior (USA), and its morphology and taxonomic affiliation are discussed. In hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections of infected amphipods, the microsporidian was observed to infect muscle tissue surrounding the ovaries. Melanized hemocytic encapsulations were often observed in or near masses of microsporidians. The microsporidians appeared as spores measuring 1.99 ± 0.09 μm long by 1.19 ± 0.05 μm wide. Each spore contained eight coils of isofilar polar filaments that were arranged in single ranks. Polar filaments measured 71 ± 3 nm in diameter. A prominent lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes was found at the apical end of the spore surrounding the polar filament. A distinct posterior vacuole was observed at the distal end of the spore. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16s RNA sequences showed that the microsporidian belongs to the genus Dictyocoela, and is most similar to D. berillonum, yet distinctly different. The species is new, based on its morphology, genetic sequence, host, and location within the host. PMID:24934702

  2. The benthic Gammaridea (Crustacea, Amphipoda) fauna of Algeciras Bay (Strait of Gibraltar): distributional ecology and some biogeographical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradi, Mercedes; López-González, Pablo J.

    1999-08-01

    The Gammaridea fauna of Algeciras Bay, located on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, was studied with regard to the species composition, distribution and ecology. Of the 116 species identified, 13 are recorded for the first time along the Iberian Peninsula coast, 30 for the Spanish coast and 78 for the Andalusian coast. Two species, Apherusa bispinosa (Bate 1857) and Idunella nana (Schiecke 1973), were collected for the second time in the Mediterranean Sea; this represents the first record of I. nana since its original description. The abundances of the various species and their distribution in terms of bathymetry and type of substrate were analysed, as was the enlargement of the distributional range of some species in the Mediterranean Sea. With regard to biogeographical distribution, Algeciras Bay can be considered a typical Mediterranean locality despite being situated in the Strait of Gibraltar. This is in agreement with previous studies on the amphipod fauna of the Portuguese coast.

  3. On the trophic ecology of Gammaridea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in coastal waters: A European-scale analysis of stable isotopes data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Gammaridean amphipods are found throughout a diverse range of coastal and brackish environments and are generally considered macrophagous herbivores/detritivores. While predation and cannibalism have been shown to be common in freshwater species, motivating a revision of the group functional role, only qualitative information is available on marine Gammaridea. In this study, a survey was conducted of the available literature on stable C and N isotopic signatures of macrophagous, fully aquatic Gammaridea and their potential basal resources in European brackish and coastal environments. The contribution of intra- and inter-specific predation to the signatures of gammarideans was verified by a mixing model procedure where the diet-tissue enrichment constant was not set a priori. Specifically, for each study included in the survey the minimum and maximum diet-tissue nitrogen enrichment factors (Δ15Nmin and Δ15Nmax) providing a non-zero solution were calculated for a range of carbon enrichment factors, assuming that both metrics would increasingly differ from the values expected for a single trophic level as predation and/or cannibalism increased in the diet of the consumer. The minimum enrichment factors Δ15Nmin estimated for a Δ13C of -2.6‰ and +0.5‰ were found to be independent from resource-related artefacts and provided the highest number of successful model runs. Δ15Nmin values were consistent with a diet based on living or decaying primary producers and not compatible with cannibalism or intra-guild predation. However, they showed a bimodal distribution and were on average far below the range found in the literature, matching the enrichment factors of gammarideans measured under laboratory conditions. These results are discussed considering the interaction of the distinctive isotopic features of basal resources in coastal habitats and the biology and ecology of gammaridean amphipods. Particular emphasis is placed on the high variability of nitrogen

  4. Parhyale darvishi, a new widely distributed amphipod species, in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Hyalidae).

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Maghsoudlou, Abdolvahab

    2016-01-01

    Parhyale darvishi sp. nov., is described. The new species is characterized by a naked posterior margin on the propodus of pereopods 5-7, a special arrangement of robust setae on the first male gnathopod and a lack of dense fine setae on the second antennae. Parhyale darvishi sp. nov. is distributed from the western coasts of the Persian Gulf to the eastern coasts of Gulf of Oman. PMID:27395677

  5. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  6. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  7. A new genus and species of Platyischnopidae (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from the Argentine sea, South-West Atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Ignacio L; Alonso, Gloria M

    2014-05-30

    The family Platyischnopidae is herein reported for the first time in the Argentine Sea, South-West Atlantic Ocean. A new genus and species, Platyisao holodividum gen. et. sp. nov., collected off the coast of Buenos Aires and Río Negro provinces, is fully described and illustrated. Platyisao gen. nov. is distinguished from the eight other genera of Platyischnopidae by the gnathopods subchelate, and the telson elongate, completely cleft. In addition, the distribution of Tiburonella viscana (Barnard J.L., 1964), up to now known in the South-West Atlantic Ocean from Brazilian waters, is extended to the coast off Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

  8. The Amphipoda of Sea City, Kuwait.-The Senticaudata (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen species of Amphipoda Senticaudata were collected in Sea City, Kuwait using a Van Veen grab and an Ocklemann sledge. Of these seven species were new to science and are described and figured in this contribution. PMID:27395936

  9. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2016-01-01

    A new amphilochid amphipod, Apolochus cresti sp. n. is described from specimens collected in the shallow waters of Maryland coastal bays, Mid-Atlantic region, at depths from 1.7 to 2.1 m. The new species appears to be most closely related to the northeastern Atlantic species, Apolochus neapolitanus sensu Krapp-Schickel, 1982. Apolochus cresti sp. n. can be distinguished from Apolochus neapolitanus by a combination of characters, including the shape of the lateral cephalic lobe, shape of the mandible molar process, relative length of mandible palp article 3, the carpal lobe length of gnathopod 2, and the lack of sub-marginal spines on antero-lateral surface of gnathopod 2. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the abundance of Apolochus cresti and the amount of macroalgae collected per station, bay, and month. Ovigerous females carrying eggs were present from March to May and in October, reaching their peak in May, although only ovigerous females carrying juveniles were found in May. Males were abundant in March and were collected also in May and October. A key for the separation of Apolochus species is presented. PMID:27110159

  10. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2016-01-01

    A new amphilochid amphipod, Apolochus cresti sp. n. is described from specimens collected in the shallow waters of Maryland coastal bays, Mid-Atlantic region, at depths from 1.7 to 2.1 m. The new species appears to be most closely related to the northeastern Atlantic species, Apolochus neapolitanus sensu Krapp-Schickel, 1982. Apolochus cresti sp. n. can be distinguished from Apolochus neapolitanus by a combination of characters, including the shape of the lateral cephalic lobe, shape of the mandible molar process, relative length of mandible palp article 3, the carpal lobe length of gnathopod 2, and the lack of sub-marginal spines on antero-lateral surface of gnathopod 2. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the abundance of Apolochus cresti and the amount of macroalgae collected per station, bay, and month. Ovigerous females carrying eggs were present from March to May and in October, reaching their peak in May, although only ovigerous females carrying juveniles were found in May. Males were abundant in March and were collected also in May and October. A key for the separation of Apolochus species is presented.

  11. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G.; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new amphilochid amphipod, Apolochus cresti sp. n. is described from specimens collected in the shallow waters of Maryland coastal bays, Mid-Atlantic region, at depths from 1.7 to 2.1 m. The new species appears to be most closely related to the northeastern Atlantic species, Apolochus neapolitanus sensu Krapp-Schickel, 1982. Apolochus cresti sp. n. can be distinguished from Apolochus neapolitanus by a combination of characters, including the shape of the lateral cephalic lobe, shape of the mandible molar process, relative length of mandible palp article 3, the carpal lobe length of gnathopod 2, and the lack of sub-marginal spines on antero-lateral surface of gnathopod 2. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the abundance of Apolochus cresti and the amount of macroalgae collected per station, bay, and month. Ovigerous females carrying eggs were present from March to May and in October, reaching their peak in May, although only ovigerous females carrying juveniles were found in May. Males were abundant in March and were collected also in May and October. A key for the separation of Apolochus species is presented. PMID:27110159

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Amphipods. [Gammaridea; Hyperidea; Caprellidea

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.J.; Pauley, G.B.; Moran, D.

    1986-08-01

    Amphipods are ubiquitous in distribution. Hyperiidea are the third most abundant coastal marine crustacean zooplankton, following copepods and euphausids. Benthic Gammaridea are an invaluable food source for many economically important fish and invertebrate species. Lifestyles of the major amphipod groups are varied. On the basis of the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), they comprise more than half of the total IRI spectrum for 38 of 55 fish species in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. They are reported to be indicators of heavily polluted areas.

  13. A new Stenothoe species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Stenothoidae) living on Boloceropsis platei (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapp-Schickel, T.; Häussermann, V.; Vader, W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new species of Stenothoe (Amphipoda, Stenothoidae), S. boloceropsis sp. nov., collected among the tentacles of the sea anemone Boloceropsis platei Mc Murrich, 1904, found on sublittoral sand of Quellon, Chiloe Island, Chile.

  14. Identification of the first neuropeptides from the Amphipoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    Despite being used as models in the field of ecotoxicology, including use in studies of endocrine disruption, little is known about the hormonal systems of amphipods, particularly their peptidergic signaling systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences were used to predict the structures of the first neuropeptides from members of this crustacean order. Using a well-established workflow, BLAST searches of the extant amphipod TSA data were conducted for putative peptide-encoding transcripts. The pre/preprohormones deduced from the identified TSA sequences were then used to predict the mature structures of amphipod neuropeptides. In total, 43 putative peptide-encoding transcripts were identified from three amphipods, Echinogammarus veneris, Hyalella azteca and Melita plumulosa. Collectively, 139 distinct mature peptides (110 from E. veneris alone) were predicted from these TSA sequences. The identified peptides included members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RYamide, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. Of particular note were the identifications of orcokinins possessing SFDEIDR- rather than the typical NFDEIDR- amino-termini, e.g. SFDEINRSNFGFN, a carboxyl-terminally amidated orcokinin, i.e. SFDEINRSNFGFSamide, PDHs longer than the stereotypical 18 amino acids, e.g. NSELLNTLLGSKSLAALRAAamide, and a 13 rather than 12 amino acid long SIFamide, i.e. GPYRKPPFNGSIFamide. These data not only provide the first descriptions of native amphipod neuropeptides, but also represent a new resource for initiating investigations of peptidergic signaling in the Amphipoda.

  15. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  16. A new species of the subterranean genus Stygobromus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae) from a cave spring in northern Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, John R; Sawicki, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    A relatively large, distinct new species of the subterranean amphipod crustacean genus Stygobromus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae) measuring 13 mm in length is described from Skipper Spring, a cave spring in the northwestern "panhandle" of Florida, USA. This is the first species of the genus described from the state of Florida where it is described from only 3 females. A fourth much smaller specimen of this species was collected from nearby Miller's Crossing Spring on Holmes Creek. All other stygomorphic amphipod species recorded from the state of Florida have been in the genus Crangonyx. PMID:27395865

  17. Two new species and one newly recorded species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Hainan Province, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-qiu; Sha, Zhong-li

    2013-01-01

    A total of 5 species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are identified from Hainan Province, South China Sea. In those, one species, Kamaka excavata Ariyama, 2007, is recorded for the first time in Chinese waters. Two new species, Kamaka corophina sp. n. and Kamaka foliacea sp. n., are described. A key to the Chinese species is provided. They were collected from littoral zone, mud flat in seaweed of mangrove side, brackish water and seawater, sifted out with sieve.

  18. Secondary production of Ampelisca mississippiana Soliman and Wicksten 2007 (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in the head of the Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Y. S.; Rowe, G. T.

    2008-12-01

    Annual production was calculated for the dominant ampeliscid amphipod Ampelisca mississippiana [Soliman, Y., Wicksten, M., 2007. Ampelisca mississippiana a new species (Amphipoda: Gammaredea) dominated the head of the Mississippi Canyon (Northern Gulf of Mexico). Zootaxa, submitted] at the head of the Mississippi Canyon in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Average densities were 12,094±2499 ind m -2, with secondary production of 6.93 g dry wt m -2 yr -1, based on the "size-frequency method" [Hynes-Hamilton, H.B.N., Coleman, M., 1968. A simple method for assessing the annual production of stream benthos. Limnology and Oceanography 13, 569-573; Menzies, C.A., 1980. A note on the Hynes-Hamilton method of estimating secondary production. Limnology and Oceanography 25(4), 770-773], with a production/biomass ( P/ B) ratio of 3.11. Growth rates of this magnitude are comparable to available data for freshwater and shallow marine ampeliscids, but are unexpectedly high for deep-ocean habitats. Growth efficiency appeared to be approximately 35% (Growth/Assimilation×100).

  19. A comparative study on the tubes and feeding behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda and their bearing on phylogenetic relationships within the Corophioidea

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, I. M. T.; Moore, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    Observations are presented on mouthpart functional morphology, and on feeding, grooming and defaecatory behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda, viz. Corophium bonnellii, Lembos websteri, Aora gracilis, A. spinicornis, Gammaropsis nitida, Ericthonius punctatus, Jassa falcata and J. marmorata. These data are considered in relation to tube structure and amphipod posture in relation to the tube. All these species occupy double-ended cylindreical tubes made from 'amphipod silk' secreted by the third and fourth preraeopods, incorporating sediment and other debris to varying degrees. Uniquely among this set of species, however, E. punctatus has a tube that is architecturally distinct. It tapers along its length and has a distinctive oblique main entrance at its widest end. This end is used preferentially. The other species studied use either opening with equal facility. Such a feature is adaptive in facilitating deployment of the antennae and shielding the head of E. punctatus. Two groupings of species are propose: group A which feed inside their tube using pleopod-induced through-tube currents, and group B which feed outside or at the entrance to their tube using external water currents. Group A includes C. bonnellii, L. websteri and the Aora species. Group B includes E. punctatus and the Jassa species. Gammaropsis nitida exhibits traits from both groups, adding weight to its perceived status as a genus representative of the stem corophioid. The ischyrocerid habit of externalizing food-gathering may be regarded as the first step along an evolutionary line leading to the rod-building podocerid types and ultimately towards the caprellids. All species examined show a degree of flexibility in their feeding habits which helps to explain the success of this taxon, which has radiated into a great diversity of aquatic biotopes.

  20. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Amphipods

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.J.; Pauley, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. Amphipods are ubiquitous in distribution, but are most abundant in estuarine areas and other high nutrient areas. Hyperiidea are the third most abundant coastal marine crustacean zooplankton, following copepods and euphausiids. Benthic Gammaridea are an invaluable food source for many economically important fish and invertebrate species. Habitat preference and behavior of the major amphipod groups is highly variable. Intertidal California amphipods overlap the distribution of common genera of other regions around the world. Amphipoda are reported to be indicators of heavily polluted areas. They are considered the most efficient of all scavengers on the sea bottom and in shoreline areas. 66 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Round-trip catadromous migration in a Japanese amphipod, Sternomoera rhyaca (Gammaridea: Eusiridae).

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Keiko; Katakura, Haruo; Kyono, Masaki; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a field study of the life cycle of the eusirid gammaridean amphipod Sternomoera rhyaca Kuribayashi, Mawatari, and Ishimaru, 1996 in a stream at Gokibiru, Hokkaido, Japan over the course of two non-consecutive years. This species is biennial; it spends most of its life in freshwater, but undertakes a short catadromous migration to the sea for reproduction. Reproduction occurs from March-June. Mature adults drift downstream to the sea singly and in precopulating pairs. Copulation and oviposition in the marsupium occur in mixed water at the stream mouth. Males die after copulation; ovigerous females return upstream by walking or swimming, where their eggs develop and hatch, after which the females also die. Juveniles remain in the stream, growing until they reach sexual maturity. Laboratory experiments showed that survivorship of all stages was lowest in seawater and highest in freshwater, though juveniles survived equally well in mixed water (50% seawater) and freshwater. Eggs developed to hatching only in freshwater; hatchlings in seawater and mixed water died within one and 21 days, respectively. Thus, S. rhyaca is well adapted to freshwater. Indeed, the only stages that required elevated salinity were copulation and subsequent oviposition, and we speculate that freshwater inhibits the female pre-reproductive molt. Because the life cycle of S. rhyaca has the most ontogenetically and temporally restricted saltwater phase known in any catadromous animal, its origin and maintenance are of evolutionary interest. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for the origin of the migratory life cycle, and discuss its maintenance in terms of fitness costs and benefits.

  2. Round-trip catadromous migration in a Japanese amphipod, Sternomoera rhyaca (Gammaridea: Eusiridae).

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Keiko; Katakura, Haruo; Kyono, Masaki; Dick, Matthew H; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a field study of the life cycle of the eusirid gammaridean amphipod Sternomoera rhyaca Kuribayashi, Mawatari, and Ishimaru, 1996 in a stream at Gokibiru, Hokkaido, Japan over the course of two non-consecutive years. This species is biennial; it spends most of its life in freshwater, but undertakes a short catadromous migration to the sea for reproduction. Reproduction occurs from March-June. Mature adults drift downstream to the sea singly and in precopulating pairs. Copulation and oviposition in the marsupium occur in mixed water at the stream mouth. Males die after copulation; ovigerous females return upstream by walking or swimming, where their eggs develop and hatch, after which the females also die. Juveniles remain in the stream, growing until they reach sexual maturity. Laboratory experiments showed that survivorship of all stages was lowest in seawater and highest in freshwater, though juveniles survived equally well in mixed water (50% seawater) and freshwater. Eggs developed to hatching only in freshwater; hatchlings in seawater and mixed water died within one and 21 days, respectively. Thus, S. rhyaca is well adapted to freshwater. Indeed, the only stages that required elevated salinity were copulation and subsequent oviposition, and we speculate that freshwater inhibits the female pre-reproductive molt. Because the life cycle of S. rhyaca has the most ontogenetically and temporally restricted saltwater phase known in any catadromous animal, its origin and maintenance are of evolutionary interest. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for the origin of the migratory life cycle, and discuss its maintenance in terms of fitness costs and benefits. PMID:17043398

  3. Zur Ökophysiologie, Sexualität und Populationsgenetik litoraler Gammaridea — ein Überblick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.

    1991-09-01

    Comparative investigations on the physiological capacities in the euryhaline amphipods Gammarus locusta, G. oceanicus, G. salinus, G. zaddachi and G. duebeni were reviewed. In order to assess the adaptations of these species to the abiotic conditions of their environment, the following criteria were examined: oxygen consumption in relation to ambient salinity and temperature levels, respiratory responses following osmotic stress, resistance capacities to oxygen deficiency, resistance to aerial exposure and the simultaneous presence of hydrogen sulphide. Covering the range from marine to typically brackish-water inhabitants, the 5 species show adaptive responses in the above-mentioned order. Respiration is less intensely modified by external factors, and oxygen consumption decreases. Accompanied by faster rates of acclimation to new steady states of performance, resistance capacities increase. The significance of the findings obtained is discussed in relation to the environmental requirements of the amphipods considered. Based on breeding experiments, the sex-determining systems reported thus far in Gammarus species are outlined. As demonstrated in G. duebeni, a more or less pronounced influence of external factors such as photoperiod may become effective. A preponderance of males was noted when offspring were raised under long-day photoperiods, whereas females prevailed under short-day conditions. In terms of the critical daylength, the light per day was estimated as being between 13 and 14 h (Elbe estuary population). Feminizing microporidians ( Octosporea effeminans, Thelohania herediteria), which are transovarially transmitted, can interfere with the system of sex determination and sex differentiation of the host. As reflected in various G. duebeni populations, they cause a maternally transferred sex-ratio condition by the production of all-female broods, thereby mimicking extrachromosomal inheritance. An increase of the salinity level to 25 30‰ results in a disappearance of O. effeminans. In both microsporidians, long exposure to low temperatures (≤4°C) produces eggs which are not all parasitized. Furthermore, intersexuality can be induced by changing environmental factors. Microsporidian species have no influence on sex differentiation in G. duebeni celticus, G. salinus, G. locusta and G. pulex. Patterns of relative electrophoretic mobilities of proteins and the distribution of allele frequencies at polymorphic gene loci can be utilized for species diagnosis and for the evaluation of the relationships between different taxa, particularly at and below the species level. As exemplified by studies on several gammarids from marine, brackish and freshwater environments, inter- and infraspecific gene-enzyme variation is described. Electrophoretic investigations on natural populations of the euryhaline amphipods G. zaddachi, G. salinus, G. tigrinus and others from different geographic areas provided evidence of considerable biochemical genetic variation. In Talitrus saltator- and Talorchestia deshayesii-populations the extent of variability based on micro-and macrogeographic aspects is illustrated. The large-scale genetic divergence is demonstrated by comparison of samples obtained from the Baltic, North, Atlantic and northern Mediterranean Seas.

  4. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-01-01

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed. PMID:25781854

  5. An enigmatic Rhachotropis (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Eusiridae) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lörz, Anne-Nina

    2015-01-01

    The eusirid genus Rhachotropis S.I. Smith, 1883 has a worldwide distribution and the largest bathymetric range known from any amphipod genus. A large, charismatic, colourful species was collected below 800 m at two sites 1000 km apart on the southern Kermadec Ridge and on the Chatham Rise in the south-western Pacific off eastern New Zealand. The new species, Rhachotropis oweni is described, increasing the total number of Rhachotropis to 61 species worldwide, including six species from New Zealand waters.

  6. Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Calum; Fielding, Nina J; Hume, Kevin D; Dick, Jaimie T A; Elwood, Robert W; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    In a river survey, Gammarus pulex amphipods both unparasitised and parasitised with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus truttae were distributed similarly with respect to flow regimen, tending to be more abundant in faster, shallower, riffle patches. However, there was a higher prevalence of parasitism in faster, shallower areas than in slower, deeper areas and abundance correlated with macrophyte coverage for unparasitised but not parasitised amphipods, indicating subtle differences in habitat usage. A laboratory 'patch' simulation indicated that parasitism influenced micro-distribution. There were higher proportions of unparasitised amphipods in/under stone substrates and within weed. In contrast, there were higher proportions of parasitised amphipods in the water column and at the water surface. As the experiment progressed, unparasitised but not parasitised amphipod habitat usage shifted from those micro-habitats above the substrate and in the water column to those in/under the substrates. Experiments also demonstrated that parasitised amphipods were more active and had a greater preference for illumination. Previous studies of the effects of acanthocephalan parasitism of amphipod hosts have focussed on how drift behaviour is altered, now we show that subtle differences in micro-habitat usage could translate to greatly increased vulnerability to fish predation. We discuss how aggregation of parasitised individuals within specific habitats could promote parasite transmission. PMID:12547346

  7. New digestive symbiosis in the hydrothermal vent amphipoda Ventiella sulfuris.

    PubMed

    Corbari, Laure; Durand, Lucile; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne; Gaill, Françoise; Compère, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    Ventiella sulfuris Barnard and Ingram, 1990 is the most abundant amphipod species inhabiting the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR 9°N) vent fields. This vent-endemic species is frequently encountered near colonies of Pompeii worms Alvinella pompejana. V. sulfuris specimens were collected during the oceanographic cruise LADDER II at the Bio9 (9°50.3'N, 2508m depth) hydrothermal vent site. Main objectives were to highlight the occurrence of bacterial symbiosis in V. sulfuris and to hypothesise their implications in nutrition. Observations in light and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) showed that the outer body surface and appendages are free of microorganisms. In contrast, the digestive system revealed two major microbial communities settled in the midgut and in the hindgut. Gut contents showed bacterial traces together with abundant fragments of Alvinellid cuticle and setae, from A. pompejana, suggesting that V. sulfuris could directly feed on Alvinellids and/or on their bacterial epibionts. Molecular analyses based on the 16S rRNA genes revealed the diversity of bacterial communities in the digestive system, of which, the Epsilonproteobacteria phylum, could be considered as one of the major bacterial group. Hypotheses were proposed on their symbiotic features and their implications in V. sulfuris nutrition.

  8. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda)

    SciTech Connect

    Karouna-Renier, N.K. |; Sparling, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    Stormwater runoff from highways and commercial, industrial, and residential areas contains a wide spectrum of pollutants including heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, sediment, and nutrients. Recent efforts to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural wetlands and other receiving waters have included the construction of stormwater treatment ponds and wetlands. These systems provide flood control and improve water quality through settling, adsorption, and precipitation of pollutants removing up to 95% of metals, nutrients and sediment before discharged from the site. The design of stormwater ponds to provide habitat for aquatic wildlife has prompted concern over the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these contaminants. Aquatic sediments concentrate a wide array of organic and inorganic pollutants. Although water quality criteria may not be exceeded, organisms living in or near the sediments may be adversely affected. The availability of chemicals in sediments depends strongly on the prevailing chemistry. Physical conditions of the sediment and water quality characteristics including pH, redox potential and hardness, also influence contaminant availability. Studies have shown that heavy metals and nutrients carried by runoff concentrate in the sediment of stormwater ponds. Although several investigations have assessed the toxicity of sediments in streams receiving urban runoff, there have been few studies of the toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to aquatic organisms. This study was part of a large-scale assessment of the contaminant hazards of stormwater treatment ponds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments and water from stormwater ponds over a 10-d period to juvenile Hyalella azteca. Bioassay results were related to concentrations of acid volatile sulfides and metals of the tested sediments. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-01-01

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed.

  10. Fish parasites in the bathyal zone: The halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, S.; Palm, H. W.; Busch, M. W.; Kellermanns, E.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 42 Halosauropsis macrochir from a single position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were collected for studies on parasites and feeding ecology. A total of 9 different parasite species were found, with most of them belonging to the Digenea (4 species) and Nematoda (3). The host specific Degeneria halosauri, (Digenea) and Cystidicolidae indet. (Nematoda) were the predominant species, reaching a prevalence of 100.0% and 57.1% with intensities of infection of 1-12 and 1-10, respectively. Less host specific parasites such as Gonocerca phycidis (Digenea) and Tetraphyllidea indet. (Cestoda) occurred at low rates of infection. The parasite fauna of this bathyal fish can be described as predominantly adult and host specific, with larval and less host specific components. A total of 16 different food groups were identified, most of them of benthic origin or associated with the benthopelagial. The predominant prey organisms belonged to the Crustacea (e.g., Copepoda, Gammaridea, Amphipoda and Isopoda), which serve as main parasite vectors for H. macrochir. This deep-sea fish seems to follow a general pattern of fish parasites in the deep sea, with most isolated parasites belonging to the digeneans, nematodes and a cestode. The parasite composition is caused by the narrow depth range of the species and the restricted distribution of the fish family Halosauridae. The species richness was found to be lower than other demersal fish from the deep sea and shallow waters, however, higher than those from deep-sea fish living in the pelagial.

  11. Genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of heavy oil in the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi (Gammaridea) as assessed using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Weber, Laura; Carvalho, Ligia; Sá, Natália; Silva, Viviane; Beraldini, Nathalia; Souza, Valderes; Conceição, Moisés

    2013-05-01

    Amphipod crustaceans have been widely used as invertebrate models in ecotoxicology due to their importance in the food chain. However, few studies have evaluated the genotoxic effects of pollutants in this model using the comet assay. The main obstacle to using amphipods in the comet assay is the difficulty in obtaining enough blood cells from a single individual. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of heavy oil on the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi, which is common in the coastal lagoons of southeastern Brazil, using hemocytes obtained from single amphipods (without pooling) after optimizing hemolymph extraction. The comet assay revealed significantly higher DNA damage levels (2- to 6-fold higher) in treated amphipods compared to untreated ones with a sublethal concentration of 17.6 % of the WSF within 72 h of treatment. Two independent experiments confirmed an "up and down" pattern of DNA damage, measured as the % of DNA contained in the tail of the comets. Elevations in DNA damage levels were observed at the 6 and 48 h time points, while very low levels of DNA damage were observed at the 24 and 72 h time points. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed gender variability in the levels of DNA damage after short-term exposure. PMID:23479060

  12. Genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction of heavy oil in the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi (Gammaridea) as assessed using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Weber, Laura; Carvalho, Ligia; Sá, Natália; Silva, Viviane; Beraldini, Nathalia; Souza, Valderes; Conceição, Moisés

    2013-05-01

    Amphipod crustaceans have been widely used as invertebrate models in ecotoxicology due to their importance in the food chain. However, few studies have evaluated the genotoxic effects of pollutants in this model using the comet assay. The main obstacle to using amphipods in the comet assay is the difficulty in obtaining enough blood cells from a single individual. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxic effects of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of heavy oil on the brackish/freshwater amphipod Quadrivisio aff. lutzi, which is common in the coastal lagoons of southeastern Brazil, using hemocytes obtained from single amphipods (without pooling) after optimizing hemolymph extraction. The comet assay revealed significantly higher DNA damage levels (2- to 6-fold higher) in treated amphipods compared to untreated ones with a sublethal concentration of 17.6 % of the WSF within 72 h of treatment. Two independent experiments confirmed an "up and down" pattern of DNA damage, measured as the % of DNA contained in the tail of the comets. Elevations in DNA damage levels were observed at the 6 and 48 h time points, while very low levels of DNA damage were observed at the 24 and 72 h time points. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed gender variability in the levels of DNA damage after short-term exposure.

  13. Ingolfiellamaldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiellamaldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces. PMID:25408614

  14. Population dynamics and production of Themisto gaudichaudii (Amphipoda, Hyperiidae) at South Georgia, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Jamie; Tarling, Geraint A.

    2012-01-01

    The population dynamics, individual growth rates and productivity of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii were studied in Cumberland Bay, a fjord on the north-eastern coast of South Georgia. The study involved the weekly sampling of the population and its potential food with a Rectangular Midwater Trawl (RMT1) at weekly intervals between May 2005 and October 2006. Offshore samples were taken the previous austral summer using an RMT8 net. T. gaudichaudii produced one main cohort in the spring (September/October) and a secondary weaker cohort in the late summer (January/February). The main cohort appeared at the time of phytoplankton increase, about 3 weeks before an increase in mesozooplankton. Larger individuals (20-25 mm) resided offshore but not within the Bay during the main recruitment period. T. gaudichaudii grew at an average rate of 0.1 mm d -1 during the first four months after release and then by 0.07 mm d -1 for the subsequent four months. At these rates, it is possible that the main cohort reaches reproductive size in time to spawn the autumn cohort, although the relative weakness of the autumn cohort suggests that few manage this. T. gaudichaudii biomass reached its highest levels in November at a mean value of 5.4 mg DW m -3 while daily production was also highest in November at a mean value of 0.17 mg DW m -3 d -1. The P/B d -1 ratio varied between 0.03 d -1 in the summer to below 0.01 d -1 in the winter. Daily mortality rate was initially 0.12 d -1 during the first two months post-recruitment, falling to 0.03 d -1 for the remainder of the year. Integrating production over the year gave a value of 10.04 mg DW y -1, equivalent to 3.62 mg C m -3 y -1, making T. gaudichaudii a relatively productive component of the pelagic community. During the summer, the species was estimated to consume around 1-2% of available mesozooplankton biomass and a mean of 15% of mesozooplankton daily productivity. T. gaudichaudii may have a controlling influence on mesozooplankton dynamics as well as on the recruitment of the larval stages of important commercially fished species such as Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and Mackerel icefish ( Champsocephalus gunnari).

  15. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  16. A new species of Cyphocarididae (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea) from off the northeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rayane; Alves, Jessika; Johnsson, Rodrigo; Senna, André R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a species of the genus Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871, the first record of the family Cyphocarididae Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 from Brazil. Two specimens, both females, were found in the stomach contents of a tuna caught in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago. The new species is characterized by coxae 4 and 5 both large, coxa 4 partially overlapping coxae 2-3; coxa of pereopod 5 with ventral laminar projection and well-developed anteroventral lobe, broadly rounded and apically folded backwards, basis with anterior margin broadly rounded and posterior margin with large subacute naked projection (or spur); uropod 3, outer ramus paddle-shaped; and telson elongate and deeply cleft, with a nail. PMID:27615935

  17. A new species of Jesogammarus from the Iki Island, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of anisogammarid amphipod, Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) ikiensis sp. n., is described from freshwaters in the Iki Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is distinguished from all members of the genus by the combination of small number of setae on dorsal margins of pleonites 1–3, short and small number of setae on posterior margins of peduncular articles of antennae, mandibular article 1 without setae, well developed posterior lobes of accessory lobes of coxal gills on gnathopod 2 and pereopods 3–5, and pectinate setae on palmar margin of female gnathopod 2. A key to all the species of Jesogammarus is provided. PMID:26692798

  18. Orientation at night: an innate moon compass in sandhoppers (Amphipoda: Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Fantini, Tiziana; Innocenti, Riccardo

    2003-02-01

    The supralittoral amphipod Talitrus saltator is well known for its capacity for astronomical orientation using the sun and moon as compasses. It has also been demonstrated that the sun compass is innate in this species. In our experiments, we released inexpert (naive) young born in the laboratory into a confined environment under the full moon and in the absence of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. They were allowed to see the natural sky and the moon only at the moment of release. The young individuals were obtained in the laboratory by crossing adult individuals from the same and different populations of sandhoppers. The young from intrapopulation crosses were well oriented towards the directions corresponding to those of their parents, whereas the young from interpopulation crosses were oriented in an intermediate direction. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate in the sandhopper T. saltator that sea-land moon orientation relies on an innate chronometrically compensated mechanism.

  19. Ingolfiellamaldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiellamaldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces.

  20. Seasonal variability of metabolic markers and oxidative balance in freshwater amphipod Hyalella kaingang (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Braghirolli, Fernando Machado; Oliveira, Maiara Rodriguez; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-08-01

    Amphipods are widely used as bioindicator organisms, in view of their ease of collection and cultivation, sexual dimorphism and abundance, in aquatic environments. In the present study male (n=30) and female (n=30) amphipod Hyalella kaingang were collected during the middle of each season from a nature preserve (Research Center PRÓ-MATA) in São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil. Proteins, glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, and lipid peroxidation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activity) were measured. The results obtained for the markers of energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation revealed a clear seasonal variation. The patterns of proteins, glycerol, and glutathione S-transferase activity did not differ between sexes; conversely, differential responses in males and females over the year were observed for all other parameters (glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). These responses appear to be strongly influenced by a prolonged reproductive period (autumn through spring, peaking in autumn); by the degree of exploratory activity, particularly in the summer and autumn; and by abiotic factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. The responses observed in the summer and autumn (decrease in levels of proteins, glycogen and fats, and increase in lipid peroxidation levels and glutathione S-transferase activity), suggest that this season represents a critical time point for these animals. The parameters studied herein may be used as biomarkers to assess the environmental conditions in the aquatic habitat. PMID:27107775

  1. Cheirimedon foscae sp. nov. (Amphipoda: Lysianassidae: Tryphosinae) from the deep sea Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Silvana Gomes L; Serejo, Cristiana S

    2014-01-01

    A new species of lysianassid amphipod belonging to the genus Cheirimedon was collected on the continental slope of the Campos Basin, the largest oil reserve in Brazilian waters. This is the first record of the genus Cheirimedon from the Atlantic Ocean, which was previously restricted to the Antarctic and Tasmanian sea. The new species is fully illustrated and compared with related species. Additionally, a world key to the Cheirimedon species is provided. 

  2. A new species of Caprellinoides (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) from the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2001-08-01

    A new caprellid species, Caprellinoides singularis, is described and illustrated based on the material collected on the Polarstern Cruise ANT XVII/3 from the Branfield Strait. The most striking characteristic of this species is the presence of bilobed gills on pereonites 3 and 4. The genus Caprellinoides is revised. Caprellinoides antarctica Schellengerg, 1926 and Caprellinoides spinosus Barnard, 1930 are considered junior synonyms of Caprellinoides tristanensis Stebbing, 1888 and Caprellinoides mayeri (Pfeffer, 1888), respectively. The new species, C. singularis, is compared with the remaining species in the genus Caprellinoides: C. tristanensis and C. mayeri, which are illustrated in detail.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of parasites infecting Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) in southern Lake Michigan (USA).

    PubMed

    Winters, Andrew D; Fitzgerald, Scott; Brenden, Travis O; Nalepa, Thomas; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, populations of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp. (Diporeia) have sharply declined across much of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study was undertaken to identify contemporary and historical community composition, structure, and dynamics of parasites infecting Diporeia collected from nine sites in the southern basin of Lake Michigan, where declines of the amphipod have been well documented over the past 20years. An additional aim of this study was to assess whether infection dynamics and dreissenid densities could explain the declines in Diporeia densities that have occurred. We found that Diporeia were host to eight groups of uni- and multicellular pathogens. Of the 3082 amphipods analyzed, 1624 individuals (52.7%) were infected with at least one type of parasite. Ciliophora was the most prevalent parasite (50.08% prevalence of infection), followed by Gregarinasina (2.79%), Microsporidia (0.68%), Cestoda (0.45%), Acanthocephala (0.36%), Haplosporidia (0.23%), Yeast (0.32%), and filamentous Fungi (0.10%). Considerable spatial and temporal variability were observed in parasite prevalences, with prevalences frequently appearing to cycle between low and high values. Parasite species belonging to Microsporidia and Haplosporidia were associated with tissue alteration and host inflammatory response; however, parasite prevalences explained very little in terms of Diporeia density declines at assessed sites. Despite these findings, we do not discount the possibility that parasitic infections may have played a role in declining Diporeia densities in the Great Lakes, as the cyclical prevalences that were observed are possibly suggestive of parasitic outbreaks that are followed by die-offs at affected sites. This study suggests that if parasites have affected Diporeia densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes, then the relationship may be a complicated one.

  4. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  5. The iron-encrusted microbial community of Urothoe poseidonis (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, David C.; Ribesse, Jérôme; de Ridder, Chantal

    2004-06-01

    A rust-coloured coating frequently covers the appendages and sternites of Urothoe poseidonis, an amphipod living in the burrow of the echinoid Echinocardium cordatum. Up to 80% of the collected amphipods were coated. In winter, coated amphipods were always more abundant than uncoated ones. In summer, uncoated specimens predominated. The aspect, location and development of the coating are similar in juveniles and adults. EDAX analyses and Prussian blue testing indicate that the rust-coloured coating contains iron oxyhydroxide minerals with trace metals and phosphorus. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the iron coating harbours bacterial filaments related to Beggiatoaceae (3 morphotypes were observed). Protozoans, possibly Peritrichia of the families Rovinjellidae or Vaginicolidae (one morphotype), were also observed on pereopods VI and VII. The formation of the iron coating and its potential role in the biology of the amphipod are discussed.

  6. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part III: coral rubble-dwellers

    PubMed Central

    White, Kristine N.; Reimer, James Davis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from coral rubble samples throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two generawith valuable location data. A new locality is presented for Paranamixis misakiensis Thomas, 1997. An identification key to all described Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided. PMID:22448118

  7. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide.

  8. A new species of Cyphocarididae (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea) from off the northeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rayane; Alves, Jessika; Johnsson, Rodrigo; Senna, André R

    2016-09-06

    This paper describes a species of the genus Cyphocaris Boeck, 1871, the first record of the family Cyphocarididae Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 from Brazil. Two specimens, both females, were found in the stomach contents of a tuna caught in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago. The new species is characterized by coxae 4 and 5 both large, coxa 4 partially overlapping coxae 2-3; coxa of pereopod 5 with ventral laminar projection and well-developed anteroventral lobe, broadly rounded and apically folded backwards, basis with anterior margin broadly rounded and posterior margin with large subacute naked projection (or spur); uropod 3, outer ramus paddle-shaped; and telson elongate and deeply cleft, with a nail.

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of parasites infecting Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) in southern Lake Michigan (USA).

    PubMed

    Winters, Andrew D; Fitzgerald, Scott; Brenden, Travis O; Nalepa, Thomas; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, populations of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp. (Diporeia) have sharply declined across much of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study was undertaken to identify contemporary and historical community composition, structure, and dynamics of parasites infecting Diporeia collected from nine sites in the southern basin of Lake Michigan, where declines of the amphipod have been well documented over the past 20years. An additional aim of this study was to assess whether infection dynamics and dreissenid densities could explain the declines in Diporeia densities that have occurred. We found that Diporeia were host to eight groups of uni- and multicellular pathogens. Of the 3082 amphipods analyzed, 1624 individuals (52.7%) were infected with at least one type of parasite. Ciliophora was the most prevalent parasite (50.08% prevalence of infection), followed by Gregarinasina (2.79%), Microsporidia (0.68%), Cestoda (0.45%), Acanthocephala (0.36%), Haplosporidia (0.23%), Yeast (0.32%), and filamentous Fungi (0.10%). Considerable spatial and temporal variability were observed in parasite prevalences, with prevalences frequently appearing to cycle between low and high values. Parasite species belonging to Microsporidia and Haplosporidia were associated with tissue alteration and host inflammatory response; however, parasite prevalences explained very little in terms of Diporeia density declines at assessed sites. Despite these findings, we do not discount the possibility that parasitic infections may have played a role in declining Diporeia densities in the Great Lakes, as the cyclical prevalences that were observed are possibly suggestive of parasitic outbreaks that are followed by die-offs at affected sites. This study suggests that if parasites have affected Diporeia densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes, then the relationship may be a complicated one. PMID:24991698

  10. An integrated study on Gammarus elvirae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): perspectives for toxicology of arsenic-contaminated freshwater.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Chimenti, Claudio; Ronci, Lucilla; Setini, Andrea; Iannilli, Valentina; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2015-10-01

    The Italian region Latium is characterized by extensive quaternary volcanic systems that contribute greatly to arsenic (As) contamination of freshwater, including drinking water supplies. However, knowledge of the possible toxic effects in these aquatic environments is, despite being highly relevant to public health, still limited. In this paper, we approach this issue using Gammarus elvirae, an amphipod species that inhabits rivers and streams in central Italy, including Latium. We explored the possibility of using G. elvirae in the toxicology of freshwater by addressing the most relevant issues. First, we tested the usefulness of hemocytes from G. elvirae in determining non-specific DNA damage by means of the Comet assay after exposure (24 h and 7 days) to different river water samples in Latium; second, we provided an interpretative overview of the usefulness of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells of G. elvirae as a means of assessing toxicity after long-term exposure to As and other pollutants; third, the LC (50-240 h) value for G. elvirae was estimated for arsenate, which is usually the dominant arsenic species in surface waters. Our study sheds light on G. elvirae at different levels, providing a background for future toxicological research of freshwater.

  11. Diversity and distribution of freshwater amphipod species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems.

  12. A new species of Monoliropus Mayer, 1903 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Caprellidae) from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Sang; Heo, Jun-Haeng; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Monoliropus belonging to the family Caprellidae was collected from the Yellow Sea, Korea. The new species differs from Monoliropus agilis Mayer, 1903, Monoliropus kazemii Momtazi & Sari, 2013, and Triprotella amica Arimoto, 1970 as follows: 1) gnathopod 1 subrectangular; 2) pereonites 2–3 with acute triangular processes anterolaterally; 3) mandibular palp, apical article with four simple setae subdistally. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. This is the first record of the genus Monoliropus from Korean waters. A key to Monoliropus species is also given. PMID:26312030

  13. Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) as a model organism to study the effects of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mehennaoui, Kahina; Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Felten, Vincent; Andreï, Jennifer; Garaud, Maël; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Guérold, François; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure; Gutleb, Arno C

    2016-10-01

    Amphipods are one of the most important components of freshwater ecosystems. Among them, gammarids are the most widespread group in Europe and are often used as bioindicators and model organisms in ecotoxicology. However, their use, especially of Gammarus fossarum for the study of the environmental impact of nanoparticles, has been rather limited so far. G. fossarum was selected to assess effects of well-characterized chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs 20nm and 200nm) and "green" laboratory synthetized (from plant leaf extracts) AgNPs (AgNPs 23nm and 27nm). AgNO3 was used as a positive control to compare AgNPs effects and silver ions effects. A multibiomarker approach was used to investigate the sub-lethal effects of AgNPs on physiological and behavioural responses of G. fossarum. Two different experiments were carried out. In a preliminary experiment, two populations of G. fossarum (G.f1 and G.f2) were tested for sensitivity differences and the most sensitive one was exposed, in a final experiment, to sub-lethal concentrations of AgNO3 and the most toxic AgNPs. AgNO3 and AgNPs 23nm led to a significant decrease in survival rates, osmoregulation and locomotor activity. Ag internalisation, performed with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), showed the presence of silver in gills of G.f2 exposed to AgNPs 23 and 27nm. This study highlighted the influence of method of synthesis on ion release, uptake and toxic effects of AgNPs on G. fossarum. Osmoregulation appeared to be an effective biomarker indicating the physiological health status of G. fossarum. Locomotor activity, which was the most impacted response, reflects the potential effects of released ions from AgNPs 23nm at the population level as locomotion is necessary for foraging, finding mates and escaping from predators. Therefore, we propose G. fossarum as a suitable model for environmental nanotoxicology, providing information both at individual and population levels. PMID:27328878

  14. Cellular and molecular osmoregulatory responses to cadmium exposure in Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Issartel, Julien; Boulo, Viviane; Wallon, Sophie; Geffard, Olivier; Charmantier, Guy

    2010-10-01

    Osmoregulation represents a reliable indicator of the physiological state of crustaceans. It is mainly effected in gills via Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) providing the major driving force for ion transport. In the present study conducted in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum, the impact of an exposure to 15 μg Cd L(-1) for 3 and 7d was investigated on the haemolymph osmolality (HO), gill structure, NKA localization in gills and its relative expression. In Cd-exposed G. fossarum, mean HO significantly decreased compared to controls. In animals exposed for 3 and 7d, high inter-individual variations in HO values were noted, resulting in their separation into unimpacted, slightly impacted and impacted animals. In unimpacted individuals, gills retained their organization, showing a thicker gill epithelium than in controls; NKA fluorescence was continuously observed along the gill epithelium and was distributed on a broader area than in controls. In slightly impacted individuals, a thinner epithelium, a slight collapse of the gill and a lower NKA fluorescence were observed compared to unimpacted specimens. In impacted individuals, dramatic alterations of the gill structure, including hyperplasia and alteration of the pillars, resulting in the collapse of the gill and the disappearance of the haemolymphatic canals were observed, as well as very limited NKA fluorescence. Therefore, the degree of gill alteration and the intensity of NKA fluorescence observed in the different groups were correlated with their respective HO levels. The relative amount of the NKA α-subunit mRNA significantly increased in specimens exposed to Cd for 3d compared to controls, and then returned to control level after 7d. The relationships between the changes in HO values, NKA immunostaining and mRNA relative expression are discussed. These results confirm that HO represents a valuable biomarker to evaluate crustacean health, and they underline the interest to assess individual responses to contaminants.

  15. Silver nanoparticles impact the functional role of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Andreï, Jennifer; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Felten, Vincent; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Gutleb, Arno C; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli. PMID:26552543

  16. Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

  17. Commensal Leucothoidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Part I: ascidian-dwellers

    PubMed Central

    White, Kristine N.; Reimer, James Davis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Commensal leucothoid amphipods have been collected from the branchial chambers of their ascidian hosts throughout the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Seven new species are described in two genera with valuable location data and host records. An identification key to ascidian-dwelling Leucothoidae of the Ryukyu Archipelago is provided. PMID:22303128

  18. An integrated study on Gammarus elvirae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): perspectives for toxicology of arsenic-contaminated freshwater.

    PubMed

    Davolos, Domenico; Chimenti, Claudio; Ronci, Lucilla; Setini, Andrea; Iannilli, Valentina; Pietrangeli, Biancamaria; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2015-10-01

    The Italian region Latium is characterized by extensive quaternary volcanic systems that contribute greatly to arsenic (As) contamination of freshwater, including drinking water supplies. However, knowledge of the possible toxic effects in these aquatic environments is, despite being highly relevant to public health, still limited. In this paper, we approach this issue using Gammarus elvirae, an amphipod species that inhabits rivers and streams in central Italy, including Latium. We explored the possibility of using G. elvirae in the toxicology of freshwater by addressing the most relevant issues. First, we tested the usefulness of hemocytes from G. elvirae in determining non-specific DNA damage by means of the Comet assay after exposure (24 h and 7 days) to different river water samples in Latium; second, we provided an interpretative overview of the usefulness of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells of G. elvirae as a means of assessing toxicity after long-term exposure to As and other pollutants; third, the LC (50-240 h) value for G. elvirae was estimated for arsenate, which is usually the dominant arsenic species in surface waters. Our study sheds light on G. elvirae at different levels, providing a background for future toxicological research of freshwater. PMID:26013740

  19. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae. PMID:27395949

  20. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide. PMID:26287075

  1. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26701562

  2. Evaluation of Genotoxic Potential of Waters from Two Italian Rivers in Gammarus elvirae (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Ronci, Lucilla; Iannilli, Valentina; De Matthaeis, Elvira; Di Donato, Giovanna; Setini, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the genotoxic impact of contaminants along the whole course of Ninfa-Sisto and Amaseno (Latium, Italy) rivers. The authors performed the alkaline Comet assay to assess DNA damage in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus elvirae, exposed ex situ for 24 hours and 7 days to water collected at different sites. The assay, applied on haemocytes, provides a sensitive tool to reveal effects even at low concentrations of pollutants. The results indicate significant increase of DNA damage along the course of the two rivers, compared to the unpolluted upstream sites, even if the analytes do not exceed the permissible limits. Moreover, the results show that there is not a linear correlation between the concentration of analytes and DNA damage. Based on this study's results, it would be desirable to use Comet assay, on proposed test species, as an early warning method to detect genotoxic potential of waters.

  3. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  4. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-12-22

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific.

  5. Community structure of caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) on seagrasses from southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, A. R.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Maestre, M. J.; Ruiz-Tabares, A.; Espinosa, F.; Gordillo, I.; Sánchez-Moyano, J. E.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2008-09-01

    The community structure of caprellids inhabiting two species of seagrass ( Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera marina) was investigated on the Andalusian coast, southern Spain, using uni and multivariate analyses. Three meadows were selected (Almería, AL; Málaga, MA; Cádiz, CA), and changes in seagrass cover and biomass were measured from 2004 to 2005. Four caprellid species were found; the density of Caprella acanthifera, Phtisica marina and Pseudoprotella phasma was correlated to seagrass biomass. No such correlation was found for Pariambus typicus, probably because this species inhabits sediments and does not cling to the seagrass leaves. We recorded a significant decrease in seagrass cover and biomass in MA due to illegal bottom trawling fisheries. Phtisica marina and P. typicus were favoured by this perturbation and increased their densities after the trawling activities. A survey of reports on caprellids in seagrass meadows around the world showed no clear latitudinal patterns in caprellid densities (ranging from 6 to 1,000 ind/m2 per meadow) and species diversity. While caprellid abundances in seagrass meadows are often very high, the number of species per meadow is low (range 1-5).

  6. Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galván-Villa, Cristian M; Ayón-Parente, Manuel

    2015-05-12

    A new species of caprellid, Caprella suprapiscis sp. nov., is described based on several specimens collected from Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico. All specimens were found in association with the scorpionfish Scorpaena mystes. Caprellids are set on the dorsal surface of fishes. The species is distinguished by head with a short dorsal projection, eyes distinctive, body slender and smooth, peduncular articles of antenna 1 not setose, antenna 2 with swimming setae, gnathopod 2 with three ventral projections in males. The species is close to C. californica, C. mercedesae, and C. scaura for a sharp spine on the forehead but can be distinguished by gnathopod 2 finely setose, and basis of gnathopod 2 shorter.

  7. New species Victoriopisa bruneiensis and Apocorophium acutum (Chevreux, 1908) from Brunei (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Belal; Hughes, L E

    2016-01-01

    One new and one invasive species of amphipod are described from the subtidal waters of Brunei. The new species Victoriopisa bruneiensis (Melitidae) and the invasive species Apocorophium acutum (Chevereux, 1908) (Corophiidae) were collected from the Sungai Brunei Estuary. Victoriopisa bruneiensis sp. nov. is one of only four Victoriopisa where the eyes are present. An updated key to twelve world species of Victoriopisa is provided. Apocorophium acutum occurs in high density algal matts on pylons/rocks. This is the sixth species of Apocorophium described for the genus. PMID:27395180

  8. Zoogeography of epigean freshwater Amphipoda (Crustacea) in Romania: fragmented distributions and wide altitudinal variability.

    PubMed

    Copilaș-Ciocianu, Denis; Grabowski, Michał; Pârvulescu, Lucian; Petrusek, Adam

    2014-12-08

    Inland epigean freshwater amphipods of Romania are diverse and abundant for this region has a favourable geographical position between the Balkans and the Black Sea. Excluding Ponto-Caspian species originating in brackish waters and freshwater subterranean taxa, there are 11 formally recognized epigean freshwater species recorded from this country. They belong to 3 genera, each representing a different family: Gammarus (Gammaridae, 8 species or species complexes), Niphargus (Niphargidae, 2 epigean species) and Synurella (Crangonyctidae, one species). Their large-scale distribution patterns nevertheless remain obscure due to insufficient data, consequently limiting biogeographical interpretations. We provide extensive new data with high resolution distribution maps, thus improving the knowledge of the ranges of these taxa. Gammarus species display substantial altitudinal variability and patchy, fragmented distribution patterns. They occur abundantly, particularly in springs and streams, from lowlands to sub-mountainous and mountainous regions. In the light of recent molecular research, we hypothesize that the complex geomorphological dynamics of the Carpathian region during the Late Tertiary probably contributed to their allopatric distribution pattern. Contrasting with Gammarus, the genera Niphargus and Synurella exhibit low altitudinal variability, broad ecological valences and overlapping distributions, being widespread throughout the lowlands. The current distribution of N. hrabei and N. valachicus seems to be linked to the extent of the Paratethys during the Early Pliocene or Pleistocene. We further discuss the taxonomic validity of two synonymized and one apparently undescribed taxon, and provide an updated pictorial identification key that includes all taxa and forms discussed in our study. The mosaic distribution of epigean freshwater amphipod species in Romania shows that this region is particularly suitable for phylo- and biogeographical analyses of this group.

  9. Towards Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture: Lessons from Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, José Manuel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; González-Romero, Pablo; Jiménez-Prada, Pablo; Cassell, Christopher; Ros, Macarena

    2016-01-01

    The search for alternative live feed organisms and the progression of Integrative Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) are currently being highly prioritised in EU strategies. Caprellids could potentially be an important exploitable resource in aquaculture due to their high levels of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids, fast growing nature and widespread distribution. Furthermore, since they are mainly detritivorous, they could be excellent candidates for integration into IMTA systems, potentially benefitting from uneaten feed pellets and faeces released by cultured fish in fish farms and sea-cage structures. Despite this, there is a lack of experimental studies to: (i) test inexpensive diets for caprellids, such as detritus, (ii) develop sustainable caprellid culture techniques and (iii) include caprellids in IMTA systems. The main aim of this study was to determine whether detritus (D) in the form of fish faeces provided an adequate diet for caprellids in comparison to other traditional diets, such as Artemia nauplii (A) or phytoplankton (P). Adult survival rate was shown to be significantly higher for caprellids fed with D. Conversely, hatchlings had the highest survival rate with A, although the juvenile growth rate and number of moults was similar in the three diets. With regard to lipid composition, caprellids fed with A had higher concentrations of Triacylglycerols (TAG) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC) while those fed with P or D were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 22:6(n-3) (DHA). Interestingly, caprellids fed with D were also a rich source of 18:2(n-6) (LA), considered to be an essential fatty acid in vertebrates. It was found that detritus based mainly on fish faeces and uneaten feed pellets can be considered an adequate feed for adult caprellids, providing a source of both omega-3 (DHA) and omega-6 (LA) fatty acids. Hatchlings however seem to require an additional input of TAG and PC during juvenile stages to properly grow. PMID:27124465

  10. Mallacoota misool, a new species of Maeridae from West Papua (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    The new species Mallacoota misool is described from the West Macleur Gulf, West Papua. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. is exceptionally similar to the geographically close M. chandaniae Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005 known from the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia and also reported from the South China Sea. Both species have a massive gnathopod 2 propodus defined by two large teeth. Mallacoota misool sp. nov. has the palm medial surface without a dense bunch of seta, which is present in M. chandaniae.

  11. A new species of the rare genus Priscomilitaris from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Priscomilitaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko; Tanaka, Hayato; Nakano, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the priscomilitarid amphipod, Priscomilitaris heike, from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, is named and described. This new species is the third species of Priscomilitaridae and the second species of Priscomilitaris. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from its holotype were determined. Priscomilitaris heike sp. n. is distinguished from its congener, Priscomilitaris tenuis Hirayama, 1988, by having deep antennal sinus, long flagellar article 1 of antennae 1 and 2, long mandibular palp article 2, 10 robust setae on outer ramus of maxilla 1, and rounded epimeral plates. A key to the species of Proscomilitaridae is provided. PMID:27551228

  12. First occurrence of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on off-coast fish farm cages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The non-indigenous caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836, native to the western Indian Ocean, was firstly recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 1994, and all Mediterranean populations discovered to date are related to shoreline areas. A total of ten fish farms were sampled off the coasts of Spain (4), Italy (1), Croatia (2), Greece (1) and Malta (2). This is the first time that C. scaura has been reported from off-coast areas. Reproducing populations have been detected in fouling communities of three tuna farms off the coast of Croatia and Malta, which also signifies the first confirmed record of this species in both countries. The occurrence of successfully established and thriving populations of C. scaura Templeton, 1836 at floating off-coast fish farms underlines the importance of these structures as stepping stones in the species.

  13. A new genus and species of Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from a tropical coral reef, SE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Winfield, I

    2014-01-01

    Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, is described on specimens collected from the Sisal Coral Reef System, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. The new genus is most morphologically similar to the genus Paracyproidea, but can be distinguished by the article 2 of antenna 2 peduncle, the peduncle of the uropods and length of rami, and telson. Also, the new genus can be distinguished from the rest 18 genera of the family Cyproideidae by the following characteristics: 3-articulate mandible palp, mandible molar big and triturative; palp on maxilla 2 uniarticulate; article 2 of pereopods 3-7 rectilinear, and urosomites 1-3 not elongated. Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, represents the second known genus and third species of cyproideid amphipods documented from the Inter-American Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), and the 19th genus and 44th species of the world cyproideid fauna. The more significant morphological characters and the geographical distribution of the 19 known genera of cyproideid amphipods are also pointed out. PMID:24870454

  14. [Lipids in the amphipod Talorchestia margaritae (Amphipoda: Talitridae) and its relationship with the ecology of the species].

    PubMed

    López, Sandra; Díaz, Yusbelly; Noris, Karem; Cabrera, Aivle

    2010-09-01

    T. margaritae, an endemic species inhabiting Venezuelan coasts, plays an important ecological role in plant and animal decomposition. To understand this issue in some animal groups, especially small ones, lipid composition analysis has been an interesting tool to describe their trophic relationships and food preferences. In order to assess this and visualize the components of their diet, we determined the lipid composition differences between males and females and among age classes in this species. Two sandy beaches were selected: Mangle Quemao and Las Mercedes de Paparo, from which sand samples of known volume were collected at the supralittoral area in 2007. Organisms were separated by age and sex classes, and their size, weight, density, biomass, total lipids (TL), lipid classes and fatty acid markers present in their tissues were determined. The sizes were similar for all age classes between the two locations, while the weights were higher for Mangle Quemao. The TL and lipid classes showed similar proportions between sexes, age classes and locations (TL: 3-5%; Phospholipids: 20-30%; Glycolipids: <1%; sterols: 4%). On the other hand, Triglycerides (TAG) were higher in Mangle Quemao, which may be related to the difference between the weights of two locations. The most abundant fatty acid biomarkers in the two studied sites were 16:0 and 18:1(n-9); this last one is characteristic of a carnivorous diet. The other nine markers were identified with changes in their distribution in organisms at Mangle Quemao and between males and females of both populations. Based on observed fatty acids markers we can assume T. margaritae as a generalist carnivore. Those populations were influenced by available food; inducing differences in weight, TAG proportion and markers diversity. PMID:20737842

  15. Comparison of the biology, dynamics, and secondary production of Talorchestia brito (Amphipoda, Talitridae) in Atlantic (Portugal) and Mediterranean (Tunisia) populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, S. C.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.; Bouslama, M. F.; El Gtari, M.; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F.

    2003-12-01

    The biology, population dynamics, and production of Talorchestia brito were studied at two sandy beaches located on the Atlantic (Portugal) and on the Mediterranean (Tunisia) coasts, respectively. The seasonal variation in abundance and the overall densities were similar in both populations. Reproduction occurred from February to September in the Atlantic, and from March to early November in the Mediterranean. The sex ratio was male biased in the Atlantic, and female biased in the Mediterranean. Based on data from the Atlantic population, both abundance and the proportion of reproductive females were positively correlated with temperature, while the proportion of juveniles in the population was positively correlated with temperature and sediment moisture. On average, individuals from the Atlantic were larger than the ones from the Mediterranean. Life span was estimated at six to nine months in the Atlantic, and five to eight months in the Mediterranean. Talorchestia brito was shown to be a semiannual species, with iteroparous females producing two broods per year, and exhibited a bivoltine life cycle. The minimum age required for males' and females' sexual differentiation and for female sexual maturation was shorter in the Mediterranean. Growth production ( P) was estimated at 0.19 g m -2 y -1 ash free dry weight (AFDW; 4.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic population, and 0.217 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (4.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean one. Elimination production ( E) was estimated at 0.35 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (7.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic, and 0.28 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (6.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean. The average annual biomass ( overlineB) (standing stock) was estimated at 0.032 g m -2 in the Atlantic beach, and 0.029 g m -2 in the Mediterranean one, resulting, respectively, in P/ overlineB ratios of 5.9 and 7.5 and E/ overlineB ratios of 10.8 and 9.6. Like other talitrids, T. brito exhibited geographic variation in morphometrical characteristics, sex ratio, growth rates, life span, and reproduction period, with the Atlantic population presenting a slower life history.

  16. A new species of the genus Melita (Amphipoda, Hadzioidea, Melitidae) from anchialine pool on the Cozumel Island, NE Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Manuel; Winfield, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A new species of genus Melita collected from anchialine pool (Cenote Aerolito) on Cozumel Island is described.  Distinctive characters of male of the new species include an accessory flagellum 4-articulate; palm of gnathopod 2 with long setae; urosomite 2 with two robust setae on right side, and one on left. Female of the new species differs by coxa 6 without lateral ridge at base of hook, and anteroventral angle without stridulating ridges on anteroventral process; gnathopods 1-2 covered with long setae on articles 5-6. The main morphological differences between males of Melita species recorded previously for the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and the new species are also given.

  17. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Moser, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004-2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Both species were negatively correlated with densities of large fish (non-Cyprinidae; P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P<0.001 and P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P<0.001). H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2011.

  18. Corophiine amphipods of the genera Chelicorophium and Paracorophium from the lower Gulf of Thailand (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Corophiidae, Corophiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Nabhitabhata, Jaruwat; Towatana, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two species of corophiine amphipods from Songkhla Lake, in the lower Gulf of Thailand, are described and illustrated. Chelicorophium madrasensis (Nayar, 1950), found in the mangrove forest, has not previously been observed in Thai waters. Paracorophium angsupanichae sp. n. is characterized by its chelate male gnathopod 2, obtuse palm with subrectangular distomedial elevation, and urosomites 1-3 free. This is the first record of the genus Chelicorophium and Paracorophium in Thai waters. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand and the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. PMID:26052237

  19. Evidence for discrete solar and lunar orientation mechanisms in the beach amphipod, Talitrus saltator Montagu (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Alberto; Hoelters, Laura S.; Ciofini, Alice; Pasquali, Vittorio; Wilcockson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use astronomical cues to orientate must make continuous adjustment to account for temporal changes in azimuth caused by Earth’s rotation. For example, the Monarch butterfly possesses a time-compensated sun compass dependent upon a circadian clock in the antennae. The amphipod Talitrus saltator possesses both a sun compass and a moon compass. We reasoned that the time-compensated compass mechanism that enables solar orientation of T. saltator is located in the antennae, as is the case for Monarch butterflies. We examined activity rhythms and orientation of sandhoppers with antennae surgically removed, or unilaterally occluded with black paint. Removing or painting the antennae did not affect daily activity rhythms or competence to orientate using the sun. However, when tested at night these animals were unable to orientate correctly to the moon. We subsequently measured circadian gene expression in the antennae and brain of T. saltator and show the clock genes period and cryptochrome 2 are rhythmically expressed in both tissues, reminiscent of other arthropods known to possess antennal clocks. Together, our behavioural and molecular data suggest that, T. saltator has anatomically discrete lunar and solar orientation apparatus; a sun compass, likely located in the brain and a moon compass in the antennae. PMID:27759059

  20. Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-02-01

    The trophic ecology of non-native species is a key aspect to understand their invasion success and the community effects. Despite the important role of caprellid amphipods as trophic intermediates between primary producers and higher levels of marine food webs, there is very little information on their feeding habits. This is the first comprehensive study on the trophic strategies of two co-occurring introduced caprellids in the Spanish coasts: Caprella scaura and Paracaprella pusilla. The diet of 446 specimens of C. scaura and 230 of P. pusilla was analyzed to investigate whether there were differences in the feeding habits in relation to habitat characteristics (natural vs artificial hard substrata), type of host substrata (bryozoans and hydroids) and native vs introduced distribution ranges (Brazil vs Spain). Results revealed differences in diet preferences of the two species that have important implications for their trophic behaviour and showed a limited food overlap, which may favour their coexistence in introduced areas. In general terms, P. pusilla is a predator species, showing preference by crustacean prey in all of its life stages, while C. scaura feeds mainly on detritus. Although no sex-related diet shifts were observed in either of the species, evidence of ontogenetic variation in diet of C. scaura was found, with juveniles feeding on more amount of prey than adults. No diet differences were found between native and introduced populations within the same habitat type. However, P. pusilla exhibited a shift in its diet when different habitats were compared in the same distribution area, and C. scaura showed a flexible feeding behaviour between different host substrata in the same habitat type. This study shows that habitat characteristics at different scales can have greater influence on the feeding ecology of exotic species than different distribution ranges, and support the hypothesis that a switch between feeding strategies depending on habitat characteristics could favour invasion success.

  1. Population structure of resident, immigrant, and swimming Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2012-05-01

    Spatial variation in biotic and abiotic conditions, and differences in dispersive behavior of different life history stages can result in the formation of zones with different demography for infaunal and epifaunal species within vast intertidal flats. In this study, we evaluated within-mudflat homogeneity of the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator found in the mud (residents), colonizing artificially disturbed areas (immigrants), and caught in the water column (swimmers) on a large mudflat in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. Densities of residents, immigrants, and swimmers were well structured in space (both along and across shore). Occasionally, significant differences in size structure, sex ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were found at different intertidal levels, but these were short-lived. Comparisons of size and sex structure of residents, immigrants, and swimmers revealed occasional marked differences, with small juveniles and large adult males moving most. However, this size-bias in movement did not translate into zones with different population dynamics, suggesting that ample dispersal, through swimming and drifting in the water column, homogenized the population and masked potential effects of variation in environmental conditions. We therefore conclude that the mudflat represents one homogeneous population.

  2. Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host Echinogammarus stammeri (Amphipoda) from the River Brenta, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Scholz, T

    1995-04-01

    A study was carried out on the occurrence of the tapeworm Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host, the amphipod Echinogammarus stammeri, in the River Brenta. A total of 18,860 E. stammeri was examined from July 1990 to June 1994; only 25 of them (prevalence 0.13%) were infected with tapeworm larvae (intensity of infection 1 larva/host). Co-occurrence of C. truncatus larvae with the larva of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776) was recorded in 15 amphipods. Tapeworms were localized in the anterior portion of each amphipod's hemocoel, in intimate contact with E. stammeri internal organs such as the alimentary canal, and frequently induced its displacement. No differences in integumental pigmentation were noticed between infected and non-infected amphipods, and some infected E. stammeri females were ovigerous.

  3. Genetic structure of the benthic amphipod Diporeia (Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae) and its relationship to abundance in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The freshwater amphipod Diporeia is a crucial part of the food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but has faced serious declines correlated with the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), except in Lake Superior, which has seen an increase in Diporeia abundance. Specul...

  4. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  5. The family Caprellidae (Amphipoda: Caprelloidea: Caprellidae) from Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic, with a key of species occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Fábio Da Motta; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2015-08-21

    Caprellid material of the present study was collected between 25-3000 m depth from the Campos Basin area, Southwestern Atlantic. As a result, Deutella incerta was found as a new record to the Southwestern Atlantic and two new species are described: Liropus guerragarciai sp. nov. and Mayerella sittropiae sp. nov. Besides, Paracaprella pusilla is herein redescribed as a common component of the Campos Basin amphipod community. Caprellids are a diverse and abundant group that can be found among algae and general biological substrates of the continental shelf area. As more deep sea samples are coming into light, they are turning out to be also a common component in this habitat. Including the present data, there are 25 caprellid species recorded in Brazil, being four of them restricted to the slope areas and 14 endemic to the Brazilian coast. A key to the Caprellidae species from Brazil is provided.

  6. A new genus and species of Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from a tropical coral reef, SE Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M; Winfield, I

    2014-01-01

    Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, is described on specimens collected from the Sisal Coral Reef System, Southern Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. The new genus is most morphologically similar to the genus Paracyproidea, but can be distinguished by the article 2 of antenna 2 peduncle, the peduncle of the uropods and length of rami, and telson. Also, the new genus can be distinguished from the rest 18 genera of the family Cyproideidae by the following characteristics: 3-articulate mandible palp, mandible molar big and triturative; palp on maxilla 2 uniarticulate; article 2 of pereopods 3-7 rectilinear, and urosomites 1-3 not elongated. Sisalia carricarti new genus, new species, represents the second known genus and third species of cyproideid amphipods documented from the Inter-American Sea (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), and the 19th genus and 44th species of the world cyproideid fauna. The more significant morphological characters and the geographical distribution of the 19 known genera of cyproideid amphipods are also pointed out.

  7. Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).

    PubMed

    Dutra, Bibiana Kaiser; Fernandes, Felipe Amorim; Failace, Daniela Motta; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2011-01-01

    Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats.

  8. Life History and Production of the Western Gray Whale's Prey, Ampelisca eschrichtii Krøyer, 1842 (Amphipoda, Ampeliscidae).

    PubMed

    Demchenko, Natalia L; Chapman, John W; Durkina, Valentina B; Fadeev, Valeriy I

    2016-01-01

    Ampelisca eschrichtii are among the most important prey of the Western North Pacific gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus. The largest and densest known populations of this amphipod occur in the gray whale's Offshore feeding area on the Northeastern Sakhalin Island Shelf. The remote location, ice cover and stormy weather at the Offshore area have prevented winter sampling. The incomplete annual sampling has confounded efforts to resolve life history and production of A. eschrichtii. Expanded comparisons of population size structure and individual reproductive development between late spring and early fall over six sampling years between 2002 and 2013 however, reveal that A. eschrichtii are gonochoristic, iteroparous, mature at body lengths greater than 15 mm and have a two-year life span. The low frequencies of brooding females, the lack of early stage juveniles, the lack of individual or population growth or biomass increases over late spring and summer, all indicate that growth and reproduction occur primarily in winter, when sampling does not occur. Distinct juvenile and adult size cohorts additionally indicate growth and juvenile production occurs in winter through spring under ice cover. Winter growth thus requires that winter detritus or primary production are critical food sources for these ampeliscid populations and yet, the Offshore area and the Eastern Sakhalin Shelf ampeliscid communities may be the most abundant and productive amphipod population in the world. These A. eschrichtii populations are unlikely to be limited by western gray whale predation. Whether benthic community structure can limit access and foraging success of western gray whales is unclear. PMID:26800185

  9. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-01-01

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus. PMID:27394471

  10. High genetic diversity and variability of bacterial communities associated with the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengoni, A.; Focardi, A.; Bacci, G.; Ugolini, A.

    2013-10-01

    The microbiome present in individuals of Talitrus saltator belonging to seven populations distributed along the Tuscan coast (Italy) was assessed by using Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Talitrus saltator is one of the key species of the damp band of European sandy beaches and despite of the large interest on animal-associated bacteria, only a few and preliminary data were present. Results showed a high diversity of the microbiome, composed mainly by members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacillales and Clostridiales classes. The microbiome fingerprints were highly variable among individuals, even from the same populations, the inter-individual differences accounting for 88.7% of total fingerprint variance. However, statistically significant population-specific microbiome signatures were detected, and accounted for the remaining 11.3% of total fingerprint variance. These population-specific differences were mainly attributed to sequences from members of known host-associated bacteria such as Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia and Spirochaetia. This study showed the high complexity of the microbiome associated with an amphipod species and on the inter-individual microbiome variation with potential importance for understanding amphipod trophic and ecologic processes.

  11. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines. PMID:26448700

  12. A new species of the genus Melita (Amphipoda, Hadzioidea, Melitidae) from anchialine pool on the Cozumel Island, NE Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Manuel; Winfield, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A new species of genus Melita collected from anchialine pool (Cenote Aerolito) on Cozumel Island is described.  Distinctive characters of male of the new species include an accessory flagellum 4-articulate; palm of gnathopod 2 with long setae; urosomite 2 with two robust setae on right side, and one on left. Female of the new species differs by coxa 6 without lateral ridge at base of hook, and anteroventral angle without stridulating ridges on anteroventral process; gnathopods 1-2 covered with long setae on articles 5-6. The main morphological differences between males of Melita species recorded previously for the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and the new species are also given. PMID:27395742

  13. Population histories of right whales (Cetacea: Eubalaena) inferred from mitochondrial sequence diversities and divergences of their whale lice (Amphipoda: Cyamus).

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Zofia A; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Barco, Susan G; Benegas, Rafael; Best, Peter B; Brown, Moira W; Brownell, Robert L; Carribero, Alejandro; Harcourt, Robert; Knowlton, Amy R; Marshall-Tilas, Kim; Patenaude, Nathalie J; Rivarola, Mariana; Schaeff, Catherine M; Sironi, Mariano; Smith, Wendy A; Yamada, Tadasu K

    2005-10-01

    Right whales carry large populations of three 'whale lice' (Cyamus ovalis, Cyamus gracilis, Cyamus erraticus) that have no other hosts. We used sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI gene to ask (i) whether cyamid population structures might reveal associations among right whale individuals and subpopulations, (ii) whether the divergences of the three nominally conspecific cyamid species on North Atlantic, North Pacific, and southern right whales (Eubalaena glacialis, Eubalaena japonica, Eubalaena australis) might indicate their times of separation, and (iii) whether the shapes of cyamid gene trees might contain information about changes in the population sizes of right whales. We found high levels of nucleotide diversity but almost no population structure within oceans, indicating large effective population sizes and high rates of transfer between whales and subpopulations. North Atlantic and Southern Ocean populations of all three species are reciprocally monophyletic, and North Pacific C. erraticus is well separated from North Atlantic and southern C. erraticus. Mitochondrial clock calibrations suggest that these divergences occurred around 6 million years ago (Ma), and that the Eubalaena mitochondrial clock is very slow. North Pacific C. ovalis forms a clade inside the southern C. ovalis gene tree, implying that at least one right whale has crossed the equator in the Pacific Ocean within the last 1-2 million years (Myr). Low-frequency polymorphisms are more common than expected under neutrality for populations of constant size, but there is no obvious signal of rapid, interspecifically congruent expansion of the kind that would be expected if North Atlantic or southern right whales had experienced a prolonged population bottleneck within the last 0.5 Myr.

  14. Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., a new species of commensal leucothoid amphipod from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Thomas, James Darwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of leucothoid amphipod, Leucothoe eltoni sp. n., is described from coral reefs in Raja Ampat, Indonesia where it inhabits the branchial chambers of solitary tunicates. With an inflated first gnathopod superficially resembling the genus Paraleucothoe, this new species has a two-articulate maxilla 1 palp characteristic of the genus Leucothoe. While described from coral reef environments in tropical Indonesia and the Philippines, it is an established invasive species in the Hawaiian Islands. The most likely mode of introduction was a US Navy dry dock transported to Pearl Harbor in 1992 from Subic Bay, Philippines.

  15. Fish and land use influence Gammarus lacustris and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) densities in large wetlands across the upper Midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Moser, E. Barry

    2011-01-01

    Gammarus lacustrisK/i> and Ki>Hyalella azteca (hereafter G. lacustris and H. azteca, respectively) are important components of secondary production in wetlands and shallow lakes of the upper Midwest, USA. Within the past 50 years, amphipod densities have decreased while occurrences of fish and intensity of agricultural land use have increased markedly across this landscape. We investigated influences of fish, sedimentation, and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) on densities of G. lacustris and H. azteca in semipermanent and permanent wetlands and shallow lakes (n = 283) throughout seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 2004–2005. G. lacustris and H. azteca densities were positively correlated with densities of SAV (P P P = 0.01 and P = 0.013, respectively) and with high densities of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; P P = 0.033, respectively). H. azteca densities also were negatively correlated with densities of small fish (e.g., other minnows [Cyprinidae] and sticklebacks [Gasterosteidae]; P = 0.048) and common carp (Cyprinus spp.; P = 0.022). G. lacustris densities were negatively correlated with high levels of suspended solids (an index for sedimentation; P H. azteca densities were positively correlated with the width of upland-vegetation buffers (P = 0.004). Our results indicate that sedimentation and fish reduce amphipod densities and may contribute to the current low densities of amphipods in the upper Midwest. Thus, removing/excluding fish, and providing a thick buffer of upland vegetation around wetlands may help restore amphipod densities and wetland and water quality within this landscape.

  16. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2. PMID:27408590

  17. Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) at La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Villacorta, Carlos; Jaume, Damià; Oromí, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea) lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity. PMID:18234125

  18. Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the Red Sea and Suez Canal, with the redescription of Metaprotella africana and Paradeutella multispinosa.

    PubMed

    Zeina, Amr F; Guerra-García, José M

    2016-01-01

    The Caprellidae from the Red Sea are reviewed based on the literature data and new collections from the Hurghada coasts. So far, only six valid species has been reported from the Red Sea and Suez Canal: Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, Hemiaegina minuta Mayer, 1890, Metaprotella africana Mayer, 1903, Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 and Paradeutella multispinosa Schellenberg, 1928 and Pseudocaprellina pambanensis Sundara Raj, 1927. The type material of M. africana (deposited in the Muséum nacional d'Histoire naturelle, Paris) and Paradeutella multispinosa (deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) are redescribed and illustrated in detail. P. pambanensis and H. minuta were the most abundant species in the collections along the northern coast. Most of the sampling effort has been focused on algae from shallow waters; additional substrates such as sediments, hydroids and coral rubble, especially from areas deeper than 15 meters should be explored. The number of caprellid species in the Red Sea is low compared to adjacent waters, as the Mediterranean Sea. However, further research and more extensive caprellid collections should be conducted along the coasts of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan and Eritrea, which are still unexplored. PMID:27394584

  19. The family Caprellidae (Amphipoda: Caprelloidea: Caprellidae) from Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic, with a key of species occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Fábio Da Motta; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Caprellid material of the present study was collected between 25-3000 m depth from the Campos Basin area, Southwestern Atlantic. As a result, Deutella incerta was found as a new record to the Southwestern Atlantic and two new species are described: Liropus guerragarciai sp. nov. and Mayerella sittropiae sp. nov. Besides, Paracaprella pusilla is herein redescribed as a common component of the Campos Basin amphipod community. Caprellids are a diverse and abundant group that can be found among algae and general biological substrates of the continental shelf area. As more deep sea samples are coming into light, they are turning out to be also a common component in this habitat. Including the present data, there are 25 caprellid species recorded in Brazil, being four of them restricted to the slope areas and 14 endemic to the Brazilian coast. A key to the Caprellidae species from Brazil is provided. PMID:26623760

  20. A new species of the rare genus Priscomilitaris from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Priscomilitaridae).

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Ko; Tanaka, Hayato; Nakano, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the priscomilitarid amphipod, Priscomilitaris heike, from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, is named and described. This new species is the third species of Priscomilitaridae and the second species of Priscomilitaris. Additionally, nucleotide sequences of nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3 as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from its holotype were determined. Priscomilitaris heike sp. n. is distinguished from its congener, Priscomilitaris tenuis Hirayama, 1988, by having deep antennal sinus, long flagellar article 1 of antennae 1 and 2, long mandibular palp article 2, 10 robust setae on outer ramus of maxilla 1, and rounded epimeral plates. A key to the species of Proscomilitaridae is provided. PMID:27551228

  1. Survival and precopulatory guarding behavior of Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) exposed to nitrate in the presence of atrazine.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram B; Adams, Ginny L; Warren, Laurie W

    2011-05-01

    Nitrate is one of the most commonly detected contaminants found in aquatic systems with other pesticides such as atrazine. The current study examined potential combined effects of nitrate and atrazine on adults of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, using survival and precopulatory guarding behavior as toxic endpoints. Although significant differences in acute toxicity with nitrate alone and in binary combination with atrazine (200 µg/L) in water-only tests were not consistently observed for each time point, potential biologically relevant trends in the data were observed. Posttest growth and behavioral observations (10-day period) conducted after 96-hour exposure suggested that atrazine and nitrate at these concentrations did not result in delayed effects on H. azteca. However, when test conditions were modified from standard toxicity tests by feeding amphipods, nitrate was found to be more toxic, with a reduction in median lethal concentration (LC50) values of approximately 80%. We also demonstrated that nitrate exhibits a dose-response effect on precopulatory guarding behavior of H. azteca, suggesting that reproductive effects may occur at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  2. Population response to ozone application in wastewater: an on-site microcosm study with Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-03-01

    We assessed possible ecotoxicological implications of ozone application to secondary treated wastewater from a municipal wastewater treatment plant on Gammarus fossarum, an aquatic leaf shredding amphipod. Our 10-week study exposed G. fossarum populations to ozone-treated, non-ozone treated wastewater, or tap water in replicated outdoor flow-through stream microcosms. Feeding activity, an indicator for organic matter decomposition, of amphipod populations exposed to ozone treated wastewater was significantly higher compared to those exposed to non-ozone treated wastewater (repeated measure ANOVA, p = 0.0002, df = 44). Also the population size was at the end of the experiment with approximately 150% significantly (t-test, p = 0.0059, n = 4) increased in ozone treated wastewater compared to non-ozone treated wastewater. Additionally, chlorophyll-a concentration, an indicator for algal biomass, was significantly higher in ozone treated wastewater (repeated measure ANOVA, p = 0.0404, df = 65). Thus, from an ecotoxicological viewpoint, we conclude that ozonation may improve wastewater quality, which should translate into positive ecological outcomes in the receiving waters. However, because ozonation also can cause toxic transformation products, the process may best be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:21267649

  3. Morphological and ontogenetic stratification of abyssal and hadal Eurythenes gryllus sensu lato (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea) from the Peru-Chile Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustace, Ryan M.; Ritchie, Heather; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Piertney, Stuart B.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-03-01

    The globally ubiquitous lysianassoid amphipod, Eurythenes gryllus, has been shown to consist of multiple genetically distinct cryptic taxa, with depth considered a major driver of speciation and morphological divergence. Here we examine morphological variation of E. gryllus sensu lato through a continuous depth distribution that spans from abyssal (3000-6000 m) into hadal depths (>6000 m) in the Peru-Chile Trench (SE Pacific Ocean). Three distinct morphospecies were identified: one was confirmed as being E. magellanicus (4602-5329 m) based on DNA sequence and morphological similarity. The other two morphologically distinct species were named based upon depth of occurrence; Abyssal (4602-6173 m) and Hadal (6173-8074 m). The three Eurythenes morphospecies showed vertical ontogenetic stratification across their bathymetric range, where juveniles were found shallower in their depth range and mature females deeper. Potential ecological and evolutionary drivers that explain the observed patterns of intra and inter-specific structure, such as hydrostatic pressure and topographical isolation, are discussed.

  4. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-03-17

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus.

  5. Genetic connectivity between land and sea: the case of the beachflea Orchestia montagui (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We examined patterns of genetic divergence in 26 Mediterranean populations of the semi-terrestrial beachflea Orchestia montagui using mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I), microsatellite (eight loci) and allozymic data. The species typically forms large populations within heaps of dead seagrass leaves stranded on beaches at the waterfront. We adopted a hierarchical geographic sampling to unravel population structure in a species living at the sea-land transition and, hence, likely subjected to dramatically contrasting forces. Results Mitochondrial DNA showed historical phylogeographic breaks among Adriatic, Ionian and the remaining basins (Tyrrhenian, Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea) likely caused by the geological and climatic changes of the Pleistocene. Microsatellites (and to a lesser extent allozymes) detected a further subdivision between and within the Western Mediterranean and the Tyrrhenian Sea due to present-day processes. A pattern of isolation by distance was not detected in any of the analyzed data set. Conclusions We conclude that the population structure of O. montagui is the result of the interplay of two contrasting forces that act on the species population genetic structure. On one hand, the species semi-terrestrial life style would tend to determine the onset of local differences. On the other hand, these differences are partially counter-balanced by passive movements of migrants via rafting on heaps of dead seagrass leaves across sites by sea surface currents. Approximate Bayesian Computations support dispersal at sea as prevalent over terrestrial regionalism. PMID:23618554

  6. Waterborne toxicity and diet-related effects of fungicides in the key leaf shredder Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Zubrod, J P; Englert, D; Wolfram, J; Wallace, D; Schnetzer, N; Baudy, P; Konschak, M; Schulz, R; Bundschuh, M

    2015-12-01

    Animals involved in leaf litter breakdown (i.e., shredders) play a central role in detritus-based stream food webs, while their fitness and functioning can be impaired by anthropogenic stressors. Particularly fungicides can affect shredders via both waterborne exposure and their diet, namely due to co-ingestion of adsorbed fungicides and shifts in the leaf-associated fungal community, on which shredders' nutrition heavily relies. To understand the relevance of these effect pathways, we used a full 2×2-factorial test design: the leaf material serving as food was microbially colonized for 12 days either in a fungicide-free control or exposed to a mixture of five current-use fungicides (sum concentration of 62.5μg/L). Similarly, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was subjected to the same treatments but for 24 days. Waterborne exposure reduced leaf consumption by ∼20%, which did not fully explain the reduction in feces production (∼30%), indicating an enhanced utilization of food to compensate for detoxification mechanisms. This may also explain the reduced feces production (∼10%) of gammarids feeding on fungicide-exposed leaves. The reduction may, however, also be caused by a decreased nutritious quality of the leaves indicated by a reduced species richness (∼40%) of leaf-associated fungi. However, compensation for these effects by Gammarus was seemingly incomplete, since both waterborne exposure and the consumption of the fungicide-affected diet drastically reduced gammarid growth (∼110% and ∼40%, respectively). Our results thus indicate that fungicide mixtures have the potential for detrimental implications in aquatic ecosystem functioning by affecting shredders via both effect pathways. PMID:26520670

  7. Safety of the molluscicide Zequanox (R) to nontarget macroinvertebrates Gammarus lacustris (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) and Hexagenia spp. (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Diane L.; Luoma, James A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Zequanox® is a commercial formulation of the killed bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A), that was developed to control dreissenid mussels. In 2014, Zequanox became the second product registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for use in open water environments as a molluscicide. Previous nontarget studies demonstrated the safety and selectivity of P. fluorescens CL154A, but the database on the toxicity of the formulation (Zequanox) is limited for macroinvertebrate taxa and exposure conditions. We evaluated the safety of Zequanox to the amphipod Gammarus lacustris lacustris, and nymphs of the burrowing mayfly, Hexagenia spp. at the maximum approved concentration (100 mg/L active ingredient, A.I.) and exposure duration (8 h). Survival of animals was assessed after 8 h of exposure and again at 24 and 96 h post-exposure. Histopathology of the digestive tract of control and treated animals was compared at 96 h post-exposure. The results showed no significant effect of Zequanox on survival of either species. Survival of G. lacustris exceeded 85% in all concentrations at all three sampling time points. Survival of Hexagenia spp. ranged from 71% (control) to 91% at 8 h, 89–93% at 24 h post-exposure, and 70–73% at 96 h post-exposure across all treatments. We saw no evidence of pathology in the visceral organs of treated animals. Our results indicate that application of Zequanox at the maximum approved concentration and exposure duration did not cause significant mortality or treatment-related histopathological changes to G. lacustris and Hexagenia spp.

  8. Two new species of Lysianassidae Dana, 1849 from Australia: Riwo zeidleri and Socarnella delectabilis (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Lowry, J K

    2015-01-01

    The new species Riwo zeidleri and Socarnella delectabilis are described. Prior to this study Riwo Lowry & Stoddart, 1995 was a monotypic genus, while Socarnella Walker, 1904 consisted of only two described species. The distribution of Riwo is expanded southwards from northern Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef to the south coast of Australia and the distribution of Socarnella is expanded further southward from Sri Lanka and the South China Sea, to the west coast of Australia.

  9. Description of new endemic species of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 (Amphipoda: Niphargidae) from a karst spring in Zagros Mountains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Rineh, Somayeh; Heidari, Firoozeh; Fišer, Cene; Akmali, Vahid

    2016-06-20

    New species of the genus Niphargus is described and named as N. kermanshahi sp. nov. from a karst spring in west of Iran. This species is identified based on the analysis of morphological characters and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of this species is discussed in comparison to other Iranian species of Niphargus genus.

  10. Description of a new species of Victoriopisa Karaman & Barnard, 1979 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Eriopisidae) from China, with a key to the genus Victoriopisa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangyan; Liu, Cunqi; Hou, Zhonge

    2016-01-01

    Victoriopisa multiartus sp. nov. is described from mangrove in Qi'ao Island, China. The new species differs from the other nine species of the genus Victoriopisa in the gnathopod I sexual dimorphism; propodus palm of gnathopod II with two excavations in female and one excavation in male; and terminal article of outer ramus in uropod III expanded, oval-shaped. A key to the genus Victoriopisa with ten species and a map of their distribution are provided. PMID:27394540

  11. New genus and new species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the mesophotic coral ecosystems of Puerto Rico and St. Croix, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, José M; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and two new species are described based on material collected from the mesophotic coral ecosystems of the U.S. Caribbean. The new genus Borikenella can be distinguished from other related genera such as Pseudaeginella, Paradeutella, Aciconula and Deutella by the combination of the following characters: pereopods 3 and 4 three-articulate, pereopods 5-7 six-articulate, mandible molar present, palp of the mandible with a setal formula 1-x-0, abdomen without appendages. The new species Liropus gurui, can be distinguished from the closely related L. japonicus mainly by the lack of anteroventral margin extended forward in pereonite 3, the lack of cleft and serration in the propodus of gnathopod 2, the longer pereopod 3 and the larger abdominal appendages.

  12. New genus and new species of Caprellidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda) from the mesophotic coral ecosystems of Puerto Rico and St. Croix, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, José M; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and two new species are described based on material collected from the mesophotic coral ecosystems of the U.S. Caribbean. The new genus Borikenella can be distinguished from other related genera such as Pseudaeginella, Paradeutella, Aciconula and Deutella by the combination of the following characters: pereopods 3 and 4 three-articulate, pereopods 5-7 six-articulate, mandible molar present, palp of the mandible with a setal formula 1-x-0, abdomen without appendages. The new species Liropus gurui, can be distinguished from the closely related L. japonicus mainly by the lack of anteroventral margin extended forward in pereonite 3, the lack of cleft and serration in the propodus of gnathopod 2, the longer pereopod 3 and the larger abdominal appendages. PMID:26624029

  13. The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the number of alien marine crustacean species has increased over the past two decades. However, knowledge about small alien marine crustaceans, like caprellid amphipods, is still very scarce. To understand the role of marinas and recreational boating in the early step of the invasion process by non-indigenous caprellids, we studied the recreational boating pressure and the spatial distribution of caprellid species in Mallorca Island. We collected caprellids from 14 marinas and 9 exposed intertidal rocky shores between November 2011 and April 2012 and we analyzed the differences in habitat use of native and exotic caprellids. Eight caprellid species, six native and two exotic, were found. Alien caprellids were only present in marinas, reaching high densities of population. The analysis of recreational boating pressure reveals that Palma-Migjorn is the area that is subject to the highest potential risk of introduction of exotic species via ship fouling. In the secondary dispersal of alien caprellids, the study reflects that recreational boating seems effective as a secondary vector in the transport of exotic species from marinas to marinas but not from marinas to natural and exposed areas. An illustrated key of caprellids from Balearic Island is provided to differentiate native and non-indigenous species.

  14. Infaunal zoogeography and intergeneric character blending: The case of Metaniphargus shiroi sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hadziidae), from interstitial beach water on Akajima Island, the Kerama Islands, Southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Gable, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A survey of biogenic coralline sands in the littoral fringe of a tropical island in Japan brought a new amphipod species to light. This species represents the first record of the subterranean genus Metaniphargus from the West Pacific. The majority of the species in this genus occur in the Caribbean, but a report from Hawaii and now from Japan defies the endemic Caribbean status it kept for so long. Metaniphargus shiroi sp. nov. is described, and morphological comparisons are made with closely resembling species from Hawaii and the Cayman Islands (genus Metaniphargus), and the Great Barrier Reef and California (genus Dulzura). Involvement of non-congeners in the comparisons is necessary as character overlap is abundant. These comparisons suggest that the presence of form-related body types in the shallow marine interstitial realm is circumtropical and follows habitat suitability rather than sudden dispersal or vicariance events.

  15. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided. PMID:27395154

  16. Redescription of two subterranean amphipods Niphargus molnari Méhely, 1927 and Niphargus gebhardti Schellenberg, 1934 (Amphipoda, Niphargidae) and their phylogenetic position

    PubMed Central

    Angyal, Dorottya; Balázs, Gergely; Zakšek, Valerija; Krízsik, Virág; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A detailed redescription of two endemic, cave-dwelling niphargid species of the Hungarian Mecsek Mts., Niphargus molnari Méhely, 1927 and Niphargus gebhardti Schellenberg, 1934 is given based on newly collected material. Morphology was studied under light microscopy and with scanning electon microscopy. Morphological descriptions are complemented with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences as barcodes for both species and with notes on their ecology. Using three independent molecular markers we showed that Niphargus gebhardti belongs to the clade distributed between Central and Eastern Europe, whereas phylogenetic relationship of Niphargus molnari to the rest of Niphargus species is not clear. The two species from the Mecsek Mts. are phylogenetically not closely related. Both species need to be treated as vulnerable according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:26175603

  17. An illustrated key to the soft-bottom caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) of the Iberian Peninsula and remarks to their ecological distribution along the Andalusian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, José M.; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Corzo, Juan; Cobos-Muñoz, Vanessa; García-Adiego, Emilio M.; Giménez, Francisco Sempere; García-Gómez, J. Carlos

    2013-06-01

    The soft-bottom caprellids of the Iberian Peninsula are revised. Nineteen species have been reported so far, 42 % being endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. The lateral view of all of them is provided, together with an illustrated key for all the species. An ecological study was also conducted during 2007-2010 along the Andalusian coast to explore the relationships of caprellids with abiotic data. A total of 90 stations (0-40 m deep) were sampled and 40 contained caprellids. Along the Atlantic, caprellids were present in only 20 % of the stations, while along the Mediterranean coast, caprellids were present in the 75 % of the sampling sites. Furthermore, the abundance of caprellids was also higher in the Mediterranean coast. The dominant species was Pseudolirius kroyeri (present in 24 stations and showing the highest abundances with 1,780 ind/m2), followed by Phtisica marina (22 stations) and Pariambus typicus (11 stations). According to CCA and BIO-ENV, sediment type, P, pH and oxygen were the parameters that better explained the distribution of caprellids. Although the three dominant species were found in all types of sediment, the univariate approach showed that P. kroyeri was significantly more abundant in fine sediments (silt-clay and very fine sands) than in gross sediments (coarse and very coarse sands). The majority of studies dealing with caprellids from the Iberian Peninsula have been focused on shallow waters and further efforts are needed to explore biodiversity of deeper areas.

  18. Life History and Production of the Western Gray Whale’s Prey, Ampelisca eschrichtii Krøyer, 1842 (Amphipoda, Ampeliscidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ampelisca eschrichtii are among the most important prey of the Western North Pacific gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus. The largest and densest known populations of this amphipod occur in the gray whale’s Offshore feeding area on the Northeastern Sakhalin Island Shelf. The remote location, ice cover and stormy weather at the Offshore area have prevented winter sampling. The incomplete annual sampling has confounded efforts to resolve life history and production of A. eschrichtii. Expanded comparisons of population size structure and individual reproductive development between late spring and early fall over six sampling years between 2002 and 2013 however, reveal that A. eschrichtii are gonochoristic, iteroparous, mature at body lengths greater than 15 mm and have a two-year life span. The low frequencies of brooding females, the lack of early stage juveniles, the lack of individual or population growth or biomass increases over late spring and summer, all indicate that growth and reproduction occur primarily in winter, when sampling does not occur. Distinct juvenile and adult size cohorts additionally indicate growth and juvenile production occurs in winter through spring under ice cover. Winter growth thus requires that winter detritus or primary production are critical food sources for these ampeliscid populations and yet, the Offshore area and the Eastern Sakhalin Shelf ampeliscid communities may be the most abundant and productive amphipod population in the world. These A. eschrichtii populations are unlikely to be limited by western gray whale predation. Whether benthic community structure can limit access and foraging success of western gray whales is unclear. PMID:26800185

  19. A reassessment of the phylogenetic utility of genus-level morphological characters in the family Bogidiellidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with description of a new species of Eobogidiella Karaman, 1981

    PubMed Central

    Sidorov, Dmitry A.; Katz, Aron D.; Taylor, Steven J.; Chertoprud, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bogidiellidae is the most diverse and cosmopolitan family of stygobiotic amphipods, and inhabits a variety of subterranean biotopes, especially interstitial habitats. While the family is characterized by considerable sexual dimorphism, this dimorphism has adversely affected our understanding of the systematics of the group. Most species have restricted geographic ranges and occur in difficult to sample habitats, so it is common for individual species descriptions to be based on a single sex. In this work we revisit an analysis of morphological characters in an attempt to clarify their phylogenetic utility in resolving taxonomic relationships among genera by introducing a new species, two additional characters, and phylogenetic statistical support values. Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n., from a spring fed brook in the Shirawati River basin along the escarpment of the Western Ghats (Karnataka, India) differs from the only known congener, Eobogidiella purmamarcensis, from Argentina, in the structure of mouthparts, the shape and ornamentation on gnathopods and characters of the telson. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the available morphological characters are not sufficient to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bogidiellidae, thus these characters alone cannot be used to determine the phylogenetic placement of Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n. within the family. Nevertheless, Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n. shares diagnostic characters with Eobogidiella, supporting placement of the new species in this genus. Our findings point towards a critical need to resolve relationships within the family using molecular approaches, along with the development of a suite of additional morphological characters for Bogidiellidae. This is the third species of Bogidiellidae from southern India. PMID:27587976

  20. Long-distance dispersal, low connectivity and molecular evidence of a new cryptic species in the obligate rafter Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M. Pilar; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 was recorded for the first time in Southern Iberian Peninsula (36°44'15″N, 3°59'38″W). This species is the only obligate rafter of the suborder Caprellidea and has been reported to attach not only to floating objects such as ropes or driftwoods but also to turtle carapaces. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to examine dispersal capabilities and population genetic structure of C. andreae across seven localities in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean collected from floating substrata with different dispersal patterns. The strong population differentiation with no haplotypes shared between populations suggests that C. andreae is quite faithful to the substratum on which it settles. In addition, the proportionally higher genetic diversity displayed in populations living on turtles as well as the presence of highly differentiated haplotypes in the same turtle population may be indicative that these populations survive longer, which could lead C. andreae to prefer turtles instead of floating objects to settle and disperse. Therefore, rafting on floating objects may be sporadic, and ocean currents would not be the most important factor shaping patterns of connectivity and population structure in this species. Furthermore, molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of a cryptic species whose estimates of genetic divergence are higher than those estimated between C. andreae and other congeneric species (e.g. Caprella dilatata and Caprella penantis). Discovery of cryptic species among widely distributed small marine invertebrates is quite common and, in this case, prompts for a more detailed phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of genus Caprella. On the other hand, this study also means the first record of the gammarids Jassa cadetta and Elasmopus brasiliensis and the caprellid Caprella hirsuta on drifting objects.

  1. A new species of Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea: Aristiidae) from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Senna, André R; Sorrentino, Rayane; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 is described from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off southwestern Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean Sea. The new species is easily recognized from the others in the genus mainly by the following characters: (1) maxilliped, inner plate with 2 long apical simple setae; palp, articles slender, subequal in length; (2) gnathopod 1, propodus slightly elongate, about 2.5 × longer than wide, and palm extremely acute, quite long and distinctly demarked by a robust seta at the palmar corner; (3) gnathopod 2, carpus slightly elongate, about 3.7 × longer than wide; (4) pereopod 5, basis widely expanded posteriorly, posterior margin rounded and smooth, and posteroventral lobe weakly developed. We also present a key to world species of Boca. This is the fifth species of Boca from world's oceans and the first record of the genus from Puerto Rico. PMID:25543800

  2. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-05-27

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided.

  3. Re-description of Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928: designation of neotype and senior synonym to Orchestia constricta A. Costa, 1853 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae) by Reversal of Precedence.

    PubMed

    Iaciofano, Davide; Brutto, Sabrina Lo

    2016-01-01

    The beach flea Orchestia stephenseni was originally described by Cecchini (1928), and successively by Karaman (1973). The description of this species will be herein revised by focusing on the variation of the gnathopod 2 in males, as detected during its growth period. An analysis of DNA Barcoding was performed to support the assignment of the taxonomic species to five morphotypes. As the type specimen has not yet been designated, a neotype is assigned. The name of the species is here presented as a valid name as it satisfies the requirements of a Reversal of the Principle of Priority: Orchestia stephenseni takes precedence over the objective synonym Orchestia constricta A. Costa, 1853, in accordance with Article 23.9.2. of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928 becomes nomen protectum, and Orchestia constricta nomen oblitum. The results presented in this paper also support the status of Orchestia stephenseni as a Mediterranean endemic species, thereby rejecting previous Atlantic records. The synonymies for O. stephenseni are revised accordingly. PMID:27515644

  4. A new species of Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea: Aristiidae) from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Senna, André R; Sorrentino, Rayane; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-11-18

    A new species of the genus Boca Lowry & Stoddart, 1997 is described from a mesophotic coral ecosystem off southwestern Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean Sea. The new species is easily recognized from the others in the genus mainly by the following characters: (1) maxilliped, inner plate with 2 long apical simple setae; palp, articles slender, subequal in length; (2) gnathopod 1, propodus slightly elongate, about 2.5 × longer than wide, and palm extremely acute, quite long and distinctly demarked by a robust seta at the palmar corner; (3) gnathopod 2, carpus slightly elongate, about 3.7 × longer than wide; (4) pereopod 5, basis widely expanded posteriorly, posterior margin rounded and smooth, and posteroventral lobe weakly developed. We also present a key to world species of Boca. This is the fifth species of Boca from world's oceans and the first record of the genus from Puerto Rico.

  5. Environmental factors modulating the extent of impact in coastal invasions: The case of a widespread invasive caprellid (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding the respective roles of environment and interspecific interactions in shaping species' distributions is a critical aspect in determining the potential impacts of newcomer species on occupied habitats. The invasive caprellid amphipod Caprella scaura has successfully spread along southern Europe in a short time period, coinciding with a decline in the population of an ecologically similar congener, Caprella equilibra. To understand the mechanisms underlying the establishment success of this aggressive species and its potential role in shaping C. equilibra's distribution, we analyze the biotic and abiotic factors involved in the patterns of distribution and co-occurrence of both species along the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa. Our analyses support that C. scaura is competitively displacing C. equilibra from the study area, but also point out the critical role of salinity and temperature in modulating this interaction and limiting the invasive success of C. scaura on the Iberian North-Atlantic coast.

  6. Elasmopus thalyae sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Maeridae), a new benthic species from soft and hard bottoms of Arcachon Bay (SE Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Gouillieux, Benoit; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Elasmopus is described and figured from specimens collected in different benthic communities of Arcachon Bay. It can be distinguished from its closest relative E. rapax by the palmar ornamentation of male gnathopod 2 propodus (shelf and 2 teeth). It preferentially lives on hard bottoms (in mussel fouling of navigation buoys, Sabellaria spinulosa reefs, algal rocky bottoms, Laminaria and Saccorhiza bulbs and as epibiont on the carapace of Maja brachydactyla) but also less abundantly on naked sandy bottoms. An identification key of Atlantic and Mediterranean European species is also given. PMID:25661024

  7. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave-adapted organisms because they may play a pleiotropic role in other important processes that are unrelated to vision. PMID:23617561

  8. Differential regulation of hsp70 genes in the freshwater key species Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) exposed to thermal stress: effects of latitude and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Delphine; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the main abiotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms. In the Rhône River Valley, populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex are distributed along a 5 °C thermal gradient from the North to the South of the valley. In this present work, we investigated the heat shock response of G. pulex according to latitudinal distribution (northern vs. southern populations) and ontogeny (adults vs. embryos from early stages). We isolated two isoforms (one constitutive hsc70 and one inducible hsp70) of heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) and quantitatively compared their amounts of mRNA after heat shocks, using real-time PCR. Whereas the hsc70 (constitutive) gene did not vary between the two populations, a significant effect of the population was observed on the expression of the hsp70 (inducible) gene in adult specimens. The northern population of amphipods showed a greater magnitude of induction and a 2 °C lower onset temperature when compared to the southern population, suggesting that the northern population is more affected by elevated temperature than the southern one. We demonstrated that the expression of hsp70 may play a crucial role in the persistence of biogeographical patterns of G. pulex, since it reflects the natural distribution of this species along the latitudinal thermal gradient. A differential regulation of hsc70 gene was also observed according to the ontogenetic stage, with a switch from heat inducible in early life stages to constitutively and highly expressed in adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the entire life cycle to better understand the adaptive response to thermal stress.

  9. Description of new endemic species of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 (Amphipoda: Niphargidae) from a karst spring in Zagros Mountains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Rineh, Somayeh; Heidari, Firoozeh; Fišer, Cene; Akmali, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    New species of the genus Niphargus is described and named as N. kermanshahi sp. nov. from a karst spring in west of Iran. This species is identified based on the analysis of morphological characters and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of this species is discussed in comparison to other Iranian species of Niphargus genus. PMID:27395592

  10. A reassessment of the phylogenetic utility of genus-level morphological characters in the family Bogidiellidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with description of a new species of Eobogidiella Karaman, 1981.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Dmitry A; Katz, Aron D; Taylor, Steven J; Chertoprud, Mikhail V

    2016-01-01

    Bogidiellidae is the most diverse and cosmopolitan family of stygobiotic amphipods, and inhabits a variety of subterranean biotopes, especially interstitial habitats. While the family is characterized by considerable sexual dimorphism, this dimorphism has adversely affected our understanding of the systematics of the group. Most species have restricted geographic ranges and occur in difficult to sample habitats, so it is common for individual species descriptions to be based on a single sex. In this work we revisit an analysis of morphological characters in an attempt to clarify their phylogenetic utility in resolving taxonomic relationships among genera by introducing a new species, two additional characters, and phylogenetic statistical support values. Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n., from a spring fed brook in the Shirawati River basin along the escarpment of the Western Ghats (Karnataka, India) differs from the only known congener, Eobogidiella purmamarcensis, from Argentina, in the structure of mouthparts, the shape and ornamentation on gnathopods and characters of the telson. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the available morphological characters are not sufficient to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bogidiellidae, thus these characters alone cannot be used to determine the phylogenetic placement of Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n. within the family. Nevertheless, Eobogidiella venkataramani sp. n. shares diagnostic characters with Eobogidiella, supporting placement of the new species in this genus. Our findings point towards a critical need to resolve relationships within the family using molecular approaches, along with the development of a suite of additional morphological characters for Bogidiellidae. This is the third species of Bogidiellidae from southern India. PMID:27587976

  11. Diel Variation of Visual Response in Talitrus saltator and Talorchestia deshayesii (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from High Latitude Beaches of Low Tidal Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, M.; Persson, L.-E.; Scapini, F.

    2000-03-01

    The responses to a white directional light and a black stripe covering 60° of the horizon were studied in two Swedish populations of the amphipod species Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) and Talorchesia deshayesii (Audoin, 1826) from two beaches on the southern Baltic Sea. Adult individuals were caught in the field and tested in constant laboratory conditions in order to investigate the possible variation of the responses during the 24 h cycle, and then to compare their behaviour with that of the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, already known in literature. Previous studies explained the observed differences between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations with the differences in tidal excursions and did not take into account the different climatic conditions. The Baltic coasts, like those of the Italian Mediterranean, are not tidal and present prevalent low mean temperatures and high humidity throughout the year like those of Britain. The response to the artificial white light remained photopositive throughout the 24 h cycle in both the species sampled, although its intensity was lower during the day than at night in Talitrus saltator. The response to the black stripe showed an inversion from positive to negative during the 24 h cycle, the animals being directed towards the black stripe during the day and away from it at night; this response was more intense and clear cut in Talorchestia deshayesii than in Talitrus saltator . The pattern of response to the black stripe shown by the Swedish talitrids, differed from both that of the British and Italian populations, and was interpreted as a basic response related to the diel rhythm of emergence and burrowing.

  12. DECLINE IN LAKE ONTARIO POPULATIONS OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates conducted in Lake Ontario during 1994 and 1997 revealed declines in populations of three major groups of organisms: oligochaetes, sphariids, and Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda), with the most drastic reductions occurring in the latter. Based on phy...

  13. Ultrastructure of the embryonic dorsal organ of Orchestia cavimana (crustacea, amphipoda); with a note on localization of chloride and on the change in calcium-deposition before the embryonic moult.

    PubMed

    Meschenmoser, M

    1989-01-01

    The transitory dorsal organ of Orchestia cavimana appears simultaneously with the development of the germ layer and is gradually reduced during the last 2-3 days of embryonic development. It represents the only direct connection of the embryo with the chorion or-after the embryonic moult-with the embryonic envelope. The shape is hemispherical and it consists of about 50 bottle-shaped cells, arranged radially around a centre. This centre is filled with different kinds of extracellular material which forms a central plug apically and a central cone below it. The bottle-shaped cells taper apically. The neck region of these cells is characterized by numerous microvilli which project into the intercellular space. This space is filled with an electron dense substance and is in contact with the central cone. In the basal neck region numerous mitochondria are associated with the microvilli. The high density of mitochondria is characteristic for the nuclear region. The cytoplasm of the basal region below the nucleus contains numerous calcium granules. Evidence for the concentration of chloride in the apical dorsal organ is shown. Before the embryonic moult and during the duplication of the egg-volume the number of calcium granules in the dorsal organ and the integument is reduced. Simultaneously calcium granules appear in the now visible periembryonic space. This suggests that part of the calcium is shifted into this space. The function of the dorsal organ is discussed. Besides the probable main function-transport activity of ions-its role before and during embryonic moult and its part in the utilisation of yolk are discussed. PMID:18620268

  14. Review of amphipods of the Melita group (Amphipoda: Melitidae) from the coastal waters of Sakhalin Island (Far East of Russia). III. Genera Abludomelita Karaman, 1981 and Melita Leach, 1814.

    PubMed

    Labay, Vjacheslav S

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic analysis of Melita group is performed. The revision of the genus Melita Leach, 1814 was held on the basis of analysis of morphological characters. Cladistic analysis of morphological relationships within genera Abludomelita and Melita is performed. Status of the genus Paraniphargus Tattersall, 1925 restored. New genera Barnardomelita gen. nov. and Ledoyeromelita gen. nov. are described and removed from the composition of the genus Melita. A review of Melita group (fam. Melitidae) from the shelf of Sakhalin Island based on all literature and own data is provided. Based on new material, two new species of the genus Abludomelita Karaman, 1981 are described: A. klitinii sp. nov. and A. okhotensis sp. nov. from the shelf of Sakhalin Island. Megamoera aequidentatum Labay, 2013 is transferred to the genus Abludomelita as A. rotundactyla (Ren, 2012) on the basis of additional morphological description of male. The new subspecies Melita shimizui sakhalinensis ssp. nov. is described from estuaries of Sakhalin Island. The keys to the world species of genera Abludomelita and Melita are provided. PMID:27615866

  15. A review of the hyperiidean amphipod genus Hyperoche Bovallius, 1887 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyperiidea: Hyperiidae), with the description of a new genus to accommodate H. shihi Gasca, 2005.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the genus Hyperoche since that of Bovallius (1889). This study is based primarily on the extensive collections of the ZMUC but also on more recent collections in other institutions. Seven valid species are recognised in this review, including one described as new to science. Two new characters were discovered; the first two pereonites are partially or wholly fused dorsally and the coxa of pereopod 7 is fused with the pereonite. These two new characters, combined with the knife-shaped carpus of the gnathopoda and the laminate mandibular molar, help to further distinguish this genus amongst the Hyperiidea. Partly as a result of establishing these distinctive characters, a new genus, Prohyperia gen. nov. is proposed for H. shihi Gasca, 2005 because it has characters not consistent with Hyperoche or the closely related genus Hyperia, to which it also bears some resemblance. Hyperoche medusarum and H. luetkenides, although morphologically similar, are considered separate species, with H. medusarum restricted to the colder waters of the northern Hemisphere and H. luetkenides to the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters. Hyperoche cryptodactylus, still only known from the unique type, is considered a synonym of H. luetkenides because the character distinguishing it, the retractile dactyl of gnathopod 2, also occurs in some specimens of H. luetkenides and has also been found in other species of Hyperoche. Some specimens also have some pereopoda with partly or wholly retracted dactyls, although there is no pattern to the occurrence. In addition to the above the following species are also considered valid, H. martinezii, H. mediterranea and H. picta, found mainly in the tropical and temperate regions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and H. capucinus, restricted to the region between the Antarctic Polar Front and the Antarctic Continent. One new species, H. macrocephalus sp. nov., is described from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described and illustrated and a key is provided to facilitate their identification.  PMID:25661204

  16. Substrate dependent talitrid amphipods from fragmented beaches on the north coast of Crete (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), including a redefinition of the genus Orchestia and descriptions of Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Cryptorchestia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Four species of talitrid amphipods (Orchestia montagui Audouin, 1826, Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928, Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808)) are reported from a set of fragmented pocket beaches to the east of Heraklion on the north coast of Crete. Aside from a previous record of O. stephenseni these are the first records of talitrid amphipods from the island of Crete. 2) Along a coastal segment of only 4.36 km, characterised by habitat fragmentation and substrate patchiness, a clear correlation between talitrid species and beach type is indicated. Talitrus saltator occurs only on sandy beaches. Orchestia montagui and O. xylino occur on banquette beaches and O. montagui, O. stephenseni and O. xylino occur on mixed sand/gravel and cobble beaches. 3) The genus Orchestia is redefined and confined to 15 marine supralittoral species from eastern North America, islands in the North-eastern Atlantic, and western-Europe, including the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas plus a perplexing group in New Zealand. 4) The new genus Cryptorchestia is described, based on nine terrestrial species previously included in the genus Orchestia and occurring in western Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and the Azores and Canary islands in the North-eastern Atlantic. 5) The new species Orchestia xylino sp. nov. is described. 6) An extensive bibliography for the species in this study is provided.

  17. Description of Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago: the second freshwater amphipod known from the Antarctic biome, a human introduction of Gondwanan ancestry?

    PubMed

    Smet, Willem H De

    2015-01-01

    A new species of freshwater amphipod, Pseudingolfiella possessionis n. sp. (Senticaudata, Pseudingolfiellidae), is described from the submerged moss vegetation of small brooklets at sub-Antarctic Île de La Possession, Crozet archipelago. It constitutes the second freshwater amphipod species known for the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic region, and the fourth member of the genus. The main characters distinguishing it from all congeners are: the spine on the posterior margin of the dactylus, incisor and lamina mobilis of mandible each with 5 teeth, the setation of the maxilliped, the vestigial second article of pleopod 3 in the female, the undulate and laterally notched posterolateral margin of the external ramus of uropods 1 and 2 in the male, the spinulate dorsomedian projection of the telson.

  18. On the Austral-Antarctic stenothoids Proboloides, Metopoides, Torometopa and Scaphodactylus (Crustacea Amphipoda) Part 2: the genus Proboloides, with description of two new genera and the transfer of two nominal species to Metopoides

    PubMed Central

    Krapp-Schickel, Traudl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This is the second part of a revision of the most plesiomorphic genera in the amphipod family Stenothoidae sensu lato (see Krapp-Schickel and Koenemann 2006 for an overview and Krapp-Schickel 2008 for the first part). 41 species not belonging to Metopoides were plotted in a matrix using the same 61 characters as in the first part. The resulting group of Proboloides species (most probably not existing in the Austral-Antarctic region) is discussed, a key for the members given and two new genera erected. Some species described as Proboloides are redescribed and 2 species transferred to Metopoides. A key for all actual members of. The remaining species, i.e. those actually being in the genera Torometopa and Scaphodactylus, will be dealt with in the final part of this series, together with a key to all of them. PMID:21594091

  19. Mexorchestia: a new genus of talitrid amphipod (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, with the description of a new species and two new subspecies.

    PubMed

    Wildish, David J; Lecroy, Sara E

    2014-08-26

    Two species of supralittoral Tethorchestia were reported by Bousfield (1984) to occur on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and closely adjacent waters: T. antillensis Bousfield, 1984 from Quintana Roo, Mexico and an undescribed species, Tethorchestia sp. B of Bousfield (1984), from Florida and the U.S. Gulf coast. In this paper, we rediagnose and illustrate the former taxon based on material from Goodland Bay, Florida, which represents a range extension for that species. We examined the latter taxon from many locations throughout the Gulf of Mexico using classical morphology, epidermal pigment pattern recognition and allometry, reinforced by molecular markers (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, Radulovici 2012), determining that Tethorchestia sp. B represents a new genus and species, comprising two subspecies. The nominate subspecies, Mexorchestia carpenteri carpenteri n. gen., sp. and subsp., is described from Tiger Tail Beach, Florida, based on conventional morphological criteria and its distinctive epidermal pigment patterns. The Tiger Tail Beach ecotope of M. c. carpenteri n. gen., sp. and subsp. was distinct from that of other locations examined in Florida and was associated with epidermal pigment pattern polymorphism, absent at other locations. A second subspecies, distinguished by differences in size, number of articles in the flagellum of antenna 2, the number of marginal setae on oostegite 2 of the female and the number of distal dorsolateral robust setae on the telson, was found in samples from Belize and Mexico. This subspecies is described from material collected at Turneffe Island, Belize, as Mexorchestia carpenteri raduloviciae n. gen., sp. and subsp. Like M. c. carpenteri n. gen., sp. and subsp., this taxon is also associated with epidermal pigment pattern polymorphism. A key is provided for the three currently described species of Tethorchestia (two extant) and two new subspecies of Mexorchestia n.gen. 

  20. Accumulation of orally administered cadmium by the eel (Anguilla anguila)

    SciTech Connect

    Haesloop, U.; Schirmer, M.

    1985-01-01

    Eels were fed on gammarids (Amphipoda:Crustacea) containing high levels of cadmium for 30 days, then the cadmium distribution in the various organs of the fish was investigated. A retention value was calculated for liver-kidney and for whole-body.

  1. [Crustaceans associated to macroalgae in Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Campos Vázquez, C

    2000-01-01

    Crustaceans associated with macroalgae were collected for one year by scuba diving in Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, mexican Caribbean. A total of 148 organisms were found: three orders, 11 families, 18 genera and 19 species in nine types of associations. The order with highest abundance was Isopoda (112), followed by Amphipoda (20) and Decapoda (16).

  2. THE STATUS OF DIPOREIA SPP. IN LAKE ONTARIO, 1994-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of microinvertebrates conducted in Lake Ontario between 1994 and 1998 revealed a recent decline in Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda) abundance. The lowest population densities and summer biomass are located in the eastern basin of the lake at all depths. Densities and biomass dec...

  3. Diet shifts of lesser scaup are consistent with the spring condition hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    We compared diets of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis (Eyton, 1838)) in the springs of 2000 and 2001 to those reported in the 1970s and the 1980s to determine whether forage quality has declined as predicted by the spring condition hypothesis. In Minnesota, we found that the current aggregate percentage of Amphipoda (an important food item) in lesser scaup diets was 94% lower than that reported from the same locations in the 1980s. Current mean individual prey mass of Amphipoda and Bivalvia in Minnesota were 86.6% and 85.1% lower than historical levels, respectively. In Manitoba, current aggregate percentages of Trichoptera and Chaoboridae in lesser scaup diets (1% and 0%, respectively) were lower than those reported from the same location in the 1970s (14% and 2%, respectively), whereas the percentage of Chironomidae (40%) was higher than that of historical levels (19%). Current mean individual prey mass of all insects, seeds, Chironomidae, and Zygoptera in Manitoba were 63.5%, 65.4%, 44.1%, and 44.9% lower than those of historical levels, respectively. The observed dietary shift from Amphipoda to less nutritious prey in Minnesota, coupled with lower mean individual prey mass in both locations, likely constitutes lower forage quality in lesser scaup diets, which is consistent with the spring condition hypothesis. ?? 2006 NRC.

  4. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  5. Tide-associated biological rhythms of some white sea littoral invertebrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, O. A.; Golubev, A. I.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results from two years of laboratory observations of the tide-associated rhythms of activity of White Sea intertidal invertebrates, Mya arenaria (Bivalvia) and Gammarus finmarchicus (Amphipoda). The tidal associated activity of these invertebrates could not be estimate as a clear circatidal clock. Gammarus activity could be phase shifted by a 0.5 h exposure to turbulent water twice a day for 2-3 days. Mya's rhythm could be changed by a single drainage of aquariums lasting about 15 min. This kind of timing system may be a relatively primitive evolution feature.

  6. [Does sea-grass biomass control the density of peracarids (Crustacea: Peracarida) in tropical lagoons?].

    PubMed

    Winfield, Ignacio; Cházaro-Olvera, Sergio; Alvarez, Fernando

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the time-space variation of the peracarid crustaceans that inhabit seagrasses of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico. The organisms were collected from 108 samples in six sites with Ruppia maritima beds (December 1992 to November 1994). The assemblage was composed of 11 species. Eight species of Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa and Haustorius sp.), one of Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis) and two of Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi) were identified. Taxocoenosis, density and biomass of peracarids showed seasonal pulses related to R. maritima biomass, salinity variation, epicontinental affluent and inlets. The species C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum and D. holthuisi were dominant. PMID:18457113

  7. The macrofauna and macroflora associated with Laminaria digitata and L. hyperborea at the island of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultze, Kirstin; Janke, Klaus; Krüß, Andreas; Weidemann, Wolfgang

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the macroflora and macrofauna associated with two bull kelp species, Laminaria hyperborea and L. digitata, at the island of Helgoland, North Sea. During a study period of seven months (March September 1987), 29 macroflora species and 125 macrofauna species were found. The dominant taxonomic groups were Polychaeta (25 species), Bryozoa (17), Amphipoda (14), Hydrozoa (10) and Ascidiae (8). The species maximum was in July. In general, L. hyperborea was preferred as a substrate for settlement to L. digitata. Composition of the communities associated with kelp changed during the season according to exposure to wave action, and according to location on the kelp thallus. The rhizoid community of both kelps bore more species at exposed locations. Wave-exposed L. digitata lacked obvious faunal settlement on both phylloid and cauloid. Phylloid and cauloid of L. hyperborea were chosen as an attractive substrate at both sheltered and wave-exposed locations, showing an association of encrusting bryozoan and hydrozoan colonies.

  8. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  9. Trace fossils of talitrid sandhoppers in interglacial littoral calcareous sandstones, Cornwall, U.K.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourse, James

    Small (<6cm) isolated cylindrical shafts observed in carbonate-cemented current-bedded interglacial littoral sands ('sandrock') in Cornwall have previously been interpreted as intrasedimentary stalactites. An alternative explanation as trace fossils of the ichnogenus Skolithos is proposed. Probable attribution to talitrid Amphipoda (sandhoppers), in particular Talitrus saltator (Montagu), is supported by the similarity of the features to the modern burrows of this organism, the facies-dependence of the features, and by independent evidence on the backshore-frontal dune environment of deposition. The ecological requirements of T. saltator support the interpretation of the raised beaches as interglacial in status based on thermoluminescence (TL) dating and aminostratigraphy, and conflict with a recent suggestion that they may be of cold stage origin.

  10. Epifauna of the Sea of Japan collected via a new epibenthic sledge equipped with camera and environmental sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Riehl, T.; Schwabe, E.; Würzberg, L.

    2013-02-01

    Faunistic data from a newly designed camera-epibenthic sledge (C-EBS) are presented. These were collected during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) on board the R.V. Akademik Lavrentyev from four transects (A-D) between 460 and 3660 m depth. In total, 244,531 macro- and megafaunal individuals were sampled with the classes Malacostraca (80,851 individuals), Polychaeta (36,253 ind.) and Ophiuroidea (34,004 ind.) being most abundant. Within the Malacostraca, Peracarida (75,716 ind.) were most abundant and within these, the Isopoda were the dominant taxon (27,931 ind.), followed by Amphipoda (21,403 ind.), Cumacea (13,971 ind.) and Tanaidacea (10,830 ind.). Mysidacea (1581 ind.) were least frequent. Bivalvia, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Mysidacea as well as inbenthic meiofaunal Nematoda occurred in higher numbers at the shallower stations and their numbers decreased with increasing depth. Polychaeta, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea, on the contrary, increased in abundance with increasing depth. Only one isopod species was sampled at abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan but at very high abundance: Eurycope spinifrons Gurjanova, 1933 (Asellota: Munnopsidae). Echinoderms occurred frequently at the shallower slope stations. Ophiuroids were dominating, followed by holothurians, and echinoids and asteroids which occurred in lower numbers and primarily at the shallower stations of transects A and B. Only 2163 individual anthozoans were recorded and these were mostly confined to the lower slope. The technical design of a new C-EBS is described. Next to temperature-insulated epi- and suprabenthic samplers, it is equipped with still and video cameras, which deliver information on seabed topography and megafaunal occurrence. Furthermore, Aanderaa CTD and SEAGUARD RCM allow for collection of physical parameters, such as near bottom oxygen composition, temperature and conductivity.

  11. Movement, habitat use, and diet of adult humpback chub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a big-river cyprinid fish endemic to the Colorado River, where river regulation has contributed to its endangerment. Flooding is essential to reshaping its habitat, redistributing nutrients, flushing terrestrial insects for food, and, in the post-dam river, controlling non-native competitors and predators. Effects of the 1996 controlled flood on movement and habitat use of adults were monitored with radiotelemetry, and diet was evaluated with a non-lethal stomach pump. Movement of 9 radio-tagged adults during the flood (mean, 0.40 km; range, 0-1.24 km) was not significantly different (P≤0.05) from movement in the month preceding the flood (mean, 1.26 km; range, 0.1-2.95 km), indicating no unusual movement or displacement of fish by the flood. Habitat used during the flood, as a percentage of radio-contacts (i.e., 73% eddies, 19% runs, 8% tributary inflows), was similar to that used under normal operations by 69 fish tracked during 1990-1992 (i.e., 74% eddies, 12% runs, 7% backwaters, 6% tributary inflows, 1% pools, <1% riffles). Diet of 43 adults showed dramatic shifts to items scoured by the flood. Simuliidae (68% ash-free dry weight) and Chironomidae (15%) dominated pre-flood diets; Amphipoda (31%), Simuliidae (25%), and terrestrial insects (i.e., beetles, ants, grasshoppers, 20%) were ingested during the flood; and Simuliidae (62%) and Amphipoda (18%) were eaten post-flood. While composition of the diet changed, biomass consumed was not significantly affected by the flood (P = 0.9157). The controlled flood had no detrimental effects on movement, habitat use, or diet of adult humpback chub. Effects of habitat reshaping and nutrient redistribution can only be evaluated through long-term monitoring. Floods of higher magnitude or at a different time of year may have different effects on this endangered species and should be investigated before implementing controlled floods as an element of dam operations.

  12. Use of multiple regression models in the study of sandhopper orientation under natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Giovanni M.; Scapini, Felicita

    2003-10-01

    In sandhoppers (Amphipoda; Talitridae), typical dwellers of the supralittoral zone of sandy beaches, orientation with respect to the sun and landscape vision is adapted to the local direction of the shoreline. Variation of this behavioural adaptation can be related to the characteristics of the beach. Measures of orientation with respect to the shoreline direction can thus be made as a tool to assess beach stability versus changeability, once the sources of variation are correctly interpreted. Orientation of animals can be studied by statistical analysis of directions taken after release in nature. In this paper some new tools for exploring directional data are reviewed, with special emphasis on non-parametric smoothers and regression models. Results from a large study concerning one species of sandhoppers, Talitrus saltator (Montagu), from an exposed sandy beach in northeastern Tunisia are presented. Seasonal differences in orientation behaviour were shown with a higher scatter in autumn with respect to spring. The higher scatter shown in autumn depended both on intrinsic (sex) and external (climatic conditions and landscape visibility) factors and was related to the tendency of this species to migrate towards the dune anticipating winter conditions.

  13. Taxonomic review of the orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (crustacea, peracarida).

    PubMed

    Meland, Kenneth; Mees, Jan; Porter, Megan; Wittmann, Karl J

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida.

  14. The natural history of Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 (Acanthocephala) in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Aura, Raija-Liisa; Benesh, Daniel P; Palomaki, Risto; Tellervo Valtonen, E

    2015-09-11

    The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 differs from most other species in the genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 by infecting mysids (order Mysida) instead of amphipods (order Amphipoda) as intermediate hosts. Here we report on the occurrence of E. bothniensis in mysids (Mysis segerstralei Audzijonytė et Väinölä) and in its fish definitive hosts in a high Arctic lake. Out of 15 907 sampled mysids, 4.8% were infected with a mean intensity of 1.05 worms (range 1-5), although there was notable variation between samples taken in different years and sites. Larger mysids appear more likely to be infected. Of five fish species sampled, charr,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), and a benthic-feeding whitefish morph, Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus), were the most heavily infected (mean abundances of 80 and 15, respectively). The adult parasite population in fish exhibited a female-biased sex ratio (1.78 : 1). Although E. bothniensis is rather unique in infecting mysids, many aspects of its natural history mirror that of other acanthocephalan species.

  15. Impacts of golf courses on macroinvertebrate community structure in Precambrian shield streams.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jennifer G; Somers, Keith M; Dillon, Peter J; Paterson, Carolyn; Reid, Ron A

    2002-01-01

    The influence of golf course operation on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Precambrian Shield streams was evaluated using rapid bioassessment and the reference condition approach. Streams were sampled for water chemistry and invertebrates in 1999 and 2000, six on operational golf courses, and seven in forested reference locations. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to determine the major patterns in the macroinvertebrate taxa, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate relationships with environmental variables. The reference streams were used to define the normal range of variation for a variety of summary indices to evaluate the golf course streams. In all cases, golf course streams were higher in nutrients and dissolved ions and more alkaline than the forested reference streams. There was considerable variability in the macroinvertebrate fauna from the golf course streams, which was related to differences in golf course land management practices and to the potential influence of highway runoff. Of the management practices evaluated, fertilizer application rates in particular were important, as was the presence of ponds upstream on the course. Invertebrate taxa with higher abundances in golf course streams included Turbellaria, Isopoda, Amphipoda, Zygoptera, and Trombidiformes. Taxa more common in the reference streams included Ephemeroptera, Megaloptera, Culicidae, and Plecoptera. There were marked differences in the overall benthic macroinvertebrate community in three of the six golf course streams studied relative to the forested reference streams, suggesting that golf course land management on the Precambrian Shield can be associated with significant differences in macroinvertebrate community structure.

  16. Antioxidant response to natural organic matter (NOM) exposure in three Baikalean amphipod species from contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A; Steinberg, C E W

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to comparatively evaluate the oxidative stress response on exposure to natural organic matter (NOM) in three amphipod (Crustacea, Amphipoda) species from different taxonomic groups and different habitats of Lake Baikal. Endemic species from Lake Baikal were used: the shallow-water dwelling Gmelinoides fasciatus (Dyb.), Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf.), and the deep-layer inhabitant Ommatogammarus flavus (Dyb.). Three key enzymes, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were studied. The applied NOM from Lake Schwarzer (Germany) directly impacts the two littoral species which quickly respond. The response is characterized by a significant decrease of POD and an increase of CAT activities. GST activity remains stable or decreased slightly. In contrast to the littoral amphipods, the deep-layer inhabitant O. flavus showed no significant reaction to NOM exposure, probably due to decreased adaptive ability of this species. The stable environment of the Baikalean deep zones obviously does not provide triggers for the development of flexible antioxidant or general defense systems. PMID:16914340

  17. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  18. Vertical distribution and diel migration of macrozooplankton in the St. Lawrence marine system (Canada) in relation with the cold intermediate layer thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Descroix, Aurélie

    2009-01-01

    Vertical distribution of various species and stages of macrozooplankton (euphausiacea, chaetognatha, cnidaria, mysidacea, amphipoda) were determined for different times of the day and related to the physical environment. Stratified sampling with the BIONESS was carried out during seven cruises in spring and fall 1998, 2000, and 2001, and fall 1999, in two different habitats in the St. Lawrence marine system: the lower St. Lawrence Estuary and the NW Gulf of St. Lawrence. Our results indicate that the various macrozooplankton species were distributed throughout the whole water column including the surface layer, the cold intermediate layer (CIL), and the deep layer at different times of day and night in both areas during all periods. Moreover, three types of migrational patterns were observed within this zooplanktonic community: (1) nocturnal ascent by the whole population, (2) segregation into two groups; one which performed nocturnal accent and another which remained in the deep, and (3) no detectable migration. We also observed that the diel vertical migration (DVM) amplitude in most of the macrozooplankton species varied as a function of physical factors, in particular the spatio-temporal variations of the CIL thermal properties, including the upper and the lower limits of the CIL and the depth of the CIL core temperature. Finally, the different DVM patterns coupled with estuarine circulation patterns and bottom topography could place animals in different flow regimes by night and by day and contribute to their retention (aggregation) and/or dispersion in different areas, time of the day, and seasons.

  19. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Bauzà-Ribot, Maria M; Juan, Carlos; Nardi, Francesco; Oromí, Pedro; Pons, Joan; Jaume, Damià

    2012-11-01

    Many continental subterranean water crustaceans ("stygobionts") display extreme disjunct distributions, where different species in the same genus are isolated on continents or islands separated by broad oceanic expanses. Despite their freshwater habitat, most of these taxa appear to be most closely related to typical marine groups ("thalassoid" origin). Among the hadzioids-thalassoid amphipods including the stygobiont families Hadziidae, Pseudoniphargidae, and Metacrangonyctidae-several genera are restricted to inland groundwaters ranging from the Caribbean region to the Mediterranean and Middle East, including interspersed oceanic islands. This distribution might have arisen from Tethyan vicariance triggered by the sequential occlusion of the former Tethys Sea, a vast circumtropical ocean existing from the Middle Jurassic up to 20 million years ago (mya). Previous studies have been based on morphological analyses or limited DNA sequence data, making it difficult to test this hypothesis. We used complete mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences, mainly obtained by next-generation sequencing methods and a nuclear ribosomal gene to resolve the phylogeny and to establish a time frame for diversification of the family Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda). The results were consistent with the plate tectonics vicariance hypothesis, with major diversifications occurring between 96 and 83 mya.

  20. Disentangling the effects of local and regional factors on the thermal tolerance of freshwater crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Delphine; Roussel, Damien; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    In the global warming context, we compared the thermal tolerance of several populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Rhône Valley. To disentangle the effect of regional (North vs. South) and local (site-specific) factors, the ecophysiological responses of populations were investigated at two levels of biological organisation: whole organism level considering body size [critical thermal maximum (CTmax), mean speed of locomotion (MS), time mobile (TM)] and organelle function level [mitochondrial respiratory control ratios (RCRs)]. CTmax and RCRs, but not MS and TM, revealed a significantly higher thermal tolerance in southern populations compared to northern ones. Nevertheless, temperatures ≥ 30°C were deleterious for all populations, suggesting that populations located in the warmer limit of the species distribution will be more threatened by climate change as they live closer to their upper thermal limits. The strong differences observed between populations indicate that the species-level thermal tolerance used in predictive models may not be informative enough to study the impact of global warming on species distributions. This work also reveals that an appropriate choice of indicators is essential to study the consequences of global warming since the response of organisms at the whole body level can be influenced by local conditions.

  1. Preliminary biological measurement program in the Savannah River. Final report, 1 March-31 August 1982. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Painter, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    A total of 131,815 macroinvertebrates were collected from meroplankton samples in the Savannah River and its tributary streams between 13 March and 29 August 1982. Fifty-three taxonomic groups, including 47 insect families and six non-insect taxa, were represented in the macroinvertebrate samples. Dipterans (true flies), particularly Chironomidae (midges) and Simuliidae (black flies) were the most abundant macroinvertebrate taxa at all transects. Other abundant taxa included Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Trichoptera (caddisflies), Amphipoda (scuds), Hydracarina (water mites) and nematode worms. When the invertebrate community was examined with respect to functional feeding groups, insect collectors were found to be the most abundant functional group. More invertebrate-taxa and higher densities of organisms were collected from the bottom drift samples than from the top of the water column, and more were collected from the center of the transects than from the bank areas. The results of the water quality analyses indicate that thermal discharges form Beaver Dam Creek, Four Mile Creek, and Pen Branch elevated the water temperature of the Savannah River approximately 1.6/sup 0/C between river Transects 6 and 9.

  2. Interspecific Relationships in Benthic Assemblages of a Large Lowland River : Co-existence or Competition as a Result of Habitat Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, M.; Usseglio-Polatera, P.

    2005-05-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages of the lower, regulated and canalized Marne River (France) are dominated by several "exotic", recently introduced species. Arrival, installation and spread of such alien species were certainly promoted by (1) the close connection between French and other European river systems (Rhine, Danube), (2) the modification of natural river flow and benthic habitats. Both habitat characteristics (e.g. granulometric composition, organic content) and corresponding benthic assemblage structure were analysed to identify the substrate affinity of major taxa in the lower Marne River. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the possible biotic interactions (i.e. competition for food and/or space) among dominant taxa as function of habitat features and to predict the future development of newly established species, already known as potential invaders: Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia), Hypania invalida (Polychaeta), Chelicorophium curvispinum (Amphipoda), etc. Most of the newly established species, coming from the same biogeographical area ("invasional meltdown" hypothesis?), are eurytopic, with high fecundity and large food spectrum. First results demonstrated the co-existence of such species in the Marne River. But the future ecological importance of these organisms in benthic assemblages of the river depends on their present population size, population dynamics, and ability to colonize bottom substrates.

  3. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  4. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis; Bedulina, Daria; Shatilina, Zhanna; Jakob, Lena; Vereshchagina, Kseniya; Lubyaga, Yulia; Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Luckenbach, Till; Lucassen, Magnus; Sartoris, Franz Josef; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858), Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874) and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea) to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase), and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes) of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc.) of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species’ Darwinian fitness in its environment. PMID:27706227

  5. Interaction between the Iska River and the Ljubljansko Barje aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Brancelj, Anton

    2010-05-01

    The system of vertically stratified aquifers on the area of the Ljubljansko Barje (i.e. water field Brest) is among the biggest and important drinking water source for central part of Slovenia, including the capital. In the past pollution of groundwater with some specific persistent inorganic pollutants in the lower porous aquifer was detected. To determine origin and intensity of pollution a complex pumping test was performed in autumn 2009 on different wells in the water field Brest. The conceptual model of the Ljubljansko Barje discusses about three rather well separated aquifers. The topmost one is directly fed by the I\\vska rive which flows on the western border of aquifers. To confirm the conceptual model of the system as well as to confirm hydraulic connection between aquifers a intensive pumping experiment was performed in November and December 2009. During the experiment the groundwater level measurement and groundwater quality sampling was carried out. In addition, subsurface fauna was sampled to find similarities between three aquifers. Due to technical problems (damage of animals during pumping) only some representatives of subsurface fauna were collected. Preliminary analyses of fauna confirmed rather rich subterranean fauna with Coppepoda and Amphipoda as dominant groups. At the same time, deep-groundwater aquifer (-50-100 m differs completely from shallow-groundwater aquifer (-7-25 m) which indicates direct connection with the nearby I\\vska River. Detailed analyses of fauna are in progress.

  6. Combined effect of UV-irradiation and TiO₂-nanoparticles on the predator-prey interaction of gammarids and mayfly nymphs.

    PubMed

    Kalčíková, Gabriela; Englert, Dominic; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2014-03-01

    Although nanoparticle production and application increases continuously, their implications in species interactions, especially in combination with other environmental stressors, are rarely assessed. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of 2 mg/L titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2; <100 nm) on the interaction between the prey Ephemerella ignita (Ephemeroptera) and the predator Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda) over 96 h considering UV-irradiation at field relevant levels (approximately 11.4 W/m(2)) as an additional environmental factor (n = 16). At the same time, gammarid's consumption of an alternative food source, i.e. leaf discs, was assessed. All endpoints covered were not affected by nTiO2 alone, while the combination of nTiO2 and UV caused a reduction in gammarid's predation (68%), leaf consumption (60%) and body weight (22%). These effects were most likely triggered by the UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species by nTiO2. The present study, hence, highlights the importance to cover UV-irradiation during the risk assessment of nanoparticles.

  7. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  8. Response of stream invertebrates to a global-warming thermal regime: An ecosystem-level manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, I.D.; Williams, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    We manipulated, in accord with global-warming predictions, the thermal regime of a permanent first-order stream near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We examined the effects of a 2-3.5{degrees}C water-temperature increase on densities, biomass, species composition, and life histories of resident stream invertebrates. The stream was divided longitudinally at the source into two channels, one control and one experimental, and a before and after (BACI) design was employed such that one pre-manipulation year was followed by 2 yr of the temperature manipulation. Changes in the experimental channel following commencement of the manipulation included: (1) decreased total animal densities, particularly Chironomidae (Diptera); (2) earlier onset of adult insect emergence; (3) increased growth rates and precocious breeding in Hyallella azteca (Amphipoda); (4) smaller size at maturity for Nemoura trispinosa (Plecoptera) and H., azteca and (5) altered sex ratios for Lepidostoma vernale (Trichoptera). These results partially corroborate previous laboratory and field studies. However, variation in the responses of individual target species to the manipulation was unexpected and may have been influenced by the genetic structure of local populations. We conclude that levels of gene flow among habitats may be critical to the degree of impact seen as a result of large-scale thermal perturbation (e.g., global warming). 60 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Bauzà-Ribot, Maria M; Juan, Carlos; Nardi, Francesco; Oromí, Pedro; Pons, Joan; Jaume, Damià

    2012-11-01

    Many continental subterranean water crustaceans ("stygobionts") display extreme disjunct distributions, where different species in the same genus are isolated on continents or islands separated by broad oceanic expanses. Despite their freshwater habitat, most of these taxa appear to be most closely related to typical marine groups ("thalassoid" origin). Among the hadzioids-thalassoid amphipods including the stygobiont families Hadziidae, Pseudoniphargidae, and Metacrangonyctidae-several genera are restricted to inland groundwaters ranging from the Caribbean region to the Mediterranean and Middle East, including interspersed oceanic islands. This distribution might have arisen from Tethyan vicariance triggered by the sequential occlusion of the former Tethys Sea, a vast circumtropical ocean existing from the Middle Jurassic up to 20 million years ago (mya). Previous studies have been based on morphological analyses or limited DNA sequence data, making it difficult to test this hypothesis. We used complete mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences, mainly obtained by next-generation sequencing methods and a nuclear ribosomal gene to resolve the phylogeny and to establish a time frame for diversification of the family Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda). The results were consistent with the plate tectonics vicariance hypothesis, with major diversifications occurring between 96 and 83 mya. PMID:23063439

  10. Composition and abundance of epibenthic-sledge catches in the South Polar Front of the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Havermans, C.; Janussen, D.; Jörger, K. M.; Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Schnurr, S.; Schüller, M.; Schwabe, E.; Brandão, S. N.; Würzberg, L.

    2014-10-01

    An epibenthic sledge (EBS) was deployed at seven different deep-sea stations along the South Polar Front of the Atlantic in order to explore the composition and abundance of macrofaunal organisms and to identify the most abundant taxa in this transition zone to the Southern Ocean. In total 3,130 specimens were sampled by means of the EBS on board of RV Polarstern during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 in the austral summer of 2012. Benthic and suprabenthic Crustacea occurred to be most frequent in the samples. Among those, copepods were by far most numerous, with 1,585 specimens followed by the peracarid taxa Isopoda (236 ind.), Amphipoda (103 ind.), Tanaidacea (78 ind.) and Cumacea (50 ind.). Annelida were represented by a high number of specimens belonging to different polychaete taxa (404 ind.). The molluscan fauna was clearly dominated by Bivalvia (255 ind.), followed in numbers of specimens by Gastropoda (47 ind.). The deep-sea benthos sampled along the Southern Polar Front occurred in surprisingly low abundances, contrasting the largely high surface productivity of the area. Numbers of specimens across different macrofaunal taxa and especially of peracarid crustaceans underscored by far those from South Ocean sites at higher latitudes in the Weddell Sea.

  11. The natural history of Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 (Acanthocephala) in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Aura, Raija-Liisa; Benesh, Daniel P; Palomaki, Risto; Tellervo Valtonen, E

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 differs from most other species in the genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 by infecting mysids (order Mysida) instead of amphipods (order Amphipoda) as intermediate hosts. Here we report on the occurrence of E. bothniensis in mysids (Mysis segerstralei Audzijonytė et Väinölä) and in its fish definitive hosts in a high Arctic lake. Out of 15 907 sampled mysids, 4.8% were infected with a mean intensity of 1.05 worms (range 1-5), although there was notable variation between samples taken in different years and sites. Larger mysids appear more likely to be infected. Of five fish species sampled, charr,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), and a benthic-feeding whitefish morph, Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus), were the most heavily infected (mean abundances of 80 and 15, respectively). The adult parasite population in fish exhibited a female-biased sex ratio (1.78 : 1). Although E. bothniensis is rather unique in infecting mysids, many aspects of its natural history mirror that of other acanthocephalan species. PMID:26373432

  12. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Carracher, Lucy K.; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Gilby, Ben L.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories. PMID:27564550

  13. Bait-attending fauna of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean: Evidence for an ecotone across the abyssal-hadal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, A. J.; Kilgallen, N. M.; Rowden, A. A.; Fujii, T.; Horton, T.; Lörz, A.-N.; Kitazawa, K.; Priede, I. G.

    2011-01-01

    The bait-attending fauna of the abyssal-hadal transition zone of the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean (4329-7966 m), was investigated using a baited camera and a trap lander. The abyssal stations (4329-6007 m) revealed a typical scavenging fish community comprising macrourids and synaphobranchid eels, as well as natantian decapods. At the hadal depths of 7199 and 7561 m, the endemic liparid Notoliparis kermadecensis was observed aggregating at the bait reaching surprisingly high numbers of 5 and 13, respectively. A total of 3183 invertebrate samples were collected (mean deployment time=16 h) of which 97.8% were of the order Amphipoda (nine families, 16 species). Ten of the amphipod species represent new distributional records for the Kermadec Trench and the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone; this includes the shallowest known record of the endemic hadal amphipod Hirondellea dubia (6000, 6007 m). Using amphipods to statistically examine the compositional change across the abyssal-hadal boundary, an ecotone between depths <6007 and >6890 m was found, indicating that there is an ecologically distinct bait-attending fauna in this trench.

  14. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa

    PubMed Central

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed. PMID:22423336

  15. Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of diet composition in macrobenthic peracarid crustaceans from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea, the fatty acid (FA) composition of different species belonging to the orders Isopoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea and Tanaidacea was analysed. Multivariate analyses of the FA composition confirmed general differences between the orders, but also distinct differences within these orders. To gain information on the origin of the FAs found, the potential food sources sediment, POM and foraminiferans were included in the study. Most of the analysed amphipod species displayed high 18:1( n-9)-18:1( n-7) ratios, widely used as an indicator for a carnivorous component in the diet. Cumaceans were characterised by increased phytoplankton FA markers such as 20:5( n-3) (up to 29% of total FAs), suggesting a diet based on phytodetritus. High values of the FA 20:4( n-6) were found in some munnopsid isopods (up to 21% of total FAs) and some tanaidacean species (up to 19% of total FAs). 20:4( n-6) also occurred in high proportions in some foraminiferan samples (up to 21% of total fatty acids), but not in sediment and POM, possibly indicating the ingestion of foraminiferans by some peracarid crustaceans.

  16. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories. PMID:27564550

  17. Land use effect on invertebrate assemblages in Pampasic streams (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Solis, Marina; Mugni, Hernán; Hunt, Lisa; Marrochi, Natalia; Fanelli, Silvia; Bonetto, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture and livestock may contribute to water quality degradation in adjacent waterbodies and produce changes in the resident invertebrate composition. The objective of the present study was to assess land use effects on the stream invertebrate assemblages in rural areas of the Argentine Pampa. The four sampling events were performed at six sites in four streams of the Pampa plain; two streams were sampled inside a biosphere reserve, and another one was surrounded by extensive livestock fields. The fourth stream was sampled at three sites; the upstream site was adjacent to agricultural plots, the following site was adjacent to an intensive livestock plot and the downstream site was adjacent to extensive breeding cattle plots. Higher pesticide concentrations were found at the site adjacent to agricultural plots and higher nutrient concentrations at the sites adjacent to agricultural and intensive breeding cattle plots. The invertebrate fauna were also different at these sites. Multivariate analysis showed a relationship between nutrient concentrations and taxonomic composition. Amphipoda (Hyalella curvispina) was the dominant group in the reserve and extensive breeding cattle sites, but was not present in the agricultural site. Also, Chironomidae were absent from the agricultural site while present at other sites. Gasteropoda (Biomphalaria peregrina), Zygoptera, and Hirudinea were dominant at the most impacted agricultural and intensive breeding cattle sites. PMID:27581006

  18. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the detritivore community and species interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The fauna associated with sea-bed accumulations of decomposing Laminaria saccharina has been studied by year-round SCUBA diving at two sites in the Clyde Sea area. Seasonal changes in density of 64 species are reported. In the autumn, large quantities of kelp are detached by storms. This weed carries with it to the sea bed a large part of its normal fauna. Additional species settle onto the weed from the plankton whilst others migrate onto it from the surrounding sea bed. Peak densities of associated species were recorded in autumn. Litter bag experiments in situ showed that, except during the summer, weed is lost from sea-bed accumulations at a faster rate when macrofaunal animals are excluded. The macrofauna therefore inhibits decomposition. The relative importance of interactive cropping by three macrodetritivores, Psammechinus miliaris (Echinodermata), Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta) and Gammarus locusta (Amphipoda) was studied by in situ containment of different species combinations. The presence of Gammarus with Psammechinus resulted in less weed being lost than when Psammechinus was isolated. This is because Gammarus selectively crops rotting weed, retarding frond disintegration by microbes. Platynereis retards microbial colonization of frond tissues ruptured during its feeding by repeated cropping of the same region. Weed would decompose very rapidly were it not for macrofaunal cropping. Macroalgal decay thus differs profoundly from that of vascular plants.

  19. Food of forage fishes in western Lake Erie, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.

    1989-01-01

    In western Lake Erie in the summer and fall of 1975–1976, food eaten by seven forage fishes—emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), andyoung-of-the-year (YOY) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), white bass (Morone chrysops), and freshwater drum (Aplodi-notus grunniens)—was divided among six major taxa: Cladocera, Copepoda, Diptera, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and Algae. In addition, fish were eaten by YOY white bass, and Rotifera were consumed by YOY gizzard shad. Interspecies diet overlap indices, calculated to compare the food of the different species and to evaluate diet similarities, were usually highest for YOY white bass and YOY freshwater drum when compared with the other species and usually lowest between emerald shiners and all other forage fishes. Understanding the feeding interactions among fishes that could influence production at the forage-food level of the food web could provide insight into how cascading trophic interactions influence the production of piscivorous predators.

  20. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-02-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed. PMID:22423336

  1. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda ( Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala ( Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  2. Effect of Acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giovinazzo, G; Giari, L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of a naturally acquired infection by three acanthocephalan parasites Dentitruncus truttae, Echinorhynchus truttae, and Polymorphus minutus on the reproductive potential of their intermediate host, Echinogammarus tibaldii (Amphipoda) from Lake Piediluco (Centre of Italy) was assessed. During May 2007, 1135 amphipods were collected from two different samplings and examined for larval helminths. Forty-five amphipods were infected and of those, 16 were infected with D. truttae (intensity=1-3 larvae), 15 with E. truttae (intensity=1-2 larvae), and 14 with P. minutus (intensity=1 larva). The sex ratio was nearly 1:1 in all examined amphipods. One female infected with D. truttae contained six eggs in the brood pouch and another female infected with E. truttae contained five eggs. However, none of the eight female amphipods harbouring P. minutus larva contained eggs in their brood pouch. Uninfected females of the same size and body length as that of the infected females contained between 20 and 32 eggs. No acanthocephalan species were found to co-occur.

  3. Community structure and diversity of scavenging amphipods from bathyal to hadal depths in three South Pacific Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Nichola C.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Linley, Thomas; Mayor, Dan J.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-05-01

    There are few biological datasets that span large bathymetric ranges with sufficient resolution to identify trends across the abyssal and hadal transition zone, particularly over multiple trenches. Here, scavenging Amphipoda were collected from three trenches in the South Pacific Ocean at bathyal to hadal depths. Diversity and community structure were examined from stations within the Kermadec Trench (1490-9908 m) and New Hebrides Trench (2000-6948 m) and additional data were included from the South Fiji Basin (4000 m) and Peru-Chile Trench (4602-8074 m). The hadal community structure of the Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches were distinct from the surrounding abyssal and bathyal depths and correlated to hydrostatic pressure and POC flux. Low POC flux in the New Hebrides Trench and South Fiji Basin best explained the dissimilarity in abyssal community structure from those of the disparate Kermadec and Peru-Chile trenches. POC flux also best explained patterns in hadal community structure with the Kermadec and New Hebrides Trench communities showing greater similarity to each other than to the eutrophic Peru-Chile Trench. Hydrostatic pressure was the strongest driver of intra-trench assemblage composition in all trench environments. A unimodal pattern of species diversity, peaking between 4000 and 5000 m, was best explained by hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  4. Meiobenthos assemblages in the mekong estuarine system with special focus on free-living marine nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-12-01

    Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.

  5. Sediment-quality assessment of the Lower Oconee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Shelton, J.L.; Bogenrieder, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Sediment quality was assessed at multiple sites in the lower Oconee River, GA to identify contaminants potentially affecting the survival of an endemic ?At-Risk? species of fish, the robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum). Five major tributaries that drain urban and agricultural watersheds enter this stretch of river and several carry permitted municipal and industrial effluents containing Cd, Cu, and Zn. Sediments for chemical analyses and toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) were collected at 12 locations that included sites above and below the major tributaries. Compared to national data bases and to the nearby Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint watershed, sediments from the Oconee River had elevated concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg and Zn. Zinc concentrations showed a marked increase in sediment downstream of the confluence of Buffalo Creek demonstrating contributions from permitted municipal and industrial effluents discharged to that tributary. When exposed to these sediments, growth of H. azteca was significantly reduced. Amphipod growth was also reduced when exposed to sediments collected from another site due to toxicity from Cr. Sediments in the lower Oconee River appear to be impaired due to metal contamination and could pose a threat to organisms, such as the robust redhorse, that are closely associated with this matrix during their life cycle.

  6. Gene Genealogies Strongly Distorted by Weakly Interfering Mutations in Constant Environments

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Jon; Smith, Wendy A.; Perry, Jarom J.; Hunn, Jessalynn; Kaliszewska, Zofia A.; Sala, Luciano La; Pozzi, Luciana; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Adler, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Neutral nucleotide diversity does not scale with population size as expected, and this “paradox of variation” is especially severe for animal mitochondria. Adaptive selective sweeps are often proposed as a major cause, but a plausible alternative is selection against large numbers of weakly deleterious mutations subject to Hill–Robertson interference. The mitochondrial genealogies of several species of whale lice (Amphipoda: Cyamus) are consistently too short relative to neutral-theory expectations, and they are also distorted in shape (branch-length proportions) and topology (relative sister-clade sizes). This pattern is not easily explained by adaptive sweeps or demographic history, but it can be reproduced in models of interference among forward and back mutations at large numbers of sites on a nonrecombining chromosome. A coalescent simulation algorithm was used to study this model over a wide range of parameter values. The genealogical distortions are all maximized when the selection coefficients are of critical intermediate sizes, such that Muller's ratchet begins to turn. In this regime, linked neutral nucleotide diversity becomes nearly insensitive to N. Mutations of this size dominate the dynamics even if there are also large numbers of more strongly and more weakly selected sites in the genome. A genealogical perspective on Hill–Robertson interference leads directly to a generalized background-selection model in which the effective population size is progressively reduced going back in time from the present. PMID:19966069

  7. Evaluating macroinvertebrate population and community level effects in outdoor microcosms: Use of in situ bioassays and multivariate analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.L.; Manning, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Evaluating toxicant effects on aquatic communities is difficult due to the ecological complexity at higher levels of organization. Two methods were assessed to improve the understanding of effects on macroinvertebrate communities in aquatic model ecosystems. First, in situ bioassay population effects were used to interpret effects at a higher organization level. Second, canonical discriminant analysis was used to investigate effects on community structure. In situ bioassays were conducted on six occasions in 17-m{sup 3} microcosms treated with copper sulfate. Macroinvertebrates occurring naturally in the microcosms were monitored. Epibenthic in situ bioassays were conducted using Caenis sp. (Ephemeroptera) and Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda) and a water column bioassay was conducted using Notonectidae (Hemiptera). Survival and growth were assessed after 3 d. Effects of copper on both notonectidae and Caenis were observed following application. However, the final Caenis epibenthic bioassays indicated that potential for recovery and survival was {ge}95%. Potential for recovery was less distinct in the water column bioassays. Copper effects also occurred on epibenthic macroinvertebrate populations and communities. Only four taxa, including Caenis, distinguished community differences among copper treatments soon after application. Later, communities showed similarities to the pretreatment bioassay. However, actual recovery was less apparent than the potential for recovery indicated by the bioassays, and community differences due to Caenis persisted.

  8. Biotic interactions affect the colonization behavior of aquatic detritivorous macroinvertebrates in a heterogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschut, Thomas A.; Meineri, Eric; Basset, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    It has previously been suggested that macroinvertebrates actively search for suitable patches to colonize. However, it is not well understood how the spatial arrangement of patches can affect colonization rates. In this study, we determined the importance of the environmental factors (distance, connectivity and resource availability) for patch colonization in an experimental system using Gammarus aequicauda (Amphipoda), Lekanesphaera hookeri (Isopoda) and Ecrobia ventrosa (Gastropoda). Furthermore, we also assessed how the relative importance of each of these environmental factors differed in interactions between the three species. The single species experiments showed that distance was the most important factor for G. aequicauda and E. ventrosa. However, while E. ventrosa preferred patches close to the release point, G. aequicauda strongly preferred patches further from the release point. High resource availability was a strong determinant for the patch colonization of G. aequicauda and L. hookeri. Connectivity was only of moderate importance in the study system for L. hookeri and E. ventrosa. The effects of the environmental factors were strongly affected by interspecific interactions in the multispecies experiments. For G. aequicauda, the distance preference was lowered in the presence of E. ventrosa. Moreover, while for L. hookeri the effect of resource availability was ruled out by the species interactions, resource availability gained importance for E. ventrosa in the presence of any of the other species. Our results suggest a strong link between environmental factors and biotic interactions in the colonization of habitat patches and indicate that the effect of biotic interactions is especially important for species sharing similar traits.

  9. Arsenic in sediments, water and aquatic biota from lakes in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wagemann, R; Snow, N B; Rosenberg, D M; Lutz, A

    1978-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in aquatic invertebrates, macrophytes, sediments, and water of lakes in the vicinity of Yellowknife (N.W.T.), Canada. In arsenic-contaminated lakes the arsenic concentration ranged from 0.70 to 5.5 ppm in water, 6 to 3,500 ppm in bottom sediments, 150 to 3,700 ppm in macrophytes, 700 to 2,400 ppm in zooplankton, and less than 1 to 1,300 ppm in other invertebrates. The arsenic concentration in invertebrates varied with sampling time, place, and taxon. Arsenic concentration factors were calculated, and found to decrease with increasing concentration of arsenic in ecosystem components of the lake. No evidence was found for biomagnification of arsenic through ascending trophic levels. In high-arsenic lakes herbivores had the highest arsenic concentrations, and omnivores the lowest. Pelecypoda, Ephemeroptera, Amphipoda, and Hirudinea were conspicuously absent from high-arsenic lakes. These particular organisms may be more susceptible to the effects of arsenic than others.

  10. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa.

    PubMed

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-02-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed.

  11. Disentangling the effects of local and regional factors on the thermal tolerance of freshwater crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Delphine; Roussel, Damien; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    In the global warming context, we compared the thermal tolerance of several populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Rhône Valley. To disentangle the effect of regional (North vs. South) and local (site-specific) factors, the ecophysiological responses of populations were investigated at two levels of biological organisation: whole organism level considering body size [critical thermal maximum (CTmax), mean speed of locomotion (MS), time mobile (TM)] and organelle function level [mitochondrial respiratory control ratios (RCRs)]. CTmax and RCRs, but not MS and TM, revealed a significantly higher thermal tolerance in southern populations compared to northern ones. Nevertheless, temperatures ≥ 30°C were deleterious for all populations, suggesting that populations located in the warmer limit of the species distribution will be more threatened by climate change as they live closer to their upper thermal limits. The strong differences observed between populations indicate that the species-level thermal tolerance used in predictive models may not be informative enough to study the impact of global warming on species distributions. This work also reveals that an appropriate choice of indicators is essential to study the consequences of global warming since the response of organisms at the whole body level can be influenced by local conditions.

  12. Morphology of the haemolymph vascular system in Tanaidacea and Cumacea: - implications for the relationships of "core group" Peracarida (Malacostraca; Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Wirkner, Christian S; Richter, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    Tanaidacea and Cumacea are crucial for understanding the phylogenetic relationships of "core group" peracarids. Here, the haemolymph vascular system in three tanaidacean and four cumacean species was studied on the basis of histological sections and 3D reconstruction. The circulatory organs in Tanaidacea include a tubular heart which extends through most of the thorax. It is extended into the cephalothorax by an anterior aorta. Haemolymph enters the heart through one to two pairs of incurrent ostia. Up to five pairs of cardiac arteries emanate from the heart to supply viscera in the body cavity. In the anterior cephalothorax, the aorta forms a pericerebral ring from which the arteries for the brain and the antennae branch off. In Cumacea, the heart is shorter but more voluminous. In all cumaceans studied, five pairs of cardiac arteries supply the thoracopods and the pleon. The single pair of ostia is situated in the centre of the heart. The anterior aorta runs into the anterior cephalothorax where it supplies the brain and antennae. This paper provides a general comparative discussion of all available data from the literature and the data provided herein. In certain details, the haemolymph vascular system of the Tanaidacea resembles that of Amphipoda, and some correspondences between Cumacea and Isopoda are pointed out. These findings might support a closer relationship between the latter two taxa while they show no support for an amphipod/isopod clade.

  13. Stream buffer effectiveness in an agriculturally influenced area, southwestern Georgia: responses of water quality, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Muenz, Tara K; Golladay, Stephen W; Vellidis, George; Smith, Lora L

    2006-01-01

    To determine useful metrics for assessing stream water quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain, we examined differences among two buffered and three unbuffered streams in an agricultural landscape in southwestern Georgia. Potential indicators included amphibian diversity and abundance, aquatic macroinvertebrate populations, riparian vegetative structure, water quality, and stream physical parameters. Variability among sites and treatments (buffered vs. unbuffered) existed, with sites in the same treatment as most similar, and disturbances from a nearby eroding gully strongly affecting one unbuffered site. Of the invertebrate metrics examined, percentages of clingers, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT), Elmidae (Coleoptera), Crustacea (Decapoda and Amphipoda), and dipterans were found to be possible indicators of stream health for perennial streams within this region. Overall, buffered sites showed higher percentages of sensitive invertebrate groups and showed lower and more stable concentrations of nitrate N, suspended solids, and fecal coliforms (FCs). Percent canopy cover was similar among sites; however, riparian vegetative coverage and percent leaf litter were greatest at buffered sites. No differences in amphibian abundance, presence, and absence within the riparian area were apparent between sites; however, instream larval salamanders were more abundant at buffered streams. In this study, stream buffers appeared to decrease nutrient and sediment loads to adjacent streams, enhancing overall water quality. Selected benthic macroinvertebrate metrics and amphibian abundance also appeared sensitive to agricultural influences. Amphibians show potential as indicator candidates, however further information is needed on their responses and tolerances to disturbances from the microhabitat to landscape levels.

  14. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation. PMID:25166310

  15. When growth models are not universal: evidence from marine invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Forster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of body mass, as growth, is fundamental to all organisms. Being able to understand which model(s) best describe this growth trajectory, both empirically and ultimately mechanistically, is an important challenge. A variety of equations have been proposed to describe growth during ontogeny. Recently, the West Brown Enquist (WBE) equation, formulated as part of the metabolic theory of ecology, has been proposed as a universal model of growth. This equation has the advantage of having a biological basis, but its ability to describe invertebrate growth patterns has not been well tested against other, more simple models. In this study, we collected data for 58 species of marine invertebrate from 15 different taxa. The data were fitted to three growth models (power, exponential and WBE), and their abilities were examined using an information theoretic approach. Using Akaike information criteria, we found changes in mass through time to fit an exponential equation form best (in approx. 73% of cases). The WBE model predominantly overestimates body size in early ontogeny and underestimates it in later ontogeny; it was the best fit in approximately 14% of cases. The exponential model described growth well in nine taxa, whereas the WBE described growth well in one of the 15 taxa, the Amphipoda. Although the WBE has the advantage of being developed with an underlying proximate mechanism, it provides a poor fit to the majority of marine invertebrates examined here, including species with determinate and indeterminate growth types. In the original formulation of the WBE model, it was tested almost exclusively against vertebrates, to which it fitted well; the model does not however appear to be universal given its poor ability to describe growth in benthic or pelagic marine invertebrates. PMID:23945691

  16. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons.

  17. [Diet composition and seasonal variation in feeding habits of Collichthy lucidus in Yangtze Estuary, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Yang, Gang; Hou, Jun-li; Zhuang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Spiny head croaker (Collichthy lucidus) is an important bottom fish distributing from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea. In order to investigate the seasonal variation in diet composition and feeding habits, a total of 270 specimens were collected in the Yangtze Estuary from November, 2013 to August, 2014, and analyzed by using the stomach contents analysis method. The importance of different prey items was evaluated by the frequency of occurrence, abundance and mass followed by using these data to calculate the index of relative importance (IRI) and the index of preponderance (Ip) for each taxonomic category. The results showed that the diet of C. lucidus consisted of 30 species belonging to 8 orders, in which shrimps, with 38.5 IRI% and 79.1 Ip values, was the most important prey species. The followings were Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The dominant species in the diet of C. lucidus were Palaemon gravieri, Exopalaemon annandalei, E. carinicauda, Acanthomysis longirostris, A. brevirostris, Synidotea laevidorsalis and Calanus sinicus. The dominant species in the diet varied in different seasons. P. gravieri, E. annandalei and A. brevirostris were dominant species in spring and summer, A. longirostris, A. brevirostris and E. carinicauda in autumn, and P. gravieri, C. sinicus and Pesudeuphausia sinica in winter. There was 10.4% of total samples with empty stomachs, and the highest percent appeared in winter, and the lowest in autumn. The mean stomach fullness index of the whole samples was 0.6%, with the highest found in spring, the lowest in winter, indicating the feeding activity of C. lucidus varied significantly among seasons. PMID:27228621

  18. Taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna in the rice fields of Kashmir (J and K) India.

    PubMed

    Bahaar, S W N; Bhat, G A

    2011-04-15

    Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physicochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H'), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (34 degrees 02'N; 74 degrees 16'E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30 degrees C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33 degrees C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L(-1) and a maximum of 10 mg L(-1). Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L(-1) and 6.1 mg(-1). The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies. PMID:21936252

  19. When growth models are not universal: evidence from marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Andrew G; Forster, Jack

    2013-10-01

    The accumulation of body mass, as growth, is fundamental to all organisms. Being able to understand which model(s) best describe this growth trajectory, both empirically and ultimately mechanistically, is an important challenge. A variety of equations have been proposed to describe growth during ontogeny. Recently, the West Brown Enquist (WBE) equation, formulated as part of the metabolic theory of ecology, has been proposed as a universal model of growth. This equation has the advantage of having a biological basis, but its ability to describe invertebrate growth patterns has not been well tested against other, more simple models. In this study, we collected data for 58 species of marine invertebrate from 15 different taxa. The data were fitted to three growth models (power, exponential and WBE), and their abilities were examined using an information theoretic approach. Using Akaike information criteria, we found changes in mass through time to fit an exponential equation form best (in approx. 73% of cases). The WBE model predominantly overestimates body size in early ontogeny and underestimates it in later ontogeny; it was the best fit in approximately 14% of cases. The exponential model described growth well in nine taxa, whereas the WBE described growth well in one of the 15 taxa, the Amphipoda. Although the WBE has the advantage of being developed with an underlying proximate mechanism, it provides a poor fit to the majority of marine invertebrates examined here, including species with determinate and indeterminate growth types. In the original formulation of the WBE model, it was tested almost exclusively against vertebrates, to which it fitted well; the model does not however appear to be universal given its poor ability to describe growth in benthic or pelagic marine invertebrates.

  20. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; Gonçalves, E A; Alves, R G

    2014-05-01

    Riparian vegetation along streams in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil contributes to the formation of a highly heterogeneous leaf litter in streambeds. To investigate the structure and composition of the aquatic invertebrate community during the process of leaf decomposition of two plant species present along the banks of the stream studied, 21 plastic mesh bags containing 2.5g (dry weight) of leaf matter from each species (Alchornea glandulosa (Vell) and Cabralea canjerana End. and Poeppig), for a total of 5.0g, were placed in the streambed. Three bags were removed after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days. The taxonomic density was negatively correlated with the remaining weight. The high density of collector organisms, such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta and Amphipoda, on the last day of incubation, probably occurred due to the increased amount of fine organic matter in the more advanced decomposition stages. The highest α diversity (Shannon-Wiener) values were observed for the 3rd and 96th days of the experiment, while the β diversity values showed that these days presented the highest variation in the taxonomic composition, thus presenting a different faunistic composition. This study showed that the trophic structure and composition of aquatic invertebrates changes during the decomposition of leaf litter. The faunistic abundance and diversity observed in this study indicate that the entrance of material from plants growing along streams provides favorable conditions for the colonisation and establishment of invertebrates in lower-order streams, and thus points to the need to preserve riparian vegetation.

  1. Natural disturbance shapes benthic intertidal macroinvertebrate communities of high latitude river deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating

  2. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  3. Phylogeny as a Proxy for Ecology in Seagrass Amphipods: Which Traits Are Most Conserved?

    PubMed Central

    Best, Rebecca J.; Stachowicz, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, studies of community assembly and ecosystem function combine trait data and phylogenetic relationships to gain novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary constraints on community dynamics. However, the key to interpreting these two types of information is an understanding of the extent to which traits are phylogenetically conserved. In this study, we develop the necessary framework for community phylogenetics approaches in a system of marine crustacean herbivores that play an important role in the ecosystem functioning of seagrass systems worldwide. For 16 species of amphipods and isopods, we (1) reconstructed phylogenetic relationships using COI, 16S, and 18S sequences and Bayesian analyses, (2) measured traits that are potentially important for assembling species between and within habitats, and (3) compared the degree to which each of these traits are evolutionarily conserved. Despite poor phylogenetic resolution for the order Amphipoda as a whole, we resolved almost all of the topology for the species in our system, and used a sampling of ultrametric trees from the posterior distribution to account for remaining uncertainty in topology and branch lengths. We found that traits varied widely in their degree of phylogenetic signal. Body mass, fecundity, and tube building showed very strong phylogenetic signal, and temperature tolerance and feeding traits showed much less. As such, the degree of signal was not predictable based on whether the trait is related to environmental filtering or to resource partitioning. Further, we found that even with strong phylogenetic signal in body size, (which may have large impacts on ecosystem function), the predictive relationship between phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function is not straightforward. We show that patterns of phylogenetic diversity in communities of seagrass mesograzers could lead to a variety of interpretations and predictions, and that detailed study of trait similarities and

  4. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  5. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth.

  6. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic

  7. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km–all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna. PMID:27649419

  8. Ecological effects of an anionic C12-15 AE-3S alkylethoxysulfate surfactant in outdoor stream mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Dorn, Philip B; Steinriede, R Wade; Wong, Diana C L; Rodgers, John H

    2002-12-01

    The ecological assessment of a C12-15 AE-3S linear alkylethoxysulfate (AES) anionic surfactant to invertebrates, fish, periphyton, and an aquatic macrophyte was conducted in a 30-d outdoor stream mesocosm study with five replicated concentrations and controls. Alkylethoxysulfate structural integrity and exposure concentrations were maintained during the 30-d treatment period, with average measured concentrations of 0.7, 1.27, 2.2, 4.31, and 10.18 mg/L. No effects were observed on the aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum aquaticum at the highest concentration tested. A sevenfold increase in periphyton biomass at 10.18 mg/L was observed relative to controls primarily because of increases in density of the filamentous alga Mougeotia sp. Densities of the invertebrates Annelida (Stylaria), Amphipoda, Copepoda, Trichoptera (Hydropsychidae), Cladocera, and Diptera (Chironomidae) significantly decreased in streams treated with AES at 10.18 mg/L. Densities of drifting invertebrates were not observed to be affected at any concentration tested. Reproduction of Pimephales promelas significantly decreased at 1.27 mg/L and growth of juvenile Lepomis macrochirus was significantly affected at 4.31 mg/L. Multivariate cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination showed distinct structural effects on the invertebrate communities in the streams treated with AES at 10.18 mg/ L compared to the control and streams treated at < 10.18 mg/L through the 30-d treatment. Convergence of the communities treated at 10.18 mg/L toward control communities in the ordination suggests recovery in these communities after termination of surfactant treatment. The results from this study support an ecosystem value of > 2.0 mg/L, and indicate that the conservative Dutch risk assessment for AESs has at least a fivefold margin of safety.

  9. Myogenesis of Malacostraca – the “egg-nauplius” concept revisited

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malacostracan evolutionary history has seen multiple transformations of ontogenetic mode. For example direct development in connection with extensive brood care and development involving planktotrophic nauplius larvae, as well as intermediate forms are found throughout this taxon. This makes the Malacostraca a promising group for study of evolutionary morphological diversification and the role of heterochrony therein. One candidate heterochronic phenomenon is represented by the concept of the ‘egg-nauplius’, in which the nauplius larva, considered plesiomorphic to all Crustacea, is recapitulated as an embryonic stage. Results Here we present a comparative investigation of embryonic muscle differentiation in four representatives of Malacostraca: Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Stomatopoda), Neocaridina heteropoda (Decapoda), Neomysis integer (Mysida) and Parhyale hawaiensis (Amphipoda). We describe the patterns of muscle precursors in different embryonic stages to reconstruct the sequence of muscle development, until hatching of the larva or juvenile. Comparison of the developmental sequences between species reveals extensive heterochronic and heteromorphic variation. Clear anticipation of muscle differentiation in the nauplius segments, but also early formation of longitudinal trunk musculature independently of the teloblastic proliferation zone, are found to be characteristic to stomatopods and decapods, all of which share an egg-nauplius stage. Conclusions Our study provides a strong indication that the concept of nauplius recapitulation in Malacostraca is incomplete, because sequences of muscle tissue differentiation deviate from the chronological patterns observed in the ectoderm, on which the egg-nauplius is based. However, comparison of myogenic sequences between taxa supports the hypothesis of a zoea-like larva that was present in the last common ancestor of Eumalacostraca (Malacostraca without Leptostraca). We argue that much of the developmental

  10. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  11. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  12. The role of alternate hosts in the ecology and life history of Hematodinium sp., a parasitic dinoflagellate of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Lohan, Katrina M Pagenkopp; Reece, Kimberly S; Miller, Terrence L; Wheeler, Kersten N; Small, Hamish J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2012-02-01

    Hematodinium sp. infections are relatively common in some American blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) populations in estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. Outbreaks of disease caused by Hematodinium sp. can be extensive and can cause substantial mortalities in blue crab populations in high salinities. We examined several species of crustaceans to determine if the same species of Hematodinium that infects C. sapidus is found in other crustaceans from the same localities. Over a 2-yr period, 1,829 crustaceans were collected from the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia, examined for the presence of infections. A portion of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex from Hematodinium sp. was amplified and sequences were compared among 35 individual crustaceans putatively infected with the parasite, as determined by microscopic examination, and 4 crustaceans putatively infected based only on PCR analysis. Of the 18 crustacean species examined, 5 were infected with Hematodinium sp. after microscopic examination and PCR analysis, including 3 new host records, and an additional species was positive only via PCR analysis. The ITS1 rRNA sequences of Hematodinium sp. from the infected crustaceans were highly similar to each other and to that reported from C. sapidus (>98%). The similarity among these ITS1 sequences and similarities in the histopathology of infected hosts is evidence that the same species of Hematodinium found in C. sapidus infects a broad range of crustaceans along the Delmarva Peninsula. Our data indicate that the species of Hematodinium found in blue crabs from estuaries along the east coast of North America is a host generalist, capable of infecting hosts in different families within the Order Decapoda. Additionally, evidence indicates that it may be capable of infecting crustaceans within the Order Amphipoda.

  13. Mesozooplankton and copepod community structures in the southern East China Sea: the status during the monsoonal transition period in September

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Li-Chun; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-12-01

    A field sampling was conducted before the onset of the northeasterly monsoon to investigate the copepod community composition during the monsoon transition period at the northern coast of Taiwan (East China Sea). In total, 22 major mesozooplankton taxa were found, with the Calanoida (relative abundance: 66.36%) and Chaetognatha (9.44%) being the most abundant. Mesozooplankton densities ranged between 226.91 and 2162.84 individuals m-3 (mean ± SD: 744.01 ± 631.5 individuals m-3). A total of 49 copepod species were identified, belonging to 4 orders, 19 families, and 30 genera. The most abundant species were: Temora turbinata (23.50%), Undinula vulgaris (17.92%), and Acrocalanus gibber (14.73%). The chaetognath Flaccisagitta enflata occurred at all 8 sampling stations, providing a 95% portion of the overall chaetognath contribution. Amphipoda were abundant at stations 4 and 5, with Hyperioides sibaginis and Lestigonus bengalensis being dominant, and comprising about 50% of all amphipods. Chaetognath abundance showed a significantly negative correlation with salinity ( r = 0.77, p = 0.027), whereas mesozooplankton group numbers had a significantly positive correlation with salinity ( r = 0.71, p = 0.048). Densities of four copepod species ( Calanus sinicus, Calocalanus pavo, Calanopia elliptica and Labidocera acuta) showed a significantly negative correlation with seawater temperature. Communities of mesozooplankton and copepods of northern Taiwan varied spatially with the distance to land. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of C. sinicus in the coastal area of northern Taiwan during the early northeast monsoon transition period in September.

  14. Altered performance of white sucker populations in the Manitouwadge chain of lakes is associated with changes in benthic macroinvertebrate communities as a result of copper and zinc contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Munkittrick, K.R.; Miller, P.A.; Barton, D.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1991-06-01

    White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from the Manitouwadge chain of lakes show a lower growth rate and fecundity in lakes contaminated with copper and zinc from a mixed metal mine. This study evaluated whether the changes in performance of the fish were related to direct impacts of the metals or indirect impacts associated with changes in food availability. Concentrations of metals in the water and sediment of lakes in the Manitouwadge chain were elevated, relative to reference sites. The concentrations of Cu and Zn in the digesta of white sucker were significantly higher, as were the levels of both Cu and Zn in liver, kidney, and gill tissue. Muscle and spleen levels of Cu and Zn were significantly lower or not different from controls. Tissue levels were within the homeostatic range for Cu and Zn. However, the total density of invertebrates varied from greater than 25,000 m-2 at control sites to less than 13,000 m-2 at contaminated sites, and the number of genera recorded was more than 50% lower in shallow water samples. There was almost a complete absence of several invertebrate taxa at contaminated sites, including Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Trichoptera, Amphipoda, and Unionidae. Diptera accounted for 78 to 96% of the total numbers of individuals at metal-contaminated sites as compared with 40 to 75% at the control sites. An analysis of white sucker stomach contents showed that the contents closely reflected the benthic composition observed in the natural substrate. Changes in food availability and feeding activity were correlated with previous changes documented in the growth, fecundity, and lipid levels of white sucker.

  15. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  16. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  17. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  18. Compound-Specific Amino Acid Isotopic Analysis of Benthic Food Webs in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid δ13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in δ13C and δ15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. δ15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. Δ15Nglu-phe (δ15Nglu - δ15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk δ15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  20. Islands beneath islands: phylogeography of a groundwater amphipod crustacean in the Balearic archipelago

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) is an enigmatic continental subterranean water family of marine origin (thalassoid). One of the species in the genus, Metacrangonyx longipes, is endemic to the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Menorca (W Mediterranean). It has been suggested that the origin and distribution of thalassoid crustaceans could be explained by one of two alternative hypotheses: (1) active colonization of inland freshwater aquifers by a marine ancestor, followed by an adaptative shift; or (2) passive colonization by stranding of ancestral marine populations in coastal aquifers during marine regressions. A comparison of phylogenies, phylogeographic patterns and age estimations of clades should discriminate in favour of one of these two proposals. Results Phylogenetic relationships within M. longipes based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and one nuclear marker revealed five genetically divergent and geographically structured clades. Analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA data showed the occurrence of a high geographic population subdivision in both islands, with current gene flow occurring exclusively between sites located in close proximity. Molecular-clock estimations dated the origin of M. longipes previous to about 6 Ma, whereas major cladogenetic events within the species took place between 4.2 and 2.0 Ma. Conclusions M. longipes displayed a surprisingly old and highly fragmented population structure, with major episodes of cladogenesis within the species roughly correlating with some of the major marine transgression-regression episodes that affected the region during the last 6 Ma. Eustatic changes (vicariant events) -not active range expansion of marine littoral ancestors colonizing desalinated habitats-explain the phylogeographic pattern observed in M. longipes. PMID:21791038

  1. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T.; Schubart, Christoph D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  2. Acoustic and in situ measurements of freshwater amphipods (Jesogammarus annandalei) in Lake Biwa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, M.V.; Tanaka, Yuji

    1997-01-01

    During a 23-d study of Lake Biwa, Japan (starting 23 August 1993), multifrequency inverted echo-sounder measurements of nocturnal scattering layers in the meta- and epilimnion were performed at a single location. Direct samples from within this scattering layer indicated that it was composed of Jesogammarus annandalei (Crustacea:Amphipoda), with mean adult length of 8.3 mm and population densities from 4 to 50 per m{sup 3}. Estimates of the scattering cross-section for individual amphipods were extracted from echo-amplitude probability distributions combined with volume scattering strength from a 198-kHz sonar. Total scattering cross-sections for adult amphipods at 88, 118, and 198 kHz were estimated as 4.3{plus_minus}0.9 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}, 8.7{plus_minus}1.2 x 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}, and 2.8{plus_minus}0.5 x 10{sup {minus}7} m{sup 2}. These cross-section measurements were found to be consistent with a fluid cylinder acoustic scattering model with a 1.2-mm radius and a 9.6-mm length. The acoustically derived population densities, sizes, and length-to-radius ratio were consistent with in situ amphipod samples. The amphipods exhibited a clear nocturnal migration into the lower thermocline, concentrating at depths of 15-25 m beginning after sunset (near 1830 hours local time) each day. Population densities (10-min averaged) showed maxima of 10-30 per m{sup 3} near 2000 hours, with densities decreasing rapidly toward midnight and disappearing by approximately 0430 hours. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Beatriz; Kenchington, Ellen L

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km-all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna. PMID:27649419

  4. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth. PMID:22263483

  5. Species richness and distributions of boreal waterbirds in relation to nesting and brood-rearing habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bertram, Mark R.; Dubour, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of ecological factors that drive animal distributions allows us to understand why distributions vary temporally and spatially, and to develop models to predict future changes to populations–vital tools for effective wildlife management and conservation. For waterbird broods in the boreal forest, distributions are likely driven by factors affecting quality of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and the influence of these factors may extend beyond singles species, affecting the entire waterbird community. We used occupancy models to assess factors influencing species richness of waterbird broods on 72 boreal lakes, along with brood distributions of 3 species of conservation concern: lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca), and horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). Factors examined included abundance of invertebrate foods (Amphipoda, Diptera, Gastropoda, Hemiptera, Odonata), physical lake attributes (lake area, emergent vegetation), water chemistry (nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll a concentrations), and nesting habitats (water edge, non-forest cover). Of the 5 invertebrates, only amphipod density was related to richness and occupancy, consistently having a large and positive relationship. Despite this importance to waterbirds, amphipods were the most patchily distributed invertebrate, with 17% of the study lakes containing 70% of collected amphipods. Lake area was the only other covariate that strongly and positively influenced species richness and occupancy of scaup, scoters, and grebes. All 3 water chemistry covariates, which provided alternative measures of lake productivity, were positively related to species richness but had little effect on scaup, scoter, and grebe occupancy. Conversely, emergent vegetation was negatively related to richness, reflecting avoidance of overgrown lakes by broods. Finally, nesting habitats had no influence on richness and occupancy, indicating that, at a broad spatial scale, brood

  6. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  7. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  8. Continental shelf benthos off Otago Peninsula, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probert, P. Keith; Wilson, John B.

    1984-09-01

    Benthic macrofauna of the continental shelf off Otago Peninsula, south-eastern New Zealand (45°51'S, 170°52'E) was surveyed by dredge sampling during 1973-1975. Numerical classification (Canberra metric coefficient and flexible sorting) was used to produce site groups and species groups, and three major benthic communities were recognised: a shallow-water (14-25 m) fauna inhabiting well-sorted fine sand, a mid-shelf fauna (concentrated in the depth range 50-76 m) associated with sediments containing the greatest proportions of gravel and siltclay, and a predominantly sand-bottom fauna occurring mainly on the outer shelf (87-150 m). All station groups were dominated numerically by polychaetes (mean of 36·6-56% of individuals) with Mollusca (13·8-25%) or Crustacea (12·1-19·4%) the next most abundant group. The inshore sand fauna was the most distinct, characteristic elements being the trochid gastropod Antisolarium egenum, an amphipod of the genus Hippomedon and dense patches of the spionid polychaete Spiophanes bombyx. Diagnostic species of the mid-shelf mixed sediments were Lepidonotus jacksoni, Psammolyce antipoda, Lumbrineris brevicirra and Phyllamphicteis foliata (Polychaeta), Terenochiton otagoensis, Micrelenchus caelatus caelatus, Maoricolpus roseus roseus and Zegalerus tenuis (Mollusca), Ampelisca chiltoni (Amphipoda) and Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea). Outer shelf sand stations were faunally less distinct, but among the more characteristic species were Euthalenessa fimbriata, Sigalion sp. and Euchone sp. (Polychaeta) and Gari stangeri (Bivalvia). Several abundant species were widely distributed among station groups, notably Nephtys macroura, Lumbrineris magalhaensis, Phyllochaetopterus socialis and Owenia fusiformis (Polychaeta) and Nucula nitidula and Tawera spissa (Bivalvia). Free-living lunulitiform Bryozoa of the genus Otionella were a characteristic component of inner and outer shelf sand faunas, and their inshore penetration probably marks

  9. Zonation of benthic communities in a tropical tidal flat of north-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S.

    2000-02-01

    Tropical tidal flats are relatively less well-known marine ecosystems. Therefore, the distribution and abundance of infaunal organisms were surveyed in a tidal flat in the Haughton estuary, north-east Australia, testing several hypotheses on characteristics of intertidal faunal distributions. Using a stratified random sampling design, macrofauna, small macrofauna (mesofauna) and meiofauna were sampled at five sites along a transect from the high to the low intertidal in April and September 1991. In total, 77 macrobenthic species were recorded during this study, with polychaetes and crustaceans richest in species. While this species record was low compared to other tropical tidal flats, the low individual densities confirmed previous findings of lower abundances in tropical than temperate tidal flats. Along the transect, species densities were highest in the mid-intertidal muddy sand and sandflats, with values ranging from 2.9 to 7.6 species 177 cm -2 for macrofauna and from 2.2 to 3.8 species 10 cm -2 for mesofauna. At the Callianassa site in the mid-intertidal 35 species were recorded, while the lower sandflat site had the highest diversity ( H'=2.60). Macro- and mesofauna abundances were highest at the sandflat site (median values for macrofauna: 65 and 69 ind. 177 cm -2 in September and April, respectively, and 37 and 48 ind. 10 cm -2 for mesofauna). There was little variation between the two sampling dates, although single taxa occurred with significantly higher abundances in one of the two months. Polychaeta and Amphipoda were abundant at the sandflat and Callianassa site, juvenile bivalves were most frequent in the sandflat after a spatfall in September. There was no pronounced increase of suspension feeders in the lower intertidal, and deposit feeders dominated the fauna. Meiofauna was abundant throughout the intertidal with median values up to 310 ind. 5 cm -2. Their densities were highest in the lower intertidal and lowest at the transect site with

  10. Epifauna dynamics at an offshore foundation--implications of future wind power farming in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Krone, Roland; Gutow, Lars; Joschko, Tanja J; Schröder, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the light of the introduction of thousands of large offshore wind power foundations into the North Sea within the next decades, this manuscript focuses on the biofouling processes and likely reef effects. The study explores the macrozoobenthos (biofouling) colonization at an offshore platform which is comparable to offshore wind turbine foundations. A total of 183 single samples were taken and the parameters water depth and time were considered comparing biofouling masses and communities. The blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Anthozoa and the Amphipoda Jassa spp. were the dominant species. The community from the 1 m zone and those from the 5 and 20-28 m zones can clearly be differentiated. The 10 m zone community represents the transition between the M. edulis dominated 1 m and 5 m zones and the Anthozoa dominated 20-28 m zone. In the future offshore wind farms, thousands of wind turbine foundations will provide habitat for a hard bottom fauna which is otherwise restricted to the sparse rocky habitats scattered within extensive sedimentary soft bottoms of the German Bight. However, offshore wind power foundations cannot be considered natural rock equivalents as they selectively increase certain natural hard bottom species. The surface of the construction (1280 m²) was covered by an average of 4300 kg biomass. This foundation concentrates on its footprint area (1024 m²) 35 times more macrozoobenthos biomass than the same area of soft bottom in the German exclusive economic zone (0.12 kg m(-2)), functioning as a biomass hotspot. Concerning the temporal biomass variation, we assume that at least 2700 kg biomass was exported on a yearly basis. 345 × 10(4) single mussel shells of different sizes were produced during the study period. It is anticipated that the M. edulis abundance will increase in the North Sea due to the expansion of the offshore wind farm development. This will result in the enhanced production of secondary hard substrate (mussel shells

  11. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  12. Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Benthic Fauna in the Sangihe-Talaud Region, Indonesia: Observations from the INDEX-SATAL 2010 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, S.; Munro, C.; Nganro, N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Wirasantosa, S.; Sibert, E.; Hammond, S. R.; Bors, E.; Butterfield, D.; Holden, J. F.; Baker, E. T.; Sherrin, J.; Makarim, S.; Troa, R.; Shank, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    The benthic ecosystems found in the deep-sea promontories of Sangihe Talaud region were explored, between June and August 2010, using the ROV Little Hercules aboard the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The Sangihe-Talaud region is part of the Coral Triangle (CT) an area known for harboring the most biodiverse shallow-water coral reefs in the world. Notwithstanding the significant research efforts that have been undertaken to catalog and protect the biodiversity of the CT prior this expedition, virtually nothing was known about the life inhabiting the deep sea. The high-resolution imagery obtained from the 27 ROV dives revealed remarkably high abundances and diversity of animal species, many of which appear to be novel. On hard bottom substrates, cold-water corals were the dominant sessile macrofauna, in terms of biomass, followed by glass sponges (Hexactinellida) and sea lilies (Crinoidea). The coral taxa observed in this area represent six large orders of cnidarians: antipatharians (black corals), scleractinians (stony corals), zoanthideans (gold corals), alcyonaceans (octocorals), pennatulaceans (sea pens), and anthoathecates (hydrocorals). Most sessile species, independently of their size class or taxonomic affiliation, harbor a wide variety of associated fauna. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), squat lobsters (Galatheoidea), shrimp (Caridea), amphipods (Amphipoda), anemones (Actinaria), zanthideans, barnacles (Cirripedia), hydroids (Hydrozoa) and worms (Polychaeta) are the animal groups most commonly found forming these associations. In contrast, soft bottom habitats were dominated by stalked sponges, sea pens, sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) and brittle stars. Other conspicuous fauna include fish, hermit crabs (Paguridae), urchins (Echinoidea) and octopuses (Cephalopoda). The abundance of habitats generated by the high number of geological and biological features and depth ranges present in the deep coral triangle (e.g., ridges, seamounts, island margins, plains, and rock

  13. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell. PMID:20831795

  14. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    (509.74 μg/l), As (3.87 μg/l), Se (5.07 μg/l), sulphates (549.9 μg/l) and nitrates (95.4 mg/l) downstream from industrial and agricultural lands. Only seven taxa, dominated by crustaceans, were found within the stygofaunal communities. Copepod stygoxene species (i.e., Megacyclops viridis Jurine, 1820, Diacyclops languidoides ssp.) accounts for almost 80% of the groundwater crustaceans, being abundant in samples from sites with elevated (94 μg/l) concentration of nitrates (thus indicating a high tolerance to this pollutant). Moreover, these species appear to be tolerant to high content of Cu (8.6 μg/l) and only slightly tolerant to Sr, Co, Ni, Ti and Pb (r>0.60; p>0.05). Conversely, the stygobites species Parastenocaris sp. (Harpacticoida), Bathynella sp. (Syncarida), Niphargus sp. (Amphipoda) and Ostracoda were rare and limited to boreholes were no significant trace metals contamination was detected, whereas nitrates reach a maximum level of 47.5 μg/l. Crustaceans abundance was linked to high content of total dissolved solids and elements such are Li, Na and Sr; whereas Cs and nitrites were detected to be harmful for crustacean development. The ecological attributes and sensitivity of styfogauna to contaminants makes them significant bioindicators for evaluating the ecological status of groundwater ecosystems and susceptible to get loss when aquifers quality is affected on long term.

  15. Fish and Aquatic Invertebrate Communities in Waterways, and Contaminants in Fish, at the Barataria Preserve of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.; Thompson, Bruce A.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    , floating rafts of aquatic plants). Individuals from 84 genera belonging to 51 families were identified. Diptera (true flies) was the most diverse group. Malacostraca (crustaceans), especially Amphipoda (scuds and sideswimmers), were the most abundant (36 percent). Total abundance and taxa richness of aquatic invertebrates were comparable during the March and July sampling in 1999, but were lower in samples collected from the same habitat at all three sites in April 2000. About 106 individuals were identified and enumerated from the depositional-targeted habitat (DTH, bottom material). Individuals from 7 genera belonging to 9 families were identified. Diptera was the most diverse group, and Annelida, especially tubificid worms, were the most abundant organisms identified (52 percent). Total abundance and composition of aquatic invertebrate communities differed between RTH and DTH at all three sites in April 2000. Organic compounds in whole fish, and trace elements, iron, and manganese in fillets, were analyzed in bowfin (Amia calva), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Organic compounds were not detected. Mercury was detected in fillets of all four species. Highest concentrations of mercury were detected in fillets from bowfin and largemouth bass. Mercury concentrations increased with increasing weight in the three predatory fish species (bowfin, bluegill, and largemouth bass), but were much lower, relative to weight, in the omnivore, common carp. Chromium concentrations were detected in tissue of the two larger fish, bowfin and common carp. Cadmium and lead were not detected in any samples. Mercury concentrations for larger predatory fish caught in Preserve waterways may be a concern if the fish are frequently consumed by humans. The process of mercury accumulation appears to be natural, and not related to a local source problem. Mercury concentrations in comparable fish tissue at